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Sample records for egg yolk antibody

  1. Cross-reactivity of anti-Salmonella egg-yolk antibodies to Salmonella serovars.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Debabrata; Herrera, Paul; Fang, Lin; Marquardt, Ronald R; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-11-01

    The cross-reactivity of egg yolk antibodies specific to antigens of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium to killed bacterial cells of common Salmonella serovars were tested using an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Egg yolk antibodies were produced against purified fimbriae, flagella and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. Enteritidis strain ATCC13076 and flagella, LPS and outer membrane proteins (OMP) of S. Typhimurium strain ATCC13311. For immunological specificity of egg yolk antibodies against killed bacterial cells, we found that the titers of the anti-S. Enteritidis egg yolk antibodies were higher than those of the anti-S. Typhimurium antibodies. In the evaluation of cross-reactivity of these egg yolk antibodies to various Salmonella serovars, we observed that the anti-S. Enteritidis antibodies exhibited more specific affinity than those of the anti-S. Typhimurium antibodies. All S. Enteritidis strains reacted specifically with the anti-S. Enteritidis fimbrial and flagellar egg yolk antibody whereas anti-S. Enteritidis LPS and anti-S. Typhimurium LPS, OMP and flagellar antibodies displayed non-specific reactivity to all Salmonella serovars used in this study. This finding suggests that it may be possible to design a anti-fimbrial egg yolk antibody of S. Enteritidis as a diagnostic tool and a cocktail of OMP and LPS antigens of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium could be used for administering broad spectrum passive immunity to protect against the colonization of pathogenic Salmonella strains in food animals.

  2. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibodies against bovine alimentary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, O; Jawor, P; Kopeć, W; Skiba, T; Stefaniak, T

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of hens with bovine vaccines (C, R, T) on the course of IgY antibodies production against selected bovine E. coli strains, rota- and coronaviruses in egg yolk in farm conditions. The hens (40 individuals per group) were vaccinated twice, subcutaneously in four week interval and eggs were harvested once a week. Control group consisted of eggs sampled from non-vaccinated hens located in neighbouring cages. The antibody activity was measured by ELISA. All used vaccines induced the rise of IgY antibody in egg yolks. Based on the duration and the highest level of IgY antibody against bovine alimentary tract pathogens C vaccine was further used in next two trials for vaccination of 1000 hens each time. Double immunization seems to be enough in mounting response against examined pathogens for several weeks. Immunization with C vaccine allowed to harvest eggs with satisfactory levels of E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus IgY antibodies which may be used to evaluate their protective effect by oral administration in calves.

  3. Egg yolk antibodies for detection and neutralization of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Trott, D L; Yang, M; Gonzalez, J; Larson, A E; Tepp, W H; Johnson, E A; Cook, M E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine the usefulness of an egg antibody platform for producing materials for the detection and neutralization of botulinum type A neurotoxin. Yield estimates for detection and neutralizing antibodies produced using methods described were calculated. Antibody specific to botulinum toxoid A (aToxoid) and toxin A (aBoNT/A) was produced by immunizing hens with botulinum toxoid A (toxoid) followed by increasing amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Egg yolks were extracted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for antibody detection and neutralization experiments. A model aToxoid/toxoid immunoassay using only egg yolk antibody was developed and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml of toxoid. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of BoNT/A-specific antibody, the aBoNT/A contained more BoNT/A-specific antibody than did the aToxoid, and aBoNT/A was as effective as commercial rabbit antibody. The aToxoid provided no protection against BoNT/A in a standard mouse neutralization assay; however, 1 mg of PEG-extracted aBoNT/A neutralized 4,000 lethal doses of BoNT/A injected intraperitoneally. Based on these results, we calculated that in 1 month one hen could produce more than 100 liters of antibody detection reagents or enough antibody to neutralize approximately 11.6 million mouse lethal doses of botulinum toxin. Utilization of an egg antibody platform is potentially rapid (28 to 70 days) and scalable to kilogram quantities using current egg production facilities with as few as 1,000 hens.

  4. Production of an egg yolk antibody against Parietaria judaica 2 allergen.

    PubMed

    Alessandro, R; Gallo, A; Barranca, M; Principe, S; Taverna, S; Duro, G; Cassata, G; Becchi, M; Fontana, S; De Leo, G

    2009-08-01

    Specific antibodies are essential tools for studying proteins as well as for diagnostic research in biomedicine. The egg yolk of immunized chicken is an inexpensive source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies. The 12-kDa Parietaria judaica 2 allergen was expressed as a fusion protein and was used to immunize Leghorn chickens. In this paper, we show, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, that chicken antibodies raised against a recombinant allergen can be used to recognize similar proteins from a pollen raw extract. Allergen identity was confirmed by nanoLC-nanospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Our data demonstrate for the first time that a synergistic combination of molecular biology, 2-dimensional PAGE, and use of nonmammalian antibodies represents a powerful tool for reliable identification of allergens.

  5. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against TNFR1.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, M; Amirijavid, S; Entezari, M; Shafaroodi, H; Saghafi, Z Jokar

    2015-01-01

    TNF is from a big family of cytokines with different activities in different parts of the body. Among the various activities of TNFR1, induction of apoptosis by a receptor appears to be an attractive and promising one. This can be achieved through the death domain of the receptor in cells that are stimulated by ligand, to induce apoptosis. Activation of the receptor occurs through its occupation by ligands or its antagonists such as antibodies. Several kinds of antibodies, including antibodies of mammals and birds are used in the research and therapy field. Avian antibodies are highly regarded which is due to the many positive characteristics they have. Firstly, total protein of TNFR1 was cloned. Blood sampling was performed, white blood cell separation, extraction of RNA and at cDNA synthesis. After making sure from synthesis of cDNA, it was used as template for PCR reaction. The cloned fragment in the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, transferred to prokaryotic host, BL21(DE3) and the protein (TNFR1) expressed. After protein purification by affinity column were injected to immunize the chickens. Interestingly, antibodies purified from egg yolk of immunized chickens, in ELISA assay showed sufficient specificity. Such antibodies could able to ensure quick and immediate protection against several biotargets (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  6. Prophylaxis and therapy of pandemic H1N1 virus infection using egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-e; Wen, Junlin; Zhao, Suqing; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Influenza A virus infects the human respiratory system and causes acute and fatal pulmonary diseases. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains highlights the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this work, IgY antibody was raised in immunized laying hens, and its antiviral activity was evaluated in the context of passive immunization. With inactivated whole H1N1 virus, high-titer IgY antibody 9.18 mg/mL egg yolk was induced by the eighth week after immunization. Western blotting and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test demonstrated that the IgY antibody could specifically bind the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 virus. In the plaque reduction assay, the IgY antibody reduced the H1N1 viral infection in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. In a mouse model, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited in vivo protection by reducing the infectious titer of the virus in the lung while maintaining the weight and normal structure of the lung tissue. Additionally, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited protective activity comparable to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. These results demonstrated that IgY can be easily produced and can offers an effective alternative approach for influenza control.

  7. Effects of in-feed egg yolk antibodies on Salmonella shedding, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and health of pigs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Alan G; Rattanatabtimtong, Sukanya; Nyachoti, Charles M; Fang, Lin

    2009-02-01

    To determine effects of anti-Salmonella egg yolk antibodies on shedding and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, newly weaned pigs were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments. These treatment groups were (i) a control (basal) diet without additives and similar diets with (ii) egg yolk powder derived from chickens challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium antigens, (iii) a commercial egg yolk powder control, (iv) apramycin for 14 days followed by carbadox, (v) oxytetracycline, or (vi) spray-dried plasma protein. Treatments were provided beginning on day 3 of the trial, and all pigs were challenged with 5 ml of 10(8) CFU/ml Salmonella Typhimurium on day 7. Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 7, 8, 12, 14, 21, 58, 88, and 118 for isolation of Salmonella and Escherichia coli to determine shedding and antibiotic resistance patterns. Body weights, white blood cell counts, and plasma concentrations of anti-Salmonella immunoglobulin G and porcine interleukin 1beta were analyzed as indicators of animal health. The percentage of pigs shedding Salmonella was lower for antibiotic treatment groups compared with other groups; however, resistance was greater in E. coli from pigs fed antibiotics than in pigs in other treatment groups. Health and performance indicators (pig weight gains, white blood cell counts, and plasma concentrations of anti-Salmonella antibodies) did not differ between treatment groups. These studies indicate that feeding egg yolk containing anti-Salmonella immunoglobulin Y may not be effective in controlling shedding of Salmonella in pigs.

  8. Egg Yolk IgY Antibodies: a Therapeutic Intervention Against Group A Rotavirus in Calves

    PubMed Central

    Vega, C.; Bok, M.; Saif, L.; Fernandez, F.; Parreño, V.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is considered the major cause of diarrhea in intensively reared neonatal calves. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) are efficient in protecting neonatal calves from RVA diarrhea; however, it is unclear the value of this intervention in calves once diarrhea has appeared. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the application of RVA-specific IgY as a passive treatment in those cases. The experimental groups were: G1= RVA-specific IgY treatment; G2= no Ab treatment; and G3= colostrum deprived + no Ab treatment. IgY treatment significantly reduced virus shedding, diarrhea duration and severity compared to G2 and G3 calves. However, it caused a partial suppression of systemic Ab responses to RVA that could be associated with less severe diarrhea. The oral treatment with IgY for 7 days was associated with significantly higher antibody secreting cell responses in the calves compared with the other groups of animals. PMID:26679788

  9. Sequestration of PDC-109 protein by specific antibodies and egg yolk cryoprotects bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, N; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Jerome, A; Das, G K; Mehrotra, S

    2013-10-01

    PDC-109, one of the most abundant proteins in bovine seminal plasma, has detrimental effect on spermatozoa in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that sequestration of detrimental protein from ejaculates would be beneficial following cryopreservation of sperm cells. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of sequestration of PDC-109 either by anti-PDC-109 antibodies (Ab) or egg yolk (EY) alone or by the synergistic action of EY + Ab in minimizing cryoinjury to bull spermatozoa. PDC-109 protein was purified by applying two-step chromatography procedures. The purified protein was injected in rabbits to raise antibodies which were isolated using ion-exchange chromatography. After checking the Ab cross-reactivity, they were quantitated and added to ejaculates, either alone or in addition to EY in Tris-glycerol (TG) extender. Thus, ejaculates were processed in extender containing EY + TG (group I), Ab + TG (group II) or EY + Ab + TG (group III). Semen quality parameters (SQPs) viz. viability and acrosome integrity (FITC-PSA), cryoinjury to spermatozoa (chlortetracycline, CTC assay) and in vitro fertility of protein-sequestered-semen (zona-penetration assay) were evaluated. A significant (p < 0.05) improvement in post-thaw SQPs as well as in non-capacitated spermatozoa observed at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation in group III compared with other groups indicated reduction in protein-mediated cryoinjury. From this study, it can be concluded that sequestration of PDC-109 by synergistic action of EY+Ab as compared to either of them alone significantly improve sperm quality and minimize cryoinjury to bull spermatozoa upon storage at ultra-low temperatures.

  10. Protective effect of hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies against Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2009-07-07

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by several distinct species of Eimeria protozoa and is the major parasitic disease of poultry of economic importance. As an alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, we have investigated the efficacy of inducing passive immunity against coccidiosis by orally feeding hyperimmune IgY antibodies. In this study, a commercially available egg yolk powder, Supracox (SC), a purified IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with three major species of Eimeria oocysts, were continuously fed to young chicks from hatch. Upon orally infecting these broiler chicks with Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima oocysts at 1 week of age, they showed significantly higher body weight gains (P<0.05) compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, SC-fed chicks showed significantly less intestinal lesions and reduced fecal oocyst output compared to the untreated controls following oral infections with E. tenella and E. maxima. These results provide clear evidence that passive immunization of chicks with hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies provide significant protection against E. tenella or E. maxima infections.

  11. Production and evaluation of chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni colonization-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Al-Adwani, Salma R; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. Chickens are considered a reservoir host of C. jejuni, and epidemiological studies have shown that contaminated chicken meat is a primary source of human infection. The objective of this study was to produce chicken egg-yolk-derived antibody (IgY) against the five C. jejuni colonization-associated proteins or CAPs (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, and CmeC). Recombinant C. jejuni CAPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and were purified by affinity chromatography. Specific-pathogen-free laying hens were hyperimmunized with each recombinant CAP to induce production of α-CAP-specific IgY. Egg yolks were collected from immunized and nonimmunized hens and were lyophilized to obtain egg-yolk powder (EYP) with or without α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY. IgY was purified from EYP, and the antibody response in serum and egg yolk was tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in both serum and EYP obtained from immunized hens as compared with the nonimmunized hens. Each α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY reacted with the C. jejuni cells and recombinant CAPs as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot assays, respectively. We also show that α-CadF, α-MOMP, and α-CmeC IgY significantly reduced adherence of C. jejuni to the chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cells, suggesting that these α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY may be useful as a passive immunotherapeutic to reduce C. jejuni colonization in chickens.

  12. Effects of oral moisturising gel containing egg yolk antibodies against Candida albicans in older people.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Motohashi, Jun; Kimori, Hisato; Nakagawa, Yoichi; Tsurumoto, Akihisa

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of oral moisturising gel containing egg yolk antibody against Candida albicans (anti-CA IgY) in older people. Therefore, we measured the number of Candia CFU present on oral swabs at baseline and after using the gel. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among volunteers living in a nursing home in Japan. The participants were divided into two groups. The group 1 participants received oral care using an experimental oral moisturising gel with anti-CA IgY, and those in group 2 received oral care using a placebo oral moisturising gel without anti-CA IgY. The oral care was performed by care workers three times a day for 4 weeks. The participants' tongues were sampled using a swab method at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of using the oral gel, and the number of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei colonies was counted. The baseline oral condition of the participants in the two groups did not differ significantly. The experimental gel significantly reduced the number of C. albicans colonies from baseline to after 4 weeks of using the oral gel; however, no significant reductions were observed in the number of C. tropicalis or C. krusei colonies. The use of oral moisturising gel containing anti-CA IgY for 1 month significantly reduces the number of C. albicans CFU present on swabs in older people. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Selvan, Karthika; Sentila, R; Michael, A

    2012-01-01

    Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951) and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and the dot-immunoassay. With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150(th) day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  14. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Fernando Luiz; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Kanashiro, Milton Masahiko; Medina-Acosta, Enrique; Brom-de-Luna, João Gato; de Almeida, Claudia Maria Costa; Azevedo Junior, Romildo Rocha; Lemos, Môsar; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2012-01-01

    Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal) with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC) and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50μL aliquots were incubated in 850μL BHI broth containing 50μL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37°C. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm). Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05) growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals. PMID:24031862

  15. [Isolation of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and the inhibitory effect of egg yolk antibody on caries].

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Zhang, Z; Li, Z X; Deng, N J; Zeng, B; Chen, Y M

    2017-04-09

    Objective: To isolate the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (Sm) strains and study the therapeutical effect of egg yolk antibody (IgY) of the Sm on dental caries development. Methods: Sm strains were isolated from the children's dental plaque samples. Morphological, biochemical and molecular biological methods were applied to identify the serotype, acid producing and adhesion abilities of isolated Sm strains. After inactivation one of the Sm strains was used as antigen to immune laying hens to collect and extract the specific anti-Sm IgY. The rats were infected with Sm (serotype e). After 16 weeks of infection, all the rats were found developing dental caries. The rats were then randomly divided into two groups. The rats in experimental group were supplied with diet containing anti-Sm IgY while the rats in control group with normal IgY. All rats were sacrificed after another 8 weeks' observation. The degree of caries for each rat was assessed using Keyes' method. Results: We isolated 7 Sm strains from the children's dental plaque samples in the present study. The numbers of serotype c, e, f, k were 3, 2, 0 and 2, respectively. All strains showed similar morphological and biochemical characters as standard UA159 Sm strain, and possessed strong capabilities of acid production and adherence. Interestingly, even the same serotypec strains, such as No.3 and No.7 strains, demonstrated significant difference on acid producing and adherence capabilities. After 16 weeks infection with serotype e strain, the rats' mandibular teeth were apparently decayed, and treatment with specific anti-Sm IgY obviously attenuated the development of caries in the experiment group rats (16.4±2.0) compared with that in the control group rats (30.2±9.3) (P<0.05) determined by Keyes' method. Conclusions: Seven cariogenic Sm strains of different serotypes were isolated, which possesses similar morphology and biochemical characters. Although belonging to the same serotype strains they always show

  16. Effects of different molting procedures on incidence of Salmonella infection in flocks of naturally contaminated laying hens in a commercial egg-producing farm by detection of yolk antibodies to Salmonella in eggs.

    PubMed

    Murase, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Kaori; Sato, Tomoko; Otsuki, Koichi; Holt, Peter S

    2006-12-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been applied to detect immunoglobulin Y antibodies to different serotypes of Salmonella in the yolks of chicken eggs with heat-extracted antigens of Salmonella enterica serotypes Agona (SA), Cerro (SC), Enteritidis (SE), Montevideo (SM), and Putten (SP). The egg yolk samples examined were classified as positive if their ELISA absorbance values exceeded the value for eggs from specific-pathogen-free flocks by more than two standard deviations. Of 30 egg yolk samples from three flocks vaccinated with a killed SE vaccine, 29 were antibody positive by the ELISA assay for the SE antigen. Four to 29 of the 29 yolk samples showed positive results for the other serovars, although the absorbance values for SE were higher than those obtained for the other serotypes in each of the yolk samples. All 30 yolks from three flocks that were not administered any SE vaccines were found to be antibody negative for SE, and two samples were determined to be positive for SC. Thirty-nine or 40 eggs were obtained from each of four layer flocks in a commercial egg production farm where the laying houses were naturally contaminated with SA, SC, SM, SP, Salmonella serovar Infantis (SI), and untypeable strains. The ELISA absorbance values for SM in the egg yolks obtained from the two flocks molted through feed withdrawal when the birds restarted laying were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those observed in the yolks obtained before the molt. In egg yolks from the two other flocks that were molted through a wheat bran diet, there was no significant difference between the absorbance values before and after the molt. The observations in the present study provide further evidence to suggest that a molt initiated through the administration of a wheat bran diet can reduce the risk for Salmonella problems in a commercial egg-producing setting.

  17. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  18. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  19. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  20. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  1. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  2. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VN<4; ELISA IgY Ab titer<4] twice a day, for 14 days. Calves receiving CC only or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk

  3. Egg Yolk IgY: Protection against Rotavirus induced Diarrhea and Modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves

    PubMed Central

    Vega, C.; Bok, M.; Chacana, P.; Saif, L.; Fernandez, F.; Parreño, V.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer – VN- =65,536; ELISA BRV IgG1 =16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer =4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp2) VN <4; ELISA IgY Ab titer <4) twice a day, for 14 days. Calves receiving CC only or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 105.85 focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves’ diets for the first 14 days of life with egg

  4. Use of powdered egg yolk vs fresh egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ovine semen.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Puchades, S; Mocé, E; Viudes-de-Cartro, M P; Vicente, J S; Rodriguez, M

    2004-12-01

    Egg yolk is a common additive to sperm cryopreservation diluents. Because of its animal origin, however, it also represents a potential risk of microbiological contamination in the diluent. This potential contamination can be avoided by using powdered egg yolk, instead of fresh egg yolk, as it is pasteurized. This study was conducted to determine ram sperm cryosurvival was affected by the type of egg yolk used (powdered egg yolk or fresh egg yolk) and by yolk concentration (10, 15 or 20%) in the diluent. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify the microbiological contamination in the diluents containing the two types of egg yolk. Sperm cryosurvival was determined by motility and morphology analyses after thawing. Motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and the percentage of sperm with a normal apical ridge was evaluated using a differential interference contrast microscope. No significant differences were observed between diluents in the percentage of sperm with normal apical ridge. However, higher percentages of total motile cells were observed for samples containing powdered egg yolk (69%) compared to samples containing fresh egg yolk (60%). However, sperm in diluents containing fresh egg yolk, exhibited higher values for average-path velocity, straight-line velocity and beat cross frequency and lower values for amplitude of lateral head displacement (p <0.05), compared to cells in diluents containing powdered egg yolk. Microbiological contamination was similar (<200 CFU/ml) in both diluents, and no bacterial growth was observed in either, when antibiotics were added. Therefore, powdered egg yolk can be effective used in diluents for the freezing of ram semen. However, the in vivo fertility of sperm frozen in diluents containing powdered egg yolk should be tested, as some motility parameters were different for sperm treated with powdered egg yolk compared to fresh egg yolk.

  5. Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

  6. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as...

  7. Use of Candida-specific chicken egg yolk antibodies to inhibit the adhering of Candida to denture base materials: prevention of denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Yoshiaki; Fujisaki, Junichi; Nagayama, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kiyotsugu; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Hamada, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Ryoich; Mukai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-Candida chicken egg yolk antibodies (anti-IgY) were used to investigate the prevention of adherence of Candida species to denture base material in vitro. Candida is a potential virulence factor that can cause systemic infection and even death in immunocompromised individuals. Because long-term antifungal treatment may lead to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, it is necessary to develop novel preventive measures and treatments for candidiasis. Three types of chicken egg yolk antibodies were used in this study: non-specific antibody (control IgY), Candida albicans-specific antibody (anti-C.a.IgY) and Candida glabrata-specific antibody (anti-C.g.IgY). A mixture of different dilutions of each antibody with a suspension of Candida species and denture base material was incubated for 3 h, and then the colony-forming units of Candida on the denture base material were counted. Compared with control IgY, anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY significantly inhibited the adherence of C. albicans, but anti-C.a.IgY tended to be more potent than anti-C.g.IgY. The adherence of C. glabrata was also inhibited significantly by anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY with almost equivalent potency, indicating that their actions against C. glabrata were comparable. This study revealed the inhibitory effects of anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY against the adherence of C. albicans and C. glabrata to denture base material. This finding indicates the possibility of a beneficial effect of IgYs for the prevention of denture stomatitis and candidiasis in clinical settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    PubMed

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P < 0.001; PROG: 41% versus 39%, RAP30: 56% versus 54%; RAP40: 51% versus 48%, P > 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France).

  9. Egg yolk protein and egg yolk phosvitin inhibit calcium, magnesium, and iron absorptions in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S-I; Tamaki, S; Arihara, K; Itoh, M

    2007-08-01

    Egg yolk decreases the absorption of iron. The effects of egg yolk protein and egg yolk phosvitin on the absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron were investigated by in vivo studies. Male Wistar rats were fed purified diets containing casein, soy protein, or egg yolk protein for 14 d. The apparent absorptions of calcium, magnesium, and iron in the rats fed the yolk protein-based diet were lower than those in rats fed the casein- and soy protein-based diets. The apparent phosphorus absorption and the apparent protein digestibility in the yolk protein group were lower than those in the casein and soy protein groups. In the feces of the yolk protein group, serine comprised more than 30% of the amino acids. The addition of egg yolk phosvitin to the casein diets at levels of 1% and 2% (w/w) produced effects on calcium and magnesium absorptions similar to those produced by the diet containing yolk protein. The tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) pattern suggested that phosphopeptide fragments having molecular masses of 28, 22, and 15 kDa were evident in the contents of the small intestine of the rats fed phosvitin diets. These results indicate that yolk protein, when compared with casein and soy protein, decreases calcium and magnesium absorption via the resistance of phosvitin to proteolytic action.

  10. Improving adjuvant systems for polyclonal egg yolk antibody (IgY) production in laying hens in terms of productivity and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Marcq, Christopher; Marlier, Didier; Beckers, Yves

    2015-05-15

    The antibody production in the egg yolks of immunized laying hens is seen as a way of improving animal welfare compared with conventional production by mammals. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology, however, has still to address welfare issues linked to the widespread use of an adjuvant in vaccines. Currently, Freund's adjuvants, complete (FCA) or incomplete (FIA), remain the standard. This study sought to evaluate various approaches used to enhance egg yolk antibody production in terms of both productivity and avian welfare. The outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella Typhimurium was used as the prototype antigen. At 20 weeks of age, 56 ISA Brown hens, with specific-Salmonella-free status, were divided into seven groups (n=8) and received an initial intramuscular immunization. Hens in the two negative control groups received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or FIA alone. Hens in the other groups received 80μg of Salmonella OMP emulsified with one of the following adjuvants: 200μl of FIA alone (T1); 200μl of FIA supplemented with 8μg of C-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) (T2); and 280μl of Montanide ISA 70 VG (T4). Birds in the T3 group received the antigen in emulsion with FIA and were given the tested immunostimulatory component (l-carnitine) via their feed (100mg/kg). A positive control group (PC) received FCA for the first and final immunizations and FIA for the other boosters. Immunization was repeated after 20, 46, 82 and 221 days. Eggs were collected regularly until 242 days after the first immunization and the anti-Salmonella Typhimurium activities in the yolk were determined by ELISA. After 242 days, the birds were euthanized and the injection sites were evaluated for gross and microscopic lesions. Among the tested immunostimulatory approaches, supplementation of FIA with CpG-ODN led to a significant and long-lasting enhancement of the specific antibody response. This treatment was even higher than the positive benchmark using FCA in

  11. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY-technology): a review of progress in production and use in research and human and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Schade, Rüdiger; Calzado, Esteban Gutierrez; Sarmiento, Rodolfo; Chacana, Pablo Anibal; Porankiewicz-Asplund, Joanna; Terzolo, Horacio Raul

    2005-04-01

    The production of antibodies (Abs) in chickens and the extraction of specific Abs from egg yolk (IgY Abs) are increasingly attracting the interest of the scientific community, as demonstrated by the significant growth of the IgY literature. This review offers detailed and comprehensive information about IgY-technology, including: a) possibilities for hen keeping in accordance with the Three Rs principles; b) new insights into the IgY transfer mechanism from blood to yolk as a biological basis for the technology; c) the comparative characteristics of IgY Abs and IgG Abs; d) the high efficacy of the technique, in view of the extraordinary amount of IgY Ab produced by one hen in one year (between 20 g and 40 g IgY in total); e) comparisons between the efficacies of IgY Abs and IgG Abs (rabbit, sheep, mouse) in several immunological assays; f) immunisation protocols, as well as the most commonly used IgY-extraction procedures; g) new possibilities for application in human and veterinary medicine, including strategies for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection or fatal intestinal diseases in children, particularly in poor countries, for reducing the use of antibiotics, and, in Asia and South America, for producing Abs against snake, spider and scorpion venoms; and h) the use of IgY Abs in various fields of research, also taking into consideration recent developments in South America (particularly Argentina and Cuba) and in Asia.

  12. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  13. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  14. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  15. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  16. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  17. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  18. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. Copyright © 2015

  19. Immunoprophylactic effect of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against a recombinant S1 domain of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein in piglets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Hyun; Jeon, Young-Soo; Park, Choi-Kyu; Kim, Seungjoon; Lee, Du Sik; Lee, Changhee

    2015-09-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious enteric pathogen of swine causing high mortality rates in piglets. PEDV outbreaks have occurred continuously in most swine-producing Asian countries and have recently emerged in the United States, leading to large economic losses for both the Asian and US pig industries. The spike (S) protein of PEDV consists of the S1 and S2 domains, responsible for virus binding and fusion, respectively. The involvement of the S1 domain in specific high-affinity interactions with the cellular receptor and induction of neutralizing antibodies in the natural host makes it a logical target for the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against PEDV. Passive immunization by oral administration of egg yolk antibodies (IgY) obtained from immunized chickens provides an alternative source of specific antibodies for the prevention and treatment of PEDV in newborn piglets. In this study, we produced an IgY against the PEDV S1 protein and investigated its immunoprophylactic effect in neonatal piglets. A codon-optimized PEDV S1 gene consisting of amino acid residues 25-749 was synthesized and used to establish a stable porcine cell line constitutively expressing a recombinant PEDV S1 protein containing the chicken immunoglobulin Fc fragment at its C-terminus. The purified recombinant S1 protein was found to mediate potent immune responses in immunized hens. We next tested the ability of oral passive immunization with anti-PEDV S1 IgY to protect piglets against PEDV. Specific chicken IgY against the S1 protein was orally administered to neonatal piglets, and their responses subsequent to a virulent PEDV challenge were monitored. The results showed that oral administration of anti-PEDV S1 IgY efficiently protects neonatal piglets against PEDV, suggesting its potential as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent against acute PEDV infection.

  20. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) modulate the intestinal mucosal immune response in a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yao, Ying; Wang, Xitao; Zhen, Yuhong; Thacker, Philip A; Wang, Lili; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Junjun; Zong, Ying; Wang, Ni; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    This study determined the effects of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) on immune responses in the intestinal mucosal of mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Sixty, 28-day-old mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with streptomycin or sterile water for 2days followed by 1day without treatment. The control group was unchallenged whereas the mice in the other three groups were treated twice with 10(9)CFUmL(-1)S. typhimurium. For the next 3days, control mice continued to receive no treatment whereas the mice in the remaining three groups were orally administered with 20mgmL(-1) of specific IgY, 20mgmL(-1) of nonspecific IgY or PBS. S. typhimurium activated gut-associated lymphoid tissue, increasing the release of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the mucosa and increased the number of activated T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-γδ. Specific IgY attenuated the increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α and the decrease in IL-10. S. typhimurium induced mobilization of CD8(+) and CD8(+) TCRγδ T cells in the epithelium and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the lamina propria reflecting an inflammatory process that was attenuated by IgY. These results suggest that specific IgY modulates intestinal mucosal immune responses during a S. typhimurium infection.

  1. Effects of Fab' fragments of specific egg yolk antibody (IgY-Fab') against Shewanella putrefaciens on the preservation of refrigerated turbot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Hong; Sui, Jianxin; Wang, Jingxue; Cao, Limin

    2015-01-01

    In our previous studies the specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) against Shewanella putrefaciens (one of the specific spoilage organisms for marine products during aerobic chilling storage) demonstrated significant activity to prolong the shelf life of refrigerated fish. The exploitation of the antigen-binding fragment plus the hinge region (IgY-Fab') is now considered a promising method for improving the efficiency of such natural antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity of IgY-Fab' against S. putrefaciens was investigated using refrigerated turbot as samples. By microbial, chemical and sensory tests, it was shown to be able to effectively inhibit bacterial growth and prolong the shelf life of samples, with an efficiency evaluated significantly higher than that of whole IgY with the same molarity. The interaction between IgY agents and S. putrefaciens cells was also investigated, and the IgY-Fab' showed a much greater ability to damage cell membranes than the whole IgY. Compared to whole IgY with the same molarity, IgY-Fab' demonstrated higher and more durable antimicrobial efficiency. Such a result was assumed to be closely related to its structural properties (such as the much lower molecular weight), which may enhance its ability to influence physiological activities of antigen bacteria, especially the property or/and structure of cell membranes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Carbohydrates of the chicken egg yolk].

    PubMed

    Ushakova, T M; Eller, K I; Medvedev, F A; Aksiuk, I N; Vorob'eva, L Sh

    1979-01-01

    In the yolk of the eggs of hens receiving traditional feeding hydrocarbon mixtures contained in trace amounts therein were analyzed by a specially elaborated method. For identification and quantification the data of the gas liquid chromatography, chromato-mass-spectrometry and ultraviolet spectrophometry were used. In a complex hydrocarbon mixture chromato-mass-spectrometry helped identify the alkanes of the normal and isoprenoid structure, cycloalkanes, of terpene and sterene types. The alkanes and cycloalkanes fraction content was found to comprise 15-30 per 1 mg of the raw mass of the yolk, of the p-alkanes--1-3 mg, squalene--15-17 mg and of monocyclic arenes--about 1 mg.

  3. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review.

    PubMed

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk; Choi, Hyuk Joon

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates. A survey of relevant anti-rotavirus IgY basic studies and clinical trials among neonatal animals (since 1994-2015) and humans (since 1982-2015) have been reviewed and briefly summarized. Our analysis of a number of rotavirus investigations involving animal and human clinical trials revealed that anti-rotavirus IgY significantly reduced the severity of clinical manifestation of diarrhea among IgY-treated subjects relative to a corresponding control or placebo group. The accumulated information as a whole depicts oral IgY to be a safe and efficacious option for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in neonates. There is however a clear need for more randomized, placebo controlled and double-blind trials with bigger sample size to further solidify and confirm claims of efficacy and safety in controlling diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection especially among human infants with health issues such as low birth weights or compromised immunity in whom it is most needed.

  4. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C.; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates. A survey of relevant anti-rotavirus IgY basic studies and clinical trials among neonatal animals (since 1994-2015) and humans (since 1982-2015) have been reviewed and briefly summarized. Our analysis of a number of rotavirus investigations involving animal and human clinical trials revealed that anti-rotavirus IgY significantly reduced the severity of clinical manifestation of diarrhea among IgY-treated subjects relative to a corresponding control or placebo group. The accumulated information as a whole depicts oral IgY to be a safe and efficacious option for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in neonates. There is however a clear need for more randomized, placebo controlled and double-blind trials with bigger sample size to further solidify and confirm claims of efficacy and safety in controlling diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection especially among human infants with health issues such as low birth weights or compromised immunity in whom it is most needed. PMID:28316465

  5. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. Methods and Results Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. Conclusion The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  6. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  7. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Bauman, Joan E; Hahn, D Caldwell

    2009-03-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). Zoo Biol 28:137-143, 2009.

  8. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  9. Fucoxanthin metabolites in egg yolks of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Strand, A; Herstad, O; Liaaen-Jensen, S

    1998-04-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted with White leghorn laying hens fed a carotenoid depleted control diet (containing some zeaxanthin and lutein) or this diet supplemented with 15% seaweed meal of established carotenoid composition. Egg yolk colour was estimated by use of a Roche Yolk Colour Fan and by detailed quantitative and qualitative carotenoid analysis of individual eggs of three laying hens during 4 weeks. Identification of the carotenoids included HPLC. VIS, MS, 1H NMR data and partial synthesis. The results confirmed that fucoxanthin, the major carotenoid in seaweed meal, is not transferred to the yolk. However, fucoxanthin gave rise to the metabolites fucoxanthinol, fucoxanthinol 3'-sulphate and paracentrone, that are ascribed to enzymatic modifications occurring in the hens. The difuranoid auroxanthin encountered in the egg yolk was ascribed to violaxanthin and/or its furanoid derivatives present in the seaweed meal. Colour of individual yolks varied considerably. The pigmentation level is discussed.

  10. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs).

  11. Dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of avian egg.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, M P; Arbad, B R; Landge, M G; Mehrotra, S C

    1996-04-01

    The dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of eggs of hen and duck have been investigated using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in the frequency range 10 MHz to 10 GHz at room temperature. The conductivity and pH values were also measured. It has been found that the values of dielectric constant (epsilon s) is lower, while the values of relaxation time tau(ps) are higher than that of pure water possibly due to the bound water present in the yolk and albumin of the avian egg. The dielectric constant for albumin is more than that for yolk of eggs, while reverse is found with the values of relaxation time. Also albumin shows approximately three times higher conductivity than that of yolk. In the case of relatively older (by 2 days) eggs, the dielectric parameters tend to be slightly increased.

  12. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu

    2017-06-01

    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P < 0.05) alterations in abundance at different storage times. The proteins that showed significant changes in abundance included serum albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  14. [Detection of IgE specific for egg yolk by enzyme immunoassay. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Díaz, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Moneo Goiri, I; Ibáñez Sandín, M D; Ureña Vilardell, V

    1986-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease in our country, especially affecting atopic children. Egg-white hypersensitivity is frequently found in these patients. However, egg-yolk hypersensitivity is not usually reported in patients with egg allergy. This article describes a young patient with egg-yolk hypersensitivity, a 12 year old female patient with a medical history of contact urticaria, angioedema and severe acute bronchospasm shortly after the intake of small amounts of egg-yolk. All these episodes required treatment in emergency care units because of the severity of the symptoms. The patient did not describe any other food hypersensitivity and remained symptom-free after the intake of boiled or fried egg-white. She had clinical symptoms of grass pollen hypersensitivity and was therefore on specific immunotherapy at the time of the study. The skin prick-tests were positive to grass pollen and egg-yolk and were negative to mites, moulds, animal dander and to the common food tested (milk, fish, peanut, almond and hazel-nut). Total serum IgE was 1.160 UL/ml. The patient had a positive RAST to egg-white (0.0 PRU/ml) as well as to egg-yolk (8.6 PRU/ml). Furthermore, an indirect enzyme immunoassay as well as a reverse enzyme immunoassay also revealed the presence of specific IgE antibodies. The reverse enzyme immunoassay uses microtiter plates as a solid surface. These plates are coated with a monospecific antihuman IgE antibody. Thereafter, the serum samples are incubated overnight in the wells. After several washings, the presence of specific antibodies is revealed by means of a peroxidase conjugated allergen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Adhesion and growth inhibitory effect of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) on Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chalghoumi, Raja; Théwis, André; Beckers, Yves; Marcq, Christopher; Portetelle, Daniel; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-06-01

    The protective effects of powder preparation of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), specific to Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium outer membrane proteins (OMP), against these two Salmonella sp. serovars were investigated in vitro in two different assays: adhesion-prevention and growth-inhibition. The adhesion-prevention assay was conducted using polarized monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. First, the conditions of Salmonella adherence to Caco-2 cells were optimized, and interferences of bacteria with the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of fully differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and the lactate dehydrogenase release upon exposure of the cells to Salmonella were evaluated. Both Salmonella sp. serovars were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells and decreased TER. Results from the adhesion-prevention assay demonstrated that specific IgY reduced the decrease in TER of the infected Caco-2 cell monolayers and blocked the Salmonella sp. adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Nonspecific IgY also exhibited an inhibitory effect on these two parameters, but to a lesser extent than that of the specific IgY (p < 0.05). The protective effect of nonspecific IgY could be attributed to the low-density lipoprotein component of the water-soluble fraction of egg yolks that may not have been eliminated during ultrafiltration. The growth-inhibition assay revealed that specific IgY had an inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth, markedly during the late exponential phase, whereas nonspecific IgY failed to do so. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vitro growth inhibitory effect of specific IgY on Salmonella spp. resulted from the specific binding activity of these IgY to Salmonella sp. OMP. Passive immunization with Salmonella sp. OMP-specific IgY could thus be useful to prevent Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens and the subsequent carcass contamination during processing.

  16. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the...

  17. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the...

  18. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the...

  19. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the...

  20. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Before drying, the glucose content of the liquid egg yolks may be reduced by one of the optional... less than 95 percent by weight total egg solids. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the...

  1. Avidin traps biotin diffusing out of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bush, L; White, H B

    1989-01-01

    1. The unequal distribution of biotin and biotin-binding proteins between the yolk and albumen of freshly laid chicken eggs provides the potential for time-dependent redistribution of biotin that could affect egg quality, biotin availability, and hatchability. 2. Avidin-bound biotin was measured in albumen next to the shell and next to the yolk in eggs stored up to 23 days. 3. Biotin bound to biotin-binding proteins (BBP-I and BBP-II) was measured at the center and periphery of yolk from the same eggs. 4. After 11 days of storage, significant amounts of biotin from the yolk began to accumulate in the albumen adjacent to the yolk. 5. This transfer is attributed to a change in the vitelline membrane that permits diffusion of biotin, not BBP-I or BBP-II, out of the yolk. 6. The dynamics of this phenomenon suggest that in addition to its antimicrobial role, avidin may be involved in the utilization of biotin by the chick embryo.

  2. Does dietary vitamin E or C decrease egg yolk cholesterol?

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, Maziar; Zaghari, Mojtaba

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and C on serum metabolites, yolk cholesterol, egg quality, and performance of layer hens. One hundred sixty-eight commercial Hy-Line W-36 layer hens were randomly divided into seven groups and six replicates with four hens in each. Dietary treatments were introduced after the pre-experimental period (10 days) to adjust egg production. Treatments were levels of vitamin E or C (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) supplementation to the basal diet for 4 weeks, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Egg production, egg weight, and feed consumption were recorded during the study. Shell thickness, Haugh unit score, yolk color, yolk weight, yolk cholesterol, and blood parameters were measured at the end of experiment. There was no significant effect of dietary vitamin E or C on hen performance. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations decreased linearly by antioxidant vitamin supplementation (P < 0.01). Egg yolk cholesterol reduction did not have any negative effect on egg production rate. Antioxidants, especially vitamin C, increased serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05). Serum total cholesterol content did not change by vitamin supplementation but cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decreased and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) increased (P < 0.05), as dietary vitamin E or C supplementation increased in diets. These results are in conflict with the previous hypothesis that antioxidants have a role in LDL-C removal from the blood or increasing HDL-C. Vitamin E was more effective than vitamin C in this case and if these results are confirmed by further studies, they may result to revision in researchers' point of view about antioxidant especially in human medicine.

  3. Biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk. Assay and relationship to egg-white avidin.

    PubMed

    White, H B; Dennison, B A; Della Fera, M A; Whitney, C J; McGuire, J C; Meslar, H W; Sammelwitz, P H

    1976-08-01

    1. Biotin in chicken egg yolk is non-covalently bound to a specific protein that comprises 0.03% of the total yolk protein (0.8 mg/yolk). This biotin-binding protein is not detectable by the normal avidin assay owing to the biotin being tightly bound. Exchange of [14C]biotin for bound biotin at 65 degrees C is the basis of an assay for this protein. 2. Biotin-binding protein from egg yolk is distinguishable from egg-white avidin on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, although the sizes of the two proteins appear quite similar. 3. Biotin-binding protein is denatured at a lower temperature and freely exchanges biotin at lower temperatures than does avidin. 4. The biotin-binding protein in egg yolk is postulated to be responsible for the deposition of biotin in egg yolk. D-[carboxyl-14C]Biotin injected into laying hens rapidly appears in the egg bound to yolk biotin-binding protein and avidin. Over 60% of the radioactivity is eventually deposited in eggs. The kinetics of biotin deposition in the egg suggests a 25 day half-life for an intracellular biotinyl-coenzyme pool in the laying hen.

  4. Biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk. Assay and relationship to egg-white avidin.

    PubMed Central

    White, H B; Dennison, B A; Della Fera, M A; Whitney, C J; McGuire, J C; Meslar, H W; Sammelwitz, P H

    1976-01-01

    1. Biotin in chicken egg yolk is non-covalently bound to a specific protein that comprises 0.03% of the total yolk protein (0.8 mg/yolk). This biotin-binding protein is not detectable by the normal avidin assay owing to the biotin being tightly bound. Exchange of [14C]biotin for bound biotin at 65 degrees C is the basis of an assay for this protein. 2. Biotin-binding protein from egg yolk is distinguishable from egg-white avidin on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, although the sizes of the two proteins appear quite similar. 3. Biotin-binding protein is denatured at a lower temperature and freely exchanges biotin at lower temperatures than does avidin. 4. The biotin-binding protein in egg yolk is postulated to be responsible for the deposition of biotin in egg yolk. D-[carboxyl-14C]Biotin injected into laying hens rapidly appears in the egg bound to yolk biotin-binding protein and avidin. Over 60% of the radioactivity is eventually deposited in eggs. The kinetics of biotin deposition in the egg suggests a 25 day half-life for an intracellular biotinyl-coenzyme pool in the laying hen. PMID:962874

  5. Lycopene incorporation into egg yolk and effects on laying hen immune function.

    PubMed

    Olson, J B; Ward, N E; Koutsos, E A

    2008-12-01

    Carotenoids are partially responsible for the colors of plants and when consumed by humans and animals are deposited into tissues (e.g., skin and egg yolk in laying hens) and may have health benefits. Because carotenoids are more available when consumed from egg yolk sources than vegetables, this research examined the ability of the laying hen to deposit dietary lycopene, a carotenoid that imparts red color in tomatoes, into the egg yolk and to investigate effects on immune function. All birds were housed in commercial cages, had ad libitum access to water, and were fed 100 g/bird per day. Experiment 1 consisted of 4 dietary concentrations of lycopene (0, 65, 257, and 650 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). High-performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that dietary lycopene was incorporated into egg yolks. Experiment 2 was a completely randomized design, with 3 concentrations of lycopene (0, 420, and 840 mg of lycopene/kg of diet) and 6 concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (0, 84, 164, 200, 284, and 364 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg of diet). Egg yolk lycopene (P < 0.05) and vitamin E (P < 0.05) were increased with increasing dietary concentrations, whereas lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations remained constant. Immune responses (inflammatory, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity, 1 degrees and 2 degrees antibody response) were induced but were not affected by dietary lycopene or vitamin E. These data indicate that lycopene can be incorporated into egg yolks, and at these dietary concentrations, alpha-tocopherol and lycopene may not affect the immune system of the laying hen.

  6. Benefits and Limits of Egg Yolk vs. Serum Samples for Avian Influenza Virus Serosurveillance.

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, E M; Grund, Christian; Aly, Mona M; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C; Hafez, Hafez M

    2016-06-01

    Serologic tests are a valuable tool for retrospective surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and monitoring of postvaccination host immune response. Yet collection of serum samples, particularly in adult breeder chickens, is laborious, intrusive to birds, and may pose a serious risk to the biosecurity of a flock. In this study we compared the level of AIV-specific antibody titers in eggs and serum samples obtained from broiler breeder chickens vaccinated at 6, 12, and 18 wk of age with H5N2-inactivated vaccine. Nucleocapsid protein-specific ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) against homologous as well as heterologous antigens were used. The eggs and sera were collected at 22, 30, 45, and 50 wk of age (i.e., 4, 12, 27, and 32 wk after the third and final immunization, respectively). Using ELISA, the number of positive egg yolk samples decreased over time after vaccination, from 97% to 47%, while the seropositivity rate of serum samples was 97%-100% during the whole investigation period. No antibody titers were detected in egg white. By HI, antibody titers in serum samples were higher than in egg yolk samples. Compared to the homologous H5N2 antigen, significantly lower HI titers were obtained by using a heterologous H5N1 virus of clade 2.2.1.2. In addition, no HI titers were detected in egg yolk and/or serum samples tested against the antigen of an Egyptian H5N1 antigenic drift variant of clade 2.2.1.1. This study indicates that egg yolk may be used to monitor the postvaccination immune status of broiler breeder chickens and retrospective serosurveillance-by HI when a matching antigen is available as well as by ELISA-particularly for up to 12 wk postvaccination.

  7. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  8. Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L

    2012-12-01

    The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (P<0.01) than those of samples containing either type of egg yolk. The same aliquots were then cryopreserved for 15 days. Thawed spermatozoa preserved without egg yolk showed lower motility (P<0.001) and viability (P<0.001) than those in samples diluted with either type of egg yolk extender. No eggs were fertilized when hens were inseminated with semen that had been diluted with chicken egg yolk. The fertilization rate was only slightly higher when sperm diluted with quail egg yolk was used (1.5%). The best results were obtained when no egg yolk was used (13.8%). These results show that the addition of egg yolk of either type protects rooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Double-yolked pheasant eggs provide an insight into the control of albumen secretion in bird eggs.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D C

    2011-02-01

    1. The possible role of the presence of the yolk in stimulating secretion of albumen was investigated. 2. Double-yolked and single-yolked pheasant (Phasianus colchinus) eggs were opened to determine the masses of the shell, albumen and yolk(s). 3. In double-yolked eggs, the two yolk masses were not significantly different. Albumen mass was increased above that expected from an egg with a single-yolk of comparable size but below that expected from an egg having a mass of the combined yolks. The mass of shell per unit area reflected the mass of the initial mass of the egg irrespective of the number of yolks. 4. The additional mass of albumen is unrelated to yolk or initial egg mass. It is postulated that in double-yolked eggs the oviduct is mechanically stimulated by the presence of both yolks, which empties the stores of water-soluble albumen proteins in the magnum wall. Such stores are insufficient to provide the same amount of protein for the two yolks.

  10. The role of oligosaccharide in transport of egg yolk riboflavin-binding protein to the egg.

    PubMed

    Miller, M S; Buss, E G; Clagett, C O

    1981-10-12

    The carbohydrate portion of chicken egg yolk riboflavin-binding protein was examined to determine its role in the biological activity of the protein. Yolk RBP was found to contain 5--6 mannose, five galactose, 12 N-acetylglucosamine and four sialic acid residues. Specific modifications of the oligosaccharide moiety were performed which included removal of sialic acid by mild acid hydrolysis, oxidation of galactose by galactose oxidase, and removal of N-acetylglucosamine and galactose residues by a mixture of glycosidases from Aspergillus niger. All of the modified proteins retained the ability to bind riboflavin although their capacities were lower than that of native yolk RBP. Circular dichroism of the modified yolk RBP samples showed changes in the near ultraviolet, but molar ellipticities in the far ultraviolet displayed only minor variations indicating no gross structural changes. All samples cross-reacted with RBP-specific antiserum. The plasma half-life of 125I-labeled yolk RBP was 62 min. Each of the modified samples was cleared more rapidly from the blood than native yolk RBP. Removal of sialic acid decreased the half-life of yolk RBP by 31%, while the other modifications decreased the half-life by as much as 60%. During a 10-day period following injection of 125I-labeled yolk RBP, 5.9% of the labeled protein was recovered from egg yolk. Relative to native yolk RBP, the transport of asialo-yolk RBP was decreased by 82%. The other modifications resulted in even less transport to the egg, the lowest being glycosidase-treated asialo-yolk RBP which was decreased by over 99%. By comparison of samples with similar clearance times, a positive correlation was made between sialic acid and ovarian transport.

  11. Use of Mucor miehei lipase to improve functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites.

    PubMed

    Macherey, Laura N; Conforti, Frank D; Eigel, William; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2011-05-01

    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by yolk contamination, even at very low levels, between 0.01% and 0.2% w/w yolk in white. Experiments were conducted to determine if Mucor miehei lipase could regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Lipase from M. miehei and colipase from porcine pancreas were added to yolk-contaminated (0.2%, w/w) egg white samples to hydrolyze triglycerides originating from egg yolk. Enzymatic hydrolysis of triacylglycerols was confirmed using thin-layer chromatography. Treatment of yolk-contaminated samples with lipase and colipase yielded significant (P < 0.05) improvements in a number of the functional properties, including the final foam volume, foam capacity, and foaming power. These functional properties showed complete restoration to control levels. However, foam stability and foam drainage levels were not statistically different from yolk-contaminated samples that had not been enzymatically treated. Enzyme-treated yolk-contaminated egg whites were also tested in angel food cakes. Enzyme-treated, yolk-contaminated egg whites performed similarly to non-yolk-contaminated control, and much better than yolk-contaminated sample in angel food cakes. The results show that most negative effects of yolk contamination can be reversed by treatment with Mucor miehei lipase and colipase.

  12. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933, and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:22919675

  13. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A H; Smits, Mari A; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G G; Woelders, Henri

    2013-06-15

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion that yolk hormones could influence genetic sex determination in birds. However, in previous studies, yolk hormone concentrations and egg sex were studied in incubated eggs, although incubation of the eggs and embryonic development can alter yolk hormone concentrations and measured sex ratio. This study is the first to determine a wide array of egg components and hen body weight in relation to the sex of the egg in unincubated eggs. Egg parameters studied were yolk concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, and glucose, and egg weight and dimensions. In addition, we studied the associations among all measured parameters. Associations were found between a number of yolk hormones (progesterone associated with testosterone, estradiol and androstenedione; androstenedione with testosterone; dihydrotestosterone with estradiol and androstenedione) as well as between yolk testosterone and egg length and egg weight. There were no significant overall differences between male and female chicken eggs in any of the measured egg parameters. However, there were a few interactions such as the interaction of egg sex with dihydrotestosterone and with hen body weight which predicted estradiol levels and an interaction of estradiol levels with egg width for predicting sex of egg. Their biological relevance need, however, further study.

  14. Study on development of Vipera lebetina snake anti-venom in chicken egg yolk for passive immunization

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibodies against Vipera lebetina venom were evaluated for their antivenom potential. White leghorn hens were immunized with detoxified V. lebetina venom (γ-irradiated venom). The detoxified venom (200 μg) was mixed with an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and was injected intramuscularly into the hens. The antibodies showed high activity (1.6 LD50/mL) in egg yolks after 12 d of venom injection. The eggs were collected after 12 days, and the egg yolks were removed and washed with purified water to remove any contamination with egg whites. The purification was performed using a method described by Maya Devi et al., followed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The purity and molecular weight of antivenom antibodies (IgY) were determined using electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was found to be approximately 185 kDa. The potency of IgY was 6 LD50/mL (mice), i.e., 1 mL of IgY could neutralize 43.8 μg of standard V. lebetina venom). Our results showed that chicken egg yolk antibodies were effective in neutralizing the lethality and several pharmacological effects of V. lebetina venom and could be used for developing effective antivenom. PMID:25700656

  15. Study on development of Vipera lebetina snake anti-venom in chicken egg yolk for passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibodies against Vipera lebetina venom were evaluated for their antivenom potential. White leghorn hens were immunized with detoxified V. lebetina venom (γ-irradiated venom). The detoxified venom (200 μg) was mixed with an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and was injected intramuscularly into the hens. The antibodies showed high activity (1.6 LD50/mL) in egg yolks after 12 d of venom injection. The eggs were collected after 12 days, and the egg yolks were removed and washed with purified water to remove any contamination with egg whites. The purification was performed using a method described by Maya Devi et al., followed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The purity and molecular weight of antivenom antibodies (IgY) were determined using electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was found to be approximately 185 kDa. The potency of IgY was 6 LD50/mL (mice), i.e., 1 mL of IgY could neutralize 43.8 μg of standard V. lebetina venom). Our results showed that chicken egg yolk antibodies were effective in neutralizing the lethality and several pharmacological effects of V. lebetina venom and could be used for developing effective antivenom.

  16. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P < 0.001) and egg weight (P < 0.001) and improved feed efficiency (P < 0.05). Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P < 0.01) and blood serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride (P < 0.05) and increased antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (P < 0.01). Total saturated fatty acids and the ratio of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids increased (P < 0.01) and total monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001) decreased with yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Insulin-Egg Yolk Dispersions in Self Microemulsifying System

    PubMed Central

    Singnurkar, P. S.; Gidwani, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self microemulsifying dispersions were prepared by lyophilization followed by dispersion into self microemulsifying vehicle. The physicochemical characterization of selfmicroemulsifying dispersions includes such as insulin encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability of insulin in presence of proteolytic enzymes and in vitro release. The biological activity of insulin from the dispersion was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in vivo using Wistar diabetic rats. The particle size ranged 1.023±0.316 μm in diameter and insulin encapsulation efficiency was 98.2±0.9 %. Insulin hydrophobic self microemulsifying dispersions suppressed insulin release in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and shown to protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in vitro in presence of chymotripsin. Egg yolk encapsulated insulin was bioactive, demonstrated through both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21369432

  18. Composition and functional properties of cholesterol reduced egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Awad, A C; Bennink, M R; Smith, D M

    1997-04-01

    The composition and functional properties of cholesterol reduced egg yolk (CREY) were compared to those of control egg yolk (EY). The CREY was prepared by absorbing cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin after dilution and dissociation of granules at pH 10.5. The CREY contained less lipid and protein and more carbohydrate and ash than EY. Egg lipids were fractionated into triglycerides, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol, phosphatidyl choline, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Free and esterified cholesterol in CREY were reduced by 91.6 and 94.4%, respectively. Triglycerides were the major lipid class in CREY. The CREY contained more oleic acid and less linoleic acid than the control. Protein solubility in 0.1 and 0.6 M NaCl and sponge cake volume did not differ. The composition of proteins soluble in 0.6 M NaCl in both egg preparations were similar as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic profiles of proteins soluble in 0.1 M NaCl were similar, except that lipovitellin form EY was insoluble under these conditions. The CREY was less yellow than EY, as indicated by beta-carotene concentrations and Hunter b values. These results suggest that beta-cyclodextrin can be used to produce a low cholesterol egg product with compositional and functional properties similar to EY.

  19. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  20. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S D; Sannat, C; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. No significant difference in the rate of transfer of Ig

  1. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  2. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination.

  3. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, E P

    2009-03-01

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder or a nonsupplemented control diet and orally challenged at d 7 posthatch with 5.0 x 10(3) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. Body weight gain between d 0 and 10 and fecal oocyst shedding between d 5 and 10 postinfection were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Chickens given 10 or 20% hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder showed significantly increased BW gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with control birds fed the nonsupplemented diet. In another trial, lower IgY concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.05%) were used to treat birds with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts of E. acervulina. Total oocyst shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in chickens fed the 0.02 and 0.05% hyperimmune IgY supplemented-diets compared with animals fed the nonsupplemented diet. Similarly, chickens fed 0.5% of hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder diet and challenged with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts exhibited reduced oocyst shedding compared with the control birds given 0.5% of IgY from nonimmunized hen eggs, although BW gain was not affected. We conclude that passive immunization of chickens with anti-coccidia IgY antibodies provide protective immunity against coccidiosis challenge infection.

  4. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  5. Selenium interactions with essential and toxic elements in egg yolk from commercial and fortified eggs.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Marchesi, Isabella; Rizzi, Laura; Cauteruccio, Laura; Masironi, Roberto; Simioli, Marco; Borella, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between selenium concentration in both commercial and Se-enriched eggs and other essential/toxic elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cd), taking into account a possible synergic action of iodine. Commercial eggs were purchased from several sale points or directly from the producers (farmyard eggs). Fortified eggs were obtained by supplementing chickenfeed for 6 weeks with Se as sodium selenite (1.0 microg/g Se) or Se plus iodine (1.0 microg/g Se+3.7 microg/g I). Se in experimental egg yolks significantly increased over the basic value by 39% in the Se group and 61% in the Se+I group, suggesting that I addition may enhance Se absorption. Levels of Se in commercial yolks were identical in free-range, barn or battery eggs, but significantly lower in farmyard and higher in organic eggs where the Se content approximated that found in Se fortified eggs. A significant reduction in Cd was observed in Se+I treated yolks compared to both control and Se alone diet, thus suggesting a high sensitivity of Cd to the detoxifying effect of Se combined with I. Furthermore, Se+I supplementation was associated with a significant Zn reduction, a finding which needs clarification to avoid attempts to maximize one component affecting the levels of other essential elements.

  6. Inactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 in semen using a hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender.

    PubMed

    Silva, N; Solana, A; Castro, J M

    2000-02-01

    Hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender was used for the inactivation of bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1) in experimentally infected bovine semen. As much as 5 x 10(4) TCID50/ml of virus was inactivated in semen as assayed by tissue culture. Moreover the hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender did not produce any adverse effect on the quality of the semen after being frozen/thawed in comparison with normal egg yolk semen extender (P > 0.05). The hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender is considered an important tool for containing the spread of BHV-1 from infected semen.

  7. Thiamin inadequacy in infants: lack of evidence of amprolium in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Thornber, E J; Elliott, L E; Kerr, D; Marriott, J M; Massera, F C

    1983-02-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the consumption of egg yolks might lead to thiamin inadequacy in infants because of the possible contamination of the egg yolks with amprolium. Earlier workers showed that the presence of amprolium in the diet inhibits the absorption of thiamin. Amprolium is added to some poultry feeds to control coccidiosis: it is readily incorporated in the egg yolk and egg yolk is one of the solid foods offered to infants at weaning. We found that under current commercial poultry feeding practices in WA it is extremely unlikely that any amprolium would be present in commercial eggs or poultry. Amprolium was undetectable in eggs purchased at several retail outlets. Thus there is no evidence that consumption of egg yolk contributes to thiamin inadequacy in infants.

  8. Preparation and characterization of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y specific to influenza B virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Junlin; Zhao, Suqing; He, Daigui; Yang, Yuane; Li, Yueming; Zhu, Sisi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) for use in the prevention and treatment of influenza B viral infections. Laying hens were immunized with inactivated influenza B virus (IBV), and IgY was isolated from the egg yolk by multiple polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 extraction and ammonium sulfate purification steps. The titers and specificity of the purified antibodies were assessed. The specific IgY titer increased beginning the second week after the first immunization, with the titer peaking at the fifth week. The yield of IgY was 76.5mg per yolk, and the purity was 98.2%. The use of western blotting and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test demonstrated that IBV-specific IgY binds specifically to influenza B virus proteins, and a plaque reduction assay revealed the neutralization efficacy of IBV-specific IgY at reducing influenza infection in MDCK cells. Furthermore, when mice were treated intranasally prior to or after influenza B virus infection, IBV-specific IgY protected the mice from influenza infection or reduced viral replication in their lungs, respectively. These findings indicate that IgY is an easily prepared and rich source of antibodies that offers a potential alternative strategy for preventing and treating influenza B infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  10. Super chilling enhances preservation of the freshness of salted egg yolk during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, T; Watanuki, C; Ariizumi, M; Shigematsu, Y; Kobayashi, H; Hasegawa, M; Watanabe, K

    2009-03-01

    Pasteurized egg yolk with 10% (w/w) salt was stored at 5, -5, -15, -20, and -30 degrees C for 1 to 6 mo, respectively. Changes in generation of volatiles of the stored samples (5 and -5 degrees C for 6 mo) were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS. Emulsifying properties of egg yolk stored at -5, -15, -20, and -30 degrees C for 1 mo, respectively, were also evaluated by measurement of emulsion particle diameters in model emulsions prepared with the yolk samples. In addition, structural changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the egg yolks dependent on storage conditions for 6 mo were evaluated by (31)P-NMR. Volatile compounds such as hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal increased in egg yolk during storage at 5 degrees C; however, volatile compounds hardly increased in any samples stored at -5 degrees C (super chilling). The mean emulsion particle diameter in super chilled egg yolk was significantly smaller than that in egg yolk stored at the other lower temperatures. In addition, the results of (31)P-NMR evaluation suggested that prevention of structural changes of LDL resulted in maintenance of emulsifying properties of egg yolk. Thus, these results indicate that super chilling is an effective means of preserving salted egg yolk during long-term storage.

  11. Passive immunization with hyperimmune egg-yolk IgY as prophylaxis and therapy for poultry diseases--A review.

    PubMed

    Gadde, U; Rathinam, T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2015-12-01

    Passive immunization with pathogen-specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) is emerging as a potential alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of various human and animal diseases. Laying hens are an excellent source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies, which can be collected noninvasively from egg yolks. The use of IgY offers several advantages in that it is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, and reduces the numbers of animals required for antibody production. This paper reviews the use of IgY antibodies in the treatment and prevention of enteric pathogen infections in poultry. Brief descriptions of the production, structure, and properties of IgY are also presented. Some limitations of the technology and future perspectives are discussed.

  12. [Effects of union of albumin and egg yolk on human semen cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Hu; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Sheng, Ji-Yun; Zhou, Jie-Ling

    2006-02-01

    To provide a more effective cryoprotective medium (CPM), effect of union of albumin and egg yolk on human sperm cryopreservation was studied. Egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate was regarded as CPM of the control group and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate with different concentrations of albumin (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 g/L) were regarded as CPMs of experiment groups. Before and after cryopreservation, sperm movement parameters were assessed by using computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and then egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin was selected, whose movement parameters were the best among the experimental groups, and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrateto group as the control to compare sperm survival rate, membrane integrity, function of mitochondrion and ultrastruction. Sperm in egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate added I g/L albumin showed significantly higher motility, viability than those in the control group and other experimental groups (P < 0.05). Sperm in egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin had significantly higher survival rate, head unpigmenting rate than those in control group (P < 0.05). Sperm in egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added I g/L albumin manifested significantly higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity than that in control group (P < 0.05) and had better ultrastructure than that in control group. Union of two kinds of albumin and egg yolk has better effects on human sperm cryopreservation than those of solitary use of egg yolk. The action of albumin is related to its concentration, and albumin combining with egg yolk may have plus and complementary effects on human sperm cryopreservation.

  13. Possibilities of enhancing the colour of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Petr; Suchý, Pavel; Straková, Eva; Kopřiva, Vladimír

    2012-03-15

    This study attempts to compare two possibilities of enhancing the colour of egg yolk. One of them is based on the ecological rearing of laying hens on natural green grass whereas the other uses a feeding dose supplemented with natural pigments in laying hens reared in individual cages. Is it possible to distinguish these two technologies using yolk colour determination in the CIELAB system? Yolk colour parameters such as L*, a*, and b* in the group of grazed hens are significantly different (α = 0.001) from those observed in hens reared in cages. The yolk colour shows a darker, redder and more yellow colour. The greatest difference was seen in the red colour parameter, a*, that increased more than twice. Visually, this means a shift towards a more orange colour. Compared to grazing in the meadow (ΔE* = 13.257), the addition of artificial pigments in the feed resulted in a more significant increase in the parameter ΔE* (CIE total colour difference), with the greatest value of ΔE* being observed with the use of both pigments (ΔE* = 24.265). Grazing increases the parameter a* whereas the values of the parameter C*(ab) remain relatively low. The parameter ΔE* is significantly lower in the case of grazing as compared to the supplementation of the feed with pigments. However, colourity parameters cannot be used as a specific standard to identify a particular grazing technology as their values vary during the laying period. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Phase separation behavior of egg yolk suspensions after anionic polysaccharides addition.

    PubMed

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Temelli, Feral; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-06

    The objectives of this study were to understand the interactions between three anionic polysaccharides (gum arabic, xanthan gum and ι-carrageenan) and egg yolk at pH 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and possible phase separation behavior. Zeta potential of egg yolk was not affected by gum arabic addition while it became more negative at pH 5 after xanthan gum and ι-carrageenan addition. The particle size of ι-carrageenan yolk suspension was considerably higher than the other polysaccharide yolk suspensions at pH below 6 but was dramatically decreased at alkaline pH. Most polysaccharide yolk suspensions formed either a biphasic or a monophasic system, whereas three distinct phases were observed for xanthan gum yolk suspension at pH 6. Protein profile analysis of the lipid-rich cream phase obtained from xanthan gum added yolk showed similarities to apoproteins from low density lipoproteins (LDL) of egg yolk. Microscopy analysis indicated the co-presence of xanthan gum and LDL in the creamy phase, within a network formed by xanthan gum. It was suggested that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the egg yolk and xanthan gum as well as xanthan gum's rheological properties could be responsible for the unique phase separation observed in the study. The findings of this study can form the basis for future studies to develop a new method to separate LDL from egg yolk.

  15. Effect of embryonic development on the chicken egg yolk plasma proteome after 12 days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Mann, Karlheinz; Bourin, Marie; Brionne, Aurélien; Nys, Yves

    2014-03-26

    To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality.

  16. Immunomodulatory activity accompanying chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Polanowski, A; Zabłocka, A; Sosnowska, A; Janusz, M; Trziszka, T

    2012-12-01

    Immunity transfer from a mother to the newborn does not depend exclusively on immunoglobulins. Peptides, which are characterized by immunoregulatory properties that accompany IgG(2), known as proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP), have been discovered for the first time in ovine colostrum. In this report we present new data showing that some immunoregulatory peptides associated with the main immunoglobulin class, IgY, are also present in the avian immune system. Cytokine-inducing activity of particular fractions obtained from ovine colostrum, IgG+ (IgG(2) containing PRP), IgG- (IgG(2) free of PRP), and purified PRP, was compared with that of crude egg yolk IgY (IgY+), additionally purified egg yolk IgY (IgY-), and polypeptides accompanying IgY named Yolkin (Y), using an ex vivo model of whole human blood cells. It was shown that both IgG+ fraction and PRP, but not IgG-, stimulated the whole blood cells to release tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β cytokines. Similar experiments performed with hen's egg IgY preparations showed that IgY+ and Y samples showed higher cytokine-inducing activity than samples additionally purified with the use of size exclusion chromatography (IgY-). The IgY+ at a dose of 100 μg was even more active than the positive lipopolysaccharide control. It was also found that Y is able to stimulate macrophage cell line J774.2 to release nitric oxide. The results obtained suggest that IgY, the main chicken immunoglobulin fraction, is accompanied by additional polypeptides and plays a role of a transporter of biologically active substances, which was observed in the case of colostral IgG.

  17. Maternal plasma and egg yolk testosterone concentrations during embryonic development in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Lovern, M B; Wade, J

    2001-11-01

    Sex steroids of presumably maternal origin have been found in avian, crocodilian, and chelonian egg yolks, and they can affect offspring morphology and behavior. The present study reports testosterone (T) levels to which embryos are potentially exposed in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination. We documented plasma and yolk T concentrations in adult females, in their developing follicles and eggs, and in freshly oviposited and incubating eggs. Plasma T was higher in reproductively active than in reproductively inactive females. Within reproductively active females, those with a single, large yolking follicle had higher plasma T than those that had one or more shelling, oviductal eggs. Individual females contributed different amounts of T to their yolks, but within females, more mature follicles or eggs consistently had higher yolk T concentrations than did less mature follicles or eggs. Similar to previous research, yolk T concentrations at oviposition were higher in male eggs than in female eggs. However, T levels during incubation did not differ by embryo sex, but rather increased in both male and female eggs. These results suggest that T plays a role in the reproductive physiology of females and potentially in the phenotypic development of their offspring. Furthermore, whereas the yolk T increase observed during follicular maturation is clearly a maternal influence, it remains unclear whether that observed during egg development (i.e., postfertilization) results from a lack of T uptake by the embryo as yolk is absorbed, from embryonic production of T that diffuses into the yolk, or from some combination of these processes. Because lizard embryos are comparatively well developed at oviposition, the assumption that yolk steroids are strictly of maternal origin may require modification, and the possibility that embryos are modulating their own steroid environment needs to be explored. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Isolation of Egg Yolk Granules as Low-Cholesterol Emulsifying Agent in Mayonnaise.

    PubMed

    Motta-Romero, Hollman; Zhang, Zhong; Tien Nguyen, An; Schlegel, Vicki; Zhang, Yue

    2017-07-01

    Egg yolk is an essential ingredient for many food products due to its excellent functional properties such as emulsification. However, the consumers' concern of its cholesterol level has led food industry to seek solutions for its replacement. Utilization of low-fat egg yolk granules as emulsifier can be an alternative strategy. In this study, granules with low cholesterol content were separated from egg yolk by a simple method under easily scalable centrifugal conditions. The egg yolk granules isolated within 0.17 M NaCl solution achieved a 22.5% yield that was similar to that using higher centrifugation speeds and longer time. The yield of egg yolk granules increased from 25% to 32% when the yolk:water ratio was changed from 1:1 to 1:2. Mayonnaise was prepared to evaluate the emulsifying capacity of the egg yolk granules. It was found that egg yolk granules exhibited similar emulsifying activity as that of whole egg yolk, but a better emulsion stabilizing property that is evidenced by the higher viscosity of mayonnaise prepared with the granules. In addition, the viscosities of mayonnaise prepared by spray dried yolk and granules were slightly higher than the liquid counterpart, showing a further improvement by spray drying on the emulsion stabilizing properties. The mechanical spectra of mayonnaise samples by frequency sweep also suggested that granules favored the formation of stronger 3-dimensional arrangements of oil droplets and therefore a more stable emulsion. Results suggest that granules isolated within 0.17 M NaCl solution present best emulsifying properties and can be applied as whole yolk replacer in food emulsions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Interfacial behavior of pulmonary surfactant preparations containing egg yolk lecithin.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian lungs are covered with lipid-protein complexes or pulmonary surfactants. In this work, which aimed towards the less expensive production of artificial pulmonary surfactants, we produced surfactants composed of egg yolk lecithin (eggPC), palmitic acid, and hexadecanol (= 0.30/0.35/0.35, mol/mol/mol ) containing different amounts of Hel 13-5 (NH2-KLLKLLLKLWLKLLKLLL-COOH) as a substitute for the proteins in native pulmonary surfactants. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (DV)-A isotherms of the mixtures were measured via the Wilhelmy and ionizing (241)Am electrode methods, respectively. The interactions between the lipid components and Hel 13-5 led to variations in the surface pressure caused by the expulsion of fluid components from the surface. Furthermore, the π-A and DV-A isotherms featured large hysteresis loops for the surfactant that contained a small amount of Hel 13-5 during compression and successive expansion cycling. To elucidate the morphology, the phase behavior was visualized in situ at the air-water interface by means of fluorescence microscopy; the images suggested less effective interactions between Hel 13-5 and the unsaturated PC in eggPC despite the similarity of their monolayer properties.

  20. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    PubMed

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  1. Yolk and albumen corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid by white versus brown caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Navara, K J; Pinson, S E

    2010-07-01

    Maternal stress in birds can have permanent transgenerational effects through the transmission of stress hormones to offspring via the egg yolk. Previous studies have shown that White Leghorn hens show a heightened response to stress compared with Hy-Line Brown hens, producing significantly more corticosterone and displaying longer bouts of tonic immobility after handling, whereas baseline levels of corticosterone are similar between the strains. We tested the hypothesis that higher stress responsiveness would correspond to chronic accumulation and thus higher concentrations of corticosterone in egg yolks after exposure to stressors associated with routine maintenance. Eggs were collected from white and brown hens that were undisturbed except for daily feeding and routine egg collections. Corticosterone was quantified in plasma, egg yolks, and albumen and compared between strains. We predicted that corticosterone concentrations in yolk would be higher in eggs from white versus brown hens but that albumen corticosterone would not differ between strains due to the short term of albumen deposition. As predicted, yolk corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in eggs produced by white hens, approximately twice those found in eggs laid by brown hens. Plasma and albumen concentrations of corticosterone were similar between groups. These results suggest that offspring hatching from eggs laid by White Leghorn hens are exposed to significantly more corticosterone through concentration in the egg yolk, which could permanently imprint offspring physiology and behavior.

  2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE YOLK OF THE HEN'S EGG AS STUDIED BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Bellairs, Ruth

    1961-01-01

    A description of the fine structure of the yolk of the unincubated hen's egg has been provided, which will serve as a basis for further studies on yolk digestion. The gross components of the yolk (that is, free-floating lipid drops, yellow and white yolk spheres together with their enclosed lipid subdroplets, and aqueous protein fluid) could be recognized by phase contrast and low power electron microscopy. The majority of the lipid drops, whether free floating or enclosed within yolk spheres, were composed of particles about 30 to 60 A in diameter. The protein component of the yolk was found to consist of round profiles about 250 A in diameter. The surfaces of the yolk spheres were of three types, and it is difficult to decide which represents the true structure although reasons are given for believing that yolk spheres are not normally enclosed by membranes identical with cell membranes. PMID:13866859

  3. Bacterial isolation rate from fertile eggs, hatching eggs, and neonatal broilers with yolk sac infection.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Cecilia Rosario; Téllez Isaías, Guillermo; López Cuello, Carlos; Villaseca-Flores, Jorge Mateo; Anderson, Robin C; Eslava Campos, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Yolk sac infection (YSI) is a major cause of mortality of broilers during the first week post-hatching. The aim of the present-study was to analyze the possible sources of fertile egg contamination and to establish the etiology of YSI. Sixty fertile eggs, sixty sawdust samples from the nest, sixty nonfertile 19 to 21 day old incubation eggs and liver and yolk sac samples from 216 dead, 1 to 7 day old chicks, were cultured. Five hundred and eighty eight colonies were isolated and further characterized using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium recovered from all samples except the sawdust and fertile eggs collected from the nest. Fertile egg contamination at breeder farm level was found to be minimal. In broilers, both mortality and the rate of E. coli isolation were increased with the time. These results suggest that egg contamination does not occur at the breeders farm, as previously has been reported. Bacterial contamination causing YSI in vertically integrated operations can occur at a latter stage. It can be considered that the main etiologic agent of YSI is E. coli, since YSI mortality was highly correlated with E. coli isolation.

  4. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  5. Egg yolk identification and aging in mixed paint binding media by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sfakianaki, Sofia; Kouloumpi, Eleni; Anglos, Demetrios; Spyros, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for the identification and quantitative analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. In this report, we present an analytical NMR protocol for the identification and semiquantification of egg yolk binders and mixed binding media that also contain a drying oil, namely linseed oil. The samples studied have been artificially and/or naturally aged in order to simulate the composition of organic materials in paintings. Analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra showed that egg yolk can be identified even in binding media of considerable age via signals originating from cholesterol and/or cholesterol oxidation products present in the aged binding medium. Based on cholesterol-related and other lipid signals in the NMR spectra of egg yolk binders, a molecular marker (R/F) that suggests the presence of egg yolk in paint binders is proposed. Via this marker, the presence of egg yolk in the organic material obtained from an early 18th century Greek icon is confirmed, and this is further verified by 2D NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NMR molecular markers developed to estimate the hydrolysis/oxidation state of oil paintings are also suitable for the analysis of egg yolk and mixed medium (egg yolk-linseed oil) binders, indicating the generality of the NMR methodological approach in the analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of refrigeration on in vitro penetration of Salmonella enteritidis through the egg yolk membrane.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Holt, Peter S; Guraya, Rupa

    2006-06-01

    Internally contaminated eggs have been implicated as leading sources of transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to humans. Although SE is not often deposited inside the nutrient-rich yolks of naturally contaminated eggs, penetration through the vitelline membrane to reach the yolk contents could result in rapid bacterial multiplication. In previous studies, such penetration has been observed occasionally at warm temperatures during experiments with in vitro egg contamination models. The present study was conducted to determine whether refrigeration affects the frequency of in vitro SE penetration of the egg yolk membrane. After inoculation of small numbers of SE onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks, immediate refrigeration of contaminated samples prevented the penetration of SE into the egg yolk contents during 24 h of storage. However, SE penetrated inside the yolk contents in 4% of contaminated egg samples refrigerated after 2 h of storage at 30 degrees C, 15% of samples refrigerated after 6 h of storage at 30 degrees C, and 40% of samples stored at 30 degrees C for 24 h (48 samples per treatment group). These results highlight the value of prompt refrigeration for restricting the opportunities for SE to multiply to high numbers inside the yolks of contaminated eggs.

  7. The multivariate egg: quantifying within- and among-clutch correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens using multivariate mixed models.

    PubMed

    Postma, Erik; Siitari, Heli; Schwabl, Hubert; Richner, Heinz; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Egg components are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds and other oviparous species. Because different egg components can have opposite effects on offspring phenotype, selection is expected to favour their mutual adjustment, resulting in a significant covariation between egg components within and/or among clutches. Here we tested for such correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens in great tit (Parus major) eggs using a multivariate mixed-model approach. We found no association between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens within clutches, indicating that within clutches the two egg components are deposited independently. Across clutches, however, there was a significant negative relationship between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens, suggesting that selection has co-adjusted their deposition. Furthermore, an experimental manipulation of ectoparasite load affected patterns of covariance among egg components. Yolk immunoglobulins are known to play an important role in nestling immune defence shortly after hatching, whereas yolk androgens, although having growth-enhancing effects under many environmental conditions, can be immunosuppressive. We therefore speculate that variation in the risk of parasitism may play an important role in shaping optimal egg composition and may lead to the observed pattern of yolk immunoglobulin and yolk androgen deposition across clutches. More generally, our case study exemplifies how multivariate mixed-model methodology presents a flexible tool to not only quantify, but also test patterns of (co)variation across different organisational levels and environments, allowing for powerful hypothesis testing in ecophysiology.

  8. Production, Characterization and Applications for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Polyclonal Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Flávia B.; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G.; Mota, Caroline M.; Faria, Matheus S.; Filho, Hercílio H. Silva; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Conclusions/Significance Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii. PMID:22808150

  9. In vitro multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on the egg yolk membrane and penetration to the yolk contents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. Although the nutrient-rich yolk interior is an uncommon location for S. Enteritidis contaminatio...

  10. A comparison of the protective action of chicken and quail egg yolk in the cryopreservation of Spanish ibex epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, Julian; Coloma, Miguel A; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Gómez-Brunet, Amelia; Pulido-Pastor, Antonio; Zamora-Soria, Amancia; Carrizosa, Juan A; Urrutia, Baltasar; López-Sebastián, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Egg yolk-based diluents provide adequate cryoprotection for the sperm of several mammalian species. Traditionally, chicken egg yolk has been used as additive for the freeze preservation of spermatozoa because of its wide availability. Variations in the chemical composition of the egg yolk of different avian species appear to influence the protection afforded during cooling, freezing, and thawing. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of quail egg yolk as a novel additive for the epididymal spermatozoa of a threatened wild ruminant species-the Spanish ibex-and to compare its efficacy with chicken egg yolk. Epididymal spermatozoa were diluted using a Tris-citric acid-glucose medium (TCG) composed of 3.8% Tris (w v(-1)), 2.2% citric acid (w v(-1)), 0.6% glucose (w v(-1)), 5% glycerol (v v(-1)), and 6% egg yolk (v v(-1)). Sperm masses from the right epididymes were diluted with TCG-6% chicken egg yolk medium, while those from the left were diluted with TCG-6% quail egg yolk. The thawed spermatozoa preserved with TCG-6% quail egg yolk extender exhibited lower motility (P<0.001), membrane integrity (P<0.001), and viability (P<0.01) than those diluted with the TCG-6% chicken egg yolk extender. The fertility of spermatozoa frozen in TCG-6% chicken egg yolk tended to be higher than in those frozen with TCG-6% quail egg yolk (63.3% vs 36.4%, P=0.19). These results show that quail egg yolk offers no advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of Spanish ibex epididymal spermatozoa.

  11. A clinical and immunological study of allergy to hen's egg white. VI. Occurrence of proteins cross-reacting with allergens in hen's egg white as studied in egg white from turkey, duck, goose, seagull, and in hen egg yolk, and hen and chicken sera and flesh.

    PubMed

    Langeland, T

    1983-08-01

    The occurrence of proteins cross-reacting with allergens in hen's egg white was studied in turkey, duck, goose and seagull egg whites, in hen egg yolk, and in hen and chicken sera and flesh. The study was based upon quantitative immunoelectrophoretic techniques. The different egg whites were all found to contain proteins cross-reacting with most of the allergens in hen's egg white, but the degree of cross-reactivity varied considerably among the various egg whites. All egg whites contained proteins able to bind human IgE-antibody in the sera of patients with allergy to hen's egg white. Several proteins cross-reacting with allergens in hen's egg white were also detected in egg yolk and in hen and chicken sera and flesh. Clinical implications of the results are discussed.

  12. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  13. Yolk sac development in lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae): New perspectives on the egg of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels. Studies of lizard yolk sac development, dating to more than 100 years ago, report characteristics inconsistent with this model. We compared development of the yolk sac from oviposition to near hatching in embryonic series of three species of oviparous scincid lizards to consider congruence with the pattern described for birds. Our findings reinforce results of prior studies indicating that squamate reptiles mobilize and metabolize the large yolk reserves in their eggs through a process unknown in other amniotes. Development of the yolk sac of lizards differs from birds in four primary characteristics, migration of mesoderm, proliferation of endoderm, vascular development and cellular diversity within the yolk sac cavity. Notably, all of the yolk is incorporated into cells relatively early in development and endodermal cells within the yolk sac cavity align along blood vessels which course throughout the yolk sac cavity. The pattern of uptake of yolk by endodermal cells indicates that the mechanism of yolk metabolism differs between lizards and birds and that the evolution of a fundamental characteristic of embryonic nutrition diverged in these two lineages. Attributes of the yolk sac of squamates reveal the existence of phylogenetic diversity among amniote lineages

  14. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health.

  15. Successful ram semen cryopreservation with lyophilized egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Alcay, Selim; Berk Toker, M; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu; Tekin Onder, N; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Nur, Zekariya; Kemal Soylu, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lyophilized egg yolk extender on ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates with a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in lyophilized egg yolk or fresh egg yolk extenders using two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) at three time points: after dilution with extender A, equilibration and post-thaw. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and thawing) had negative effects on motility (P<0.001), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.001), acrosome integrity (P<0.001) and DNA integrity (P<0.001). In the study, there were no significant differences between lyophilized and fresh egg yolk extenders when comparing motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity between groups. In conclusion, lyophilized egg yolk extender provided similar cryoprotective effects with fresh egg yolk extender to cryopreserve ram semen.

  16. Proteome analysis of egg yolk after exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Jing; Hao, Yanan; Zhang, Hongfu; Ge, Wei; Min, Lingjing; Shen, Wei; Li, Qunjie; Kou, Xin; Ma, Huanfa; Li, Lan

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are promising candidates as animal diet additive. However, several studies have reported that ZnO NPs cause adverse effects on organisms. Hen egg yolk proteins play vital roles during embryonic development. Although we found ZnO NPs altered the function of the ovary and liver, the effects of ZnO NPs on egg yolk proteins are not as yet understood. In this report, egg yolk proteome was investigated after ZnO NPs treatment. A total of 37 proteins were specifically regulated just by ZnO-NP-50 mg/kg, and 22 proteins were changed solely by ZnSO4-50 mg/kg. Seventeen proteins were regulated by both ZnO-NP-50 mg/kg and ZnSO4-50 mg/kg treatments. Furthermore, the proteins changed by ZnO NPs or ZnSO4 were enriched into different functional groups, respectively, by GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce a different impact on the egg yolk proteome compared to that of Zn(2+). The changes in protein levels by ZnO NPs in egg yolk might influence the value of egg yolk as nutrient and the embryonic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/kappa-carrageenan dispersions.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J M; Cordobés, F; Raymundo, A; Guerrero, A

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of gum content and pH on the thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/κ-carrageenan (EY/κC) dispersions, monitored by linear viscoelastic measurements. Heat processing induces dramatic changes in the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of EY/κC systems, which may be attributed to a multistage mechanism that yields an interparticle gel network. An increase in κC content generally induces an enhancement in viscoelasticity. A reduction in pH hinders this enhancement and causes an anticipation of the multistage process, which confirms the importance of the electrostatic interactions of EY/κC dispersions. The viscoelastic properties of EY/κC gels generally fit a master mechanical spectrum, which suggests that the protein matrix generally dominates the microstructure of EY/κC gels. However, SEM images reveal formation of a κC network at low pH, at which some κC autohydrolysis may also play a role. Electrostatic attractions seem to favour interactions among EY aggregates and κC into the carrageenan network.

  18. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolk should be avoided by patients at risk of vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    David Spence, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent recommendations that limits to dietary cholesterol be dropped were probably heavily influenced by propaganda from the egg industry. After conviction for false advertising, the industry has spent hundreds of millions of dollars to convince the public, physicians, and policy makers that dietary cholesterol and egg yolk are harmless. However, there are good reasons for longstanding recommendations that dietary cholesterol be limited to <200 mg/ day in persons at risk of vascular disease. It is seldom understood that this essentially means all people in developed countries who expect to attain an advanced age. There is abundant evidence that dietary cholesterol increases cardiovascular risk. The misdirection of the egg industry focuses on fasting levels of LDL cholesterol, which are only raised by ~ 10% by consumption of egg yolks. However, the main effect of diet is on the post-prandial state: for ~ 4 hours after a high fat/high cholesterol meal, there is oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial inflammation. One large (65 g) egg yolk contains 237 mg of cholesterol, well above the recommended limit—nearly as much as a 12-ounce hamburger. Besides the very high cholesterol content of egg yolk, the phosphatidylcholine in egg yolk leads, via action of the intestinal microbiome, to production of trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO), which causes atherosclerosis in animal models. Levels of TMAO in the top quartile after a test dose of two egg yolks were associated with a 2.5-fold increase in the 3-year risk of stroke, death, or myocardial infarction among patients referred for coronary angiography. Persons at risk of cardiovascular disease should limit their intake of cholesterol and egg yolk. PMID:28191513

  19. OSMOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE HEN'S EGG, AS DETERMINED BY COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF YOLK AND WHITE.

    PubMed

    Howard, E

    1932-09-20

    The osmotic pressure of the yolk and white of the hen's egg have been shown to be identical, by means of direct freezing point determinations, dialyses, and vapor pressure measurements. Dialysates of egg yolk slow the rate of ice formation compared with NaCl solutions. They also show a marked change of freezing rate as the freezing point is approached. The anomalous freezing behavior of this material may lead to errors in the determination of the true freezing point which would tend to make the value for the yolk erroneously low. The postulate of a vital activity at the yolk membrane maintaining an osmotic pressure difference is thus shown to be unnecessary, since a simple osmotic equilibrium exists between the yolk and the white.

  20. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio).

    PubMed

    Hahn, D Caldwell

    2011-07-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  2. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria tenella Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, JJ; Ren, CZ; Wang, SS; Liu, DD; Cao, LQ; Tao, JP

    2013-01-01

    Background To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effectively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated. Methods Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophilized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed. Results The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG), reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed at dosage ≥ 0.5% and 1.0% when BWG and caecal lesion were compared with the sodium salinomycin control group, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis. PMID:24454440

  3. Dietary marine algae maintains egg consumer acceptability while enhancing yolk color.

    PubMed

    Herber-McNeill, S M; Van Elswyk, M E

    1998-03-01

    A drum-dried docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) enriched marine microalgal product (MA) was investigated as a n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) source in laying hen diets. Hen diets were supplemented with 2.4 or 4.8% MA. Eggs were analyzed for yolk color following 4 wk of feeding as well as weekly for 4 wk. Egg flavor was evaluated by consumer panelists. Feeding MA significantly (P < 0.01) increased yolk a* values in a dose response manner as early as 1 wk post-MA feeding. Consumer panelists found n-3 FA enriched eggs as acceptable as typical eggs. These data suggest that dietary MA is useful for enhancing yolk n-3 FA and color while maintaining consumer acceptability of the resulting egg product.

  4. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Liposomes as an alternative to egg yolk in stallion freezing extender.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Elodie; Labbe, Catherine; Batellier, Florence; Duchamp, Guy; Beaumal, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Desherces, Serge; Schmitt, Eric; Magistrini, Michèle

    2012-01-15

    Egg yolk is normally used as a protective agent to freeze semen of equine and other species. However, addition of egg yolk in extenders is not without disadvantages and the demand to find cryoprotective alternatives is strong. The objective of this study was to test the cryoprotective capacities of liposomes composed of egg yolk phospholipids. Two experiments were conducted: 1) the first to determine the optimal composition and concentration of liposomes to preserve post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa; 2) the second to assess in vivo the cryoprotective capacities of these liposomes. In Experiment 2, post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analyzed. Experiment 1 demonstrated that liposomes composed of phospholipids E80 (commercial lecithins from egg yolk composed mainly of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) and of Hank's salts-glucose-lactose solution (E80-liposomes) were the most efficient in preserving post-thaw motility. The optimal concentration was 4 % (v/v). In Experiment 2, fertility rate after artificial insemination of semen frozen with E80-liposomes was 55 % (22/40) compared with 68 % (27/40) with the control extender containing egg yolk (EY) (p = 0.23). Post-thaw motility parameters were higher with EY than with E80-liposomes (p < 0.0001). For post-thaw membrane integrity no difference was observed between the two extenders (p = 0.08). Liposomes composed of egg yolk phospholipids appeared to be a promising alternative to replace egg yolk in semen freezing extenders in equine species.

  6. Determination of yolk contamination in liquid egg white using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cluff, K; Konda Naganathan, G; Jonnalagada, D; Mortensen, I; Wehling, R; Subbiah, J

    2016-07-01

    Purified egg white is an important ingredient in a number of baked and confectionary foods because of its foaming properties. However, yolk contamination in amounts as low as 0.01% can impede the foaming ability of egg white. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that yolk contamination in egg white could be detected based on its molecular optical properties. Yolk contaminated egg white samples (n = 115) with contamination levels ranging from 0% to 0.25% (on weight basis) were prepared. The samples were excited with a 785 nm laser and Raman spectra from 250 to 3,200 cm(-1) were recorded. The Raman spectra were baseline corrected using an optimized piecewise cubic interpolation on each spectrum and then normalized with a standard normal variate transformation. Samples were randomly divided into calibration (n = 77) and validation (n = 38) data sets. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict yolk contamination levels, based on the Raman spectral fingerprint. Raman spectral peaks, in the spectral region of 1,080 and 1,666 cm(-1), had the largest influence on detecting yolk contamination in egg white. The PLSR model was able to correctly predict yolk contamination levels with an R(2) = 0.90 in the validation data set. These results demonstrate the capability of Raman spectroscopy for detection of yolk contamination at very low levels in egg white and present a strong case for development of an on-line system to be deployed in egg processing plants. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Affinity purification of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) using a human mycoplasma protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuemei; Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-02-15

    Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior functional equivalent to mammalian IgG. However, the preparation of refined and highly purified IgY is still attributed as difficult task. Protein M (a transmembrane protein from human mycoplasma) has been newly demonstrated as an ideal affinity regent for mammalian antibody purification. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between protein M and IgY. The results showed protein M could be a superior affinity reagent for IgY, scFv as well as IgYΔFc, based on pull down and western blot investigations; in addition, it was found that ∼125 times increase of effective IgY in the elutent was obtained using protein M affinity chromatography column compared with traditional IgY extraction methods. This indicates, the purification strategy of protein M is entirely different to traditional IBPs and the salient purification feature of protein M would be a breakthrough for purifying not only non-mammalian antibodies, but also monoclonal antibodies and engineered antibodies based on variable region.

  8. Effect of vitamin E and A supplementation on egg yolk alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    Grobas, S; Méndez, J; Lopez, Bote C; De, Blas C; Mateos, G G

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to asses the effect of dietary dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-TAC) and vitamin A supplementation on egg yolk alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) concentration. A total of 96 ISA brown hens (a brown-egg laying hen), 32 wk of age, was used. Eight concentrations of alpha-TAC (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, and 1,280 IU/kg diet) were included in a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 4,000 IU of vitamin A/kg diet. Production parameters were not affected by dietary treatment. Interhen variation in yolk alpha-T concentration increased at higher dietary intakes. Logarithmic transformation stabilized variance and showed the existence of a linear relationship between dietary alpha-TAC supplementation level and alpha-T egg yolk concentration (P < 0.001). As the dietary concentration of alpha-TAC rose, efficiency of uptake of alpha-T from feed to yolk decreased linearly (P < 0.001). A parallel experiment was carried out in which four additional groups of hens were fed diets containing four levels of dietary alpha-TAC (0, 40, 160, and 640 IU/kg) and 40,000 IU vitamin A/kg diet. A significantly lower egg yolk alpha-T concentration was found in hens fed diets including the highest level of vitamin A supplementation (P < 0.001). No interaction of dietary alpha-TAC and vitamin A concentrations was observed on egg yolk alpha-T concentration. No effect of dietary treatment was observed on yolk oxidation and other egg quality characteristics.

  9. Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Grammenidis, E; Surai, P F; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C

    2006-10-01

    1. The effects of various sources of natural carotenoids (Px alfalfa concentrate, tomato powder and marigold extract) as feed additives in quail diets on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition were investigated. 2. Adult Japanese quail were fed one of 5 different diets for 23 d: three diets each contained Px alfalfa concentrate (PX) or tomato powder (TP) or marigold extract (MG), one diet contained marigold extract and tomato powder (MG + TP) and a control diet (wheat/barley based) was low in carotenoid. All products were added at a rate of 2%, apart from marigold extract which was added at a rate of 0.2%. 3. Visual assessment of yolk colour (Roche colour fan) showed a stabilised yolk colour of 1.6, 7.7, 8.5, 8.8 and 10.6 for the control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP treatments, respectively. 4. The total carotenoid concentration of the egg yolks were 2.2, 22.4, 4.1, 39.0 and 37.7 microg/g for the experimental groups fed the following diets: control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Deposition of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in the egg yolk was unaffected by treatments. 5. Lutein was shown to be the major carotenoid in the egg yolk, comprising 1.65, 17.97, 2.03, 31.14 and 28.57 microg/g in control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Inclusion of TP in the quail diet resulted in lycopene transfer to the egg. 6. It was concluded that, in comparison with the control group, there was an increase in the yolk concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-carotene in eggs produced by female quail fed diets supplemented with natural carotenoids.

  10. Cryopreservation of bull semen: Evolution from egg yolk based to soybean based extenders.

    PubMed

    Layek, S S; Mohanty, T K; Kumaresan, A; Parks, J E

    2016-09-01

    Since the inception of bovine semen cryopreservation, egg yolk and milk based extenders have been used to protect sperm from the detrimental effects of cooling and freezing. In recent years, demand for alternatives to conventional commercial extenders has arisen as the risk of introducing exotic diseases through transporting egg yolk based products has been recognized. Egg yolk can also interfere with sperm evaluation and the presence of particulate material in the extender may reduce fertility. Soybeans contain lecithin, a phospholipid fraction that can substitute for high molecular weight lipoprotein and phospholipids from egg yolk and prevent or ameliorate damage to the sperm plasma membrane that occurs during extension, cooling, and cryopreservation. Soy lecithin based extenders have been evaluated for processing and freezing bovine semen, although extender from soybean milk has not been studied as extensively. Commercially available soy lecithin based extenders are used increasingly but remain under scrutiny and are not universally accepted. With these observations in mind, this review is intended to examine effects of conventional cryopreservation procedures, methods of assessment, and potential for developing soybean extract as an acceptable alternative to traditional egg yolk and milk based extenders for bull sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Gal d 6 is the second allergen characterized from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Amo, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Blanco, Juan; Villota, Julian; Juste, Sonsoles; Moneo, Ignacio; Caballero, María Luisa

    2010-06-23

    Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients. The study was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting and IgE-immunoblotting-inhibition assays. An egg yolk extract was fractioned by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the new allergen detected was characterized by N-terminal amino acid analysis. A total of 5 of the 27 patients (18%) detected a yolk allergen of an apparent molecular weight of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Heating and reduction treatments did not affect its allergenicity, although digestion with simulated gastric fluid diminished the IgE-binding capacity of the allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded with the YGP42 protein, a fragment of the vitellogenin-1 precursor. Thus, a second egg yolk allergen has been described and designated Gal d 6 by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee.

  12. Yolk of the Century Egg (Pidan) Contains a Readily Digestible Form of Free Vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the vitamin B12 content of commercially available century eggs (pidan) and characterized their vitamin B12 compositions in detail. The egg yolk and white of century eggs (each 100 g wet weight) contained 1.9±0.6 and 0.8±0.3 μg of vitamin B12, respectively. The vitamin B12 compounds purified from the egg yolk and white were identified as vitamin B12 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. The vitamin B12 present in the yolk or white of century eggs was recovered completely in macromolecular fractions, but not in free vitamin B12 fractions by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration. However, with respect to the vitamin B12 bound to protein in the century egg yolk, approximately 52% of the free vitamin B12 was formed during in vitro gastric digestion and no free vitamin B12 was detected in the egg white.

  13. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, A; Aydin, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg(-1), or 20 g kg(-1) marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg(-1) marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg(-1) marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg(-1) or 20 g kg(-1) marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk.

  14. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Altuntaş, A.; Aydin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. PMID:25587451

  15. Human sperm chromosomes obtained from hamster eggs after sperm capacitation in TEST-yolk buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1985-01-01

    Human sperm chromosomes were obtained after capacitation with TES-Tris (TEST) yolk buffer and fusion with Syrian hamster eggs. Semen samples could be stored at 4/sup 0/C for 3 days and remain functional in the assay system. The efficiency of TEST yolk buffer for obtaining karyotypes was as good as, or greater than, the efficiency of standard BWW medium containing human serum albumin. 16 references, 3 tables.

  16. Dialkylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk lecithin for emulsification of various triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Nii, Tomoko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2005-04-10

    Synthesized saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were investigated to explore their influence on particle sizes in emulsions when dispersing various triglycerides (TG). One of four different kinds of synthesized saturated PC (DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC) or three different kinds of EYL (purified EYL (PEL) and hydrogenated purified EYL with two different iodine values (IV), R-20 and R-5), 2.5% (w/w) glycerol solution and one of four kinds of TG (tricaprylin, tricaprin, trilaurin and trimyristin) were sonicated five times for 1 min with intervals of 0.5 min. When using four kinds of synthesized saturated PCs as emulsifiers, the carbon numbers of each PC had a strong correlation with the mean diameters of the emulsion when analyzed with each of the four kinds of TG used in the study (regression function ranged from 0.811 to 0.915). The carbon numbers of the TG had less correlation with the mean diameters than the PC in simple regression analysis (regression function ranged from 0.236 to 0.875). Multiple regression analysis using the carbon numbers both of the PC and TG as independent variables was remarkably significant in the regression function (2.0 x 10(-14)) and all regression coefficients (2.7 x 10(-13), 5.8 x 10(-7) and 1.9 x 10(-9) for PC, TG and intercept, respectively). Among the regression coefficients, the contribution of the carbon number of the PC was the most significant. These results indicated that a multiple regression function should be useful to estimate the mean diameters of emulsion droplets in any combinations of PC and TG used in this study. In the experiments using three kinds of EYL, the mean diameters also tended to increase according to the order of PEL, R-20 and R-5, which corresponds to the order of degrees of saturation (IV = 75, 20 and 2, respectively). The experimental values for EYL were compared with the estimated values calculated by the multiple regression function derived from synthesized PC data using the

  17. Affinity purification of immunoglobulins from chicken egg yolk using a new synthetic ligand.

    PubMed

    Verdoliva, A; Basile, G; Fassina, G

    2000-12-01

    Due to the peculiar composition of the egg yolk and the lack of specific affinity ligands, Y immunoglobulins are normally purified using complex and time consuming procedures involving a combination of precipitation and chromatographic steps first to extract and capture and then to polish IgY. In this study, we have examined the applicability for IgY affinity purification of TG19318, a synthetic ligand for immunoglobulin, obtained from the screening of combinatorial libraries, and already characterized for its capability to purify immunoglobulins of class G, M, E and A. Soluble proteins were separated from the lipidic fraction of egg yolk by the water dilution method and loaded on to TG19318 affinity columns prepared by immobilizing the ligand on the commercially available support Emphaze. In a single chromatographic step TG19318 affinity columns led to an efficient capture of IgY directly from crude samples, and with a purity degree higher than 90%, as determined by densitometric scanning of SDS-PAGE analysis of bound fractions, and with full recovery of antibody activity, as determined by ELISA assay. Higher recovery and purity of IgY was obtained by using loading buffers at pH close to 6.5. Column capacity, determined by applying 4x excess IgY to 1 ml bed volume column, and eluting the retained immunoglobulins, was close to 65 mg of IgY per ml of resin. Chemical and chromatographic stability of TG19318/Emphaze was tested before and after various treatments. The derivatized matrix was found to be very stable, in terms of ligand leakage and maintenance of IgY binding capacity, under conditions of normal column usage, cleaning and storage.

  18. Effectiveness of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against periodontal disease-causing Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    PubMed

    Xu, F X; Xu, Y P; Jin, L J; Liu, H; Wang, L H; You, J S; Li, S Y; Li, X Y

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against periodontal disease-causing Fusobacterium nucleatum. Four White Leghorn hens (120 days old) were immunized with whole Fus. nucleatum cells killed with 1% formaldehyde using three injections provided at 2-week intervals. IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. This IgY was shown to have a purity of 86·8% based on its optical intensity in the stained SDS-PAGE bands. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated a high specificity for the IgY against Fus. nucleatum with a maximum antibody titre of 80 000. The IgY had only weak cross-reactivity with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Solobacterium moorei. Growth and biofilm formation by Fus. nucleatum were inhibited by IgY at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg ml(-1) . Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscope assays revealed a high binding ability of specific IgY, which may explain the in vitro effectiveness of IgY. In an in vivo study, IgY treatment resulted in a marked decrease in alveolar bone loss after Fus. nucleatum infection in a mouse model confirming the effectiveness of IgY against periodontal disease-causing Fus. nucleatum. IgY effectively inhibited growth and biofilm formation by Fus. nucleatum and prevented the progression of periodontal disease by decreasing alveolar bone loss. Specific IgY may have potential for the treatment of periodontal disease. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day(-1) per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not on a dry matter basis. Orange carrot treatment significantly reduced egg mass production, whereas yellow and purple carrot treatments did not differ from the control. Egg and yolk weights of all carrot-supplemented treatments were significantly lower than those of the control, but yolk percentages were similar. Yolk redness increased significantly in the order control < yellow < orange < purple. A similar trend was seen for yolk yellowness, but yellow and orange carrots reached the same level. Yolk colour and carotenoid contents correlated positively and significantly. In particular, purple carrot treatment increased the yolk content of lutein (>1.5-fold) and beta-carotene (>100-fold) compared with the control. Supplementing the feed of egg-laying hens with coloured carrots efficiently increased yolk colour parameters and carotenoid contents, which gives opportunities for improved nutritional value of eggs from forage material-supplemented hens.

  20. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  1. Egg Yolk Factor of Staphylococcus aureus II. Characterization of the Lipase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D. B.; Wilson, J. B.

    1965-01-01

    Shah, D. B. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and J. B. Wilson. Egg yolk factor of Staphylococcus aureus. II. Characterization of the lipase activity. J. Bacteriol. 89:949–953. 1965.—The staphylococcal egg yolk factor was characterized as a lipase. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 7.8, but the optimal pH of stability was 7. Substrate specificity data showed that the relative rate of hydrolysis was lowest with triacetin as substrate, was maximal with tributyrin, and decreased as the chain length of the acyl moieties increased. The enzyme showed an absolute requirement for a fatty acid acceptor like calcium, when the acyl moiety of triglyceride was water-insoluble. Magnesium, strontium, and barium functioned equally well as fatty acid acceptors. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze coconut oil, peanut oil, olive oil, and egg yolk oil. PMID:14276120

  2. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality.

  3. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  4. Dietary Egg Yolk Supplementation Improves Low-Protein-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erami, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yasutake; Kawamura, Sayaka; Miyago, Motonori; Sawazaki, Ai; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO). The low-protein diets were adjusted to contain 4.13% protein and 4.7% lipids. The LP-C diet resulted in a greater increase in the liver trigriceride (TG) and the vacuolation and a greater decrease in the serum TG and free fatty acid (FFA) than did the C diet. These deviations in the serum and liver TG, serum FFA levels and the liver histopathology were corrected in rats fed the LP-EY diet but not in those fed the LP-EYO diet. Compared to rats fed the LP-C diet, although the activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes (fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme) decreased in rats fed both of the LP-EY and LP-EYO diets, the level of the microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) increased only in rats fed the LP-EY diet. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary egg yolk supplementation decreases the LP diet-induced accumulation of TG in the liver by increasing transport of TG in the liver, and egg yolk oil alone is not sufficient enough to bring about these benefits.

  5. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-01-01

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk. PMID:26690134

  6. Production of Egg Yolk Coloring Material by a Fermentation Process1

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Y.; Margalith, P.

    1965-01-01

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was cultivated in a yeast propagator, for the production of biomass and carotenoids. A spray-dried preparation of the yeast was incorporated into the diets of laying chickens for the promotion of egg yolk color. Several aspects of the effect of media on growth and carotenogenesis of pigmented yeast were examined. Addition of 1 to 2% of Rhodotorula yeast to the feeding mixture considerably improved egg yolk color. The possibility of using carotenogenic yeasts as a feed supplement is suggested. PMID:5893694

  7. The effects of biopolymer encapsulation on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-08-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Inactivation kinetics of a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercial liquid egg yolk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to develop a general model of inactivation of salmonellae in commercial liquid egg yolk for temperatures ranging from 58 to 66 deg C by studying the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in liquid egg yolk. Heat-resistant salmonellae (three serovars of Enteritidis [two of p...

  9. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  10. Ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in CEP-2 extender with and without egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Ducha, Nur; Susilawati, T; Aulanni'am; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Pangestu, Mulyoto

    2012-10-15

    Sperm can change physiology and structure during storage in refrigerator temperature or frozen temperature that caused by cold shock or free radical. The aim of this study to evaluate ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in cauda epididymal plasma-based (CEP-2) extender with or without 20% egg yolk concentration at refrigerator temperature. Semen sample collected from three Limousin bull were diluted with CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk and CEP-2 without egg yolk, cooled and stored at 4-5 degrees C during eight days. Sperm ultrastructure were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were assessed on cleavage rate of embryo using in vitro fertilization method. The percentage data were transformed into arcsine before being analysis with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test. The result of study showed morphologically normal sperm after storage in CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk, whereas in CEP-2 without egg yolk morphologically abnormal sperm especially neck was fractured and head was destroyed. Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were significantly higher in CEP-2 extender with egg yolk 20% (74.29 +/- 4.95%; p < 0.05) than without egg yolk (30.00 +/- 12.02%; p < 0.05). Egg yolk 20% in CEP-2 extender protected ultrastructure and fertilizing ability after storage during eight days.

  11. Cryopreservation of rabbit semen using non-permeable cryoprotectants: effectiveness of different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from egg yolk versus egg yolk or sucrose.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Rosato, M P; Manchisi, A

    2014-12-30

    This study was designed to identify the most effective non-permeable cryoprotectant (CPA) for the cryopreservation of rabbit semen by comparing the effects of different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) on post-thaw sperm quality with those of whole egg yolk or sucrose. In a second experiment, the performance of the non-permeable CPAs identified as most effective was assessed in vivo by determining reproductive performances. Pooled semen samples were diluted to a ratio of 1:1 (v:v) in freezing extender (Tris-citrate-glucose and 16% dimethylsulfoxide as permeable CPA) containing as non-permeable CPAs 6, 8, 10 or 15% LDL from egg yolk, 0.1M sucrose, or 15% egg yolk. The semen was loaded in 0.25mL straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. After thawing, we determined sperm motility, viability, osmotic resistance, and acrosome and DNA integrity. Our results clearly revealed a significant effect of LDL concentration on semen quality. Also, at an optimal concentration of 10%, motility and acrosome integrity were improved over the values recorded for egg yolk (P<0.05). Based on the in vitro data, 3 groups of does (n=30 each) were inseminated with fresh semen or semen frozen using sucrose or 10% LDL. Sucrose led to a significantly higher conception rate than LDL and reproductive performance was similar to that observed for fresh semen. Our findings indicate the markedly better performance of sucrose in vivo as a non-permeable CPA for the cryopreservation of rabbit semen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and immunological analysis of hen's egg yolk allergens with a focus on YGP42 (Gal d 6).

    PubMed

    De Silva, Chamika; Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2016-03-01

    Allergy to hen's (Gallus domesticus) egg white is one of the most common forms of food allergy. Allergy to hen's yolk also exists however, to a lesser extent when compared to egg white allergy. Two minor allergens from the hen's egg yolk known as α-livetin (Gal d 5) and YGP42 (Gal d 6) were discovered recently. In this study, we investigated whether sensitization to egg white is associated with reactivity to egg yolk as well. Sera obtained from 25 patients with allergy to egg white were tested for specific IgE binding for egg yolk proteins through western immunoblotting. 36% of patients were found with true IgE-sensitization against egg yolk proteins. It was found that most of the IgE reactive yolk proteins were fragments of major precursor proteins of hen; vitellogenin-1 (VTG-1), vitellogenin-2 (VTG-2) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). The egg yolk allergen Gal d 6 is the C-terminal part of VTG-1 and was found to be allergenic in significant percentage of egg white allergy patients. These results highlight the significance of Gal d 6 as an important allergen of egg yolk. Therefore, the secondary aim of this study involved developing a recombinant version of YGP42 in an Escherichia coli expression system. Recombinant Gal d 6 (rGal d6) was expressed as a fusion peptide with a 6 × His tag and purified using metal chelating resin. The inhibition ELISA results showed that rYGP42 was IgE reactive and was able to inhibit IgE binding to crude egg yolk (CEY) by up to 30%. Traditionally, it was thought that allergy to egg yolk occurred independently from sensitization to egg white. This study underlies the importance of concomitant sensitization to egg yolk proteins in patients allergic to egg white. Evidence reported in this study strongly suggests that egg yolk has potentially undiscovered allergens and therefore warrants further investigation. Furthermore, IgE reactive Gal d 6 presented in this study has the potential to be used in diagnosis and immunotherapy to treat egg

  13. Changes in yolk states of duck egg during long-term brining.

    PubMed

    Lai, K M; Chi, S P; Ko, W C

    1999-02-01

    To elucidate the relationship between shyandan yolk formation and NaCl penetration degree, fresh duck eggs were brined in 26% NaCl and a prolonged brining test was conducted for up to 24 weeks. Shyandan yolk was obtained from brine-cured duck shell eggs in 26% NaCl for 4-6 weeks and subsequently heated at 85 degrees C for 90 min. Though NaCl contents for albumen and yolk increased to 14.8 and 8.9%, respectively, during the prolonged test for up to 24 weeks, the R values (NaCl/water x 100) were similar (increased from 0.6 to 21) throughout the brining process. The oil-off ratio of the yolk increased rapidly from 14 to 50% (0-6 weeks) and gradually decreased during the extended brining. Granulation and gelation of yolk appeared in the different stages of the brining process. This study demonstrates that the formation of shyandan yolk was determined by the degree of NaCl penetration.

  14. Sex-specific effects of maternal immunization on yolk antibody transfer and offspring performance in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Martyka, Rafał; Rutkowska, Joanna; Cichoń, Mariusz

    2011-02-23

    Trans-generational antibody transfer constitutes an important mechanism by which mothers may enhance offspring resistance to pathogens. Thus, differential antibody deposition may potentially allow a female to differentiate offspring performance. Here, we examined whether maternal immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) prior to egg laying affects sex-specific yolk antibody transfer and sex-specific offspring performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We showed that immunized mothers deposit anti-SRBC antibodies into the eggs depending on embryo sex and laying order, and that maternal exposure to SRBC positively affects the body size of female, but not male offspring. This is the first study reporting sex-specific consequences of maternal immunization on offspring performance, and suggests that antibody transfer may constitute an adaptive mechanism of maternal favouritism.

  15. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

  16. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL−1 concentration range with (3.2 ± 0.3) mV/µg.mL−1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL−1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue. PMID:25597820

  17. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  18. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  19. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test...

  20. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test...

  1. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test...

  2. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test...

  3. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... classification U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored under § 146.23(a), § 146.33(a), and § 146.44(a) of this... egg yolk samples being tested to retain the U.S. H5/H7 Avian Influenza Monitored classification, test...

  4. ALLERGY REACTIONS IN PERSONS INOCULATED CUTANEOUSLY WITH LIVE EGG-YOLK TULAREMIA VACCINE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Live egg -yolk tularemia vaccine used cutaneously causes in the human organism the same special intradermal allergy reaction to tularemia as does...tularemia was distinguished by sharpness during the entire period of observations, in the following proportions: during the first month after

  5. Effect of dietary factors on serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sim, J S; Bragg, D B

    1977-09-01

    Effects of dietary lipid factors (saturated and unsaturated oil, cholesterol and plant sterols) on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of the laying hen were investigated. Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens, at thirty weeks of age, were used in two trials by feeding two basal diets containing 8.0% hydrogenated coconut oil or safflower oil, with or without supplemental cholesterol (1.0%), soysterols (2.0%) or combinations of both. Safflower oil, per se, had a superior property to hydrogenated coconut oil in suppressing cholesterol levels, in both serum and egg yolk. Cholesterol supplementation to the safflower oil basal diet resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) elevation of serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, whereas cholesterol in combination with hydrogenated coconut oil did not change the serum level. Cholesterol lowering effect of soysterols was clearly demonstrated in both serum and egg yolk by feeding soysterols alone as well as by feeding soysterols in combination with cholesterol.

  6. Enzymatic enrichment of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine with alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, A; Gładkowski, W; Kiełbowicz, G; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    2009-05-01

    alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) was incorporated at 28% into the sn-1 position of egg-yolk phospatidylcholine using Novozyme 435 in one-step transesterification process. Using phospholipase A(2) in a two-step process gave 25% incorporation of ALA into the sn-2 position.

  7. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Lone, S A; Prasad, J K; Jan, M H; Ghosh, S K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×10(6) sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×10(6) sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%).

  8. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.; Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Jan, M. H.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%). PMID:27397983

  9. Comparison of Biociphos-Plus and TRIS-egg yolk extender for cryopreservation of bull semen.

    PubMed

    Thun, Rico; Hurtado, Maria; Janett, F

    2002-02-01

    For optimizing routine freezing of bull semen, we examined three different cryopreservation methods using either TRIS-egg yolk-citrate extender or Biociphos-Plus. Biociphos-Plus (IMV, France) has been marketed as an extender, in which egg yolk is replaced by a sterile soybean extract to reduce the contamination risk derived from animal borne substances. We used 78 bulls of various breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein, Simmental) between 12 and 23 months of age, and we produced a total of 800-1000 straws (0.25 ml, 20 x 10(6) spermatozoa) from each bull using three different methods. In method A, we used TRIS-egg yolk as extender and packaged at 4 degrees C. In method B, we also used TRIS-egg yolk but packaged at room temperature (RT) between 18 and 22 degrees C. In method C, Biociphos-Plus served as extender and we packaged at RT. We compared methods A, B and C by using post-thaw motility, viability, morphology and osmotic resistance as semen quality parameters. In addition, we recorded 75-day nonreturn rates (NR75) to detect the effect of extenders on fertility. With the exception of primary defects, all laboratory parameters investigated were significantly (P < 0.05) better in methods A (TRIS-egg yolk, 4 degrees C) and B (TRIS-egg yolk, RT), compared to method C (Biociphos-Plus, RT). We recorded no significant difference between methods A and B. We could not verify the differing laboratory results by fertility data (NR75). However, when we analyzed NR75 for a single breed, significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between methods A and B compared to method C in Simmental and Holstein but not in Brown Swiss. We obtained best results in Simmental using method A (69%, n = 3384), while method C (61.4%, n = 763) was superior to methods A (57.6%, n = 698) and B (57.3%, n = 737) in Holstein. After considering various factors like preparation of extender, cost of materials and ambient working temperature, we concluded from our data that bull semen processing using TRIS-egg yolk

  10. Egg yolk fatty acid profile of avian species--influence on human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golzar Adabi, S H; Ahbab, M; Fani, A R; Hajbabaei, A; Ceylan, N; Cooper, R G

    2013-02-01

    Lipids are an important nutritional component of the avian egg. A review of the literature was completed to determine the fatty acid compositions in egg yolk from some avian species. Additionally, the nutritional influence of lipid and lipoprotein content on the plasma of male participants during 30-day feeding was discussed. The ostrich eggs had the highest unsaturated fatty acid and the lowest cholesterol content in relation to other avian species. Ostrich had a higher proportion of 18:3n-3 (p < 0.01) compared with other species. Chicken yolk numerically contained much higher levels of 22:6n-3 than those found in turkeys, quails and geese, but the amount of 22:6n-3 in ostrich egg was lower by comparison with other species (p < 0.01). After the storage of eggs at the room temperature, there was a notable loss of vitamin E (vitE) in the yolks of all species and this decrease was marginal (p < 0.01) in ostrich compared with other species. There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level in all male subjects. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level decreased (p < 0.05) only in men who were fed chicken or ostrich eggs daily. Consumption of different species' eggs had no influence on the total male plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. LDL-C:HDL-C ratio increased (p < 0.05) after goose and turkey egg consumption. Consumption of one egg/month by healthy human subjects had no effect on serum total cholesterol and triglyceride. The LDL-C:HDL-C ratio (which is a strong predictor of coronary heart disease risk) increased, although non-significantly, by consuming chicken, quail and ostrich eggs.

  11. Dynamic predictive model for growth of Salmonella enteritidis in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Gumudavelli, V; Subbiah, J; Thippareddi, H; Velugoti, P R; Froning, G

    2007-09-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contamination of poultry eggs is a major human health concern worldwide. The risk of SE from shell eggs can be significantly reduced through rapid cooling of eggs after they are laid and their storage under safe temperature conditions. Predictive models for the growth of SE in egg yolk under varying ambient temperature conditions (dynamic) were developed. The growth of SE in egg yolk under several isothermal conditions (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 37, 39, 41, and 43 degrees C) was determined. The Baranyi model, a primary model, was fitted with growth data for each temperature and corresponding maximum specific growth rates were estimated. Root mean squared error (RMSE) values were less than 0.44 log10 CFU/g and pseudo-R2 values were greater than 0.98 for the primary model fitting. For developing the secondary model, the estimated maximum specific growth rates were then modeled as a function of temperature using the modified Ratkowsky's equation. The RMSE and pseudo-R2 were 0.05/h and 0.99, respectively. A dynamic model was developed by integrating the primary and secondary models and solving it numerically using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta method to predict the growth of SE in egg yolk under varying temperature conditions. The integrated dynamic model was then validated with 4 temperature profiles (varying) such as linear heating, exponential heating, exponential cooling, and sinusoidal temperatures. The predicted values agreed well with the observed growth data with RMSE values less than 0.29 log10 CFU/g. The developed dynamic model can predict the growth SE in egg yolk under varying temperature profiles.

  12. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis on Egg Yolk Membranes and Penetration into Yolk Contents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prompt refrigeration to limit bacterial multiplication is a critical aspect of efforts to control the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to consumers of contaminated eggs. However, a proposed national S. Enteritidis control program would allow unrefrigerated am...

  13. Effect of egg yolk on the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the ESP II liquid culture system.

    PubMed

    Harris, N Beth; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Payeur, Janet B

    2005-11-01

    Rapid diagnosis of paratuberculosis in infected cattle is important for the successful control of Johne disease within herds. Thus, improving culture methods for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) will aid in the identification of asymptomatic animals. Egg yolk is a component of the media used for growing M. paratuberculosis, but its requirement as a supplement has not been reported. Using the ESP II liquid culture system, 2 different sources and 5 concentrations (3.3%, 1.6%, 0.8%, 0.4%, and 0%) of egg yolk were analyzed. Egg yolk source did not affect either recovery rate or time to detection, but both parameters were significantly improved when the 3.3% egg yolk concentrations (final volume) were used over media containing no egg yolk. This study also assessed the recovery of M. paratuberculosis from fecal samples that were cultured multiple times using Herrold egg yolk agar (HEY). Specimens containing greater than 70 cfu/g feces could routinely be identified as positive for M. paratuberculosis after only 1 culture attempt, whereas specimens with fewer bacteria were only intermittently positive, even after 5 replicate cultures. Therefore, this study indicates that the sensitivity of the Trek Diagnostic ESP II liquid culture system for M. paratuberculosis is affected by egg yolk concentration and that single culture attempts using HEY solid media may not identify specimens containing low numbers of bacteria.

  14. Thermal transitions in the low-density lipoprotein and lipids of the egg yolk of hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Back, J F

    1975-05-22

    1. Differential sanning calorimetry and light-scattering have been used to investigate temperature-dependent transitions in low-density lipoprotein and in lipids from hens' egg yolk. Yolks of different fatty acid composition were obtained by varying the dietary lipid and by adding methyl sterculate to the hen's diet. 2. Lipoprotein solutions in 50 percent glycerol/water gave characteristic melting curves between -25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, and on cooling showed increases in light-scattering between 10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. The temperatures at which major changes occurred depended on the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 3. The thermal transitions in the intact lipoprotein in glycerol solution were reversible, but with marked hysteresis. Lipid extracted from the lipoprotein did not show temperature hystersis but the transition heats and melting curves similar to those of the intact lipoprotein. The results support the hypothesis of a "lipid-core" structure for low-density lipoproteins. 4. Scanning calorimetry of egg-yolk lecithins indicated a strong dependence of transition temperature on water content in the rane 3 percent-20 percent water. A rise in the mid-temperature of the liquid-crystalline to gel transition as the water content is lowered on freezing may be the primary event in the irreversible gelation of egg yolk and aggregation of lipoprotein.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of the two most common ascarids in chickens using plasma or egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Daş, Gürbüz; Hennies, Mark; Sohnrey, Birgit; Rahimian, Shayan; Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Stehr, Manuel; Gauly, Matthias

    2017-04-18

    Classical faecal egg counts (FEC) provide less reliable diagnostic information for nematode infections in chickens. We developed an ELISA based on Ascaridia galli antigens and tested two hypotheses, as follows: (i) IgY antibodies developed against A. galli will also be useful to identify Heterakis gallinarum infections, and (ii) circulating antibodies stored in egg yolks are as good as plasma samples, so a non-invasive diagnosis is possible. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA system with FEC, using both plasma and egg yolks from experimentally infected hens. In addition, naturally infected animals were evaluated to validate the assay. The assay quantified large differences (P < 0.001) in plasma or in egg-yolk IgY concentrations between infected and uninfected animals in two experiments, each performed with either of the nematode species. The assay performed with high accuracy as quantified with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of > 0.90 for both nematodes using either plasma or egg yolks. Sensitivity of the assay was 94 and 93% with plasma and egg yolk samples, respectively, whereas FEC yielded in a sensitivity of 84% in A. galli experiment. Total test accuracy of the assay with plasma samples (AUC = 0.99) tended to be higher (P = 0.0630) than FEC (AUC = 0.92) for A. galli, while the assay with either sample matrix performed similar to FEC (AUC ≥ 0.91) for H. gallinarum. Among the three tests, the FECs correlated better with A. galli burden than the ELISA. Although 90% of naturally infected hens were correctly identified by the ELISA, 45% of the infected hens tested negative with FEC, indicating the validity of the higher test accuracy of the ELISA. Antigens of A. galli can be used successfully to identify H. gallinarum-infected animals, indicating that chickens develop cross-reactive antibodies against the two closely related species. Egg yolks are as informative as plasma

  16. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zahroojian, N; Moravej, H; Shivazad, M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk colour, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet. In total, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them into 5 groups, 32 birds in each. Except for the control group (based on wheat and soyabean meal), the feed for three other groups contained 1·5, 2·0 and 2·5% of Spirulina; while one group contained synthetic pigments (BASF Lucantin® yellow: 30 mg/kg, and BASF Lucantin® red: 35 mg/kg). Egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight and egg yolk colour were determined. A significant increase in egg yolk colour was observed in the treatments that received the Spirulina and synthetic pigment, compared with the control diet. There were no significant differences between the treatments with 2·5% Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk colour. Finally, the results indicated that the diet containing 2·5% Spirulina could be as effective as the diet with synthetic pigment in producing an agreeable egg yolk colour.

  18. Highly sensitive detection of cancer antigen human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 using novel chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yang, Yiheng; Wang, Lifen; Lv, Li; Zhu, Jie; Han, Wenqi; Wang, Enxia; Guo, Xin; Zhen, Yuhong

    2015-05-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker that plays a crucial role in therapeutic decision-making for breast cancer patients. Ensuring the accuracy and reproducibility of HER2 assays by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) requires high sensitive and specific antibodies. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a kind of avian antibody usually isolated from chicken egg yolks. Generation and use of IgY is of increasing interest in a wide variety of applications within the life sciences. In this study, IgY antibodies against two different truncated proteins of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human HER2 were produced, their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Specific IgYs were produced by hens immunized with the ECD proteins of human HER2 in long-standing immunization response and were isolated from yolks with a purity of 90% by water dilution, salt precipitations and ultrafiltration. The anti-HER2 IgYs were analytically validated for specificity by ELISA, western blot, immunocytochemistry and IHC. The IgYs bound desired targets in cells and fixed tissues and showed high affinity to HER2. The results demonstrated the viability of detection of HER2 with IgYs and showed promise for the using of IgYs in strict clinical validation.

  19. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region.

  1. Effect of dietary fiber on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J L

    1978-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and level on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of White Leghorn laying hens. Initially, dietary fiber levels of 2.05, 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79% furnished mainly by sunflower meal were fed to laying hens for 140 days. In the second experiment, alfalfa meal, ground whole oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings was added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet to furnish 2.00% added crude fiber and fed to laying hens for 84 days. Yolk cholesterol decreased 4.39, 10.38, and 13.29% by feeding crude dietary fiber levels of 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79%, respectively, to hens as compared to a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 2.05% crude fiber. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly decreased by feeding alfalfa meal, oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings to laying hens when compared to yolk cholesterol of hens fed the basal diet. The greatest reduction in egg yolk cholesterol was found by feeding either oats or wood shavings. No significant differences were found in plasma cholesterol due to dietary fiber level. Plasma triglycerides decreased and liver cholesterol increased as dietary fiber level increased in diets fed to laying hens. When laying hens were fed alfalfa meal, oats, rice mill feed, or wood shavings, plasma cholesterol significantly decreased. Liver cholesterol increased when hens were fed either alfalfa meal or rice mill feed as the primary fiber source.

  2. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Upadhaya, S. D.; Kim, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) brown layers (40 wks of age) were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP) on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON (basal diet), ii) 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder), and iii) 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder). From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034); however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05). Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively). Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044). Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05). Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. PMID:25656210

  3. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Başaran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Güven, U M; Bayçu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples.

  4. Effect of fructooligosaccharides and antibiotics on laying performance of chickens and cholesterol content of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liu, L; Li, K; Hao, K; Xu, C

    2007-04-01

    1. Nine hundred and sixty 25-week-old Lohmann Brown layers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 216 layers in each group. Layers in group one were fed a control diet, group 2 received the control diet plus 20 mg/kg zinc bacitracin and 4 mg/kg colistinsulfate, and the remaining three groups received control diet plus 2000, or 4000, or 6000 mg/kg fructooligosaccharide (FOS). 2. The results showed improvements in egg production, feed consumption and feed conversion of layers when 2000 mg/kg FOS was added to the diets. 3. The results also showed some additional improvements in the group supplemented with 2000 mg/kg FOS, including increases in egg shell thickness, yolk colour and Haugh unit, and decreases in yolk cholesterol concentration. 4. However, larger (excessive) doses of FOS did not improve the performance of layers.

  5. Evaluation of Shiga toxin 2e-specific chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin: production and neutralization activity.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kohda, Tomoko; Shimizu, Toshiyasu; Tsuji, Takao

    2014-11-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e), a major cause of swine edema disease, was prepared to evaluate its possible clinical applications. The titer of Stx2e-specific IgY in egg yolk derived from three chickens that had been immunized with an Stx2e toxoid increased 2 weeks after primary immunization and remained high until 90 days after this immunization. Anti-Stx2e IgY was found to neutralize the toxicity of Stx2e by reacting with its A and B subunits, indicating that IgY is a cost-effective agent to develop for prophylactic foods or diagnosis kits for edema disease.

  6. The prevention and treatment effects of egg yolk high density lipoprotein on the formation of atherosclerosis plaque in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Shima; Parsaei, Heidar; Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Yazdi, Abbas Tabatabaei; Hadjzadeh, Mosa-Al-Reza; Rajabzadeh, Aliakbar; Malayeri, Sina Omid

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Atherosclerosis is the main leading cause of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential preventive effect of egg yolk HDL on the atherosclerosis plaque formation. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups: A; normal diet, B; hyper-cholesterolemic diet, C; hypercholesterolemic + 400 mg/kg egg yolk HDL D; hypercholesterolemic +100 mg/kg egg yolk HDL and E; 200 mg/kg egg yolk HDL. At the end of the experiment, the lipid profiles were measured by spectrophotometric method. The histological sections of thoracic aorta also were taken and analyzed under light microscope. Results: At the end of the 2nd and the 4th weeks, there was a significant increase of cholesterol level in groups B, C, and D compared to group A (P<0.05). Following HDL treatment, triglyceride (TG) levels increased significantly versus group A and also the TG level decreased significantly in group C, D, and E versus group B (P<0.01). Egg yolk HDL significantly increased HDL-C in groups C, D, and E (P<0.01) compared to groups A and B (P<0.05). The surface area of the atherosclerotic plaque was increased significantly in group B versus group A (P<0.001). Egg yolk HDL consumption reduced the plaque size significantly (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that treatment with egg yolk HDL increased serum HDL-C and decreased atherosclerotic plaque size in rabbits. Thus, egg yolk HDL may be considered as an anti-atherosclerotic treatment for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26019796

  7. Effects of egg yolk and cooling rate on the survival of refrigerated red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santos, M R; Esteso, M C; Soler, A J; Montoro, V; Garde, J J

    2006-04-01

    Egg yolk is a common component to sperm refrigeration for most of the deer species, the role of which is to protect sperm membranes against cold shock. In addition, there have been many studies of conservation of ejaculated semen from stags, but few have been reported for epididymal spermatozoa. This work was designed to investigate the combined effects of cooling rates (slow: 0.23 degrees C/min vs rapid: 4.2 degrees C/min) from room temperature to 5 degrees C, and egg-yolk concentration (0, 5 or 20%) in the extender on the survival of Iberian red deer epididymal spermatozoa refrigerated at 5 degrees C. Heterospermic sperm samples were diluted to a final sperm concentration approximately 400x10(6) sperm/ml with a Tris-citrate-fructose (TCF)-egg-yolk diluent. Sperm quality was in vitro judged by microscopic assessments of individual sperm motility [sperm motility index (SMI)], and of plasma membrane (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and acrosome (NAR) integrities. Our results first showed that the presence of egg yolk in the extender significantly improves (p=0.01) the viability and sperm motility after sperm dilution. In addition, acrosome and plasma membrane integrities post-refrigeration did not differ significantly between cooling procedures; however, the SMI differed significantly between cooling procedures (slow: 46.6% vs rapid: 50.0%; p=0.01). Our results also showed that sperm quality was significantly (p<0.01) affected by the combined effects of egg-yolk concentration and cooling procedure, being rapid cooling with 20% of egg yolk the most suitable combination for epididymal sperm refrigeration. In conclusion, egg-yolk improved red deer epididymal spermatozoa characteristics after dilution. Rapid cooling protocol using TCF with 20% egg-yolk significantly improved sperm motility of red deer epididymal spermatozoa after cooling.

  8. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and β-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequential separation of immunoglobulin Y and phosvitin from chicken egg yolk without using organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Yong; Abeyrathne, E D N S; Choi, Inwook; Suh, Joo Won; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a simple sequential separation protocol to separate phosvitin and IgY from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Egg yolk was diluted with 2 volumes of distilled water (DW), homogenized, and centrifuged. The precipitant was collected and homogenized with 4 volumes of 10% NaCl (wt/vol) in 0.05 N NaOH solution to extract phosvitin. The pH of the homogenate was adjusted to 4.0 and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The supernatant was collected and then heat-treated at 70°C for 30 min and centrifuged to remove impurities. The supernatant containing phosvitin was collected, had salts removed, and was concentrated and then freeze-dried. The supernatant from the centrifugation of diluted egg yolk was diluted again with 3 volumes of DW, and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was concentrated using ultrafiltration and then IgY was precipitated using 20% saturated (NH₄)₂SO₄+ 15% NaCl (wt/vol). The precipitant was collected after centrifugation at 3,400 × g for 30 min at 4°C and dissolved with DW, had salts removed, and then was freeze-dried. The purity of separated phosvitin and IgY was checked using SDS-PAGE and the proteins were verified using Western blotting. The purity of phosvitin and IgY was 97.2 and 98.7%, and the yield was 98.7 and 80.9%, respectively. The ELISA results indicated that the activities of separated IgY and phosvitin were 96.3 and 98.3%, respectively. This study proved that both phosvitin and IgY can be separated in sequence from egg yolk without using an organic solvent. Also, the method is very simple and has a high potential for scale-up processing.

  10. Egg yolk-free Baird-Parker medium for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lachica, R V

    1984-10-01

    A simplified procedure is described for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus. This involves the replacement of egg yolk in the Baird-Parker medium with Tween 80 and MgCl2. These compounds, along with pyruvate, allow the recovery of stressed cells of S. aureus on a medium which contains potassium tellurite, LiCl, and glycine as selective agents. Black colonies are identified as S. aureus by the simplified thermonuclease test.

  11. Egg yolk-free Baird-Parker medium for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Lachica, R V

    1984-01-01

    A simplified procedure is described for the accelerated enumeration of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus. This involves the replacement of egg yolk in the Baird-Parker medium with Tween 80 and MgCl2. These compounds, along with pyruvate, allow the recovery of stressed cells of S. aureus on a medium which contains potassium tellurite, LiCl, and glycine as selective agents. Black colonies are identified as S. aureus by the simplified thermonuclease test. PMID:6542337

  12. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, Ina; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed. The aim of the present study was to isolate volatile flavours from egg yolk after different feeding trials using solvent extraction and thin layer high-vacuum distillation. The resulting aroma extract was analysed by various gas chromatographic techniques. Chickens were either fed with laying meal, laying meal plus cabbage and onion or laying meal plus rapeseed oil or held in free-range. The predominating odour impressions were described as onion-like. Comparing all analytical and sensory data of the flavour extracts, there were minimal differences among the respective samples. Free-range eggs contained fewer volatile compounds than the other samples, whereas rapeseed oil supplementation caused an enrichment of sulfur compounds. While data from gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were less conclusive, the results from sulfur-specific analysis using gas chromatography/flame photometric detection showed a considerable effect. However, because of the low abundance of sulfur compounds in the yolk, these differences are not expected to be perceivable by the consumer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Antioxidants in the egg yolk of a wild passerine: differences between breeding seasons.

    PubMed

    Hargitai, Rita; Matus, Zoltán; Hegyi, Gergely; Michl, Gábor; Tóth, Gyula; Török, János

    2006-02-01

    Carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins play crucial roles in several physiological processes. Yolk carotenoid composition may be influenced by the bird's dietary intake and by the possible discrimination during carotenoid metabolism. Information regarding the pigment composition of passerine eggs is very limited. In the present 2-year study, we determined the carotenoid and vitamin concentrations and the percentage profile of carotenoid components in collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) eggs. The major carotenoid was lutein in both years, followed by cis-lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-carotene as other significant components. Carotenoid concentration was higher in 2000 than in 2001. As caterpillar abundance and ambient temperature was lower in 2001 than in 2000, we suggest that the decreased availability of carotenoid-rich resources and the elevated antioxidant demand of the female restricted the carotenoid allocation to the eggs. Our study is the first to indicate that the concentration and profile of yolk carotenoids may considerably vary in the same wild bird population between breeding seasons with different environmental conditions. Compared to other birds, the yolk of this species was relatively rich in vitamins A and E. Vitamin E concentration was positively correlated with total carotenoid concentration, which may be beneficial for the nestlings as these antioxidants synergistically provide better protection.

  14. Motility and fertility of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using soybean lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate whether soy lecithin can be used as an alternative cryoprotectant to establish a procedure that does not require the use of egg yolk to cryopreserve rabbit strains. Semen from Japanese White rabbits was frozen with HEPES extender containing 20% egg yolk (EYH), 0.5% (Lec-0.5), 1.5% (Lec-1.5), 2.5% (Lec-2.5), or 3.5% (Lec-3.5; wt/vol) lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%), and the motility of thawed sperm was analyzed. The sperm motility in the Lec-1.5 group was significantly higher than that in the Lec-2.5 and 3.5 groups and equivalent to the EYH group. From 17 rounds of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in the EYH and Lec-1.5 groups, 12 rabbits in both groups were pregnant (70.6%) and delivered offspring. The litter size was 3.3 in the EYH group and 5.1 in the Lec-1.5 group. These results indicate that soy lecithin can be used as a substitute for egg yolk as a cryoprotectant on the basis of motility and fertility of the frozen-thawed rabbit sperm and that 1.5% lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%) in the semen extender was the optimum concentration for rabbit sperm cryopreservation.

  15. Effect of egg yolk medium on the acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bielfeld, P; Jeyendran, R S; Holmgren, W J; Zaneveld, L J

    1990-01-01

    Preincubation of human spermatozoa in an egg yolk medium (TESTY) at 5 C, followed by washing at 37 C by centrifugation and resuspension in a standard medium (BWW), enhanced the percentage of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction and increased sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes, as compared with BWW treatment only. The difference in the occurrence of the acrosome reaction between the two treatment protocols was present whether the spermatozoa were incubated for 3 or for 18 h. The increase in acrosome reaction occurred only when spermatozoa were washed after TESTY treatment. Washing at 5 C was not as effective as washing at 37 C. No increased loss of acrosomes was observed when BWW-treated spermatozoa were subjected to the washing procedure. Ionophore A23187 stimulated the acrosome reaction of BWW-treated but not of TESTY-treated spermatozoa, whether or not they were washed before ionophore treatment. In the absence of egg yolk, the medium (TEST) caused only a small enhancement in the acrosome reaction as compared with BWW, but an increase occurred upon addition of ionophore A23187. We conclude that treatment with TESTY enhances the capacitation/acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa and that the removal of egg yolk after incubation, as well as the temperature shock, contribute to this effect.

  16. Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of buffalo bull semen in egg-yolk containing extenders.

    PubMed

    Swelum, A A; Mansour, H A; Elsayed, A A; Amer, H A

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol for ethylene glycol when cryopreserving buffalo semen. Semen of eight buffalo bulls was mixed, pooled, and frozen in one of these four diluents: centrifuged Tris egg yolk glycerol; centrifuged Tris egg yolk ethylene glycol; centrifuged Milk egg yolk glycerol; or centrifuged Milk egg yolk ethylene glycol. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were motility, survivability, livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. Conception rate and pregnancy rate were calculated after insemination of 104 buffaloes by straws of different groups (26 female/extender). Improvement in livability, sperm abnormality, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, conception rate, and pregnancy rate were seen when using ethylene glycol to replace glycerol when freezing buffalo bull semen in centrifuged TRIS egg yolk 61.15 ± 0.73, 24.85 ± 0.41, 69.10 ± 0.81, 71.75 ± 0.72, 46.2%, and 46.2%, respectively, followed by centrifuged milk egg yolk extenders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid-protein globules of avian egg yolk. Isolation and properties of globules stable in concentrated sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed Central

    Vadehra, D V; Bain, J M; Burley, R W

    1977-01-01

    A new type of globular particle, the 'insoluble yolk globule', was isolated from the egg yolk of three avian species (hen, duck, and emu) by centrifugation or gel-filtration chromatography. These globules are stable in NaCl and urea solutions at concentrations that dissolve or disrupt other constituents of yolk, The isolated globules are about 1% of the dry yolk of hen's and duck's eggs but about 8% emu's-egg yolk. Most of these globules are less than 2 micrometer in diameter. Electron micrographs of sections show a preponderance of globules in the range 0.125-0.25 micrometer, each with a thick shell surrounding a feature-less anterior. Globules with the same appearance were seen in sections of unfractionated yolk. Two kinds of larger particles were also observed: (i) particles with a distinct outer membrane and a vesiculated interior; (ii) featureless spheres, possibly of lipid. The insoluble yolk globules comprise protein (8-11% by dry wt.), phospholipid (31-35% total lipid), triacylglycerols (49-53%), cholesterol (8%) and cholesteryl esters (2-3%); the variations being among species. The phospholipid is accessible to phospholipase C. The isolated protein is heterogeneous and resembles the apoprotein from the yolk low-density lipoprotein. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:563717

  18. Lipid-protein globules of avian egg yolk. Isolation and properties of globules stable in concentrated sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Vadehra, D V; Bain, J M; Burley, R W

    1977-09-15

    A new type of globular particle, the 'insoluble yolk globule', was isolated from the egg yolk of three avian species (hen, duck, and emu) by centrifugation or gel-filtration chromatography. These globules are stable in NaCl and urea solutions at concentrations that dissolve or disrupt other constituents of yolk, The isolated globules are about 1% of the dry yolk of hen's and duck's eggs but about 8% emu's-egg yolk. Most of these globules are less than 2 micrometer in diameter. Electron micrographs of sections show a preponderance of globules in the range 0.125-0.25 micrometer, each with a thick shell surrounding a feature-less anterior. Globules with the same appearance were seen in sections of unfractionated yolk. Two kinds of larger particles were also observed: (i) particles with a distinct outer membrane and a vesiculated interior; (ii) featureless spheres, possibly of lipid. The insoluble yolk globules comprise protein (8-11% by dry wt.), phospholipid (31-35% total lipid), triacylglycerols (49-53%), cholesterol (8%) and cholesteryl esters (2-3%); the variations being among species. The phospholipid is accessible to phospholipase C. The isolated protein is heterogeneous and resembles the apoprotein from the yolk low-density lipoprotein.

  19. Quantitative ¹H NMR analysis of egg yolk, alcohol, and total sugar content in egg liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Koospal, Verena; Bauer-Christoph, Claudia; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-04-29

    Analyzing egg liqueurs for compliance with legal requirements means several different time-consuming preparations and analytical processes. In this paper, we describe the approach to use quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an accurate alternative technique. (1)H NMR analysis comprised two different rapid sample preparations for water-soluble or nonpolar ingredients. Fifteen egg liqueurs were analyzed for alcoholic strength and content of total sugar and egg yolk (estimated by cholesterol as a marker substance) with both classical methods and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of both methods showed excellent correlations for alcoholic strength (R = 0.996, p < 0.001) and content of total sugar (R = 0.989, p < 0.001) and cholesterol (R = 0.995, p < 0.001). Besides, NMR spectra revealed further information: a signal of phosphatidylcholine at about δ = 3.20 ppm served as a second marker for the egg yolk content, and characteristic signals of lactose at δ = 4.46 ppm and butyric acid at δ = 0.97 ppm indicated the use of milk products, which has to be declared for lactose-intolerant consumers.

  20. N-Glycosylation profiling of turtle egg yolk: expression of galabiose structure.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yu, Shin-Yi; Takahashi, Noriko; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lee, Yuan Chuan; Kato, Koichi

    2010-02-11

    To understand the roles of species-specific carbohydrates, systematic studies of interspecific glycan analyses are imperative. An extensive series of glycomics studies on approximately 180 kinds of bird eggs have demonstrated that 60-70% of the birds, which are closely related in phylogeny, express the alpha-Galp-(1-->4)-Galp structure on their egg glycoproteins. This prompted us to investigate the glycosylation profiles of eggs from an evolutionarily related organism, a sea turtle (reptilian). We performed N-glycosylation profiling of turtle egg yolk by using HPLC mapping in conjunction with mass spectrometric methods and thereby demonstrated that the alpha-Galp-(1-->4)-Galp groups are displayed on approximately 38% of total N-glycans. Our findings suggest that the ability to express the galabiose structure was acquired at an early stage of diversification in amniotes. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through yolk membranes of eggs from 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guraya, R; Guard, J; Holt, P S

    2010-08-01

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to assess the ability of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to penetrate the vitelline membrane and multiply inside yolks of eggs laid by 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of hens during 24 h of storage at 30 degrees C. Eggs from each line were tested at 4 different hen ages by inoculation of approximately 100 cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks in plastic centrifuge tubes and then adding back the albumen into each tube before incubation. Overall, the frequency of penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis into the yolk contents of eggs from individual lines of hens ranged from 30 to 58% and the mean concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis in yolk contents after incubation ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) cfu/mL. For both of these parameters, values for one hen line were significantly higher than for 2 other lines, but no other differences were observed. Hen age did not have a significant effect on egg yolk penetration by Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that opportunities for the migration and growth of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to attain more dangerous levels inside contaminated eggs during storage at warm temperatures can sometimes vary between different lines of laying hens.

  2. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Chicken Yolk Vitelline Membrane Lipids Using Eggs Enriched With Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O; Proctor, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    The vitelline membrane (VM) encloses the chicken egg yolk, separating it from albumen. The VM weakens during storage, and dietary lipid modification significantly affects its strength. However, no studies have characterize the fatty acyl residue (FA) composition of the VM, and reports of VM isolation and quantified lipid content are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a washing and isolation method that removes residual yolk from VM without damage; (2) to determine the FA and lipid composition of CLA-rich egg yolk VM, relative to controls; (3) to determine the effect of 20 days of refrigeration on VM FA and lipid composition. To determine VM FA and lipid composition, 36 hens received either a corn-soybean meal-based control diet ("Control"), or the Control supplemented with either 10 % soy oil ("Soy control"), or 10 % CLA-rich soy oil ("CLA") for 30 days. VM were analyzed the day of collection ("fresh"), or after 20 days of refrigeration ("refrigerated"). There were no differences in FA compositions of fresh and refrigerated membranes within a treatment. CLA-rich yolk VM contains CLA, greater SFA, and significantly greater DHA relative to controls. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identified 15 phosphatidylcholines, three phosphatidylethanolamines, one sphingomyelin, and 15 triacylglycerols in VM. Lipid species that showed significant differences among egg types included nine phosphatidylcholines and six triacylglycerols. MALDI analysis indicated significant differences in nine lipid classes on the VM inner layer. After refrigeration, five lipid classes on the inner layer and seven lipid classes on the outer layer had statistically significant differences among VM types.

  4. N-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and production of egg yolk powders: an increased risk of lipid oxidation?

    PubMed

    Meynier, A; Leborgne, C; Viau, M; Schuck, P; Guichardant, M; Rannou, C; Anton, M

    2014-06-15

    Lipid oxidation is generally favoured by thermal processing and long-term storage. Oxidised lipids can alter nutritional and sensorial properties of foods. As eggs are widely used in food industries in dried powder form, our aim was to determine whether compositional or processing parameters have an impact on lipid oxidation from the shell eggs up to the dried powders and subsequent storage. Two batches of shell eggs were processed: one issued from hens fed with a standard diet and another receiving a diet enriched in extruded linseed, rich in linolenic acid. The extent of lipid oxidation was evaluated by quantification of conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), but also by assessment of tocopherols, lutein and zeaxanthin losses. Results highlighted the remarkable oxidative stability of control and enriched yolk powders as revealed by a moderate increase of the quantities of CD and MDA, the lack of oxidised cholesterol and small loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of quail and turkey egg yolk for cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Husna, A U; Iqbal, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Egg yolk is used as a cryoprotectant for semen in different mammalian species including buffalo. Egg yolk from different sources may affect freezability of buffalo bull semen. Quail egg yolk (QEY) and turkey egg yolk (TEY) in Tris-citric acid extender was evaluated for post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. Ejaculates were collected on weekly basis from six Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (12 ejaculates/bull) for a period of 6 weeks and diluted at 37 °C with tris-citric egg yolk extender (50 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa mL(-1)) containing different levels of QEY or TEY (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) or 20% chicken egg yolk (CEY; controls) and cryopreserved. Percent post-thaw sperm motility (48.3 ± 3.8), plasma membrane integrity (67.9 ± 5.3), live/dead ratio (68.2 ± 5.0), and viability (50.5 ± 3.7) were recorded higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 5% QEY compared with control. However, TEY at 10% in extender improved (P < 0.05) the post-thaw sperm motility (57.5 ± 5.2), plasma membrane integrity (53.5 ± 4.5), livability (75.3 ± 6.0), and viability (73.5 ± 6.5) compared with higher concentrations of TEY and controls (20% CEY). The chromatin damage (2.0 ± 0.9) and intracellular enzymes, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (24.8 ± 3.5) and lactic dehydrogenase (77.7 ± 4.5), release were lower (P < 0.05) in extender containing 10% TEY compared with the controls. Invivo fertility was compared after artificial insemination with semen from two buffalo bulls that was cryopreserved in extenders containing 5% QEY, 10% TEY, or 20% CEY. A total of 600 inseminations (200 inseminations per extender) were recorded; the overall fertility rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with semen cryopreserved in extender containing 5% QEY (57.5 vs. 42%) and 10% TEY (57.5 vs. 42%). compared with 20% chiken egg yolk. In conclusion, QEY at 5% and TEY at 10% offers advantages over 20% CEY in terms of in vitro post

  6. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thymol detection and quantitation by solid-phase microextraction in faeces and egg yolk of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, María E; Palacio, Marcela A; Labaque, María C

    2017-02-15

    To measure bioavailability of the active ingredients of phytogenic feed additives in poultry products and subproducts is a key element for developing a rational understanding of its mode of action and biological effects. Hence, we validated a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an analytical extraction procedure and as method for detection and quantitation of 2-Isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol) in faeces and egg yolk of quail. The suitability of this method for thymol analysis in both matrices was first proved via linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery using m-cresol as internal standard. The optimal HS-SPME extraction conditions were obtained at 40°C for 5min in faeces and 60°C for 30min in egg yolk. This procedure was found to be precise, sensitive and linear in the range of 2.5-100ng/gr for faeces and 20-800ng/gr for the egg yolk. Limits of detection were 0.5ng/g and 5ng/g for faeces and yolk, respectively, and the limits of quantitation were 1ng/g and 10ng/g for faeces and yolk, respectively. The method was successfully used for measuring thymol in fecal and egg yolk samples, from quails supplemented with thymol in their diets. Thus, in fresh faeces and egg yolk samples obtained from a supplemented group (80mg thymol per bird per day) were determined as 31.51ng/g for faeces and 11.83ng/g for the egg yolk.

  8. Newly Deposited Maternal Hormones can be Detected in the Yolks of Oviductal Eggs in the Green Anole Lizard

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, RACHEL E.; WADE, JULI

    2011-01-01

    Studies often examine egg yolks after oviposition with the goal of drawing conclusions about maternal allocation of gonadal steroid hormones and how it may affect offspring development. However, these hormones might originate from a few sources, including the ovary, blood plasma, or the embryo itself. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maternal steroids can enter oviductal eggs. In Experiment 1, gravid female green anole lizards were injected with 1 μCi 3H-T. Plasma, ovarian follicles (separated into yolking and non-yolking samples), and shelled oviductal eggs were collected at times ranging from 15 min to 24 hr after treatment. Main effects of tissue, time, and an interaction between them all existed on recovered 3H-hormone corrected for tissue mass. Of particular interest, there was a decrease in plasma with coincident increase in eggs. In Experiment 2, females were injected with doses ranging from 0.01 to 0.45 μCi of 3H-T per gram body weight. Across tissues, 3H-hormone levels corrected for mass were greater with increasing doses. Values also differed among tissues and an interaction was detected. Within each dose, plasma and non-yolking follicles generally had higher concentrations of 3H-hormone than did yolking follicles and oviductal eggs. However, at and after 6 hr, eggs had higher total radioactivity levels than both yolking and non-yolking follicles had (not corrected for mass). The results indicate that steroids can cross through relatively well-formed shells before oviposition, suggesting a way in which maternal hormones might influence developmental factors after yolk deposition. PMID:20336789

  9. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Marčeta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. The effects of egg-derived antibodies to glucosyltransferases on dental caries in rats.

    PubMed

    Krüger, C; Pearson, S K; Kodama, Y; Vacca Smith, A; Bowen, W H; Hammarström, L

    2004-01-01

    The role of Streptococcus mutans in the development of dental caries is well recognized. Important virulence factors include the glucosyltransferases (gtf), essential for production of glucans. We evaluated the anticariogenic effects of orally administered chicken anti-cell-associated (CA) Gtf antibodies in desalivated rats. The animals were infected with S. mutans MT8148R and treated with chicken anti-CA-Gtf egg yolk antibodies (IgY) or nonimmune egg yolk powder. Smooth surface lesions were significantly lower in the anti-CA-Gtf-treated group in comparison to the control groups. Sulcal surface caries was also decreased and of less severity. Our study suggests that chicken anti-CA-Gtf antibodies may have promise as a prophylaxis for high caries risk patients. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. The Effect of Modified Eggs and an Egg-Yolk Based Beverage on Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations and Macular Pigment Optical Density: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elton R.; Plat, Jogchum; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Kijlstra, Aize; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%). A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%). No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553 PMID:24675775

  13. Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is presently not sufficient data nor is there a suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating pasteurization guidelines, in part because of the different Salmonella stra...

  14. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is important for reducing egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The nutrient-rich yolk interior is a relatively infrequent location for initial SE deposition in eggs, but migration across the vitelline membrane can ...

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  16. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuelan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Peipei; Shi, Tianhong; Wei, Xiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell. PMID:27383812

  17. The effect of removal of seminal plasma, egg yolk level and season on sperm freezability of canary buck (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, F; González, F; Batista, M; Calero, P; Medrano, A; Gracia, A

    2005-06-01

    Goat semen is different from that of other domestic species in its limited tolerance to the inclusion of egg yolk in the freezing medium, and this tolerance depends on the presence of enzymes in the seminal plasma that react with egg yolk, producing toxic compounds to the spermatozoa. Moreover, the goat is a seasonal breeder that shows variations in semen quality throughout the year, and those variations may affect semen freezability; hence in freezing protocols, for instance, removal of seminal plasma (washing) yields varying results. This work was designed to study this problem in Canary goats: semen from six males was collected in spring, autumn or winter, washed or non-washed, diluted in a freezing extender with 1.5, 6 or 12% egg yolk, frozen, and thawed after 2 days, 2 or 6 months of cryopreservation. The effect of egg yolk concentration in the freezing extender was far more important than the effect of washing or season on sperm cryosurvival. The quality of frozen-thawed semen tended to improve as egg yolk concentration increased regardless of the effects of season, washing or period of cryopreservation. Washing produced a positive effect on frozen-thawed semen collected during spring or autumn, but the difference decreased as the concentration of yolk increased. However, washing produced a negative effect on frozen-thawed semen collected during winter, diluted with either 6 or 12% egg yolk. There was no apparent seasonal effect on gross measures of sperm production but the seasonal effect was ever present and was reinforced by freezing.

  18. Evaluation of duck egg yolk for the cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Salman; Ahmad, Nazir; Najib-ur-Rahman; Jamil-ur-Rahman, Hafez; Younis, Muhammad; Iqbal, Sajid

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate if the substitution of chicken egg yolk (CEY) with duck egg yolk (DEY) in extenders can improve the quality of frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and to study if reducing DEY level in extender affects the freezability results. Thirty semen samples collected from three buffalo bulls were diluted in extenders A, B, C, D and E containing tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, glycerol and antibiotics. Extender A contained 20% CEY (control), while extenders B, C, D and E contained 5, 10, 15 and 20% DEY, respectively. After freezing and storage for 24h in liquid nitrogen, samples were evaluated for post-thaw quality. The post extension sperm motility did not differ between extenders A (control) and E (20% DEY). The same was true for post-thaw percentage of sperm with functional plasma membrane and percentage of sperm with abnormal heads or mid pieces. However, extender E showed higher (P<0.05) values for post-thaw sperm motility, livability and absolute index of livability of spermatozoa at 37 °C compared to extender A. Spermatozoa with abnormal tail were lower (P<0.05) in extender E compared to extender A. Values of these parameters of post-thaw semen quality were highest for extender E containing 20% DEY and decreased significantly with decrease in the concentration of DEY, except sperm abnormalities (head, mid-piece and tail) which increased with decrease in DEY level. These results showed that replacement of 20% CEY with 20% DEY in extenders significantly improved post-thaw sperm motility, livability and absolute index of livability of spermatozoa and reduced tail abnormalities. Reduction in the level of DEY in extenders from 20% adversely affected post-thaw semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Preparation of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk using ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ko, K Y; Ahn, D U

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an economical, simple, and large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk diluted with 9 volumes of cold water was centrifuged after adjusting the pH to 5.0. The supernatant was added with 0.01% charcoal or 0.01% carrageenan and centrifuged at 2,800 x g for 30 min. The supernatant was filtered through a Whatman no. 1 filter paper and then the filtrate was concentrated to 20% original volume using ultrafiltration. The concentrated solution was further purified using either cation exchange chromatography or ammonium sulfate precipitation. For the cation exchange chromatography method, the concentrated sample was loaded onto a column equilibrated with 20 mM citrate-phosphate buffer at pH 4.8 and eluted with 200 mM citrate-phosphate buffer at pH 6.4. For the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, the concentrated sample was twice precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate solution at pH 9.0. The yield and purity of IgY were determined by ELISA and electrophoresis. The yield of IgY from the cation exchange chromatography method was 30 to 40%, whereas that of the ammonium sulfate precipitation was 70 to 80%. The purity of IgY from the ammonium sulfate method was higher than that of the cation exchange chromatography. The cation exchange chromatography could handle only a small amount of samples, whereas the ammonium sulfate precipitation could handle a large volume of samples. This suggests that ammonium sulfate precipitation was a more efficient and useful purification method than cation exchange chromatography for the large-scale preparation of IgY from egg yolk.

  20. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions.

    PubMed

    Bunger, Meike; Quataert, Miriam; Kamps, Lisette; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; Togtema, Arnoud; van Amerongen, Aart; Mensink, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a "plain" control beverage (n = 26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n = 25), a dried version of this beverage (n = 25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n = 24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38 ± 47 nmol/L, +304 ± 113 nmol/L, +148 ± 79 nmol/L and +178 ± 83 nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p < 0.001). No significant change in serum cholesterol level was seen in the beverages containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk compared to the control drink.

  1. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    PubMed

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  2. [Laser Raman and infrared spectrum analysis of low-density lipoproteins purified from hen egg yolk].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui-jun; Sun, Run-guang; Wang, Xiao-mei; Chang, Yi-guang

    2010-11-01

    During the experiment, diversified proteins were separated from hen egg yolk by ammonium sulphate rapid fractionation, and pure LDL was obtained after filtrating through Sephadex G-200 chromatography. After the qualitative detection of SDS-PAGE, the authors discovered that LDL consists of five major apoprotein. The Raman and infrared spectrum showed CH2 asymmetric stretching and symmetric stretching mode. However, the authors found C==O stretching vibrations of protein peptide bonds and N+ (CH3)3 asymmetric stretching vibration from the choline group in phospholipids. Laser Raman and infrared spectrum analysis of LDL provided useful information for studying their structure.

  3. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Yavas, Ilker

    2013-08-01

    Plant-derived lecithin has been used as a more sanitary alternative to avian egg yolk in livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving fish sperm has not previously been tested comparatively. Here various concentrations of soybean lecithin were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose, 10% DMSO, supplemented with different ratios of lecithin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and 10% egg yolk (control I). Negative control was made without egg yolk and soybean lecithin (control II). The pooled semen was diluted separately at ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using egg yolk and soybean-based extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4 °C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1 × 10(5)spermatozoa/egg. Supplementation of 10% lecithin to extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility and duration of motility against freezing damage compared to 15%, 20% and control II groups (p<0.05). Cryopreserved sperm with extender containing 10% lecithin provided a greater result in terms of fertilization success when compared to extenders containing 20% lecithin or control II (p<0.05). It is concluded that the animal protein-free extender containing 10% soybean lecithin has a similar cryoprotective actions with conventional egg yolk-based extender against freezing damages and fertilization. Therefore, soybean lecithin is a suitable alternative to avian egg yolk for the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

  4. The composition of triglycerides from liver, egg yolk and adipose tissue of the laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, D. R.

    1970-01-01

    The composition of the triglycerides of liver, egg yolk and adipose tissue of laying hens fed on a standard diet were investigated by using argentation thin-layer chromatography to separate the triglycerides according to their degree of unsaturation. About 40% of liver triglycerides consisted of one saturated and two monoenoic fatty acids. Triglycerides containing linoleate were more abundant in adipose tissue than in either yolk or liver. Hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase of the tissue triglycerides and fractions obtained from these triglycerides showed that the triglycerides of adipose tissue had a less ordered arrangement of fatty acids at the 2-position than did either yolk or liver triglycerides. The labelling patterns of triglycerides formed in liver slices incubated in the presence of [1-(3)14C]glycerol indicated that triglycerides containing four or more double bonds are formed to a greater extent than are other triglyceride fractions. This is evidence for the concept that the type of triglyceride formed depends on the availability of fatty acids to the liver cells. PMID:5493857

  5. Acclimation to heat during incubation. 2. Embryo composition and residual egg yolk sac fatty acid profiles in chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Bagdatlioglu, N; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Uysal, I; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate embryo composition and changes in egg yolk fatty acid composition during embryonic development as a function of incubation temperature and age of breeders. Eggs obtained from a common breeder stock at 3 ages: 32 (younger), 42 (mid age), and 65 (older) wk were divided into 2 groups and placed into 2 incubators: the control and the second where eggs were heat-acclimated (HA) at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h daily from d 10 to 18 of incubation. Body composition of embryos and chicks were measured on d 14, 18, and at hatch, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of yolk and residual egg yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation and at hatch, respectively. Moisture content of embryos was highest on d 14 and then decreased regardless of parental age and incubation temperature. Moisture content of chicks at hatch from 42- and 65-wk parents were lower than those of chicks from 32-wk parents, whereas the trend in chick fat content was opposite. Incubation temperature had no effect on composition of chicks. Consistently lower cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-eicosapentaenoic (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA; 22:6n-3) and cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic (20:3n-3) fatty acids in the residual yolk sac of chicks than in egg yolks before incubation may have resulted from preferential uptake from the yolk. The DHA content in the residual yolk sac was considerably higher in chicks from older parents incubated at HA, whereas, in contrast, levels of 18:3n-3 were lower. Also, chicks from younger parents in the HA treatment had lower transported 18:3n-3 and higher levels of transported DHA. It may be concluded that this process observed during the high incubation temperature may be related to a protective strategy and thus contributes to postnatal heat adaptation.

  6. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David

    2012-02-29

    Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials.

  7. Effects of dietary red pepper on egg yolk colour and histological intestinal morphology in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lokaewmanee, K; Yamauchi, K; Okuda, N

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of three kinds of red pepper supplementation 'Kagawa Hontaka' produced at Shiwaku Islands (KHS), Miki (KHM) and Takanotsume (TKT) on production performance, egg quality and intestinal histology in laying hens. A total of 32 laying hens (39 weeks of age) were randomly allotted to four groups, each comprising eight hens. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with red pepper at 0% (control), 0.5% KHS, 0.5% KHM and 0.5% TKT, respectively. Compared with the control group, no significant difference (p > 0.05) in feed consumption, final body weight, hen-day production, egg mass, feed efficiency, shell-breaking strength, shell thickness, shell ratio, albumen ratio, yolk ratio and Haugh units was observed among the experimental groups. Roche yolk colour fan (RYCF) value increased significantly in all experimental groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the KHS and KHM groups showed higher RYCF values than the TKT group (p < 0.05). Spectrophotometric measurements of yolk colour, redness (a*) and yellow index (YI) values were higher in the KHS and KHM groups (p < 0.0001). The yellowness (b*) value was lower in the TKT group (p < 0.05). The lightness (L*) value was lower in the KHS and KHM groups (p < 0.05). Villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments tended to be higher in all experimental groups. Jejunal cell area and cell mitosis were higher in experimental groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The cells on the villus tip surface were protuberated in all experimental groups. In conclusion, the KHS, KHM and TKT groups showed hypertrophied intestinal villi and epithelial cell functions. These results indicate that dietary red pepper has stimulating effect on intestinal villi and the structure of epithelial cells, and the 0.5% KHS and KHM groups improved in egg yolk colour. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    PubMed

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively.

  9. Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brulc, Lučka; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Glavnik, Vesna

    2013-11-29

    An isocratic HPLC method was developed for the determination of eight xanthophylls (lutein, capsanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal, ethyl-8'-apo-β-carotene-8'-oate, citranaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin; registered as additives in poultry feeding) in egg yolks. Optimum separation of all-E-isomers of these xanthophylls was achieved in less than 18min on a ProntoSIL C30 column at 27°C using acetone-methanol-0.5M triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 14:5:1 (v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1mL/min using spectrophotometric detection at 450nm. Other mobile phases were also found suitable, including acetone-water 93:7 (v/v) and acetone-methanol 1:4 (v/v) and the influences of column temperature on the separation and addition of triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 to the mobile phase on enhancement of the peak areas were evaluated. Preparation of test solution from yolks included a short vortexing of 0.5g of yolk in 10mL of acetone, followed by 15min magnetic stirring under nitrogen and centrifugation. The method was validated for 5 analytes. The calibration range was between 0.04 and 2μg/mL and the mean recovery of the analytes (95%) and the intra-day precision of the method (RSD less than 5%) on three levels in triplicates were obtained. Analyses of eggs from four husbandry classes showed the presence of up to four xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and ethyl-8'-apo-β-carotene-8'-oate) and traces of β-cryptoxanthin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  11. Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-02-01

    An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (α-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 µg/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 µg/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 µg/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown.

  12. Loss of egg yolk genes in mammals and the origin of lactation and placentation.

    PubMed

    Brawand, David; Wahli, Walter; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2008-03-18

    Embryonic development in nonmammalian vertebrates depends entirely on nutritional reserves that are predominantly derived from vitellogenin proteins and stored in egg yolk. Mammals have evolved new resources, such as lactation and placentation, to nourish their developing and early offspring. However, the evolutionary timing and molecular events associated with this major phenotypic transition are not known. By means of sensitive comparative genomics analyses and evolutionary simulations, we here show that the three ancestral vitellogenin-encoding genes were progressively lost during mammalian evolution (until around 30-70 million years ago, Mya) in all but the egg-laying monotremes, which have retained a functional vitellogenin gene. Our analyses also provide evidence that the major milk resource genes, caseins, which have similar functional properties as vitellogenins, appeared in the common mammalian ancestor approximately 200-310 Mya. Together, our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the emergence of lactation in the common mammalian ancestor and the development of placentation in eutherian and marsupial mammals allowed for the gradual loss of yolk-dependent nourishment during mammalian evolution.

  13. Arsanilic acid modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for Purification of alkaline phosphatase from hen's egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Farzi-Khajeh, Hamed; Safa, Kazem D; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies of magnetic carrier technology have focused on its applications in separation and purification technologies, due to easy separation of the target from the reaction medium by applying an external magnetic field. In the present study, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles were prepared to utilize a chemical co-precipitation method, then the surfaces of the nanoparticles were modified with arsanilic acid derivatives which were used as the specific nanocarriers for the affinity purification of alkaline phosphatase from the hen's egg yolk. The six different types of magnetic nanocarriers with varied lengths of the linkers were obtained. All samples were characterized step by step and validated using FTIR, SEM, EDX, VSM and XRD analysis methods As the results were shown, the use of inflexible tags with long linkers on the surface of the nanocarrier could lead to better results for separation of alkaline phosphatase from the hen's egg yolk with 76.2% recovery and 1361.7-fold purification. The molecular weight of the purified alkaline phosphatase was estimated to be 68kDa by SDS-PAGE. The results of this study showed that the novel magnetic nanocarriers were capable of purifying alkaline phosphatase in a practically time and cost effective way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and molecular characterisation of a biotin-binding protein distinct from avidin of chicken egg white and comparison with yolk biotin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, P B; Adiga, P R

    1987-12-07

    By immunological and biochemical methods a biotin-binding protein, distinct from avidin, has been shown to be present in chicken egg white. This vitamin-binding protein (Mr 67,000) bound [14C]biotin, displayed thermally induced biotin exchange reaction and exhibited gross immunological cross-reactivity with the purified yolk biotin-binding protein. In vitro labelling of soluble proteins with radioactive amino acids in the oviduct tissue explants from estrogenised chicks revealed that approx. 2% of the total radioactive proteins was immunoprecipitated with anti-yolk biotin-binding protein antibodies. The protein could be purified to homogeneity by employing ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and biotin-AH Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified protein specifically bound [14C]biotin, and exhibited complete immunological homology with the yolk biotin-binding protein but not with avidin. Its electrophoretic mobility (at pH 8.3), acidic nature, biotin-binding characteristics, immunological cross-reactivity and tryptic peptide maps were very similar to that of yolk biotin-binding protein, and not avidin.

  15. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z

    2012-10-15

    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to <5% at 72 h (P < 0.001), but addition of 5 mM CaCl(2) to BD failed to induce sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P < 0.05), partially restored by addition of 5 mM CaCl2 (70%; P < 0.05), but the calcium effect was neutralized by addition of 5 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid (1.7%; P < 0.05), again implicating calcium. Addition of 30 μM of a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89) to an agglutinating diluent failed to inhibit sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head

  16. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5°C.

    PubMed

    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 °C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 °C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 °C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 °C and 5 °C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 °C and 5 °C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 °C (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was an increase in total morphologic abnormalities in sperm from egg yolk fed boars compared to controls at week 10 (p <  .001). In conclusion, the results of this study do not support a significant benefit to sperm quality or resistance to cold storage when feeding a 10-week dietary supplementation of 0.11 Kg powdered egg yolk to crossbred boars.

  17. Delivery of recombinant vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 gD and Babesia bovis MSA-2c to mice using liposomes derived from egg yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Anabel E; Zamorano, Patricia; Wilkowsky, Silvina; Torrá, Florencia; Ferreri, Lucas; Dominguez, Mariana; Florin-Christensen, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    Liposomes prepared from total egg yolk lipid extracts were used to deliver experimental DNA vaccines to mice consisting of pCI-neo plasmids encoding bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) gD or Babesia bovis MSA-2c. A significantly higher proportion of mice in the B. bovis MSA-2c group, but not those in the BoHV-1 gD group, developed detectable immunoglobulin G responses when vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA in comparison with mice vaccinated with naked DNA. In both groups, antibody titres were similar between mice vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA and naked DNA.

  18. Influencing emulsifying properties of egg yolk by enzymatic modification with phospholipase D. Part 2: structural changes of egg yolk due to incubation.

    PubMed

    Buxmann, Waldemar; Bindrich, Ute; Strijowski, Ulf; Heinz, Volker; Knorr, Dietrich; Franke, Knut

    2010-03-01

    The effects of a direct incubation of egg yolk (EY) by phospholipase D (PLD) with respect to EY structure and interface properties of oil-in-water (o/w)-emulsions prepared with this EY were investigated. PLD incubation of EY mainly converts phosphatidylcholine into phosphatidic acid (PA). EY structures were characterised using circular dichroism and scanning electron microscopy. Composition (protein and phospholipid contents), charge, and appearance of interfaces in EY stabilised o/w-emulsions were described, too. The improved emulsifying activity of EY after PLD incubation could be attributed both to a higher interface activity of the PA itself and to modified interactions of protein and phospholipids in EY. PA possesses a negative charge resulting in droplet interfaces with higher charge. This effect increased repulsion forces between droplets compared to application of EY without PLD incubation. A higher portion of alpha-helix structures could be detected in the PLD-incubated EY enabling a higher flexibility of proteins on droplet surfaces. Additionally, a better preservation of EY protein structures during heat treatment due to the presence of PA enabled a higher thermal stability of such emulsions.

  19. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carotenoid concentration in egg yolks depending on the feeding and housing conditions of the laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Fluhr, Joachim W; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2012-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements are suited to analyze the concentration of carotenoid antioxidants in biological samples. Previously, it has been shown that the carotenoid concentration of nutritional egg yolks has a direct influence on the carotenoid content of human skin in vivo. In the present study, resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the carotenoid concentration in the yolks of hen eggs, which were housed in battery cages or alternatively on free-range grassland. The egg yolks of hens, which had access to grassland, contained approximately double the amount of carotenoid concentration than the egg yolks of hens housed in battery cages (p < 0.001). The kinetics of the carotenoid concentration in the egg yolks, depending on fodder, housing and weather conditions, were investigated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  1. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. PMID:26083113

  2. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    PubMed

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-12-10

    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P < 0.0001). Yolk retinol concentrations (mean: 14.4 ± 3.42 nmol/g) were similar among groups and decreased with time (P < 0.0001). Hens fed orange maize had higher liver retinol (0.53 ± 0.20 μmol/g liver) than other groups (P < 0.0001). β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  3. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  4. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  5. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L

    1998-11-01

    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  6. Purification of biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk and comparison with avidin.

    PubMed

    Murthy, C V; Adiga, P R

    1984-05-17

    A simple alternative procedure for the purification in higher yields of the biotin-binding protein from the chicken egg yolk in a ligand-free form is described. The isolated protein was homogeneous by the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, immuno-double diffusion and immuno-electrophoresis. The protein had an Mr of 72 000 +/- 2000 and was a homotetramer of subunit Mr of 18 000 +/- 1000. It bound [14C]biotin in the molar ratio of 1:4 with an association constant (Ka) of 0.58 X 10(12) M-1. The yolk biotin-binding protein and avidin exhibited qualitatively similar spectral changes on interaction with biotin and p- hydroxyazobenzoic acid, but quantitatively these changes were more pronounced with avidin. Despite the lack of gross immunological cross-reactivity between the two biotin-binders, evidence based on immunological techniques for some degree of common conformational characteristics restricted to or around the ligand-binding sites of the two proteins was adduced. The mixed subunits of the two proteins failed to form hetero-oligomers on reconstitution.

  7. Preparation of asparagine-linked monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharide from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Seko, Akira; Takeda, Yoichi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-06-26

    Monoglucosylated high-mannose-type glycan (Glc1Man9GlcNAc2: G1M9) is well-known as a key glycoform in the glycoprotein folding process, which is specifically recognized by lectin chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this work, we developed an efficient method for the preparation of G1M9-Asn. The G1M9-Asn was obtained from the IgY-rich fraction derived from hen egg yolk by the digestion with pronase. The α-amino group of asparagine in G1M9-Asn was protected with the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group and the labeled glycans were subsequently purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This method will provide useful substrates for analysis of the glycoprotein folding cycle in the ER. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of supplementing layer diets with shark cartilage or chitosan on egg components and yolk lipids.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C M; Zapata, J F F; Fuentes, M F F; Freitas, E R; Craveiro, A A; Aguiar, C M

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the addition of shark cartilage (SC) or chitosan (CH) to layer diets on egg component weights, yolk lipids and hen plasma lipids. 2. Hy-Line laying hens (80) were used during a 56 d feeding trial. Treatments were: basal diet (BD), BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC, BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH. Eggs were analysed on d 14, 28, 42 and 56. 3. Egg weight and egg component weights were not affected by these treatments throughout the experimental period. 4. After 14d of experimental feeding, cholesterol levels were higher in eggs from birds given BD + 20 g/kg CH and BD + 30 g/kg CH than in those from birds given BD. 5. Furthermore, eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC or BD + 20 g/kg CH were higher in palmitic and stearic acids and lower in oleic acid than those from birds fed on BD. After 56 d feeding, however, palmitic and stearic acid contents in eggs from hens given any of the supplemented diets were lower than in those from hens given BD, and oleic acid in eggs from hens given BD + 20 g/kg SC, BD + 30 g/kg SC and BD + 30 g/kg CH was higher than in those from birds fed on BD. 6. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. 7. Shark cartilage or chitosan at up to 30 g/kg in layer diets did not affect egg component weights (yolk, white and shell) and total lipid contents. During the period from 42 to 56d of experimental feeding, diets containing up to 30 g/kg chitosan reduced egg yolk contents of cholesterol, palmitic and stearic acids and increased the content of oleic acid.

  9. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  10. Suppressive effect of functional drinking yogurt containing specific egg yolk immunoglobulin on Helicobacter pylori in humans.

    PubMed

    Horie, K; Horie, N; Abdou, A M; Yang, J-O; Yun, S-S; Chun, H-N; Park, C-K; Kim, M; Hatta, H

    2004-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen that infects over 50% of the population worldwide. It is the most important etiologic agent of gastroduodenal ulcers and malignancies. Helicobacter pylori urease enzyme is considered the main factor for the organism's colonization in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Hens immunized with the purified urease produce a highly specific anti-H. pylori urease immunoglobulin (IgY-urease) in their egg yolks. Immunoglobulin Y-urease was stable at 60 to 65 degrees C for 30 min and at pH 4.0 for 7 h. Its activity was lost at 80 degrees C for 20 min and at pH 2 for 4 h. Specially designed functional drinking yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. with 1% egg yolk IgY-urease was produced commercially. Immunoglobulin Y-urease activity showed stability in the product up to 7 d, and then decreased to 85% after 3 wk of storage. A clinical study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of IgY-urease yogurt to suppress infection in humans. Forty-two volunteers who tested positive for H. pylori using a 13C-urea breath test were recruited. A total of 450 mL of IgY-urease (test group) or IgY-urease-free yogurt (control group) was consumed in 150-mL portions 3 times daily for 4 wk. Volunteers were tested after 2 and 4 wk; urea breath test values significantly decreased in the test group compared with the control group. The results indicate that suppression of H. pylori infection in humans could be achieved by consumption of drinking yogurt fortified with IgY-urease.

  11. Cryopreservation of canine sperm using egg yolk and soy bean based extenders.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Calabuig, María Jesús; Maillo, Verónica; Beltrán-Breña, Paula; de la Fuente Martínez, Julio; Galera-Carrillo, Silvestre; Pérez-Gutiérrez, José Félix; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín

    2017-09-01

    Animal protein-based extenders are widely used despite being a potential source of bacterial or mycoplasma contamination. Its replacement with vegetal protein-based extenders could represent an interesting alternative for dog sperm cryopreservation. This technique could be further improved by the addition of Tris-Glucose-Citric acid (TGC) that could physically protect the spermatozoa and improve its homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a cryopreservation protocol for dog spermatozoa using a soybean-based extender (LP1(℗)) as well as the effects of the addition of (TGC) immediately after the semen collection. Eleven ejaculates from purebred adult dogs were collected, centrifuged in the absence or presence of TGC and processed as fresh or cryopreserved spermatozoa with: egg yolk-based extender (CaniPRO) or LP1(℗). Freezing the spermatozoa in LP1(℗) reduced the amplitude of the lateral head displacement, the percentage of spermatozoa that showed the intact acrosome and the mitochondrial function (P<0.05). These samples also showed a trend towards increased percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa (P<0.05). The addition of TGC before centrifugation did not improve the seminal parameters and adversely affected motility (P<0.05) in the spermatozoa cryopreserved in CaniPRO. However, TGC did not affect motility and increased (P<0.05) the percentage of intact acrosomes in the spermatozoa cryopreserved in LP1(℗), reaching similar values than those cryopreserved in CaniPRO. In conclusion, LP1(®) plus TGC provide the same level of protection to dog spermatozoa cryopreservation than the egg yolk based extender CaniPRO when comparing standard post-thaw sperm quality parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  12. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana)

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.; Daniels, Harry V.; Reading, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  13. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M.; Hermes, James C.

    2017-01-01

    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet). Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01) and response to cooking (p < 0.01), while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05) in control eggs (34.1 g) than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g) or oat-wheat (31.2 g) diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are

  14. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Louisa R; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M; Hermes, James C

    2017-01-01

    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg(-1) in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet). Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01) and response to cooking (p < 0.01), while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05) in control eggs (34.1 g) than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g) or oat-wheat (31.2 g) diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are

  15. Identification of phospholipids classes and molecular species in different types of egg yolk by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdelmoneim H; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Jian; Abed, Sherif M; Yao, Yunping; Tao, Guanjun; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2017-04-15

    Egg phospholipids (PLs) are currently the products of greatest commercial interest with major area of importance in various fields. Therefore, in this study, duck, hen and quail egg yolk PLs were isolated by solvent extraction with chilled acetone precipitation, and subsequently separated and identified by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Egg PLs were separated on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) column by gradient elution using acetonitrile/ammonium formate as a mobile phase, and detected by mass spectrometry (MS) under electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion mode. Structural characterizations of 57 molecular species of egg yolk PLs were identified based on MS/MS fragment ion information and elemental composition in MassLynx 4.1 software. The obtained results showed that phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1), phosphatidylethanolamine (18:0-20:4), phosphatidylinositol (18:0-18:2), phosphatidylserine (18:0-18:2), sphingomyelin (d18:1/16:0) and lysophosphatidylcholine (16:0) were the predominant species among the different classes of egg yolk phospholipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  17. [Separation and identification of red pigments in natural red yolk of duck's eggs by HPLC-MS-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangzhong; Zhang, Min; Peng, Guanghua; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shenghua

    2004-05-01

    The natural red yolk of duck's eggs is produced by the laying duck in the lake areas in southward of China. In the laying duck breeding areas such as Honghu, Jianli, Xiantao, Tianmen and Hanchuan citys in Hubei Province, the culturists are used to feeding fresh pondweeds to the laying ducks. The yolk of duck's eggs is natural red with the chrominance reaching up to and/or above RCF (Roche Yolk Color Fan) 15. The red pigment components of natural red yolk of duck's eggs were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and high resolution electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Four isomers of red pigments were separated by HPLC on a RP-C18 column with methanol-water (99.5:0.5, v/v) as mobile phase. The lambda(max) of the four components were 482, 488, 496, 501 nm, respectively, and all of them were single peak on chromatogram. They had the same molecular mass (Mr = 562), and had the same fragment peaks of MS2 with rhodoxanthin. The molecular formula of red pigments was determined as C40H50O2 by high resolution EI-MS. The results indicate that the red pigment is rhodoxanthin, and they are all cis-isomers of rhodoxanthin.

  18. Effects of dietary fats on egg quality and lipid parameters in serum and yolks of Shan Partridge Duck.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Liu, Yali; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun; Zeng, Tao; Tian, Yong; Xu, Xiaoqin; Shen, Jianliang; Niu, Dong; Lu, Yingru

    2017-05-01

    The effects of different dietary fats with variable levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on egg quality of Shan Partridge Duck, serum, and yolk lipid parameters were examined in this study. A flock of 585 optimal produced ducks were selected and diets enriched with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% fish oil (F)/flaxseed oil (FL)/rapeseed oil (R)/tallow (T) plus basal diet were supplied through a 28-d period. Supplemental fat source and fat level had no effects on egg qualities. Proportions of yolk total cholesterol (TC), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were reduced (P < 0.001), while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs), ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA), and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) were increased by fish oil, flaxseed oil, or rapeseed oil. Effects of supplementation increasing DHA and EPA were detected in F, FL, and R. Compared with C, fish oil significantly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum, flaxseed oil significantly reduced TC and increased very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), rapeseed oil significantly reduced TC and LDL-C in serum and increased VLDL-C, tallow significantly increased LDL-C. It is concluded that unsaturated fatty acids rich diets (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and rapeseed oil) might increase yolk PUFAs, reduce yolk cholesterol, and change serum lipid parameters without evident effect on egg qualities. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Modeling the thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg in 10 percent salted liquid egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Jones, Deana R; Bailey, Rebecca R; Bauer, Nathan E

    2011-06-01

    There is no suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pasteurization guidelines. This is because, in part, of the variations in Salmonella strains and the changes in the processing of liquid egg products over the past 40 years. The objectives of the present study were to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics and to create a general thermal inactivation kinetics model that can be used for estimating log reductions of salmonellae in 10% salted liquid egg yolk for temperatures between 62.2 and 69°C. This model can be used by processors to help ensure adequate pasteurization. This was accomplished by studying the inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg, inoculated into commercially processed 10% salted liquid egg yolk. The survival curves were convex, with asymptotic D-values. From these curves, a general model was developed to predict log reductions for given times at specified temperatures. For example, at a temperature of 67.3°C (153.1°F) for 3.5 min, our model predicts a 5-log reduction would be obtained, whereas with the current USDA minimum required pasteurization regimen (63.33°C [146°F] for 3.5 min), our model predicts that a reduction of only 2.7 log would be obtained. The results of this study provide information that can be used by processors to aid in producing safe, pasteurized egg yolk products, and for satisfying USDA pasteurization performance standards and developing industry guidance.

  20. Oral peptide specific egg antibody to intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter-2b is effective at altering phosphate transport in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Hellestad, Erica M; Sand, Jordan M; Piccione, Michelle L; Bishop, Jeff W; Helvig, Christian; Petkovich, Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Hyperimmunized hens are an effective means of generating large quantities of antigen specific egg antibodies that have use as oral supplements. In this study, we attempted to create a peptide specific antibody that produced outcomes similar to those of the human pharmaceutical, sevelamer HCl, used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (a sequela of chronic renal disease). Egg antibodies were generated against 8 different human intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b) peptides, and hNaPi2b peptide egg antibodies were screened for their ability to inhibit phosphate transport in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Antibody produced against human peptide sequence TSPSLCWT (anti-h16) was specific for its peptide sequence, and significantly reduced phosphate transport in human Caco-2 cells to 25.3±11.5% of control nonspecific antibody, when compared to nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of phosphate transport (P≤0.05). Antibody was then produced against the mouse-specific peptide h16 counterpart (mouse sequence TSPSYCWT, anti-m16) for further analysis in a murine model. When anti-m16 was fed to mice (1% of diet as dried egg yolk powder), egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was detected using immunohistochemical staining in mouse ileum, and egg anti-m16 IgY colocalized with a commercial goat anti-NaPi2b antibody. The effectiveness of anti-m16 egg antibody in reducing serum phosphate, when compared to sevelamer HCl, was determined in a mouse feeding study. Serum phosphate was reduced 18% (P<0.02) in mice fed anti-m16 (1% as dried egg yolk powder) and 30% (P<0.0001) in mice fed sevelamer HCl (1% of diet) when compared to mice fed nonspecific egg immunoglobulin. The methods described and the findings reported show that oral egg antibodies are useful and easy to prepare reagents for the study and possible treatment of select diseases.

  1. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro V.; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-01-01

    Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae – the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease – and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin. PMID:26230630

  2. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro V; Freitak, Dalial

    2015-07-01

    Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin.

  3. Changes in the protein secondary structure of hen's egg yolk determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy during the first eight days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Sabrina; Drotleff, Astrid M; Ternes, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, incubation-induced alterations in the protein secondary structures of egg yolk and its major fractions (granules, plasma, and low-density lipoproteins [LDL]) were monitored during the first 8 d of embryogenesis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Two factors potentially connected with egg yolk protein secondary structure changes were evaluated, i.e., the pH value of incubated egg yolk, and phosvitin, an important egg yolk protein assumed to play an important role in hematopoiesis as the iron carrier during early embryogenesis. However, neither the significant increase in pH value (6.07 to 6.92) of egg yolk during incubation of fertilized eggs, nor the release of iron from phosvitin were found to be directly related to the changes in protein secondary structure in egg yolk and its fractions. FTIR showed that the protein conformation in whole egg yolk, granules, and LDL was stable during incubation, but separate evaluation of the plasma fraction revealed considerable changes in secondary structure. However, it is unlikely that these changes were provoked by structure changes of the proteins originally present in plasma; instead, the physiological influx of albumen into the yolk sac was expected to play an important role in the protein modifications of egg yolk, as was shown both by FTIR and IEF of the water-soluble egg yolk proteins. Moreover, FTIR was used to determine the naturally occurring proportions (%) of the secondary structure elements in egg yolk and its 3 fractions on d 0 of incubation. The granules fraction mainly consisted of a mixture of inter- and intramolecular β-sheets (57.04%±0.39%). The plasma fraction was found to consist mainly of α-helices (43.23%±0.27%), whereas LDL was composed almost exclusively of intramolecular β-sheets (67.36%±0.56%) or β-turns, or both. On the other hand, whole egg yolk was mainly composed of intermolecular β-sheets (39.77%±0.48%), potentially

  4. Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets.

    PubMed

    Suma, N; Reddy, B S Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R G; Prabhu, T M; Kumar, C Basavanta; Suresh, B N; Shilpa, V T

    2015-02-01

    Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  6. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    PubMed Central

    Suma, N.; Reddy, B. S. Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R. G.; Prabhu, T. M.; Kumar, C. Basavanta; Suresh, B. N.; Shilpa, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics. PMID:27047079

  7. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  8. Egg yolk IgY against RHDV capsid protein VP60 promotes rabbit defense against RHDV infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Zai Xin; Hu, Wei Dong; Li, Bing Chao; Li, Tian You; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Zhi

    2014-01-15

    VP60 capsid protein is the major structural and immunogenicity protein of RHDV (Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, RHDV), and has been implicated as a main protein antigen in RHDV diagnosis and vaccine design. In this report, egg yolk antibody (IgY) against N-terminal of VP60 was evaluated and developed as a new strategy for RHDV therapy. Briefly, N-terminal of VP60 (∼250aa) fragment was cloned and inserted into pET28a expression vector, and then the resultant plasmid, pET28a/VP60-N, was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for recombinant VP60-N protein (rVP60-N) expression. Next, the rVP60-N was purified by Ni(+)-affinity purification chromatography and identified by Western blotting with RHDV antiserum. After immunizing the chickens with rVP60-N, the anti-rVP60-N IgY was isolated, and the activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. In our results, the rVP60-N could be expressed in E. coli as soluble fraction, and the isolated anti-rVP60-N IgY demonstrated a high specificity and titer (1:22,000) against rVP60-N antigen. For further evaluation of the IgY efficacy in vivo, rabbits were grouped randomly and challenged with RHDV, and the results showed that anti-rVP60-N IgY could significantly protect rabbits from virus infection and promote the host survival after a sustained treatment with anti-rVP60-N IgY for 5 days. Taken together, our study demonstrates evidence that production of IgY against VP60 could be as a novel strategy for the RHDV therapy.

  9. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  10. β-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases β-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-02-01

    The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-β-cryptoxanthin, high-β-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-β-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased β-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-β-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-β-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-β-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted.

  11. The separation of lipoproteins from egg yolk and their effect on the motility and integrity of bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, J A

    1977-03-01

    Lipoproteins were separated by centrifugation and column chromatography and included in citrate-based semen diluents. One lipoprotein fraction was particularly effective in preventing injury to bovine spermatozoa during dilution and freezing and thawing when assessed using motility and release of hyaluronidase as criteria of cell damage. Radioactive labelling of egg-yolk lipids demonstrated that egg-yolk components remained associated with spermatozoa even after extensive washing to remove diluent. The patterns of labelling of lipids extracte from the washed spermatozoa did not indicate that particular lipids became associated with spermatozoa. Increases in the specific radioactivity of lipid extracts from washed spermatozoa lent support to the contention that lipoproteins become firmly bound to the cells.

  12. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period.

  13. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiao-Xiang; Rodenburg, Sarah E; Hill, Dana; Vandevoort, Catherine A

    2011-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

  15. Radiometric method for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in egg-yolk-enriched BACTEC 12A medium

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, C.L.; Smithwick, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide in egg-yolk-enriched 12A medium (pH 5.5) is described. We obtained 100% agreement between the 7H10 agar method with 25 microgram of pyrazinamide per ml and the modified radiometric method with a drug concentration of 50 microgram/ml in tests of 90 clinical isolates.

  16. Antibodies from Chicken Eggs as Probes for Antigens from Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Charnecki, J.; Preston, J. F.; Dickson, D. W.; Rice, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The bacteria Pasteuria spp. have been identified as among the most promising of several microbial organisms currently under investigation as biological control agents of plant-parasitic nematodes. As part of our goal to develop methods to discriminate isolates of Pasteuria penetrans with different host preferences, we investigated the potential of developing antibody probes to identify endospores of different isolates of P. penetrans. Polyclonal IgY antibodies were raised in chickens against endospores of P. penetrans isolates P20 and P100. Hens were injected with P20 or P100 endospore suspensions and boosted at 14 days. Anti-spore titers were determined with ELISA on yolk extracts of individual eggs as a function of time. The highest titers were found in eggs produced at 22 to 35 days after initial injections. Yolk extracts showing the highest titers were combined and processed to provide partially purified IgY preparations. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses identified protein antigens with Mr values of 23-24, 46, and 57-59 KDa common to both P20 and P100 endospores. One protein antigen with an Mr value of 62 KDa was unique to the PI00 endospores. The IgY antibodies reduced the attachment of Pasteuria endospores to their nematode hosts, indicating antibody interaction with antigens on the endospore surface that are involved in the recognition and attachment processes. PMID:19274158

  17. Effect of incorporation of additives in tris-based egg yolk extender on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm tyrosine phosphorylation during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2012-06-01

    Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm protein is a known indicator of capacitation and a major intracellular signalling event. There is evidence that sperm cryopreservation promotes tyrosine phosphorylation and is associated with reduced fertility of spermatozoa. Under this study, cryoprotective role of different additives namely taurine, trehalose, catalase and 4-bromophenacyl bromide on buffalo sperm quality was evaluated. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender supplemented with additives like taurine (50 mm) or trehalose (100 mm) or 4-bromophenacyl bromide (200 μm) or catalase (100 U/ml) and used for assessment of levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The results obtained were compared with the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of semen cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender without additives. Proteins were extracted from a total number of nine ejaculates from three individual buffalo bulls chosen at random and analysed for tyrosine phospho-proteins using SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting. Monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody (Clone pT-154) was used as primary antibody followed by treatment with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. Signals were detected on X-ray film using chemiluminescence. Nine proteins (p20, p30, p32, p38, p49, p56, p59, p72 and p86) were found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in cryopreserved spermatozoa. Supplementation of additives significantly (p<0.05) reduced the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. Moreover, this study showed improved (p<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of these additives. The results obtained clearly indicate reduced level of capacitation like changes on supplementation of additives in terms of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  18. Protein components of very low density lipoproteins from hen's egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, G; Marklung, S E; Olivecrona, T

    1977-09-15

    Egg yolk lipoproteins of very low density were found to contain proteins with cofactor activity for lipoprotein lipase. When delipidated very low density lipoproteins were dissolved in 10 mM HCl and fractionated by gel filtration about two thirds of the protein were in several components with estimated molecular weights of 60000 to more than 170000. The major low-molecular-weight proteins were the dimeric and monomeric forms of a previously characterized 9000-dalton peptide. The cofactor activity was not associated with any of these major proteins. A large-scale fractionation method was developed by which two proteins fractions with cofactor activity for lipoprotein lipase were purified more than thousand-fold. One fraction had a molecular size of about 9000 daltons and the other had a size of about 5000 daltons. Both these fractions could be further separated on the basis of charge into several fractions with cofactor activity. The cofactor proteins were relatively soluble both at high and at low pH. The retained their cofactor activity after denaturation in guanidinium hydrochloride and after reduction. During the initial steps in the purification of the cofactor proteins another low-molecular-weight protein followed the cofactors. It had a single 17500-dalton peptide chain and was present in four variants, three of which contained carbohydrate.

  19. Study on a novel process for the separation of phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Su, Yujie; Tian, Ying; Yan, Ruhui; Wang, Chenying; Niu, Fuge; Yang, Yanjun

    2015-07-01

    A novel process for effective separation of phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol from fresh egg yolk has been developed and validated in this study. Ethanol was the only organic solvent used in the whole procedure. Following initial separation of protein and total lipids by ethanol, most of solidified triacylglycerol was removed from total lipids by low temperature treatment of ethanol extracts within 10 h. Then, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was used to remove cholesterol from the remaining ethanol extracts and recycling of β-CD was also studied to obtain cholesterol and reusable β-CD powder. The highest cholesterol removal rate of nearly 99 % was obtained at β-CD: cholesterol molar ratio of 5:1, water addition of 15 g/g β-CD and reacting temperature of 50 °C. Ethanol in residual ethanol extracts was removed for obtaining phospholipids by rotary evaporation. The phospholipids produced in this procedure without cholesterol could be safety used as emulsifiers in food or cosmetic industry.

  20. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the CO and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CO groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  1. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but α-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E

  2. Isolation, purification and characterization of the egg-yolk proteins from the oocytes of the indian freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Sehgal, N; Rani, K V; Aggarwal, N

    2013-06-01

    In oviparous organisms, yolk accumulation in the oocytes is critical and indispensable for the development of the newly hatched young ones. In fish and many other oviparous vertebrates, the major constituents of the egg-yolk are synthesized as a precursor in the liver. The precursor is transported to the oocyte for uptake and cleaved into major yolk proteins lipovitellin, phosvitin and beta'-components. The eggs of Channa punctatus are pelagic, have large oil globule and exceptionally high lipid content. Lipovitellin was isolated by single step gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose 6B. Purified native lipovitellin showed immunological reactivity with vitellogenin antiserum. Phosvitin isolated by phenol extraction method could not be visualized with routine protein staining methods, whereas incorporation of trivalent ions in the coomassie brilliant blue stained phosvitin. It was characterized by in vivo labeling of egg-yolk proteins with 32P. The molecular mass of murrel phosvitin was less than 14,000 kDa.

  3. Maternal steroids in egg yolk as a pathway to translate predation risk to offspring: experiments with great tits.

    PubMed

    Coslovsky, Michael; Groothuis, Ton; de Vries, Bonnie; Richner, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    Exposure of mothers to risk of predation can induce phenotypic changes in offspring as shown in several species. We previously found that cross-fostered great tit (Parus major) chicks of females exposed to increased predation risk were smaller and lighter, but had faster wing growth than control cross-fostered chicks, possibly improving predator-escaping abilities. Here we examined the possible role of maternal steroids deposited in eggs as an underlying mechanism. We collected eggs from female great tits under either experimentally increased predation risk (PRED) or control treatments (CON) and analyzed the concentration of testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone in the yolks. PRED eggs contained lower levels of testosterone than CON eggs, but levels of androstenedione and progesterone did not differ. The smaller size and mass of chicks found in the previous study may thus be explained by the lower testosterone concentrations, since yolk testosterone is known to boost growth and development. Alternatively, testosterone may act as a modulator of differential investment into morphological traits, rather than a simple growth enhancer, explaining lower body mass in conjunction with the accelerated wing growth. This could possibly occur concurrently with other hormones such as corticosterone.

  4. Comparison of different glycerol and egg yolk concentrations added to tris-based extender for the collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen freezing.

    PubMed

    Alves, H M; Oliveira, I R S; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Souza, A L P; Moreira, M A P; de Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate various concentrations of egg yolk (5, 10, or 20%) in combination with different concentrations of glycerol (3% or 6%) added to a Tris-based extender on the post-thaw characteristics of sperm obtained from Tayassu tajacu. For this purpose, semen from 10 sexually male mature collared peccaries was collected by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigour, viability, morphology and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were initially extended in Tris-fructose plus egg yolk (5%, 10% or 20%). After cooling, the semen was added to Tris-egg yolk plus glycerol (6% or 12%), resulting in a final concentration of 3% or 6% glycerol of the extender. Straws were frozen using liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. The frozen-thawed semen was evaluated as reported for fresh semen. After thawing, a significant decrease was verified for sperm motility and vigour, for all the samples in comparison with fresh semen. However, no differences were evidenced among treatments for any sperm characteristics evaluated (p > 0.05), except for the combination between 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, which provided the worst preservation of functional membrane integrity (p < 0.05). The interactions between higher concentrations of egg yolk (20%) and glycerol (6%) and also between lower concentrations of the same substances (5% egg yolk and 3% glycerol) added to the Tris-based extender negatively affected the preservation of the normal sperm morphology after thawing (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of Tris-based extender added to 10% or 20% egg yolk plus 3% glycerol is recommended for effective sperm cryopreservation in collared peccaries. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Bioavailability of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles relative to lutein in corn gluten meal based on lutein retention in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Seong; Kim, Jong Woong; Lee, Dong Gu; Lee, Sanghyun; Kil, Dong Yong

    2016-08-01

    Dietary lutein and its food sources have gained great attention due to its health-promoting effects on humans, especially for certain eye diseases. However, relative bioavailability (RBV) of lutein among lutein-rich feed ingredients that lead to lutein-enriched egg production has not been determined. Thus, the RBV of lutein in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared to lutein in corn gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated based on lutein retention in egg yolk. Increasing inclusion levels of DDGS or CGM in diets increased (linear, P < 0.01) Roche colour score and lutein concentrations of egg yolk without affecting laying performance. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the bioavailability of lutein in DDGS was less (P < 0.05) than that of lutein in CGM, with the RBV of lutein in DDGS being 61.6% when the bioavailability of lutein in CGM was assumed to be 100% for lutein retention in egg yolk. The results of the present experiment indicate that the DDGS can be a potential ingredient for laying hens to improve egg yolk colour and lutein concentrations of egg yolk although lutein in DDGS is less bioavailable than lutein in CGM. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2017-10-06

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Identification of the amino acid residues involved in human IgG transport into egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bae, Hae-Duck; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko; Murai, Atsushi

    2010-04-01

    In avian species, maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is selectively incorporated into the yolks of maturing oocytes, although the relevance of receptor-mediated uptake is unclear. When administered to birds, several mammalian Igs, including human IgG (hIgG), are also incorporated into the yolks. In the current study, to gain insight into selective Ig transport into yolks, we intended to identify the amino acid residues critical for Ig uptake into egg yolks using alanine and glycine-scanning mutagenesis of 16 residues located along the C(H)2 and C(H)3 domains of hIgG1. Wild-type hIgG1-Fc (WT) and its mutants were synthesized, and their uptakes into the egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were determined. The triple mutation of loop MIS252-254 to GGG resulted in a 40% decrease in Fc uptake in comparison to that of the WT. Furthermore, quartet substitution of HEAL429-432 to GGGG located in an exposed loop at the C(H)3 domain completely abolished Fc uptake into egg yolks. Next, the residues HEAL429-432 were individually substituted with either alanine or glycine. Regardless of the glycine and alanine substitution, single mutations of H (429), E (430) and L (432) significantly reduced Fc uptake compared with WT uptake. Notably, the blood clearance rates of these mutants were equivalent to that of the WT. These results suggest that the clustered residues HEAL429-432 in the C(H)3 domain are important for the hIgG1 transport into the egg yolks. The sequence HEAL is conserved in chicken IgY at positions 550-553 within the C(H)4 domain, which might be involved in its uptake into the egg yolks by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chicken egg antibodies for immunohistochemical labeling of growth hormone and prolactin in bovine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Erhard, M H; Schams, D; Hafner, A; Folger, S; Lösch, U

    1993-09-01

    We describe the production of polyclonal chicken antibodies specific for bovine growth hormone (bGH) and prolactin (PRL). Antibodies were generated by immunization of laying hens with recombinant bGH (rbGH), pituitary derived bGH (pbGH), and ovine PRL (oPRL). After the lipoprotein fraction was removed by dextran sulfate precipitation the antibodies were isolated from the egg yolks by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Immunization with rbGH and oPRL generated large amounts of specific antibodies, as revealed by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Antibodies against pbGH showed pronounced crossreactions with oPRL. The antibodies against rbGH and oPRL were well suited for sensitive and specific labeling of the GH- and PRL-synthesizing cells in bovine pituitary glands by immunohistochemistry. In addition, a quick and sensitive procedure for demonstration of both bGH- and PRL-synthesizing cells in a single paraffin section by double immunohistochemistry is presented. The chicken anti-bGH antibodies showed excellent results in combination with rabbit anti-PRL antibodies. The main advantage of avian antibodies in double immunostaining methods is the lack of crossreactions between avian antibodies and mammalian immunoglobulins and receptors which bind to the crystalline fragment of mammalian immunoglobulins (Fc receptors).

  9. Effect of yellow lupine (L. luteus) on the egg yolk fatty acid profile, the physicochemical and sensory properties of eggs, and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena; Przywitowski, Marcin; Mikulski, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary inclusion of raw yellow lupine seed meal (YLM) on laying hen performance, the fatty acid (FA) profile, physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs. A total of 224 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 32 wk age were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for 16 wk. The control diet contained soybean meal (SBM), and in study diets SBM was replaced with YLM at 100, 200, or 300 g/kg. In comparison with soybean, lupine seeds had a higher content of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) (29.5 vs. 14.0 and 8.56 vs. 5.91% DM). The dietary 300 g/kg lupine seeds increased the content of NSP and RFO in the ration, from 9.34 to 13.39 and 1.36 to 2.54%, respectively. The YLM inclusion level had no adverse effect on laying performance, including feed intake, FCR, egg production, and egg weight. The final BW of hens fed lupine-based diets were significantly higher compared with the control (P=0.039). Throughout the study, dietary treatments had no effect on eggshell and albumen quality. An increase in the inclusion rate of YLM was followed by a linear increase (P<0.001) in yolk color intensity. Dietary treatments had no influence on the aroma, taste, and texture of eggs evaluated in laying hens at 46 wk age. The inclusion of lupine seeds in experimental diets caused a linear increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content and the n-6/n-3 ratio (all P<0.001), but it had no influence on the atherogenic and the thrombogenic indices of egg yolk lipids. The results of this study indicate that YLM can be included at 300 g/kg in layer diets as a partial substitute for soybean meal without compromising laying performance, the physicochemical, and sensory properties of eggs.

  10. Conception rates in ewes after AI with ram semen preserved in milk-egg yolk extenders supplemented with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Muzante, J; Fierro, S; Gil, J

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed at comparing the effect of ram semen preserved at 5 °C on two milk-based extenders (UHT skim milk or INRA-96(®) , 5% egg yolk) supplemented with 2% glycerol, and the preservation time (24 and 48 h) on conception rates after cervical AI of ewes. In two field trials, 1198 Merino ewes were cervical AI in spontaneous oestrus. In Experiment 1, pooled semen (6 rams) was extended in UHT-base (fresh, control) or chilled for 24 h in UHT5Y (UHT-base 5% egg yolk), INRA5Y (INRA-96(®) 5% egg yolk), UHT5Y2G (UHT5Y 2% glycerol) or INRA5Y2G (INRA5Y 2% glycerol). In Experiment 2, AI was performed with pooled semen (7 rams) used fresh (extended in UHT-base or UHT5Y2G, control groups) or chilled (extended in UHT5Y2G) for 24 or 48 h. Conception rate was determined by ultrasound 40 days after AI. INRA-96(®) - had similar conception as UHT-preserved semen (56.7 vs 55.4%, p>0.05). Addition of 2% glycerol did not modify the results (56.8 vs 55.2%, p>0.05). Fresh semen extended in UHT-base, and UHT5Y2G yielded similar conception rates (60 vs 64%, p>0.05). Preservation for 24 or 48 h in UHT5Y2G gave similar results (49 vs 47%; p>0.05). In conclusion, ram semen chilled for 24 h in UHT- or INRA-96(®) -based extenders yielded similar results, and glycerol addition did not have a detrimental effect. UHT5Y2G might be used to extend ram semen for fresh AI, or to preserve it for 24 or 48 h with acceptable results.

  11. Anti-obesity activity of hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk, a novel pancreatic lipase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is completely no report about both hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) and its anti-obesity action. Thus, we tried to isolate and characterize a novel anti-lipase immunoglobulin from hen egg yolk. Moreover, we investigated whether hen egg yolk anti-lipase IgY inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and examined its ability to prevent obesity in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Methods We determined the inhibitory action of Anti-lipase IgY on lipase activity in vitro. We also focused our evaluation on the anti-obesity properties of Anti-lipase IgY in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Results Anti-lipase IgY blocked porcine lipase activity with an IC50 of 0.49 μM. Supplementing the high fat diet with only 0.2% (w/w) of Anti-lipase IgY for 35 days significantly decreased the weights of intraperitoneal adipose tissues, epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues, and the amounts of hepatic total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fecal excretion of triglyceride in the absence of diarrhea. Furthermore, Anti-lipase IgY treatment restored body weight gain to levels similar to mice fed with Control IgY. Conclusions This study provides the first report of the development of anti-lipase IgY and the direct evidence that inhibition of pancreatic lipase using Anti-lipase IgY is an effective anti-obesity treatment due to the associated increase in fecal excretion of triglyceride. PMID:24321125

  12. Cryopreservation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) semen using soybean-, liposome-, and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jamie L; Shipley, Clifford F; Katich, Ashley Seder; Po, Eleonora; Ellerbrock, Robyn E; Lima, Fabio S; Canisso, Igor F

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the use of soybean-based (Andromed), liposome-based (Optixcell), and egg yolk-based (Ovine Red, Triladyl, and Biladyl) extenders for cryopreservation of white-tailed deer semen. In experiment 1, ejaculates obtained from six bucks were aliquoted into the following extenders: Andromed, Ovine Red, Triladyl, and Biladyl (containing 4%, 6%, or 8% of glycerol). In experiment 2, ejaculates obtained from eight bucks were divided amongst Andromed, Ovine Red, and Optixcell extenders. Total and progressive sperm motility were assessed for each sample before and after cryopreservation using a computer-automated semen analyzer. In experiment 2, flow cytometry was used for post-thaw assessment of sperm viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI), and chromatin stability (acridine orange). In experiment 1, both Andromed and Ovine Red extenders exhibited higher post-thaw total motility than Biladyl containing 4% or 6% of glycerol (p<0.05). Andromed also produced higher progressive motility than all other extenders (p<0.01) before and after cryopreservation with no differences amongst the other extenders (p≥0.11). In experiment 2, there were no differences in total and progressive motility between Andromed, Ovine Red, or Optixcell extenders (p≥0.39). Additionally, there were no differences in sperm viability (p=0.18), acrosome integrity in viable sperm (p≥0.10), or DNA fragmentation index (p=0.15). These results demonstrated that soybean (Andromed) and liposome-based (Optixcell) extenders are equally as effective at cryopreserving white-tailed semen as egg yolk-based Ovine Red extender, but are superior to egg yolk-based Biladyl or Triladyl extenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Preparation and immunological evaluation of oral solution of egg yolk-derived hepatitis B virus-specific transfer factor].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Xuejun; Xie, Daze; Dai, Ge; Yang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    To prepare the oral solution of egg yolk hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific transfer factor (EYHBV-TF) and evaluate its immunological activity as an immune regulator against hepatitis B. From hens immunized with the Hepatitis B vaccine the egg yolk was isolated to extract the specific transfer factor EYHBV-TF, and its physicochemical properties were examined. Leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAI) was performed to detect the immunogenic activity of EYHBV-TF. The solution of EYHBV-TF was then administered orally in normal mice, and the specific cellular immune activity induced was assayed with delayed type skin hypersensitivity test (DTH), with the non-specific immune activity assessed with immune organ index. The immune responses induced by oral EYHBV-STF solution were compared with those by EYHBV-STF injection and by different dosages (injection and oral) of porcine spleen HBV-specific transfer factor (PSHBV-STF), porcine spleen nonspecific transfer factor, and egg yolk extracts from non-immunized hens. The prepared EYHBV-STF oral solution, which met the standards for biological products, could inhibit leukocyte adhesion in vitro and significantly enhance mouse foot pad swelling, demonstrating its capability of transferring antigen-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to naive recipient. EYHBV-STF oral solution also significantly improved the immune organ index in mice (P<0 01) with similar effects to those caused by EYHBV-STF injections and by PSHBV-STF injection and oral solution. Orally administered EYHBV-STF and EYHBV-STF injection both possess hepatitis B antigen-specific cellular immune activity and can significantly enhance specific cellular immune responses.

  14. Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 mediate inhibition of egg yolk-induced gall bladder emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, P; Singh, V; Cashen, D E; Yang, L; Berk, S; Pasternak, A; Xiong, Y; Shen, D-M; Hutchins, S M; Chapman, K; Wiedenmann, B; Schaeffer, J M; Strowski, M Z

    2010-02-01

    Somatostatin inhibits gall bladder contraction. Impaired gall bladder emptying is associated with gall bladder stone formation. The incidence of cholecystolithiasis is high in patients treated with a somatostatin agonist octreotide, which predominantly interacts with somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2). Therefore, it is believed that SSTR2 regulates gall bladder contraction; however, evidence has not been provided. Here, we evaluate the effects of SSTR1-SSTR5-selective agonists on egg yolk-induced gall bladder contraction in mice. Homozygous deletion of SSTR2 and SSTR5 was generated by cross-mating of SSTR2(-/-) with SSTR5(-/-) mice. Mice of different genotypes were injected with SSTR1-5-selective agonists or octreotide 15 min before induction of gall bladder emptying by egg yolk. One hour later, gall bladders were removed and weighed. Egg yolk-reduced gall bladder weights in all mice, irrespective of their genotype. Octreotide was the most potent inhibitor of gall bladder emptying in wild-type mice. In contrast, agonists with high selectivity for SSTR2 or SSTR5 inhibited gall bladder emptying by approximately 50-60%, whereas SSTR1-, SSTR3- and SSTR4-selective agonists failed to influence gall bladder contraction. In SSTR2(-/-) mice, octreotide and an SSTR5-selective agonist inhibited gall bladder emptying by approximately 50%, whereas SSTR2-selective agonists were inactive. Octreotide inhibited gall bladder emptying in SSTR5(-/-) mice by approximately 50%, without any effect in SSTR2(-/-)/SSTR5(-/-) mice. Our study provides evidence for the role of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in regulating gall bladder emptying in mice.

  15. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-07

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  16. Natural, but not lyophilized, low density lypoproteins were an acceptable alternative to egg yolk for cryopreservation of ram semen.

    PubMed

    Moustacas, V S; Zaffalon, F G; Lagares, M A; Loaiza-Eccheverri, A M; Varago, F C; Neves, M M; Heneine, L G D; Arruda, R P; Henry, M

    2011-01-15

    The objective was to evaluate the suitability of using natural or lyophilized low density lipoproteins (LDL), in lieu of whole egg yolk, in extenders for cryopreserving ram semen. Once extragonadal sperm reserves were depleted in 10 fertile Santa Inês cross rams, two ejaculates per ram were collected for cryopreservation. Nine extenders were used: Tris-16% egg yolk extender with 5% glycerol as a control (T1), and substitution of whole egg yolk with 8, 12, 16 or 20% natural LDL (T2-T5, respectively), or with 8, 12, 16, or 20% lyophilized LDL (T6-T9). Semen was diluted to 100 × 10(6) sperm/mL, packaged into 0.25 mL straws, cooled, held at 5 °C for 3 h, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Immediately after thawing (37 °C for 30 s), sperm total and progressive motility, and kinetic parameters were analyzed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Percentage of sperm with plasma membrane functional integrity was assessed by the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm membrane physical integrity with propidium iodide (PI), and acrosome integrity with FITC-PSA using an epifluorescent microscope. For all sperm end points, there was no difference between the control and natural LDL treatments (P > 0.05): total motility (T1: 20.9 ± 11.9 and average of T2-T5: 25.9 ± 13.6%; mean ± SD), progressive motility (T1: 6.6 ± 4.2 and average of T2-T5: 11.7 ± 7.5%), HOST(+) (T1: 23.7 ± 6.9 and average of T2-T5: 23.2 ± 8.7 %) and PI(-)/PSA(-) (T1: 13.8 ± 7.8 and average of T2-T5: 18.1 ± 7.8%). However, lyophilization was apparently unable to preserve the protective function of LDL; every sperm end point was significantly worse than in the control and natural LDL groups. We concluded that natural LDL was appropriate for cryopreserving ram semen, as it yielded results similar to those obtained with whole egg yolk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of egg yolk and nitroglycerin ointment as treatments for acute anal fissures: A randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Masoumeh; Salari, Roshanak; Dadgarmoghadam, Maliheh; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Hosseini, Mousalreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute anal fissure as a common disease in society has several etiologies and manifestations such as severe anal pain and bleeding. Nitroglycerin ointment 0.2% is the most common topical treatment used. The most common side effect of nitroglycerin is headache, which is annoying for patients and often leads to discontinuation of the drug. Objective Comparison of egg yolk as a natural substance with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and minimal side effects with nitroglycerin ointment in the treatment of acute anal fissure. Methods This randomized clinical trial was carried out during a 10-day period in the Gastroenterology clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran (year 2015). 126 patients who filled the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Nitroglycerin ointment (0.2%) was applied by patients in the first group, twice daily for 10 days. For the second group, one egg yolk once a day was administered rectally up to 10 days. The pain and bleeding severity were recorded every two days up to 10 days after finishing the treatment course, based on visual scale Results The results showed that egg yolk caused a significant reduction in pain and bleeding compared with nitroglycerin (p<0.05). At the beginning of the study, the difference in pain intensity between the two groups was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.25). However, it became significant in the following days. Changes in the frequency of rectorrhagia were also significant in both groups, showing a major decrease in the number of rectorrhagia cases (p<0.001). Conclusion Egg yolk is more efficient than nitroglycerin in the treatment of acute anal fissure. In addition, lack of any side effects results in the completion of the treatment course by the patients. Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015050718915N3. Funding This work was supported by a

  18. Efficacy of egg yolk and nitroglycerin ointment as treatments for acute anal fissures: A randomized clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Salari, Masoumeh; Salari, Roshanak; Dadgarmoghadam, Maliheh; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Hosseini, Mousalreza

    2016-10-01

    Acute anal fissure as a common disease in society has several etiologies and manifestations such as severe anal pain and bleeding. Nitroglycerin ointment 0.2% is the most common topical treatment used. The most common side effect of nitroglycerin is headache, which is annoying for patients and often leads to discontinuation of the drug. Comparison of egg yolk as a natural substance with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and minimal side effects with nitroglycerin ointment in the treatment of acute anal fissure. This randomized clinical trial was carried out during a 10-day period in the Gastroenterology clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran (year 2015). 126 patients who filled the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Nitroglycerin ointment (0.2%) was applied by patients in the first group, twice daily for 10 days. For the second group, one egg yolk once a day was administered rectally up to 10 days. The pain and bleeding severity were recorded every two days up to 10 days after finishing the treatment course, based on visual scale. The results showed that egg yolk caused a significant reduction in pain and bleeding compared with nitroglycerin (p<0.05). At the beginning of the study, the difference in pain intensity between the two groups was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.25). However, it became significant in the following days. Changes in the frequency of rectorrhagia were also significant in both groups, showing a major decrease in the number of rectorrhagia cases (p<0.001). Egg yolk is more efficient than nitroglycerin in the treatment of acute anal fissure. In addition, lack of any side effects results in the completion of the treatment course by the patients. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015050718915N3. This work was supported by a grant from the Vice Chancellor of Research of Mashhad University of Medical

  19. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p < 0.05) egg production. Quality criteria of egg for except shell breaking strength were not affected by supplementing cerium oxide. In particular, supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg cerium oxide to the laying hens feed led to a significant (p < 0. 01) increase in egg shell breaking strength. Calcium and phosphorus concentration of serum increased significantly (p < 0.05) with supplementation of 100 mg/kg cerium oxide to laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives.

  20. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best.

  1. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Commercially-Processed Liquid Egg Yolk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 regulates egg products through the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) by mandating minimum thermal pasteurization requirements for specified egg products. These standards were based on data for the inactivation of Salmonella in liquid egg products...

  2. Egg yolk enhances early sporulation and toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus H5a5b for small-scale production of a mosquito control agent.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, L

    2008-10-01

    Bacillus sphaericus has been widely used in mosquito control programs, but the production of this bacterium is a little tricky as it does not utilize carbohydrates and requires proteinaceous substrates, which are expensive. In this study, we developed a cost-effective medium that resulted in a lower cost and shorter fermentation time. The locally available raw material, egg yolk was used and the level of sporulation, toxicity and biomass were compared with the conventional medium. Use of the egg yolk culture medium significantly shortened fermentation time to 15 h and yielded high activity, equivalent to that of conventional medium against 3rd instar Culex quinquefasciatus. Conventional NYSM medium required 21 h to attain the maximum activity and biomass. Hence, the egg yolk-based culture medium appears to be suitable and economical for the small-scale production of B. sphaericus.

  3. Sex- and tissue-specific expression of "similar to nothepsin" and cathepsin D in relation to egg yolk formation in Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Gautron, J; Berges, M; Nys, Y; Réhault-Godbert, S

    2012-09-01

    Egg yolk constitutes the main storage compartment of the avian egg and the first nutritional source that supports embryonic growth. Most egg yolk components are synthesized by the liver of laying hens at sexual maturity and are secreted into the blood to be further transferred into the ovarian oocyte (yolky follicle) by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Egg yolk proteins are secreted as precursors and must undergo proteolytic processing to be bioactive. It is assumed that chicken cathepsin D, an aspartic protease, is a key enzyme in this process. Very recently, a novel aspartic protease, namely "similar to nothepsin," has been identified in the egg yolk. Previous experiments conducted in Antarctic fish have shown that the expression of nothepsin is tissue- and sex-specific. To gain insight into the specificities of expression of both cathepsin D and "similar to nothepsin" in Gallus gallus, we compared their distribution in various tissues, in male and females. Cathepsin D is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, including liver of both male and female adults, and its expression is stable during sexual maturation. In contrast, "similar to nothepsin" expression is unique to the liver of adult females and is sex steroid-dependent as it increases gradually in the liver of hens during sexual maturation. The sexual dimorphic expression of the "similar to nothepsin" gene suggests that the activity of this protein is regulated by the steroid environment of laying hens and is specifically adapted for inclusion in the yolk. Further studies are needed to assess whether "similar to nothepsin" assists cathepsin D in the proteolytic processing of egg yolk proteins during follicular growth.

  4. Effects of Paecilomyces tenuipes cultivated in egg yolk on lipid metabolism in rats on a high fat-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Mong; Park, Nam Sook; Jin, Byung Rae; Kang, Han-Seok; Jung, Jee Hyung; Park, Eunju

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the fruiting bodies of cultivated Paecilomyces tenuipes grown on egg yolk (PTE) on lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Forty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet (control) or a high fat/high cholesterol diet with 1%, 3%, or 5% PTE for 5 weeks. PTE was found to significantly lower plasma total lipid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index, compared with the control. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol were also significantly lower than in the control group. The hypolipidemic activity of PTE was increased with increasing concentrations, and plasma lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in the 3% and 5% PTE groups than in the control or 1% PTE group. Plasma total radical trapping antioxidant potential, erythrocytic antioxidant enzyme, and leukocytic DNA damage were not significantly different among the groups. Our results indicate that P. tenuipes cultivated on egg yolk can improve lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in rats fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet.

  5. Determination of the Gelation Mechanism of Freeze-Thawed Hen Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Au, Carmen; Acevedo, Nuria C; Horner, Harry T; Wang, Tong

    2015-11-25

    A study of yolks stored up to 168 d at -20 °C was conducted to determine the gelation behavior and mechanism of freeze-thawed yolk. Methods used were rheology, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native- and SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for matrix mobility. Results indicate that both constituents of plasma and granules contributed to gelation of yolk under freezing. PAGE analyses suggest that granular proteins participated in aggregation during freeze-thaw. Increasing gel strength and particle size and decreasing water and lipid-water mobility indicate that lipoproteins or apolipoproteins aggregated. At storage times ≥84 d, increased protein and lipid mobility, the detection of smaller particles, and secondarily increased gel strength suggest the liberation of protein or lipoprotein components from previously formed aggregates and further aggregation of these constituents. Disruption of the gelled yolk matrix observed with TEM supported that ice crystal formation was required for gelation to occur. A two-stage dynamic gelation model is thus proposed.

  6. Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blesso, Christopher N; Andersen, Catherine J; Barona, Jacqueline; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2013-03-01

    We investigated if daily egg feeding, along with carbohydrate restriction, would alter lipoprotein metabolism and influence atherogenic lipoprotein profiles and insulin resistance in men and women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In a randomized, single-blind, parallel design, participants consumed either 3 whole eggs/day (EGG, n=20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n=17), as part of a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% energy) for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were assessed at baseline and week 12. Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Atherogenic dyslipidemia improved for all individuals as evidenced by reductions in plasma triglycerides, apoC-III, apoE, oxLDL, VLDL particle diameter, large VDL, total IDL, small LDL, and medium LDL particles (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were increases in HDL-cholesterol, large LDL and large HDL particles (P<0.05) for all individuals. However, there were greater increases in HDL-cholesterol and large HDL particles, and reductions in total VLDL and medium VLDL particles for those consuming EGG compared to SUB (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were reduced, while LCAT activity, and both HDL and LDL diameters increased over time in the EGG group only (P<0.05). Incorporating daily whole egg intake into a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet provides further improvements in the atherogenic lipoprotein profile and in insulin resistance in individuals with MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-09-04

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  8. Maternal transfer of antibodies to eggs in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Poorten, Thomas J; Kuhn, Raymond E

    2009-02-01

    The immune system of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, includes nearly the full repertoire of lymphoid organs and immune cell types found in mammals. In contrast to the mammalian immune system, the development of the amphibian immune system occurs in the open environment. Oviparity necessitates a rapid ontogeny of the immune system. X. laevis larvae become immunocompetent about 2 weeks after fertilization of the egg. During this 2-week window, larvae cannot mount an adaptive immune response to potential pathogens and presumably must depend on innate responses. In the present study, the possibility of maternal transfer of antibodies to eggs was examined. Adult female X. laevis were injected three times at weekly intervals with the hapten-carrier complex, trinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (TNP-BSA). The sera of immunized frogs demonstrated antibody activity to BSA, TNP-BSA, and, importantly, trinitrophenylated ovalbumin (TNP-OVA) when examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactivity to TNP-OVA confirmed that antibodies were produced against TNP. The adult female frogs were induced to lay eggs by injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. Next, membrane-free extracts of the eggs were treated with protease inhibitors in order to prevent proteolysis of proteins found in the eggs. On analysis by ELISA, it was found that TNP-specific antibodies were present in the egg extracts. This demonstrated the transfer of antigen-specific antibodies from adult females to eggs in X. laevis.

  9. Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) developed against fusion protein LTB-STa-STb neutralizes the toxicity of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins.

    PubMed

    You, J; Xu, Y; Li, H; Wang, L; Wu, F; Xu, F; Jin, L; Li, S; Li, X

    2014-08-01

    To obtain a recombinant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fusion enterotoxin protein LTB-STa-STb (Bab) that can express the immunogenicity of the haptens STa and STb and induce their corresponding neutralizing antibodies. The three important ETEC enterotoxin genes coding LTB, STa and STb were PCR-amplified, and the amplified products were fused to construct the trivalent enterotoxin expression vector pET30-Bab. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were used to verify the expression of the fusion protein Bab by E. coli BL21 carrying plasmid pET30-Bab. Laying hens immunized with Bab developed high egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) titres specific to LTB, STa and STb, and all were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0·01). A suckling mouse assay showed that anti-Bab IgY can neutralize the natural toxicity of STa and STb with the highest dilution of 1/2 and 1/32, respectively. Genetically constructed Bab induced significant antibody responses against STa and STb in chickens, and the resulting IgY had the capacity to neutralize the toxicity of ST. The recombinant Bab protein containing three important ETEC enterotoxins may serve as an effective and convenient polyvalent toxoid that can be used to produce multiple antitoxin IgYs to prevent colibacillosis caused by ETEC with various fimbriae in young animals. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Captivity diets alter egg yolk lipids of a bird of prey (the American kestrel) and of a galliforme (the red-legged partridge).

    PubMed

    Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Bortolotti, G R; Negro, J J

    2001-01-01

    The salient feature of the fatty acid profile of kestrel eggs collected in the wild was the very high proportion of arachidonic acid (15.2%+/-0.7% of fatty acid mass, n=5) in the phospholipid fraction of the yolk. Kestrels in captivity fed on day-old chickens produced eggs that differed from those of the wild birds in a number of compositional features: the proportion of linoleic acid was increased in all the lipid fractions; the proportion of arachidonic acid was increased in yolk phospholipid and cholesteryl ester; the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was decreased in all lipid classes, and that of docosahexaenoic acid was decreased in phospholipid and cholesteryl ester. Partridge eggs from the wild contained linoleic acid as the main polyunsaturate of all the yolk lipid fractions. Captive partridges maintained on a formulated diet very rich in linoleic acid produced eggs with increased levels of linoleic, arachidonic, and n-6 docosapentaenoic acids in the phospholipid fraction; reduced proportions of alpha-linolenic acid were observed in all lipid classes, and the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid was markedly reduced in the phospholipid fraction. Thus, captive breeding of both the kestrel and the partridge increases the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturate ratio of the yolk lipids.

  11. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (36.4 ± 5.3%) compared with the egg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (27.4 ± 6.5%) than in the other groups. In conclusion, 20% LDL can be used to substitute the whole egg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary.

  12. The advantages of using a combination of LDL and glutamine in comparison with TRIS egg yolk and Equex® STAMP extenders in the cryopreservation of canine semen.

    PubMed

    Bencharif, Djemil; Amirat-Briand, Lamia; Garand, Annabelle; Anton, Marc; Schmitt, Eric; Desherces, Serge; Delhomme, Guy; Langlois, Marie-Laure; Barrière, Paul; Destrumelle, Sandrine; Vera-Munoz, Oscar; Tainturier, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Twenty semen samples taken from 5 dogs were frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C in four different extenders: one control extender based on 20% egg yolk, 6% LDL alone (low density lipoproteins: the active cryoprotective principle in chicken egg yolk), 6% LDL combined with 20 mmol glutamine, and Equex® (a reference extender that we wish to compare with the LDL-glutamine combination). After thawing, spermatozoal motility was evaluated using a HAMILTON THORNE CERROS 12 image analyzer; the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 27.7% in the egg yolk extender (p<0.05), 49.9% with 6% LDL alone (p>0.05), 54.7% in the 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine extender, and 47.9% with Equex® (p>0.05). The motility parameters (VAP, VCL, VSL and ALH) were also superior in the 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine extender in comparison with the other extenders. Finally, the spermatozoa were generally better protected during freezing with the 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine association than with the egg yolk, 6% LDL, or Equex extenders in terms of the flagellar plasma membrane (HOS test), DNA (Acridine orange test), and acrosome integrity (Spermac® test: no significant difference). The Equex® extender obtained the best results for the acrosome, followed by 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine (FITC-PSA test: p<0.05 between each extender). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of year, laying date, egg fertility and incubation, individual hen, hen age and mass and clutch size on maternal immunoglobulin Y concentration in captive Steller's and spectacled eider egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Maniscalco, John M; Bozza, Maryann; Hendon, Jill M; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-09-01

    Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03-0.48 mg ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10-0.51 mg ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders.

  14. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged.

  15. Comparative omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of egg yolks from first-cycle laying hens fed flaxseed oil or ground flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; Bobeck, E A

    2017-01-20

    When laying hen diets are enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate value-added eggs for human consumption markets, concentrations of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the yolk can reach 250 mg/50 g whole egg. Flaxseed, a rich source of ALA, is commonly used for omega-3 enrichment; however, the impact of dietary flaxseed source (extracted oil vs. milled seed) on fatty acid transfer to egg yolk in laying hens is unknown. Therefore, transfer of ALA, EPA, and DHA into egg yolk from extracted flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed was evaluated in Hy-Line W-36 laying hens over an 8-week feeding period (25 to 33 wk old). Hens (n = 132) were randomly housed with 3 birds/cage (4 replicates/treatment) for each of the 11 treatment groups. Diets were isocaloric and consisted of a control diet, 5 flaxseed oil diets (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, or 5.0% flaxseed oil), and 5 milled flaxseed diets (calculated flaxseed oil concentration from milled flaxseed 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0%). Increasing dietary concentrations of flaxseed oil and milled flaxseed resulted in increased ALA, EPA, and DHA concentration in egg yolk, and fatty acid deposition from flaxseed oil was 2 times greater compared to milled flaxseed when fed at the same dietary inclusions (P < 0.01). Egg yolk EPA and DHA concentrations were not different due to oil or milled source (P = 0.21); however, increasing dietary inclusion rates of flaxseed oil from either source increased yolk EPA and DHA (P < 0.01). Hens fed either flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed resulted in reduced BW change as dietary concentrations increased (P = 0.02). Feed efficiency increased as flaxseed oil increased in concentration, while feeding milled flaxseed decreased feed efficiency (P = 0.01). Analysis of the nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy of flaxseed oil resulted in 7,488 kcal/kg on an as-fed basis. Dietary flaxseed oil improved feed efficiency and increased ALA deposition

  16. Boar seminal plasma or hen's egg yolk decrease the in-vitro chemotactic and phagocytotic activities of neutrophils when co-incubated with boar or bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Li, J-C; Yamaguchi, S; Funahashi, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of boar seminal plasma and hen's egg yolk on chemotaxis and phagocytosis of porcine and bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro. Chemotactic activity of PMNs was determined following culture for 90 min in a blind well chamber. Phagocytosis was assayed after co-culture of PMNs with sperm for 60 min. In the presence of ≥5% boar seminal plasma, chemotactic activity of PMNs was reduced (P<0.05) in both pigs (from 1126.1 to 934.2-1009.1 cells/mm2) and in cows (from 1067.1 to 768.9-800.0 cells/mm2). Furthermore, ≥5% boar seminal plasma reduced (P<0.05) leukocyte phagocytosis in pigs (26.2-32.1%) and cows (27.2-30.0%) compared to controls (41.7 and 42.1%, respectively). Although 20% hen's egg yolk increased (P<0.05) chemotactic activity of PMNs in pigs (from 790.4 to 1006.1 cells/mm2) and cows (from 789.9 to 953.5 cells/mm2), egg yolk increased (P<0.05) phagocytotic activity of porcine PMNs (from 24.3 to 33.8%), but not the activity of bovine PMNs (15.1 vs 15.8% in controls). Boar seminal plasma and caffeine reduced (P<0.05) the egg yolk-induced increase in chemotaxis in both species (from 988.6 to 795.2 or 813.2 cells/mm2 in pigs and from 953.5 to 779.4 or 833.8 cells/mm2 in cows), and phagocytotic activities of PMN (from 33.8% to 15.2 or 13.3%) only in pigs (but not in cows; 11.2-15.1%). In conclusion, hen's egg yolk increased chemotactic activity of PMNs in both pigs and cows, whereas egg yolk increased only phagocytosis of PMNs in pigs, but not in cows. Even in the presence of egg yolk, boar seminal plasma and caffeine significantly reduced chemotactic activity of PMNs in pigs and cows, and phagocytotic activity of porcine PMNs.

  17. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2012-03-01

    The present study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality. Twenty-two ejaculates from 6 fertility-proven Yorkshire boars were cryopreserved by liquid nitrogen vapor method. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and intact functional plasma membrane were determined at 0, 2 and 4 hr after thawing. It was found that the lactose-based extender resulted in a higher percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome and functional plasma membrane than sorbitol-based extender (P<0.05) and fructose-based extender yielded a higher post-thawed sperm motility and viability than sorbitol-based extender (P<0.05). It could be concluded that sorbitol was not an effective sugar for the cryopreservation in boar semen.

  18. Application of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the control of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyu; Jin, Liji; Zhen, Yuhong; Lu, Yanan; Li, Shuying; You, Jiansong; Wang, Linhui

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has attracted considerable attention as a means of controlling infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages compared with mammalian IgG including cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases and speculates on the future of IgY technology. Included are a review of the potential application of IgY for the treatment of livestock diseases such as mastitis and diarrhea, poultry diseases such as Salmonella, Campylobacteriosis, infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease, as well as aquatic diseases like shrimp white spot syndrome virus, Yersina ruckeri and Edwardsiella tarda. Some potential obstacles to the adoption of IgY technology are also discussed.

  19. Protective effect of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against Prevotella intermedia-mediated gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y-Y; Zhen, Y-H; Wang, D; Zhu, J; Sun, D-X; Liu, X-T; Wang, H-X; Liu, Y; Long, Y-Y; Shu, X-H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) specific to Prevotella intermedia in vitro and in vivo. An IgY specific to P. intermedia was produced by immunizing hens with formaldehyde-inactivated P. intermedia and showed high titres when subjected to an ELISA. The obtained IgY inhibited the growth of P. intermedia in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 1 to 20 mg ml(-1) in Center for Disease Control and Prevention liquid medium. Forty rats were challenged with P. intermedia on gingivae and then randomly divided into four groups, which were syringed respectively with phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg ml(-1) of tinidazole, 20 mg ml(-1) of nonspecific IgY and 20 mg ml(-1) of the IgY specific to P. intermedia at a dosage of 300 μl per day. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), counts of white blood cell (WBC) and histopathological slide of the gums were measured after treatment for 15 days. The gingivitis rats treated with the IgY specific to P. intermedia showed significantly decreased GI, PI, BOP and WBC (P < 0·05). Gum histopathology of the treated rats demonstrated a superior protective effect of the specific IgY on P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. A new immunoglobulin specific to P. intermedia was developed from egg yolk. This specific IgY can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of P. intermedia and protect rats from gingivitis induced by P. intermedia. The new IgY has potential for the treatment of P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Passive protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against experimental Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Hong; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) has attracted much attention as a means for controlling infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. This study evaluated the protective effect of IgY against Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. IgY was isolated from egg yolks laid by hens initially immunized with formalin-inactivated V. anguillarum. Lower mortality of ayu was observed in groups treated with anti-V. anguillarum IgY (aVIgY), compared with those treated with saline or with nonspecific IgY (nspIgY). All fish in saline-treated groups died within seven days after bacterial inoculation. The bacterial load in blood, liver, and spleen was significantly lower in fish treated with aVIgY than in fish treated with nspIgY. aVIgY treatment significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (PaTNF-α), interleukin-1β (PaIL-1β), transforming growth factor-β (PaTGF-β), and leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (PaLECT2) transcript levels in the head kidney, spleen, and liver of ayu challenged by V. anguillarum, compared with nspIgY treatment. The phagocytic activity of macrophages for V. anguillarum in the presence of specific IgY was significantly higher than that seen for nonspecific IgY. These results suggest that passive immunization by oral intubation with pathogen-specific IgY may provide a valuable treatment for V. anguillarum infection in ayu.

  1. Substitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry; Donnay, Isabelle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Serteyn, Didier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPβCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 °C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPβCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPβCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPβCD-C complex.

  2. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Lima, G L; Bezerra, J A B; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a powdered coconut water-based extender (ACP-116c), plus various concentrations of egg-yolk and glycerol, as an alternative for cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were apportioned into aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus 10% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, or in ACP-116c plus 10 or 20% egg yolk and 1.5 or 3% glycerol. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and, after 1 mo, thawed at 37 °C for 1 min. After thawing, samples were evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for sperm membrane integrity (fluorescent probes) and kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). Results were presented as means ± SEM. Freezing and thawing decreased sperm characteristics relative to fresh semen. Overall, ACP-116c plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol provided better (P < 0.05) sperm motility and kinetic rating (48 ± 6.1% and 2.8 ± 0.2, respectively) after thawing than Tris extender (30.4 ± 5.7% and 2.4 ± 0.2). However, there were no differences (P > 0.05) among treatments with regard to the other sperm characteristics. Based on computerized motion analysis, total (26.5 ± 5.9%) and progressive (8.1 ± 2.2%) motility were best preserved (P < 0.05) with the above-mentioned treatment. In conclusion, a coconut water-based extender, ACP-116c, plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, was effective for cryopreservation of semen from collared peccaries.

  3. Egg yolks inhibit activation of NF-κB and expression of its target genes in adipocytes after partial delipidation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiwen; Riedl, Ken M.; Cole, Rachel M.; Lehman, Christopher; Xu, Lu; Alder, Hansjuerg; Belury, Martha A.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    How composition of egg yolk (EY) influences NF-κB, a key transcription pathway in inflammation, remains unclear. We performed partial delipidation of EY that removed 20–30% of cholesterol and triglycerides. The resulting polar and non-polar fractions were termed EY-P and EY-NP. NF-κB activation in response to EY from different suppliers and their fractions was examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a NF-κB response element reporter assay and by analyzing expression of 248 inflammatory genes. Although EY-P and EY contained similar level of vitamins, carotenoids, and fatty acids, only delipidated EY-P fraction suppressed NF-κB via down-regulation of toll like receptor-2 and up-regulation of inhibitory toll interacting protein (Tollip) and lymphocyte antigen 96 (Ly96). Our data suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of lutein and retinol were blunted by non-polar lipids in EY likely via crosstalk between SREBP and NF-κB pathways in adipocytes. Thus, moderate delipidation may improve their beneficial properties of regular eggs. PMID:25620076

  4. A mathematical model of inactivation kinetics for a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg in commercial liquid egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Johari S; Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Jones, Deana R; Shaw, William K

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a general model of inactivation of salmonellae in commercial liquid egg yolk for temperatures ranging from 58°C to 66°C by studying the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in liquid egg yolk. Heat-resistant salmonellae (three serovars of Enteritidis [two of phage type 8 and one PT 13] and one Oranienburg) were grown to stationary phase in Tryptic Soy Broth and concentrated 10-fold by centrifugation. Each inoculum was added to liquid egg yolk and mixed thoroughly, resulting in a final population of ca. 7 log CFU/ml egg yolk. Inoculated yolk was injected into sterile glass capillary tubes, flame-sealed and heated in a water bath at 58, 60, 62, 64, and 66°C. Capillary tubes were ethanol sanitized, rinsed, and contents were extracted. Yolk was diluted, surface plated onto Tryptic Soy Agar+0.1% sodium pyruvate and 50 μg/ml nalidixic acid and incubated at 37°C for 24 h before colonies were enumerated. Decimal reduction values were calculated from survivor curves with a minimum inactivation of 6 log CFU/ml at each temperature. Survival curves (except for 66°C) featured initial lag periods before first order linear inactivation. Estimated asymptotic D-values were 1.83 min at 58°C, 0.69 min at 60°C, 0.26 min at 62°C, 0.096 min at 64°C and 0.036 min at 66°C. The estimate of the asymptotic z-value was ca. 4.7°C with standard error of 0.07°C. A linear relationship between the log(10) of the lag times and temperature was observed. A general kinetic model of inactivation was developed. The results of the study provide information that can be used by processors to aid in producing safe pasteurized egg yolk products and for satisfying pasteurization performance standards and developing industry guidance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P < 0.01), hunter a* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01), and b* values (linear, P < 0.05) with a decrease in hunter L* value (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks also were increased (linear, P < 0.01) by increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS. In conclusion, feeding diets containing 20% DDGS to laying hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Fisher, Mary Catherine; Guo, Mufan; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-09-11

    Quality loss in intermediate-moisture foods (IMF) such as high-protein nutrition bars (HPNB) in the form of hardening, nonenzymatic browning, and free amino group loss is a general concern for the manufacturers. To measure the extent of quality loss over time in terms of these negative attributes, through changing the ratio by weight between two commercial spray-dried hen egg powders, egg white (DEW) and egg yolk (DEY), the storage stability of 10 IMF systems (water activity (aw) ∼ 0.6) containing 5% glycerol, 10% shortening, 35% protein, and 50% sweetener (either maltitol or 50% high-fructose corn syrup/50% corn syrup (HFCS/CS)) were studied. Additionally, the storage stability of the DEY powder itself was investigated. Overall, during storage at different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C), the storage stability of DEY in dry and IMF matrices was mainly controlled by the coaction of three chemical reactions (disulfide bond interaction, Maillard reaction, and lipid oxidation). The results showed that by replacing 25% of DEW in an IMF model system with DEY, the rate of bar hardening was significantly lower than that of the models with only DEW at all temperatures due to the softening effect of the fat in DEY. Furthermore, the use of maltitol instead of HFCS/CS in all bar systems not only resulted in decreased hardness but also drastically decreased the change in the total color difference (ΔE*). Interestingly, there was no significant loss of free amino groups in the maltitol systems at any DEW/DEY ratio.

  8. Relative efficacy of egg yolk and soya milk-based extenders for cryopreservation (-196°C) of buffalo semen.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, D V; Dhami, A J; Hadiya, K K; Patel, J A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to compare commercially available soybean milk-based extenders, viz. Bioxcell(®) and Optixcell(®) (IMV, France) with standard Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender for cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Semen was collected twice a week in artificial vagina from six sexually mature, 4-6 years old, healthy breeding bulls of Surti buffalo breed. In all 48 qualifying ejaculates (8 per bull) having initial motility >70% were split into three equal aliquots and were diluted (at 34°C keeping 100×10(6) sperm ml(-1)) in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders. The French mini straws filled from each aliquot were gradually cooled to 4-5°C, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h and frozen in liquid nitrogen 2 vapor using programmable biofreezer. Just before freezing (post-equilibration) and 24 h after frozen storage, the samples were evaluated for various sperm quality parameters using standard protocols. Frozen semen straws were thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. The post-thaw incubation survival (37°C for 1 h) was assessed through motility rating at 0, 30 and 60 min of incubation. The mean percentages of prefreeze sperms in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders in terms of progressive motility (69.48±0.37, 68.02±0.49, 70.94±0.38), viability (79.21±0.39, 77.38±0.48, 81.58±0.38), total abnormalities (7.90±0.14, 8.60±0.16, 7.08±0.15), intact acrosome (89.54± 0.18, 88.58±0.22, 90.52±0.21) and hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) reactivity (67.96±0.32, 65.65±0.42, 70.23±0.37) varied significantly (p<0.05) between extenders. Similar pattern of significant (p<0.05) variations between these extenders for post-thaw sperm progressive motility (47.71±0.79, 44.38±0.85, 49.90±0.90), viability (57.19±0.79, 53.85±0.84, 59.67±0.91), total abnormalities (12.33±0.17, 12.75±0.21, 11.27±0.18), intact acrosome (76.83±0.23, 75.90± 0.27, 78.50±0.25) and HOS reactivity (45.02±0.84, 42.31±0.82, 47.81±0.90) was also observed for TFYG, Bioxcell

  9. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Keller, Jennifer M; Kucklick, John R; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey I

    2006-08-15

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n=22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of summation operatorPCBs (52 congeners), summation operatorDDTs, summation operatorchlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range=7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range=7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range=4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range=1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  10. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.05) and percentage of large-size eggs (P < 0.05) that were improved in hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that the replacement of conventional soybean with low-fiber sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (P<0.001) and feed conversion ratio linearly increased (P<0.001). The proportions of C14:0 and C18:0 and total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in egg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (P<0.001), but not those of C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3. There were linear decreases (P<0.001) in hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP1 transcripts, with a substantial reduction to about 30% those of ducks fed the control diet; there were no treatment effects on productive performance, eggshell thickness, strength, Haugh unit, antioxidation status, and egg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts.

  12. Non-target analysis of phospholipid and sphingolipid species in egg yolk using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Walczak, Justyna; Žuvela, Petar; Liu, J Jay

    2017-03-03

    In this work, phospholipids extracted from egg yolk (control group, experimental group) were identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Combinations of fatty acyls occurring in 11 classes of phospholipids from egg yolk were investigated. Differences between the profile of fatty acyls from hens fed traditionally and the ones that received special diet supplementation were observed. Experimental findings were complemented with multivariate chemometric analysis. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry mode was utilized and 123 distinct combinations of fatty acyls occurring in phospholipids were identified. From these, large portions are polyunsaturated fatty acyls from the omega-3 and omega-6 family. HPLC MS/MS analysis allows for quick, accurate and precise determination of biologically active compounds, found in low concentrations within the tested material. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Comparison of different osmolalities and egg-yolk composition in processing media for the cryopreservation of red wolf (Canis rufus) sperm.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; Goodrowe, K L; Waddell, W T; MacDonald, S E

    2009-02-01

    Successful cryopreservation of sperm and the maintenance of a sperm-based genome resource bank have been identified as priorities for the recovery of the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus). The objectives were to improve sperm processing and to determine the relative timing of damage to red wolf sperm during freezing and thawing. Fresh ejaculates (n=37) from adult red wolves (n=15, aged 2-13 y) were collected via electroejaculation and subjected to cooling, freezing and thawing in four TRIS-egg-yolk extender treatments varying in osmolality ( approximately 305 mOsm versus approximately 350 mOsm) and egg-yolk composition (0.8 microm-filtered versus unfiltered). Ejaculates were evaluated for sperm percentage motility, forward progressive motion, and morphological characteristics immediately upon collection and following extension, cooling (prior to freezing) and thawing. Although no single treatment consistently produced superior results, sperm suspended in approximately 305 mOsm extenders exhibited slight losses in motility post-thawing (13 and 7%). Also, sperm suspended in approximately 350 mOsm extenders tended to have slower rates of decline in motility in vitro post-thawing than those stored in approximately 305 mOsm extenders (P=0.55). Finally, extenders incorporating unfiltered egg yolk exhibited a slightly larger ratio of absent to partial acrosomes than did sperm frozen in extenders prepared with clarified egg yolk. For approximately 350 mOsm extenders, most motility loss occurred during the cooling rather than freezing and thawing. In conclusion, these data contribute to knowledge regarding cryopreservation of red wolf sperm.

  14. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2017-01-01

    The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone) and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for circulating and yolk

  15. Epididymal and ejaculated cat spermatozoa are resistant to cold shock but egg yolk promotes sperm longevity during cold storage at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, U; Axnér, E

    2007-04-15

    The aims were to evaluate the susceptibility of feline ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa to cold shock and to evaluate the effect of egg yolk in the preservation extender. Ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa from eight males were subjected to a slow (0.5 degrees C/min) or a fast (3 degrees C/min) cooling rate with controls kept in room temperature. Ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa from another eight males were cooled in a plain Tris buffer (Tris) or in Tris with 20% egg yolk (EYT) and evaluated for 96 h. Subjective motility (MOT), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and acrosome integrity (ACRI) were evaluated. Cooling did not induce sperm damage regarding PMI (P=0.6) or ACRI (P=0.19) and chilled spermatozoa had better overall MOT (P=0.046) than controls. EYT was better for MOT (P>0.05) from 48 h of cold storage than Tris. EYT was also better for overall ACRI (P<0.0001) while Tris was better for overall PMI (P=0.0004). There were no interactions between time and treatment (P>0.05) for PMI or ACRI. Ejaculated spermatozoa had better overall MOT (P<0.05) and PMI (P<0.05) than epididymal spermatozoa, and higher ACRI in experiment 1 (P=0.0003) but not in experiment 2 (P=0.117). Source of spermatozoa did not affect the susceptibility to cooling or the effect of egg yolk as there were no interactions (P>0.05) between source of spermatozoa and treatment (cooling or control) or between time, source and extender (P>0.05). In conclusion cat spermatozoa were tolerant to cold shock and egg yolk was beneficial for preservation of MOT and ACRI but not PMI.

  16. Effect of different egg yolk-based extenders on the quality of ovine cauda epididymal spermatozoa during storage at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Lone, F A; Islam, R; Khan, M Z; Sofi, K A

    2012-04-01

    Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained from testicles collected from abattoir(s). The pooled sperm samples were divided into four aliquots. Each aliquot was washed separately with the buffer of respective extender and finally extended with the four extenders viz. egg yolk-citrate (EYC), egg yolk-citrate-fructose (EYCF), Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-fructose (TCEYF) and egg yolk-Mcillvaine glucose (EYMG) and preserved at 4°C. The per cent sperm motility for EYC, EYCF, TCEYF and EYMG at 0 h was 50.83%, 56.67%, 75.00% and 31.67%, respectively, and at 72 h was 24.17% (EYC), 30.83% (EYCF), 51.67% (TCEYF) and 7.50% (EYMG). The corresponding figures for live sperm count at 0 h was 83.17%, 86.33%, 90.42% and 81.75% and at 72 h was 64.75%, 73.92%, 76.00% and 57.67%. The corresponding figures for mean per cent intact acrosome at 0 h was 95.33%, 95.50%, 90.92% and 97.25% and at 72 h was 86.17%, 83.92%, 77.58% and 86.33%. The sperm motility was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for TCEYF at different h of preservation from 0 h through 72 h. The sperm motility, live sperm count and per cent intact acrosome declined significantly (p < 0.05) with the advancement of storage time in all the four extenders. Our study concluded that TCEYF was best out of the extenders studied for preservation of cauda epididymal spermatozoa after double centrifugation and extension at 4°C up to 72 h of preservation. However, EYCF also has better potential for the preservation of cauda epididymal spermatozoa as viability was in close proximity and acrosomal integrity was higher compared with TCEYF extender.

  17. Liposome-based semen extender is suitable alternative to egg yolk-based extender for cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Balhara, A K; Yadav, S P; Singh, P; Yadav, P S

    2015-08-01

    Demand for alternative of egg yolk in freezing extenders have increased in recent years due to variability in egg yolk composition, risk of microbial contamination and presence of steroid hormones. The alternative to egg yolk-based extender (EY) can be soya lecithin-based extender (SL) and liposome-based extender (LP). However, the efficacy of SL is still a matter of debate. Few studies have been performed on the effect of LP but to date evaluation of buffalo semen cryopreserved in LP has not been studied. Therefore, this study was designed to compare SL and LP with conventional EY for evaluation of post-thaw quality of buffalo semen. Results showed that total, progressive and rapid sperm motility were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in LP among these extenders. In vitro assessment of post-thaw sperm longevity has also resulted in better maintenance of sperm kinetics and motility in LP in comparison to other extenders. Furthermore, sperm cryopreserved in LP travelled significantly more (P<0.05) distance in cervical mucus as compared to SL and EY. Therefore, it can be concluded that the LP is more efficient than SL and EY for the cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the relationship between protein secondary structures, temperature-dependent viscosities, and technological treatments in egg yolk and LDL by FTIR and rheology.

    PubMed

    Blume, K; Dietrich, K; Lilienthal, S; Ternes, W; Drotleff, A M

    2015-04-15

    Egg yolk and its main component, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were consecutively pasteurised, optimally freeze-dried, and dispersed in various NaCl solutions (0-10%). Heat-induced changes in the protein secondary structures which accompanied viscosity-increasing aggregation processes were monitored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the intensities of intermolecular β-sheets (1622 cm(-1)) and results were compared with the temperature-dependent viscosities. Considerable changes in secondary structures observed after reconstitution of freeze-dried LDL had no detectable effect on the characteristic heat-induced viscosity curves but suggest that LDL plays a particular role in the unwanted gel formation of egg yolk after conventional freezing. For all egg yolk samples and all NaCl-containing LDL samples, the sigmoidal changes in the absorbance units vs. temperature curves corresponded with the first increase in heat-induced viscosity. Both analytical methods showed that the presence of ionic strength caused a shift in curve progressions towards higher temperatures, indicating increased thermal stability.

  19. Cryopreservation of Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Sperm by Using a Commercial Egg-YolkFree Freezing Medium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaping; Ao, Lei; Wang, Hong; Duan, Yanchao; Chang, Shaohui; Chen, Bingbing; Zhi, Dalong; Li, Sujuan; Niu, Yuyu; Ji, Weizhi; Si, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Conventional TRISegg yolk (TEY) freezing medium for the cryopreservation of NHP sperm has the risk of contamination due to widespread zoonotic diseases. This study was aimed at determining the optimal glycerol concentration, freezing rate, and holding time in liquid N2 vapor for the cryopreservation of cynomolgus macaque sperm by using a commercial egg-yolkfree freezing medium (SC medium) designed for human sperm cryopreservation. Sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after freezing were assessed. Sperm in SC medium (dilution ratio, 3:1) frozen at cooling rates of 67 and 183C/min in liquid N2 vapor showed higher post-thaw motility than did samples frozen at 435C/min. At the cooling rate of 183C/min and dilution in SC medium at a 3:1 ratio, post-thaw motility was higher after a holding time of 10 min than after 30 min (recommended by the manufacturer). In addition, post-thaw motility of sperm frozen in SC medium was higher with dilution ratios of 3:1, 4.5:1, and 6:1 compared with 9:1, 10.5:1, and 12:1, and the sample diluted 12:1 showed the lowest percentage of thawed sperm with intact acrosomes. Sperm showed higher post-thaw motility after freezing in TEY than in SC medium; acrosomal integrity did not differ between the 2 media. Our results indicated that cynomolgus macaque sperm can be cryopreserved successfully by using a commercial egg-yolkfree freezing medium, which provides an option for genetic preservation with decreased zoonotic risk in this important NHP species.

  20. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-01-01

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  1. [Determination of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in egg yolks by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection].

    PubMed

    He, Kang-Hao; Zou, Xiao-Li; Liu, Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    A method using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in egg yolks. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile in ultrasonic bath for 20 minutes and then purified by freezing-lipid filtration and solid phase extraction (SPE). After being vaporized to dryness by nitrogen blowing and made up to volume with methanol, the extract solution was chromatographically separated in C18 column with a unitary mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of detection (LOD). Regression analysis revealed a good linearity between peak area of each analyte and its concentration (r > or = 0.998). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 3.6% and 5.2%, respectively. LODs of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin were 0.035 and 0.027 microg/mL (S/N = 3). The average recoveries of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin were 91.5% and 88.7%. The proposed method is simple, fast and easy to apply.

  2. Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 μM TE·g−1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 μM TE·g−1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. PMID:24957729

  3. Major proteins of bovine seminal plasma bind to the low-density lipoprotein fraction of hen's egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Puttaswamy; Nauc, Veronica; Bergeron, Annick; Ménard, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Over the past 60 years, egg yolk (EY) has been routinely used in both liquid semen extenders and those used to cryopreserve sperm. However, the mechanism by which EY protects sperm during liquid storage or from freezing damage is unknown. Bovine seminal plasma contains a family of proteins designated BSP-A1/-A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30-kDa (collectively called BSP proteins). These proteins are secretory products of seminal vesicles that are acquired by sperm at ejaculation, modifying the sperm membrane by inducing cholesterol efflux. Because cholesterol efflux is time and concentration dependent, continuous exposure to seminal plasma (SP) that contains BSP proteins may be detrimental to the sperm membrane, which may adversely affect the ability of sperm to be preserved. In this article, we show that the BSP proteins bind to the low-density fraction (LDF), a lipoprotein component of the EY extender. The binding is rapid, specific, saturable, and stable even after freeze-thawing of semen. Furthermore, LDF has a very high capacity for BSP protein binding. The binding of BSP proteins to LDF may prevent their detrimental effect on sperm membrane, and this may be crucial for sperm storage. Thus, we propose that the sequestration of BSP proteins of SP by LDF may represent the major mechanism of sperm protection by EY.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and Sudan Red in salted duck egg yolk by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanlin; Shi, Pingping; Zhang, Shufen; Shen, Jian; Fu, Xiao

    2007-11-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin, Sudan Red I , Sudan Red II , Sudan Red III and Sudan Red IV in salted duck egg yolk has been developed. These canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and chloroform (1 : 0.5 : 0.5, v/v). The extract was dried by a rotary evaporator. The residue was transferred to a graduated tube and diluted to 10 mL with acetonitrile. The canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were separated on a XDB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm), with acetonitrile-water (95:5, v/v) as mobile phase. They were then detected at 478 nm - 520 nm - 471 nm at different retention times by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The recoveries of sudan I , sudan II, sudan II, sudan IV, and canthaxanthin were 97.34%, 89.56%, 90.98%, 93.63% and 95.15% respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 4.7%, 4.3%, 5.1%, 4.9% and 3.1%, respectively. The method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  5. Nervous system development in cephalopods: How egg yolk-richness modifies the topology of the mediolateral patterning system.

    PubMed

    Buresi, A; Andouche, A; Navet, S; Bassaglia, Y; Bonnaud-Ponticelli, L; Baratte, S

    2016-07-01

    Cephalopods possess the most complex centralized nervous system among molluscs and the molecular determinants of its development have only begun to be explored. To better understand how evolved their brain and body axes, we studied Sepia officinalis embryos and investigated the expression patterns of neural regionalization genes involved in the mediolateral patterning of the neuroectoderm in model species. SoxB1 expression reveals that the embryonic neuroectoderm is made of several distinct territories that constitute a large part of the animal pole disc. Concentric nkx2.1, pax6/gsx, and pax3/7/msx/pax2/5/8 positive domains subdivide this neuroectoderm. Looking from dorsal to ventral sides, the sequence of these expressions is reminiscent of the mediolateral subdivision in model species, which provides good evidence for "mediolateral patterning" conservation in cephalopods. A specific feature of cephalopod development, however, includes an unconventional orientation to this mediolateral sequence: median markers (like nkx2.1) are unexpectedly expressed at the periphery of the cuttlefish embryo and lateral markers (like Pax3/7) are expressed centrally. As the egg is rich with yolk, the lips of the blastopore (that classically organizes the neural midline) remain unclosed at the lateral side of the animal pole until late stages of organogenesis, therefore reversing the whole embryo topology. These findings confirm - by means of molecular tools - the location of both ventral and dorsal poles in cephalopod embryos.

  6. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  7. Increasing Levels of Dietary Hempseed Products Leads to Differential Responses in the Fatty Acid Profiles of Egg Yolk, Liver and Plasma of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    The limited efficiency with which dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted by hens into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for egg deposition is not clearly understood. In this study, dietary ALA levels were increased via the inclusion of hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in hen diets, with the goal of assessing the effects on the fatty acid (FA) profiles of total lipids and lipid classes in yolk, liver and plasma. Forty-eight hens were individually caged and fed one of six diets containing either HS:10, 20 or 30, HO:4.5 or 9.0 (%, diet) or a control (containing corn oil), providing a range (0.1-1.28 %, diet) of ALA. Fatty acid methyl esters of total lipids and lipid classes, including phosphatidyl choline (PtdCho) and ethanolamine (PtdEtn) in yolk, plasma and liver were then determined. Levels of n-3 FAs in both total lipids and lipid classes increased in all tissues. ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased linearly, while docosapentaenoic acid and DHA increased quadratically. The FA profiles of yolk closely reflected levels in both plasma and liver. While ALA was highly concentrated in the triacylglycerol, it was low but equally distributed between PtdCho and PtdEtn in all tissues; however, the net accumulation was lower (P < 0.0001) in liver compared to yolk and plasma. Levels of EPA and ALA in yolk-PtdEtn were linearly (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.93) associated, and reflected those in liver-PtdEtn (P < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.90). In the liver, a strong inverse correlation (P < 0.0001; r = -0.94) between PL-DHA and ALA-to-EPA ratio in PtdEtn supports theories of low substrate availability, possibly limiting the conversion of ALA into DHA for egg enrichment.

  8. Treatment of human spermatozoa with an egg yolk medium can enhance the outcome of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Katayama, K P; Stehlik, E; Roesler, M; Jeyendran, R S; Holmgren, W J; Zaneveld, L J

    1989-12-01

    In at least 4 of 7 cases, fertilization of intact human oocytes was more successful when spermatozoa were pretreated with TEST yolk medium at 5 degrees C for 2 hours as compared with the standard treatment with Ham's F-10 only. Both pregnancies that were obtained after the transfer of the fertilized oocytes resulted from oocytes fertilized by TEST yolk-treated spermatozoa. No decrease in fertilization occurred in any of the cases after TEST yolk treatment. If these results hold true for a larger series of patients, it may be worthwhile for the standard IVF incubation system of spermatozoa to include TEST yolk.

  9. Comparative quality assessment of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen chilled (5°C) in egg yolk- and soya milk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, V K; Narwade, B M; Mohanty, T K; Atreja, S K

    2012-08-01

    Egg yolk-Tris is most commonly used semen extender; however, its use involves hygienic risk, interference with fertility and poor microscopic examination. Therefore, replacement of egg yolk with a plant-based component with protective effects on spermatozoa would be advantageous. In present study, we observed effect of soya milk-based extenders on dilution and liquid preservation of Murrah buffalo bull semen at 5°C up to 72 h in comparison with conventional egg yolk-Tris extender (Ext.1). In experiment one, a total of 32 buffalo semen ejaculates from four animals were extended and preserved at 5°C for 72 h in soya milk-based extender (Ext.2) with different percentages (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) of soya milk for optimization of soya milk concentration. Semen quality was assessed for individual motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of liquid preservation. The results of experiment one indicated that 25% soya milk is an optimum concentration for buffalo bull semen extender preparation. A modified method was used to prepare another soya milk-based extender (Ext.3). In the second experiment, two soya extenders (Ext.2 and 3) with optimized concentration (25%) of soya milk were comparatively assessed with egg yolk-Tris extender (Ext.1) for semen quality parameters at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of liquid preservation. The individual sperm motility at 0 and 24 h following dilution were found non-significant among extenders. However, after 48 h of dilution, individual motility in Ext.3 was observed significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Ext.1. After 24, 48 and 72 h of dilution sperm membrane integrity in Ext.3 was found significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Ext.1. Overall, comparative evaluation of sperm parameters obtained revealed that Ext.3 containing 25% soya milk can be used as a substitute of egg yolk-based extender for buffalo semen liquid preservation. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (P<0.0001) linearly as a function of total omega-3 PUFA intake. At the highest inclusion levels, DHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (P<0.0001) and quadratic (P<0.05) effects for flaxseed oil (R(2)=0.89) and algal DHA (R(2)=0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  12. Development a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening carotenoids in eggs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Liao, Feng; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with broad-specificity against several carotenoid analogs with equal or similar efficacy was prepared. The obtained mAb C11, with the IgG1 isotype, showed cross-reactivity (CR) with canthaxanthin (100%), β-ionone acid (140.4%), β-carotene (92.9%), capsanthin (90.1%), β-apo-8'-carotenal (92.7%), and xanthophyll (95.8%). Using the mAb C11, a highly sensitive and inexpensive indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed with a simple sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous detection of these carotenoid compounds in eggs. The limit of detection of the various carotenoids ranged from 1.31mgkg(-1) to 1.48mgkg(-1). Recoveries from egg yolks spiked with the above carotenoids ranged from 91.8% to 113.3%, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of less than 14.8%. These results suggest that the developed ic-ELISA is a sensitive, specific, accurate, and inexpensive method that is suitable for the screening of carotenoid residues in routine monitoring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Application of computed tomography to assess the effect of egg yolk ratio on body composition in chickens of different genotype and gender at hatch and during the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Donkó, T; Dalle Zotte, A; Sartori, A; Szentirmai, E; Emri, M; Opposits, G; Orbán, A; Pőcze, O; Repa, I; Sütő, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. Computed tomography was used for the in vivo determination of yolk ratio in 7000 domestic hen eggs, originated from two markedly different genotypes, in order to examine the effect of egg yolk ratio, gender and genotype on the development of hatched chicks. 2. Eggs with extremely low, average and extremely high yolk ratio were chosen for further investigation (n = 350 in each group in both genotypes). After incubating the selected eggs, hatched birds were reared and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age. 3. The yolk ratio of eggs significantly affected the body composition of the chickens at hatching and during rearing to 8-9 weeks of age. 4. Chickens of a genotype selected partly for weight gain had significantly higher live weight from hatching to the end of the rearing period and had better slaughter characteristics than those of the dual purpose TETRA-H genotype. 5. At hatching, only the dry matter content of the body was affected by the gender of the birds. The effect of gender on the live weight and body composition of chickens was evident from the 5th week of age to the time of slaughter. 6. It was concluded that eggs with a low yolk ratio were most beneficial for broiler production, because chickens hatched from these eggs had the highest slaughter weight and muscle index and the lowest fat index for their body mass.

  14. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens.

  15. Not only for egg yolk--functional and evolutionary insights from expression, selection, and structural analyses of Formica ant vitellogenins.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Claire; Havukainen, Heli; Kulmuni, Jonna; Dhaygude, Kishor; Trontti, Kalevi; Helanterä, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a storage protein, has been extensively studied for its egg-yolk precursor role, and it has been suggested to be fundamentally involved in caste differences in social insects. More than one Vg copy has been reported in several oviparous species, including ants. However, the number and function of different Vgs, their phylogenetic relatedness, and their role in reproductive queens and nonreproductive workers have been studied in few species only. We studied caste-biased expression of Vgs in seven Formica ant species. Only one copy of conventional Vg was identified in Formica species, and three Vg homologs, derived from ancient duplications, which represent yet undiscovered Vg-like genes. We show that each of these Vg-like genes is present in all studied Hymenoptera and some of them in other insects as well. We show that after each major duplication event, at least one of the Vg-like genes has experienced a period of positive selection. This, combined with the observation that the Vg-like genes have acquired or lost specific protein domains suggests sub- or neofunctionalization between Vg and the duplicated genes. In contrast to earlier studies, Vg was not consistently queen biased in its expression, and the caste bias of the three Vg-like genes was highly variable among species. Furthermore, a truncated and Hymenoptera-specific Vg-like gene, Vg-like-C, was consistently worker biased. Multispecies comparisons are essential for Vg expression studies, and for gene expression studies in general, as we show that expression and also, putative functions cannot be generalized even among closely related species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of freezing bull semen in two non-egg yolk extenders on post-thaw sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Lima-Verde, I B; Johannisson, A; Ntallaris, T; Al-Essawe, E; Al-Kass, Z; Nongbua, T; Dórea, F; Lundeheim, N; Kupisiewicz, K; Edman, A; Morrell, J M

    2017-09-28

    Traditionally, extenders for bull semen included egg yolk or milk, but recently there has been a move to avoid material of animal origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two commercial extenders (based on soya lecithin and liposomes) on bull sperm quality after cryopreservation. Post-thaw sperm quality was evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometric assessment of membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species and tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, an artificial insemination (AI) trial was conducted, and 56-day non-return rates were evaluated. Semen frozen in the liposome-based extender showed similar membrane integrity and higher mitochondrial membrane potential compared to those in the soya lecithin-based extender. Chromatin integrity and production of live H2 O2 + reactive oxygen species were similar in both extenders. Less superoxide was produced in the samples extended with liposome-based extender, with or without menadione stimulation. Chromatin integrity and tyrosine phosphorylation were not affected by either type of extender. No differences in 56-day non-return rate between extenders containing soya lecithin and liposomes were observed in the AI trial (66% ± 0.8 and 65% ± 0.8, respectively). In conclusion, the sperm quality of bull semen frozen in the two extenders that do not contain material of animal origin was similar, although the semen frozen in the liposome-based extender had higher mitochondrial membrane potential. Either extender could be used in situations where extenders containing material of animal origin are to be avoided. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Egg Yolk and Glycerol Requirements for Freezing Boar Spermatozoa Treated with Methyl β-Cyclodextrin or Cholesterol-loaded Cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    BLANCH, Eva; TOMÁS, Cristina; HERNÁNDEZ, Marta; ROCA, Jordi; MARTÍNEZ, Emilio A.; VÁZQUEZ, Juan M.; MOCÉ, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 106 sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P <0.05), even in semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P <0.05). Thus, CLC-treated sperm showed a higher tolerance to high glycerol concentrations (5%) in terms of sperm viability (59.19% ± 3) than non-treated sperm (45.58% ± 3; P<0.05). Therefore, it could be necessary to modify the freezing extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality. PMID:24492655

  18. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p < 0.01) plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein concentration (LDL). Breeder hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.01) plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hens offered 50 and 100 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p < 0.01) egg-yolk TC concentration at 32 weeks of age. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys recorded the lowest (p < 0.01) egg-yolk triglyceride (TG) at 40 weeks of age. Hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode recorded the highest (p < 0.05) hen-day egg production. Incidence of dead-in-shell also reduced (p < 0.05) with increasing dosage of L-carnitine. Dietary supplementation of 50 ppm and oral application in drinking water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p < 0.05) egg fertility. Offsprings from breeder hens fed diets supplemented with L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p < 0.05) post-hatch final live weight and weight gain was obtained with poults obtained from hens fed diet supplemented with 50 ppm L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  19. Hempseed Products Fed to Hens Effectively Increased n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Total Lipids, Triacylglycerol and Phospholipid of Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Suh, M; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2016-05-01

    Hempseed products represent potential alternative feed ingredients for poultry. However, their usage is not currently approved due to a lack of data to support their safety and efficacy. In this regard, the current study was conducted to assess the impact of dietary concentration of hempseed (HS) products and duration of their feeding to hens on the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of egg yolk lipids. In the current study, 48 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design, and provided one of six diets (wheat-barley-soybean-based) containing either HS (10, 20 and 30 %), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 and 9.0 %) or no hempseed product (control) over 12 weeks. Increasing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake via increasing dietary hempseed product inclusion, significantly (p < 0.0001) increased the n-3 PUFA contents of yolk total lipid. The values of ALA increased by 12-fold (152 ± 3.56 and 156 ± 2.42 mg/yolk) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by twofold to threefold (41.3 ± 1.57 and 43.6 ± 1.61 mg/yolk) over the control, for the highest levels of HS and HO inclusion, respectively. Increasing levels of hemp products in laying hen diets proved effective in manipulating the fatty acid profile of the total lipid, triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) fractions of yolks, enhancing the n-3 fatty acids and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio. The latter benefit was achieved within 4 weeks of feeding hens either HS- or HO-containing diets.

  20. Yolk protein immunoassays (YP-ELISA) to assess diet and reproductive quality of mass-reared Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Ferkovich, Stephen M

    2002-10-01

    A yolk protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (YP-ELISA) was developed for the predator Orius insidiosus (Say). The YP-ELISA is intended to assess reproductive response to dietary and other rearing conditions, and to assist in quality control and diet development for mass rearing. Hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies were produced against homogenates of eggs dissected from females. Hybridomas were selected for secretion of IgG that reacted with extracts of both females and their eggs, and that did not react with male extracts. Each cloned hybridoma produced a monoclonal antibody that specifically reacted on western blots against one of the two major yolk polypeptides, apoVn-I (180,000 molecular weight) or apoVn-II (40,000). Yolk protein ELISAs were developed with these antibodies to assess yolk protein content of female O. insidiosus as a measure of reproductive fitness and as a potential predictor of fecundity. Protocols for an indirect antigen ELISA and double antibody sandwich ELISA were developed to assess yolk protein contents of eggs and total contents in whole body homogenates. ELISA standards consisted of homogenates of eggs collected 0-24 h following oviposition. As determined with the sandwich ELISA, yolk protein contents of eggs declined with age before hatch, with a half-life of 32-34 h. Results were similar whether the detecting antibody-enzyme conjugate was anti-apoVn-I or anti-apoVn-II. Optimal conditions and sampling parameters were developed for the sandwich ELISA, which demonstrated minimal nonspecific interference in whole-insect extracts. In an initial application of the YP-ELISA, oviposition rates over a 10-d period were compared with yolk protein contents at the end of that period, dependent on diets of differing nutritional composition and quality. High and low yolk protein contents correlated with oviposition rates on respective diets, though oviposition showed more graded response to diets than did yolk protein. Improvements in sampling

  1. Effect of flaxseed on the fatty acid profile of egg yolk and antioxidant status of their neonatal offspring in Huoyan geese.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Jiang, Y Y; Wang, J P; Yan, B X; Huang, Y Q; Wang, Z X

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of geese's maternal diet supplemented with flaxseed on the fatty acid profiles of egg yolks and the antioxidant status of their offspring. A total of 288 female Huoyan geese (42 weeks old) were randomly allotted to four experimental groups in this 56-day experiment and fed on diets containing flaxseed at 0% (control), 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. There were nine replicate pens per treatment, with eight geese per replicate pen. The concentration of α-linolenic acid (linear, P<0.01), EPA (20:5n-3; linear, P<0.01), DHA (22:6n-3; quadratic, P=0.03) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (linear, P<0.01) levels in the yolk lipids increased with increasing dietary flaxseed levels. Yolk palmitic acid (16:0, linear, P=0.05), saturated fatty acid (linear, P=0.04) level and total n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.01) decreased in a linear fashion as dietary flaxseed levels increased. Increasing dietary flaxseed levels linearly decreased (P=0.01) the total cholesterol in egg yolks. After hatching, three 1-day-old gosling were selected randomly from each replicate to determine blood characteristics and liver antioxidant status. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (linear, P=0.03), total triglycerides (linear, P=0.02) and total cholesterol (linear, P=0.05) contents in blood linearly decreased as the levels of flaxseed increased. A linear dose response to maternal dietary flaxseed was detected for the activities of the goslings' liver enzymes catalase (linear, P=0.01), superoxide dismutase (linear, P<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (linear, P<0.01). The malondialdehyde (quadratic, P=0.03) and alkaline phosphatase content in the livers of goslings decreased as flaxseed supplementation levels increased. In conclusion, the dietary addition of flaxseed up to 15%, in the maternal diet resulted in increased n-3 PUFA levels in egg yolks and improved the antioxidant status of offspring in a dose-dependent manner.

  2. Egg production, faecal pH and microbial population, small intestine morphology, and plasma and yolk cholesterol in laying hens given liquid metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    PubMed

    Choe, D W; Loh, T C; Foo, H L; Hair-Bejo, M; Awis, Q S

    2012-01-01

    1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.

  3. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of sphingomyelin species from calf brain, ox liver, egg yolk, and krill oil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2012-01-11

    In this study, molecular species of sphingomyelin (SM) in egg yolk, calf brain, ox liver, and krill oil were investigated. Classes of phospholipids (PLs) were purified, identified, and quantified by normal phase semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). For SM molecular species identification, pure SM collected through a flow splitter was loaded to HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)), with 100% methanol containing 5 mM ammonium formate as mobile phase. In addition to classes of PLs, the used approach allowed the determination of profiles of SM species in egg yolk, ox liver, and calf brain, whereas krill oil turned out not to contain any SM. It also allowed the separation and identification of SM subclasses, as well as tentative identification of species with the same molecular mass, including isomers. The results showed that egg yolk contained the highest proportion of (d18:1-16:0)SM (94.1%). The major SM molecular species in ox liver were (d18:1-16:0)SM (25.5%), (d18:1-23:0)SM (19.7%), (d18:1-24:0)SM (13.2%), and (d18:1-22:0)SM (12.5%). Calf brain SM was rich in species such as (d18:1-18:0)SM (40.7%), (d18:1-24:1)SM (17.1%), and (d18:1-20:0)SM (10.8%).

  4. Influence of the sex-linked dwarfing gene (dw) on the lipid composition of plasma, egg yolk and abdominal fat pad in White Leghorn laying hens: effect of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Burghelle-Mayeur, C; Demarne, Y; Mérat, P

    1989-10-01

    The levels and fatty acid composition of lipids were determined in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, d less than 1.006), yolk and abdominal adipose tissue of normal (Dw) and sex-linked dwarf (dw) White Leghorn laying hens. Effects of adding 4% tallow to the diet were also examined. In 40-wk-old hens, neither plasma lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol), VLDL levels, nor the chemical composition of VLDL was altered by the dw gene or dietary fat. Dwarfism reduced egg and yolk weights. Though the yolk lipid content was similar in normal and dwarf hens, yolk from dwarfs had slightly more phospholipids and less triglycerides than yolk from normal hens. Higher linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and lower oleic acid [18:1(n-9)] levels were observed in triglycerides of VLDL, yolk and adipose tissue from dwarf hens. In addition, the dietary fatty acid pattern had a greater influence on the fatty acid composition of the yolk lipid major precursors (VLDL triglycerides) in dwarf laying hens than in normal hens. These results suggest that the dwarfing gene might reduce the hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis and/or dwarf hens might incorporate more dietary lipids into yolk than do normal hens.

  5. A simplified procedure for gram-scale production of sialylglycopeptide (SGP) from egg yolks and subsequent semi-synthesis of Man3GlcNAc oxazoline.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingyang; Bao, Wenzheng; Tian, Xiaobo; Li, Mingjing; Liu, Hong; Dong, Jinhua; Huang, Wei

    2014-09-19

    Heterogeneity of glycan structures in native glycoconjugates always hampers precise studies on carbohydrate-involved biological functions. To construct homogeneous glycoconjugates from natural resource of homogeneous glycans is therefore a practical approach to solve this problem. We report here an optimized procedure for gram-scale production of sialylglycopeptide (SGP) containing a disialyl biantennary complex-type N-glycan from egg yolks. Our new procedure simplified the extraction process by treating the egg yolk powder with 40% acetone, avoiding massive emulsification, high-speed centrifugation, and sophisticated chromatography in reported methods. Subsequent semi-synthesis of the N-glycan core Man3GlcNAc oxazoline from SGP was accomplished for the first-time via glyco-trimming and successive oxazoline formation. This efficient semi-synthesis provides an alternative to the pure chemical approach that involves multi-step total synthesis and facilitates the application of endo-glycosidase-enabled chemoenzymatic synthesis of various homogeneous glycoconjugates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of adding taurine and trehalose to a tris-based egg yolk extender on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm quality following cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Shiva Shankar Reddy, N; Jagan Mohanarao, G; Atreja, S K

    2010-06-01

    Cryopreservation induces sublethal damage to the spermatozoa, which leads to their reduced fertile life. Under the present study, the cryoprotective effect of taurine and trehalose on buffalo sperm quality parameters after freeze-thaw process was studied. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender along with cryoprotectants like taurine (50 mM) or trehalose (100 mM) and used for the assessment of sperm quality parameters like motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, total antioxidant status and the extent of cryocapacitation. The results were compared to semen cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender only as control. Post-thaw semen evaluation clearly indicated that the addition of taurine or trehalose significantly improved (P<0.05) the motility, viability and membrane integrity compared to control spermatozoa. The extent of sperm cells underwent cryocapacitation was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in presence of taurine or trehalose. Moreover, the percentage of in vitro capacitated cells in the treated samples was comparable to the control spermatozoa along with maintaining other sperm quality parameters. Finally, compared to the control and trehalose treated sample, addition of taurine to the freezing extender showed more positive effect on the total antioxidant power of seminal plasma and spermatozoa. It is concluded that the addition of taurine or trehalose to the freezing extender led to the reduction of cryodamage to the buffalo spermatozoa. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Paula; Master, Adam; Domagała, Dominik; Piasna-Słupecka, Ewelina; Drozdowska, Mariola; Sikora, Elżbieta; Laidler, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we showed that fatty acids from CLA-enriched egg yolks (EFA-CLA) reduced the proliferation of breast cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms of their action remain unknown. In the current study, we used MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to determine the effect of EFA-CLA, as potential ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), on identified in silico PPAR-responsive genes: BCAR3, TCF20, WT1, ZNF621, and THRB (transcript TRβ2). Our results showed that EFA-CLA act as PPAR ligands with agonistic activity for all PPAR isoforms, with the highest specificity towards PPARγ. In conclusion, we propose that EFA-CLA-mediated regulation of PPAR-responsive genes is most likely facilitated by cis9,trans11CLA isomer incorporated in egg yolk. Notably, EFA-CLA activated PPAR more efficiently than nonenriched FA as well as synthetic CLA isomers. We also propose that this regulation, at least in part, can be responsible for the observed reduction in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells treated with EFA-CLA. PMID:28458685

  8. Improvement of Polymyxin-Egg Yolk-Mannitol-Bromothymol Blue Agar for the Enumeration and Isolation of Bacillus cereus in Various Foods.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-03-01

    A modified polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (mPEMBA) was developed by supplementing polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (PEMBA) with trimethoprim to improve the selectivity for and recoverability of Bacillus cereus from naturally and artificially contaminated food samples. The number of B. cereus in mPEMBA was significantly higher than in PEMBA, indicating better recoverability (P < 0.05) in red pepper powder (PEMBA 0.80 ± 0.22 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 1.95 ± 0.17 log CFU/g) and soybean paste (PEMBA 2.19 ± 0.18 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 3.09 ± 0.13 log CFU/g). In addition, mPEMBA provided better visual differentiation of B. cereus colonies than PEMBA, which is attributable to the reduced number of competing microflora. We conclude that the addition of trimethoprim to PEMBA could generate a synergistic effect to improve selectivity for B. cereus .

  9. Fatty Acids of CLA-Enriched Egg Yolks Can Induce Transcriptional Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Banks, Paula; Master, Adam; Domagała, Dominik; Piasna-Słupecka, Ewelina; Drozdowska, Mariola; Sikora, Elżbieta; Laidler, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we showed that fatty acids from CLA-enriched egg yolks (EFA-CLA) reduced the proliferation of breast cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms of their action remain unknown. In the current study, we used MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to determine the effect of EFA-CLA, as potential ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), on identified in silico PPAR-responsive genes: BCAR3, TCF20, WT1, ZNF621, and THRB (transcript TRβ2). Our results showed that EFA-CLA act as PPAR ligands with agonistic activity for all PPAR isoforms, with the highest specificity towards PPARγ. In conclusion, we propose that EFA-CLA-mediated regulation of PPAR-responsive genes is most likely facilitated by cis9,trans11CLA isomer incorporated in egg yolk. Notably, EFA-CLA activated PPAR more efficiently than nonenriched FA as well as synthetic CLA isomers. We also propose that this regulation, at least in part, can be responsible for the observed reduction in the proliferation of MCF-7 cells treated with EFA-CLA.

  10. A technique for the evaluation of sperm penetrating ability and quality of bovine semen processed in an extender made with Brackett-Oliphant medium and egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Chandler, J E; Degelos, S D; Canal, A M; Paul, J B

    1999-06-01

    Egg yolk-sodium citrate (EYC) semen extender was compared with an extender made of Brackett-Oliphant medium and egg yolk (BOEY). Ejaculates were divided into equal portions, processed and frozen. Semen was thawed and evaluated for quality. Additional semen was thawed, stained with Hoechst 33342 and the spermatozoa capacitated, after which they were co-incubated with zona-free hamster oocytes to determine their penetrating ability. Sperm penetration of non-compressed, unfixed oocytes was evaluated using an optical sectioning technique on a standard research microscope. Sperm penetration was considered successful if a fluorescing sperm head was observed within the living oocyte in a hanging drop of fertilization medium. There were small differences in percentage of secondary abnormalities and percentage of progressive motility immediately after thawing between spermatozoa extended in EYC or BOEY diluent. There were no differences due to by extender composition in percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes or percent of progressively motile after a 3 h incubation at 37 degrees C, nor the percentage of spermatozoa with head abnormalities. While there were significant correlations between all seminal quality characteristics, no quality measurements were correlated to percentage of oocyte penetration. The new penetration evaluation method allowed for examination of the fertilized oocytes using fluorescent microscopy initially and again after re-incubation for further development.

  11. Electrochemical immunosensor based on ensemble of nanoelectrodes for immunoglobulin IgY detection: application to identify hen's egg yolk in tempera paintings.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Fabio; Oliveri, Paolo; Ugo, Paolo

    2014-02-15

    A nanostructured electrochemical biosensor for detecting proteins of interest in work of art, in particular in tempera paintings, is presented. To determine egg yolk we focus here on the determination of immunoglobulin IgY. The transducers are nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), prepared via membrane templated electroless deposition of gold. Because of their geometrical and diffusion characteristics, NEEs are characterized by significantly low detection limits, moreover they display the capability of capturing proteins by interaction with the polycarbonate membrane of the NEE. At first, the proteic component of the paint is extracted by ultrasonication in an aqueous buffer, then IgY is captured by incubation on the NEE. The immunoglobulin is detected by treatment with anti-IgY labeled with horse radish peroxidase (Anti-IgY-HRP). The binding of the Anti-IgY-HRP is detected by recording the electrocatalytic signal caused by addition of H2O2 and methylene blue. The sensor detection capabilities are tested by analyzing both paint models, prepared in the lab, and real samples, from paintings of the XVIII-XX century. Multivariate exploratory analysis is applied to classify the voltammetric patterns, confirming the capability to differentiate egg-yolk tempera from other kind of tempera binders as well as from acrylic or oil paints.

  12. Strategic glycan elution map for the production of human-type N-linked oligosaccharides: the case of hen egg yolk and white.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Wataru; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2009-03-23

    Glycans play important roles in various biological phenomena, but the lack of a systematic procedure for producing complex structures of glycans severely restricts their application in the medical and industrial fields. In this paper, we propose a basic strategy for the preparation of substantial amounts (>100 mg) of N-linked oligosaccharides, where the structure of each glycan is mapped with its elution position in liquid chromatography as well as the empirical yield. In model experiments using hen egg white and yolk as starting materials, the former provided a series of agalactosylated complex-type and hybrid-type N-linked oligosaccharides containing bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in addition to two high-mannose type glycans. In contrast, egg yolk gave predominantly alpha2-6sialylated biantennary glycans together with a high-mannose type one, reflecting the difference in the origins of the tissues. Due to the total identity of the glycans obtained to human ones, the present strategy should provide a practical scheme for the production of human-type N-linked oligosaccharides.

  13. Yolk carotenoids increase fledging success in great tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Marri, Viviana; Richner, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Avian mothers can influence offspring phenotype through the deposition of different compounds into eggs, such as antibodies, hormones and antioxidants. The concentration of carotenoids in yolk is larger than in maternal plasma, suggesting an important role of these compounds for offspring development. Since carotenoids have to be acquired from the diet, they may be available in limiting amounts to the mothers. Here, we investigated the role of egg carotenoids for offspring growth by experimentally increasing the concentration of yolk lutein, the main carotenoid in great tit (Parus major) yolk. We subsequently measured body condition, oxidative stress, immune response, plumage colouration and fledging success. Lutein increased body mass soon after hatching and fledging success, but did not affect tarsus length, oxidative stress, immune response and plumage colouration. The higher content of yolk lutein could have increased body mass by reducing oxidative stress caused by high metabolic rates of rapidly growing embryos or by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation. The positive effect of lutein on fledging success seems to be mediated by its influence on body mass 3 days post-hatch, since these two traits were correlated. The finding that our treatment did not affect traits measured later in the nestling period, except for fledging success, suggests that yolk lutein has short-term effects that are essential to increase survival until fledging. Our study shows the positive effect of yolk lutein on offspring survival in the great tit, and therefore suggests an important role of carotenoid-mediated maternal effects.

  14. Continuing multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis strains in egg yolk during refrigeration at 7.2° C

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The continuing attribution of human illness caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) to the consumption of contaminated eggs has led to widespread implementation of risk reduction programs for commercial egg production. Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent bacterial multiplication to dangerously hig...

  15. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  16. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  17. Antimicrobial residue detection in chicken yolk samples following administration to egg-producing chickens and effects of residue detection on competitive exclusion culture (PREEMPT) establishment.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, J L; Caldwell, D Y; McElroy, A P; Hargis, B M; Caldwell, D J

    2000-12-01

    Competitive exclusion (CE) cultures may offer alternatives to antimicrobial agents for disease prophylaxis in poultry. To avoid potential transfer of antibiotic resistance, safe and effective CE cultures must, by necessity, be highly sensitive to antimicrobial residues. The following studies evaluated the effect of maternal administration of selected antibiotics on the establishment of a licensed CE culture, PREEMPT. Selected antibiotics were administered to actively laying hens for a period of 7 days (experiment 1) or 9 days (experiment 2) in drinking water [sulfadimethoxine (0.05%), enrofloxacin (0.005%), and tylosin tartrate (0.05%)] or feed (sulfadimethoxine with ormetoprim, 250 ppm). In experiment 1, fertile eggs were collected daily and subjected to bioassay for detectable antimicrobial residues in yolk. Antimicrobial residues were not detected during the 7 days of treatment or the subsequent 3 days following cessation of treatment in the control, sulfadimethoxine, sulfadimethoxine with ormetoprim, or tylosin treatment groups. However, detectable residues were observed in eggs derived from enrofloxacin-treated hens on days 6 and 7 during antibiotic administration and also on days 2 and 3 post-antibiotic administration. In experiment 2, antimicrobial residues were also only detected in yolks from hens treated with enrofloxacin. Residue detection occurred on days 2-6 of antibiotic administration, on day 9 of antibiotic administration, on days 1-3 post-antibiotic administration, and also on day 7 post-antibiotic administration. A subset of eggs from each experimental group, corresponding to days 2-6 of antibiotic administration, days 4-6 post-antibiotic administration, and days 14-16 post-antibiotic administration, were pooled for incubation, and chicks hatched from these pools of fertile eggs were treated with PREEMPT at hatch. When 48-h cecal propionate concentrations were used as an index of culture establishment, reduced (P < 0.05) efficacy was observed only

  18. Effect of supplementation of different boron and copper levels to layer diets on performance, egg yolk and plasma cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yazgan, Oktay; Cufadar, Yusuf

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of different levels boron and copper on performance, lipids in yolk and plasma contains in layer diets. In this trial a total of 320 layer chicken (26 weeks old age) was randomly distributed in 16 experimental groups. In each experiment group were consist at 5 replicates, and in each replicates there were 4 birds. During the 16 weeks experiment period, birds were fed with 16 experimental diets. Experimental diets were consisting of all possible combination of 4 levels of added boron (0, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg) and 4 levels of added copper (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) to the basal ration. Effect of treatments on body weight change and plasma glucose levels were not significant. However, added boron and copper had a significant effect on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. While added boron had a significant adverse effect on performance parameters, added copper had a significant positive effect on the same parameters. Yolk lipid contents were increased by addition of boron to the ration. However, yolk lipid contents were decreased by addition of copper to the ration. Plasma lipid contents were also decreased by addition of copper and boron in the ration. Results of the present study showed that laying hens from 26 to 42 weeks of age should be fed with 60 mg/kg boron and 150 mg/kg copper supplementation in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of seminal plasma and of its removal and of egg yolk in the diluent on the survival of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa of the Angora goat.

    PubMed

    Ritar, A J; Salamon, S

    1982-01-01

    After twofold dilution with Tris-glucose medium, buck seminal plasma was a poorer milieu than ram seminal plasma for the maintenance of viability of freshly collected spermatozoa of both species. Egg yolk (9% v/v) in the diluted buck seminal plasma caused coagulation of the medium coupled with death of spermatozoa after 2 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Removal of seminal plasma by centrifugation (washing) of buck semen was beneficial for the survival of spermatozoa after freeze-thawing, but the effect depended on the intensity of washing. When the semen was diluted 6- or 11-fold, double washing was more effective than single washing. However, the efficiency of the latter method, after 21-fold dilution, was similar to that of double washing at 11-fold extension. Survival of washed spermatozoa was better when the resuspending-freezing medium contained 1.5-12% (v/v) egg yolk than no egg yolk. Egg yolk concentration higher than 1.5% (v/v) depressed the post-thawing survival of non-washed spermatozoa.

  20. Effect of different dietary levels of Yucca schidigera powder on the performance, blood parameters and egg yolk cholesterol of laying quails.

    PubMed

    Kaya, S; Erdogan, Z; Erdogan, S

    2003-02-01

    A total of 135 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), 9 weeks old, were divided into three dietary treatment groups. Three replicates were assigned to each treatment group consisting of 15 birds per cage. The diet was supplemented with 0, 100 and 200 ppm Yucca schidigera powder and given ad libitum to the quails for a period of 14 weeks. Body weight, egg production, feed consumption and feed efficiency were not different due to dietary treatments among the groups. Increased egg weight was determined in the control group. Yucca powder supplementation decreased serum glucose, cholesterol triglyceride level in laying quails. Serum total protein concentration was not changed by dietary treatments but albumin level was decreased in quails fed 100 ppm yucca powder. Egg yolk cholesterol concentration was not significantly different among the groups but tended to decline (11.5%) as a result of yucca supplementation. Red Blood Cell (RBC) and White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were not affected by supplementation of yucca powder. However, haemoglobin (HB) concentration was slightly increased and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly increased by 200 ppm yucca powder supplementation to the diet.

  1. Protective effect of hyperimmune egg yolk Ig Y antibodies against Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian coccidiosis is economically the most important parasitic disease of the poultry industry and is caused by intestinal infection with Eimeria spp. An alternative control strategy potentially applicable to intestinal diseases such as avian coccidiosis involves passive immunization using hyperimm...

  2. Determination of Carotenoids in Egg Yolk by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Vortex-Assisted Hollow Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction using Mixed Extraction Solvent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wu, Nan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-11-01

    A vortex-assisted hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction method using a mixed solvent as the extraction solvent followed by high performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection was developed for the extraction and determination of two carotenoids including lutein and β-carotene from egg yolk. The method is based on the microextraction of carotenoids from sample solution into extracting agent (20 μL), which is located in the lumen of hollow fiber followed by vortex-mixing. The mixed solvent (1-octanol+1-undecanol, 6:4, v:v) was employed as extracting agent for it has suitable viscosity and compatible with carotenoids via hollow fiber. Vortex-mixing was utilized to provide effective and mild mixing of sample solution and increase the contact between analytes and boundary layers of the hollow fiber. Parameters influencing recoveries were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of lutein and β-carotene were from 50 to 1,000 ng mL(-1) The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.9982, relative standard deviations (n = 5) were between 2.23% and 3.51% and the limits of detection were 0.038 and 0.045 μg mL(-1) for lutein and β-carotene, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of caroteonids in egg yolk with the satisfactory relative recoveries (90.2-101.8%). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Butylated hydroxytoluene can reduce oxidative stress and improve quality of frozen-thawed bull semen processed in lecithin and egg yolk based extenders.

    PubMed

    Khumran, A M; Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Ariff, M O; Wahid, H; Kaka, Asmatullah; Ebrahimi, M; Sarsaifi, K

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), when added at different concentrations into lecithin-based Bioxcell(®) (BX) and two egg-yolk-based; Tris (TY) and citrate (CE) semen extenders, on post-thaw bull sperm quality and oxidative stress. A total of 30 ejaculates from three bulls were collected using an electro ejaculator. Ejaculates were extended with one of the BX, TY and CE extenders, which contained different concentrations (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml) of BHT. The extended semen samples were chilled to 4 °C, and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 ml straws before being stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Results showed that supplementation of BHT improved (P<0.05) general motility, progressive motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and malondialdehyde of sperm at 0.5mM/ml for BX and at 1-1.5mM/ml of BHT for TY and CE when compared with the control. However, greater concentrations of 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml of BHT had a detrimental (P<0.05) effect compared with the control with all extenders evaluated. In conclusion, BHT supplementation at lesser concentrations (0.5-1.5mM/ml) could improve frozen-thawed bull sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress produced during the freezing-thawing procedures in either lecithin or egg-yolk based extenders.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of egg yolk livetins (α, β, and γ-livetin) fraction and its enzymatic hydrolysates in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meram, Chalamaiah; Wu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the egg yolk livetins (α, β, and γ-livetin) fraction and its hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin and Alcalase, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model. Enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and Alcalase successfully transformed the large molecular weight livetins into low molecular mass peptides mostly below 10kDa. Results revealed that livetins and its hydrolysates (peptides) treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory responses as evidenced by inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) (22.7-39.2%), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (36.9-43.2%), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (26.1-50.9%) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (60.4-69.0%), and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (58.6-62%). Alcalase hydrolysate showed more effects in inhibiting prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production (30.3%) as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (55.7%). In addition, effect of livetins and its hydrolysates on phagocytic capacity of the macrophages was also evaluated. The results indicate that livetins and its enzymatic hydrolysates significantly (p<0.001, 0.05) enhanced the phagocytic activity of the macrophages. The results suggest that egg yolk livetins and its hydrolysates with anti-inflammatory activity can potentially be used in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on daily weight gain, lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet was studied. The control group was given normal feed while the other three groups received 50 g egg yolk/kg feed. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the test control and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. On gas chromatographic analysis of the aqueous crude extract, the phytosterol and tannins fractions contained 100 % of β-sitosterol and tannic acid respectively. The mean daily weight gain of the test control group was higher though not significantly, than those of the other groups. The plasma total cholesterol levels, cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the test groups, but not significantly higher than that of the control group. The plasma low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control and test groups. The plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol of the test control group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, but not significantly lower than those of the test groups. There were no significant differences in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the atherogenic index of plasma of all the groups. These results indicate a dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of the extract, thus suggesting a likely protective role of the extract against the development of cardiovascular diseases. It also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active agents in the leaves. PMID:27418909

  6. Mayonnaise contributes to increasing postprandial serum β-carotene concentration through the emulsifying property of egg yolk in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Sayaka; Kimura, Mamoru; Marushima, Ranko; Takeuchi, Ayako; Takizawa, Kazue; Ogino, Yuji; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Mineo; Maruyama, Chizuko

    2011-01-01

    We performed in vitro, animal, and human studies to clarify the effect of mayonnaise on β-carotene intake and its mechanism. In an artificial gastric juice model, we examined the transfer of β-carotene from grated carrot to mayonnaise or vegetable oil. Mayonnaise was more easily dispersed in artificial gastric juice than vegetable oil. The β-carotene concentration was greater in mayonnaise than vegetable oil. In rats, the postprandial serum β-carotene concentration in the mayonnaise group (β-carotene with mayonnaise) was higher than that in the control (β-carotene only) and vegetable oil (β-carotene with vegetable oil) groups. Continuous feeding of dietary β-carotene (14 d), employing mayonnaise or egg yolk, resulted in an increased accumulation of β-carotene in the liver. In a human study, diets were provided in the form of (1) carrot as a control (CON), (2) carrot juice (JU), (3) carrot with oil (OIL) and (4) carrot with mayonnaise (MS). Following collection of fasting blood samples, nine adult males consumed one of the four diets in random order. Fasting and postprandial changes in serum β-carotene were assessed at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h following ingestion of each diet. The incremental areas under the curves of serum β-carotene concentration were higher following MS than following both CON and JU. In conclusion, we suggest that mayonnaise contributes to raising the serum β-carotene concentration when consumed with carrots rich in β-carotene, and that its mechanism is related to the emulsifying property of the egg yolk contained in mayonnaise.

  7. Inactivation kinetics of a four-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially-acquired liquid egg yolk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Current liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on command and control prescribed time/temperature combinations for specified egg products. Requirements are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570. These standards were based on data for the ...

  8. Multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg yolks after inoculation outside, on, and inside vitelline membranes and storage at different temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prompt refrigeration to restrict bacterial growth is a widely acknowledged practice for reducing the risk of egg-borne transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis to consumers. A recently published federal regulation for S. Enteritidis control requires eggs to be refrigerated within 36 after they are la...

  9. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  10. Antibodies to the. cap alpha. -subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hens

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Yu, J.; Bai, D.H.; Hester, P.Y.; Kim, K.

    1985-11-01

    Simple methods for the generation, purification, and assay of antibodies to the ..cap alpha..-subunit of insulin receptor from eggs of immunized hen have been described. Chicken antibodies against the ..cap alpha..-subunit inhibit insulin binding to the receptor and stimulate glucose oxidation as well as autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit. Thus the properties of chicken antibodies are very similar to those of antibodies found in human autoimmune diseases and different from rabbit antibodies obtained against the same antigen.

  11. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. These maternal antibodies, depending on the pathogen, can provide early protection from some diseases, but it may also interfere with the vaccination re...

  12. Passive antibody transfer in chickens to model maternal antibody after avian influenza vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...

  13. Determination of amprolium in egg yolk and muscle tissue (chicken) by HPLC with post-column reaction and fluorometric detection, using on-line sample clean-up and pre-concentration steps.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, W; Wilhelmus van Gend, H

    1988-06-01

    A continuous flow system was coupled to a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, resulting in an automated system for the determination of amprolium in egg yolk and (chicken) muscle tissue. The sample was diluted (yolk) or extracted (tissue) with water, and the solution obtained was dialysed against water as the recipient stream. Aliquots of the dialysed solutions were pumped onto a short pre-concentration column. By means of the mobile phase, the concentrate was back-flushed onto the analytical column and amprolium was separated from interfering substances, using a reversed phase ion-pair system. Amprolium was post-column oxidized to amprochrome, which was detected fluorometrically. Linear calibration curves for both yolk an muscle tissue were obtained in the 10-250 micrograms/kg range. The detection limit is approximately 3 micrograms/kg. This method was applied to eggs and muscle tissue, which were commercial obtained. Egg yolk was found to be frequently contaminated with low levels of amprolium (29.4% positive of 266 samples investigated; mean concentration of positive samples = 58 micrograms/kg), whereas only a few muscle samples contained detectable levels (4.9% positive of 81 samples investigated; mean concentration of positive samples = 5 micrograms/kg).

  14. In Vivo Monitoring of the Growth of Fertilized Eggs of Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes) by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Imaging-A Marked Change in the Relative Content of Weakly Hydrogen-Bonded Water in Egg Yolk Just before Hatching.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Mika; Yasui, Yui; Puangchit, Paralee; Kawasaki, Shoya; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-08-01

    The present study develops further our previous study of in vivo monitoring at the molecular level of the embryonic development in Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and NIR imaging. NIR spectra were measured nondestructively for three major parts of fertilized medaka eggs (the embryonic body, oil droplets, and egg yolk) from the first day after fertilization to the day just before hatching (JBH). Changes in the contents of chemical components such as proteins, water, and lipids were monitored in situ during embryonic development. A marked change in the relative content of weakly hydrogen-bonded water was observed in the egg yolk JBH. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out using the NIR spectra data of the egg yolk and embryo on the fifth day after fertilization. The PCA clearly separates the egg yolk data from the embryo body parts. Principal component PC1 and PC2 loading plots suggest that the hydrogen bonding structure of water in the egg yolk is considerably different to those of the other parts and the fraction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water in the egg yolk is smaller than that in the embryonic body. NIR images developed from the intensities of peaks of second derivative spectra owing to water and proteins show their different distribution patterns. Images of the ratio of strongly and weakly hydrogen-bonded water confirmed that oil droplets and embryonic body parts have higher and lower ratios, respectively, of strongly hydrogen-bonded water than do the other parts. The images developed from the intensity of the peaks at 4864 and 4616 cm(-1) related to the proteins indicated that the egg yolk contains a higher concentration of protein than do the other parts. The peaks at 5756 and 4530 cm(-1) caused by the protein secondary structures of α-helix and β-sheet showed the configuration of the egg cell membrane. The present study might lead to new understanding at the molecular level regarding the growth of

  15. Estrogen-Responsive Genes Encoding Egg Yolk Proteins Vitellogenin and Apolipoprotein II in Chicken are differentially regulated by Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ratna, Warren N.; Bhatt, Vrushank D.; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Ariff, Ammar Bin; Bavadekar, Supriya A.; Ratna, Haran N.

    2015-01-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins apolipoprotein (apo) II and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo II mRNA is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of SERMs on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo II, VG and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies, conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver, was stimulated by estrogen, and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin, but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo II and VG from the above treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF, antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the above genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production. PMID:26452509

  16. Relative efficacy of egg yolk and soya milk-based extenders for cryopreservation (−196°C) of buffalo semen

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, D.V.; Dhami, A. J.; Hadiya, K. K.; Patel, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare commercially available soybean milk-based extenders, viz. Bioxcell® and Optixcell® (IMV, France) with standard Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender for cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected twice a week in artificial vagina from six sexually mature, 4-6 years old, healthy breeding bulls of Surti buffalo breed. In all 48 qualifying ejaculates (8 per bull) having initial motility >70% were split into three equal aliquots and were diluted (at 34°C keeping 100×106 sperm ml−1) in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders. The French mini straws filled from each aliquot were gradually cooled to 4-5°C, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h and frozen in liquid nitrogen 2 vapor using programmable biofreezer. Just before freezing (post-equilibration) and 24 h after frozen storage, the samples were evaluated for various sperm quality parameters using standard protocols. Frozen semen straws were thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. The post-thaw incubation survival (37°C for 1 h) was assessed through motility rating at 0, 30 and 60 min of incubation. Results: The mean percentages of prefreeze sperms in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders in terms of progressive motility (69.48±0.37, 68.02±0.49, 70.94±0.38), viability (79.21±0.39, 77.38±0.48, 81.58±0.38), total abnormalities (7.90±0.14, 8.60±0.16, 7.08±0.15), intact acrosome (89.54± 0.18, 88.58±0.22, 90.52±0.21) and hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) reactivity (67.96±0.32, 65.65±0.42, 70.23±0.37) varied significantly (p<0.05) between extenders. Similar pattern of significant (p<0.05) variations between these extenders for post-thaw sperm progressive motility (47.71±0.79, 44.38±0.85, 49.90±0.90), viability (57.19±0.79, 53.85±0.84, 59.67±0.91), total abnormalities (12.33±0.17, 12.75±0.21, 11.27±0.18), intact acrosome (76.83±0.23, 75.90± 0.27, 78.50±0.25) and HOS reactivity (45.02±0.84, 42.31±0.82, 47.81±0.90) was

  17. Chicken egg yolk plasma in tris-citric acid extender improves the quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hussain Shah, S Aftab; Hassan Andrabi, S Murtaza; Ahmed, Hussain; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2017-02-01

    This study was primarily designed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of ultraviolet (UV)-C-irradiated chicken egg yolk plasma (EYP; v:v; 10%, P1; 15%, P2; 20%, P3) or 20% (v:v) of whole chicken egg yolk (WCEY) in tris-citric acid (TCA) extender on water buffalo sperm quality during cryopreservation (postdilution, PD; postequilibration, PE; post-thawing, PT). Also the effect of best evolved concentration of UV-C-irradiated EYP in extender on in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa was evaluated. At PE and PT, computer-assisted sperm analysis progressive motility (PM, %) was significantly higher in P3 compared with P1 and WCEY. Rapid velocity (RV, %) was higher (P < 0.05) in P3 compared with P1 and WCEY during cryopreservation (PD, PE, and PT). Average path velocity (μm/s) and straight line velocity (μm/s) were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 than WCEY at PE and PT. The decline percentage (%, longevity) in PM and RV was lower (P < 0.05) in P3 compared with WCEY during 2 hours incubation under in vitro condition at PT. Supravital plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 compared with control at different stages (PE and PT). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 compared with P1 and WCEY at different stages (PD and PT). Percentage of viable sperm with intact acrosome, and sperm DNA integrity (%) were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 compared with WCEY at PT. The in vivo fertility rate (%) was significantly higher with P3 compared with WCEY (76.61 vs. 64.49). In conclusion, WCEY (20%) can be replaced with UV-C-irradiated chicken EYP (20%) in TCA extender for cryopreservation of water buffalo spermatozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially-acquired liquid whole egg and 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on time/temperature combinations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570 from data acquired prior to 1970. These guidelines are being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments, which take into account ch...

  19. The apoptotic engulfment protein Ced-6 participates in clathrin-mediated yolk uptake in Drosophila egg chambers

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Anupma; Watkins, Simon C.; Traub, Linton M.

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis are both selective surface internalization processes but have little known mechanistic similarity or interdependence. Here we show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain protein Ced-6, a well-established phagocytosis component that operates as a transducer of so-called “eat-me” signals during engulfment of apoptotic cells and microorganisms, is expressed in the female Drosophila germline and that Ced-6 expression correlates with ovarian follicle development. Ced-6 exhibits all the known biochemical properties of a clathrin-associated sorting protein, yet ced-6–null flies are semifertile despite massive accumulation of soluble yolk precursors in the hemolymph. This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical dileucine signal binds to the endocytic AP-2 clathrin adaptor directly. Nonetheless, the Ced-6 PTB domain specifically recognizes the noncanonical Yolkless FXNPXA sorting sequence and in HeLa cells promotes the rapid, clathrin-dependent uptake of a Yolkless chimera lacking the distal dileucine signal. Ced-6 thus operates in vivo as a clathrin adaptor. Because the human Ced-6 orthologue GULP similarly binds to clathrin machinery, localizes to cell surface clathrin-coated structures, and is enriched in placental clathrin-coated vesicles, new possibilities for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis must be considered. PMID:22398720

  20. Changeability of sperm chromatin structure during liquid storage of ovine semen in milk-egg yolk- and soybean lecithin-based extenders and their relationships to field-fertility.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Tarek; Lymberopoulos, Aristotelis

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of semen extender on sperm chromatin structure and to correlate chromatin integrity with field-fertility of preserved ram semen. Ejaculates of at least 2 × 10(9) sperm/ml and 70 % progressive motility were collected using an artificial vagina from Chios rams (n = 11, 4-6 years old), split-diluted to 1 × 10(9) sperm/ml with milk-egg yolk- and soybean lecithin (Ovixcell®)-based extenders, packaged in 0.5-ml straws and examined after 6, 24 and 48 h of storage at 5 ± 1 °C. Evaluation endpoints were computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, fluorescence-based analysis of chromatin structure by chromomycin A3 and acridine orange assays, and 65-day pregnancy rate (PR) of 34- to 36-h preserved semen after intra-cervical insemination of ewes (n = 154) in progestagen-synchronized estrus. Neither extender nor storage time had any influence on incidence of decondensed chromatin. Unlike Ovixcell® extender, deterioration of sperm motility (P < 0.01) and chromatin stability (P < 0.005) was detected after 48 h of storage in milk-egg yolk extender. Sperm motility accounted for 14.4-18.5 % of variations in chromatin integrity (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in PR of Ovixcell®- and milk-egg yolk-stored semen. Nevertheless, PR differed between rams (14.3-71.4 %; P < 0.025). Chromatin integrity explained 10.2-56.3 % of variations in PR (P < 0.05-0.01). A pronounced decline in PR (19.1 %) was observed when percentages of decondensed and destabilized chromatin have reached thresholds of 10.5-30 % and 4-9 %, respectively. In conclusion, Ovixcell® is superior to milk-egg yolk extender in preserving chromatin stability and motility. Chromatin defects are negatively associated with sperm fertility.

  1. Effects of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin injected into the yolks of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs prior to incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, D.C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Meadows, J.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Kelly, M.E.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Bursian, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs were injected with either 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] 126; 70-698 ?g/kg egg) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1.3-11.7 ?g/kg egg) prior to incubation. These compounds were injected into the yolks of cormorant eggs collected from incomplete clutches at isolated colonies on Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Canada. Eggs were incubated for approximately 26 to 28 d. After hatching the brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were dissected and weighed. Torsos were preserved in formalin for examination of the gonads. Median lethal doses (LD50s) calculated from mortality data at hatching were 177 and 4.0 ?g/kg egg for PCB 126 and TCDD, respectively. No significant differences were found in the incidence of developmental abnormalities in any of the treatment groups. Bursa weights were significantly less in the greatest (11.7 ?g/kg egg) TCDD group compared to the vehicle control group. Spleen weights were significantly less in the 349 ?g PCB 126/kg egg and the 5.4 and 11.7 ?g TCDD/kg egg groups when compared to the vehicle control group. No histological alterations of the gonads were found. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in all PCB 126 and TCDD dose groups was significantly greater compared to the control activity. The toxic equivalency factor for PCB 126 was 0.02

  2. Molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of four Sudan dyes in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Jindong; Yang, Gengliang

    2011-04-22

    A new kind of aniline-naphthol molecularly imprinted microsphere (MIM) synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization was applied as a selective sorbent of miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion combining with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MSPD-DLLME) for the simultaneous determination of four Sudans in egg yolk samples. The solid sample was directly blended with MIM in MSPD procedure and the eluent of MSPD was used as the dispersive solvent of the followed DLLME for further purification and enrichment of the analytes before HPLC analysis. Good linearity for all the Sudan dyes was ranged from 0.02 μg g(-1) to 2.0 μg g(-1) (r(2)≥0.9990) and their recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87.2% to 103.5% with RSD less than 6.1% (n=3). The presented MIM-MSPD-DLLME method combined the advantages of MIM, MSPD and DLLME, and could be applied for the determination of Sudans in complicated food samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding interaction of differently charged fluorescent probes with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the effect of β-cyclodextrin on the lipid-probe complexes: A fluorometric investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Barnali; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of cationic phenosafranin (PSF), anionic 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and non-ionic nile red (NR) have been studied with the zwitterionic phospholipid, egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC). The study reveals discernible binding interactions of the three fluorescent probes with the EYPC lipid vesicle. Once the binding of the probes with the lipid is established, the effect of cyclic oligosaccharide, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), on these lipid bound probes has been investigated. Different fluorometric techniques suggest that addition of β-CD to the probe-lipid complexes leads to the release of the probes from the lipid medium through the formation of probe-β-CD inclusion complexes. A competitive binding of the probes between β-cyclodextrin and the lipid is ascribed to be responsible for the effect. This provides an easy avenue for the removal of the probe molecules from the lipid environment. Extension of this work with drug molecules in cell membranes is expected to give rise to a strategy for the removal of adsorbed drugs from the cell membranes by the use of non-toxic β-cyclodextrin.

  4. Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing.

    PubMed

    Dawra, Vasundhara; Yadav, Brijesh; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2015-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of glutamine and replacement of Tris-egg yolk (TE) based buffer with defatted cow milk on the spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing. Semen was collected from five Bhadawari bulls biweekly, and a total of 30 ejaculates were taken. The semen ejaculates were pooled and divided into three equal parts. The pooled semen was diluted by TE based extender (control), TE + glutamine (8 mM) (T1) and 50% TE + 50% deffated cow milk + glutamine (8 mM) (T2). At two stages viz. after equilibration and after 12 h of cryopreservation (thawed samples), progressive motility, percent live, and percent acrosomal damage of the spermatozoa was assessed. Supplementation of glutamine improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality with respect to the progressive motility, percent live and acrosomal damage both post-equilibration and post-thaw. T2 improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality as compared to control, however; it was less (p<0.05) effective as compared T1 both post-equilibration and post-thaw. From the results of present study it can be concluded that glutamine supplementation was effective in maintaining post-equilibration and post-thaw spermatozoa quality whereas defatted cow milk was not as effective as TE based buffer in the extender in improving the spermatozoa quality.

  5. Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing

    PubMed Central

    Dawra, Vasundhara; Yadav, Brijesh; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of glutamine and replacement of Tris-egg yolk (TE) based buffer with defatted cow milk on the spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from five Bhadawari bulls biweekly, and a total of 30 ejaculates were taken. The semen ejaculates were pooled and divided into three equal parts. The pooled semen was diluted by TE based extender (control), TE + glutamine (8 mM) (T1) and 50% TE + 50% deffated cow milk + glutamine (8 mM) (T2). At two stages viz. after equilibration and after 12 h of cryopreservation (thawed samples), progressive motility, percent live, and percent acrosomal damage of the spermatozoa was assessed. Results: Supplementation of glutamine improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality with respect to the progressive motility, percent live and acrosomal damage both post-equilibration and post-thaw. T2 improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality as compared to control, however; it was less (p<0.05) effective as compared T1 both post-equilibration and post-thaw. Conclusion: From the results of present study it can be concluded that glutamine supplementation was effective in maintaining post-equilibration and post-thaw spermatozoa quality whereas defatted cow milk was not as effective as TE based buffer in the extender in improving the spermatozoa quality. PMID:27047193

  6. Does spatial variation in egg thiamine and fatty-acid concentration of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush lead to differential early mortality syndrome and yolk oedema mortality in offspring?

    PubMed

    Czesny, S J; Rinchard, J; Lee, B-J; Dabrowski, K; Dettmers, J M; Cao, Y

    2012-06-01

    Individual variation in fatty-acid and thiamine concentrations were determined in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush eggs collected at two spawning grounds in Lake Michigan. A suite of predictor variables, including spawning location, egg fatty-acid and thiamine concentrations, were used to attempt to explain cause-and-effect in early life stage mortality among S. namaycush families. Lipid and fatty-acid composition of S. namaycush eggs differed between spawning locations. Salvelinus namaycush offspring from south-western Lake Michigan were affected by a high occurrence of yolk oedema, whereas a higher frequency of early mortality syndrome (EMS) was observed among offspring from the north-western part of the lake. Random-forest regressions revealed location as the most influential predictor of yolk oedema mortality, whereas thiamine level in eggs was the strongest predictor of EMS-related mortality. Several polyunsaturated fatty acids were also found to be predictors of both mortalities. There is evidence of spatial variability in egg fatty-acid concentration among S. namaycush in Lake Michigan that, together with diminished thiamine concentration, contribute to low survival of S. namaycush progeny. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Rettenbacher, S; Möstl, E; Groothuis, T G G

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that antibodies for corticosterone measurement cross-react with other steroids present in the yolk. In order to investigate this assumption and to characterise potential cross-reacting hormones in more detail, we performed high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of chicken yolk extracts and determined the concentration of immunoreactive corticosterone, progesterone and cortisol. The progesterone antibody revealed several immunoreactive substances, including progesterone, pregnenolone and two substances with lower polarity. The corticosterone enzyme immunoassay detected immunoreactive substances at exactly the same elution positions as the progesterone assay and a very small peak at the elution position of corticosterone. Immunoreactive cortisol was not found. In addition, inner and outer regions of the yolk sphere were analysed separately via HPLC. We found different concentrations of immunoreactive substances between the inner and outer yolk regions, probably reflecting the steroidogenic activity of the follicle cells during oocyte growth. We conclude that in homogenised yolk extracts without previous clean-up, the measured corticosterone concentrations may actually reflect those of progesterone and its precursors, most probably being 5 alpha- and 5 beta-pregnanes and pregnenolone.

  8. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  9. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  10. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  11. Estrogen-responsive genes encoding egg yolk proteins vitellogenin and apolipoprotein II in chicken are differentially regulated by selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Ratna, Warren N; Bhatt, Vrushank D; Chaudhary, Kawshik; Bin Ariff, Ammar; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Ratna, Haran N

    2016-02-01

    In a hen, large quantities of the egg yolk proteins, apolipoprotein II (apo-II) and vitellogenin (VG), are expressed in the liver and transported to the oviduct during egg production. Estrogenic stimulation of the hepatic expression of apo-II and VG is due to both transcriptional increase and mRNA stabilization. The nucleolytic degradation of apo-II messenger RNA (mRNA) is prevented by estrogen-regulated mRNA-stabilizing factor (E-RmRNASF). Gene-specific effects of a select panel of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the hepatic expression of the estrogen-responsive genes encoding apo-II, VG, and E-RmRNASF in the chicken liver were investigated. In the present study, 6-week-old roosters were treated with the vehicle, estrogen, the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, raloxifene, catechin, and clomiphene or a combination of estrogen and a 200-fold excess of each of the SERMs. Results from mRNA stabilization studies conducted to investigate the stimulation of expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver by these agents showed that the expression of E-RmRNASF in the liver was stimulated by estrogen and the SERMs genistein, resveratrol, tamoxifen, pterostilbene, and catechin but not by the vehicle, clomiphene or raloxifene. The expression of apo-II and VG from the aforementioned treatments was determined by Northern blot analysis, RNase protection assays, and Western blot analysis. The transcription and protein expression of both apo-II and VG genes were seen in response to treatment with estrogen but not with the SERMs or combinations of estrogen and each of the SERMs. The SERMs that stimulated the expression of E-RmRNASF antagonized the stimulation of the expression of both apo-II and VG by estrogen, demonstrating a gene-specific, selective regulation of the aforementioned genes in the chicken liver by the SERMs. The above panel of SERMs may likely have adverse effects on egg production.

  12. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  13. Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (TEY) extender developed for freezing dog semen is a good option to cryopreserve bovine epididymal sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Soares, L; Ferreira, P; Rocha, A

    2015-02-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis-epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze-thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed(®) or a Tris-egg yolk (TEY)-based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin-nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post-thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p < 0.01) percentage of progressive motile and live sperm, than those extended in AndroMed(®) . Blastocyst rate after IVF differed only (p < 0.05) between the reference group (IVF performed with frozen semen with known in vitro fertility) and Group A extended in AndroMed(®) . We conclude that when cryopreservation facilities are distant from the collection site, bovine epididymal sperm can be shipped chilled overnight either within the epididymal tail or after dilution without deleterious effect on post-thaw sperm quality. TEY extender was more suitable for cold storage and freezing bovine epididymal sperm, than the commercial

  14. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    PubMed

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacintha G B; Mateman, A Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards.

  16. Transfer of Maternal Antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jacintha G. B.; Mateman, A. Christa; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Maternal antibodies protect chicks from infection with pathogens early in life and may impact pathogen dynamics due to the alteration of the proportion of susceptible individuals in a population. We investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in a key AIV host species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Combining observations in both the field and in mallards kept in captivity, we connected maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs to (i) female body condition, (ii) female AIV antibody concentration, (iii) egg laying order, (iv) egg size and (v) embryo sex. We applied maternity analysis to the eggs collected in the field to account for intraspecific nest parasitism, which is reportedly high in Anseriformes, detecting parasitic eggs in one out of eight clutches. AIV antibody prevalence in free-living and captive females was respectively 48% and 56%, with 43% and 24% of the eggs receiving these antibodies maternally. In both field and captive study, maternal AIV antibody concentrations in egg yolk correlated positively with circulating AIV antibody concentrations in females. In the captive study, yolk AIV antibody concentrations correlated positively with egg laying order. Female body mass and egg size from the field and captive study, and embryos sex from the field study were not associated with maternal AIV antibody concentrations in eggs. Our study indicates that maternal AIV antibody transfer may potentially play an important role in shaping AIV infection dynamics in mallards. PMID:25386907

  17. Persisting antibody reaction in paragonimiasis after praziquantel treatment is elicited mainly by egg antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yoon; Yun, Doo-Hee; Kang, Shin-Yong; Kim, Lee-Soo; Chung, Young-Bae; Yang, Hyun-Jong

    2000-01-01

    Antibody responses in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with active and chronic paragonimiasis and in sera from patients on whom follow-up studies were done after praziquantel treatment were analyzed using antigens of Paragonimus westermani prepared from eggs, metacercariae, juveniles of 4- and 7-week old, adult worms and recombinant protein of 28 kDa cruzipain-like cysteine protease (rPw28CCP). The patient sera/CSFs of active and chronic paragonimiasis revealed strong antibody reactions against the crude extracts of 4- and 7-week old juveniles as well as against those from egg and adult. rPw28CCP also showed specific reaction to the sera with active paragonimiasis. After the treatment, levels of specific antibodies in the sera gradually decreased to negative range in most patients. In some cases with persisting high antibody levels, however, the reactions at 27 kDa egg protein were sustained throughout the observation period of 34 months. The reactions at 35 and 32 kDa in adult extract and rPw28CCP disappeared rapidly after the treatment. Persistent antibody reactions even after successful treatment are provoked by continuous antigenic challenge from eggs which were not resolved by treatment. PMID:10905068

  18. Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Chastel, Olivier; Williams, Tony D; Eens, Marcel; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2012-12-23

    Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating concentrations of the primary yolk-precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and levels of yolk androgens. Previous work in Eudyptes penguins has shown that egg-size dimorphism is the product of migratory constraints on yolk precursor production. We predicted that if yolk precursors are constrained, androgen transport to developing yolks would be similarly constrained. We reveal positive linear relationships between maternal VTG and androgens in small A-eggs but not larger B-eggs, which is consistent with a migratory constraint operating on the A-egg. Results suggest that intra-clutch variation in total yolk androgen levels depends on the production and uptake of yolk precursors. The brood reduction strategy common to Eudyptes might thus be best described as the result of a migratory constraint.

  19. Effects of 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) injected into the yolks of chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs prior to incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, D.C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Meadows, J.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Giesy, J.P.; Stromborg, K.L.; Bursian, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The yolks of White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected prior to incubation with either 3,3′,4,4′,5- pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) at doses ranging from 0.1 to 12.8 μg/kg egg or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at doses ranging from 0.04 to 0.64 μg/kg egg. Chicks were subjected to necropsy within 24 h of hatching. The brain, bursa, heart, liver, and spleen were removed and weighed. Assessment of the rate of hatching indicated an LD50±S.E. of 2.3±0.19 μg/kg egg (7.1±0.58 nmol/kg egg) for PCB 126 and 0.15±0.012 μg/kg egg (0.47±0.037 nmol/kg egg) for TCDD. No significant differences in the incidence of developmental abnormalities (structural defects and edema) were observed in TCDD-exposed embryos, while PCB 126 caused significantly more developmental abnormalities at 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 μg/kg egg than the vehicle control. PCB 126 caused lower hatchling weights and greater relative brain, heart, and liver weights when compared to the vehicle control group at a dose of 3.2 μg/kg egg which is greater than the LD50. TCDD at 0.08 μg/kg egg caused relative bursa weights to be less than those of the vehicle control. A toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 0.07 was determined for PCB 126 in relation to TCDD based on overt lethality.

  20. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition test and ELISA in quantification of antibodies to egg drop syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Raj, G Dhinakar; Ratnapraba, S; Matheswaran, K; Nachimuthu, K

    2004-01-01

    A single-serum dilution ELISA for egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus-specific antibodies was developed. In testing 425 chicken sera it was found to have a 93.6% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity relative to a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The correlation coefficient for ELISA and HI titers was 0.793. The ELISA was efficacious in quantification of both vaccinal and infection antibodies and could routinely be used for screening large numbers of field sera.

  1. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  2. Antibody against the actin-binding protein depactin attenuates Ca2+ signaling in starfish eggs.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jong T; Vasilev, Filip; Santella, Luigia

    2013-11-15

    Being present in starfish oocytes, the cofilin/ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor) family protein depactin severs actin filaments. Previously, we reported that exogenous cofilin microinjected into starfish eggs significantly augmented the Ca(2+) release in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or fertilizing sperm, raising the possibility that intracellular Ca(2+) signaling could be modulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this communication, we have targeted the endogenous depactin by use of the specific antibody that was raised against its actin-binding domain. The anti-depactin antibody microinjected into the starfish oocytes and eggs effectively altered the structure of the actin cytoskeleton, and significantly delayed the meiotic progression induced by 1-methyladenine. When microinjected into the mature eggs, the anti-depactin antibody markedly reduced the amplitude of the Ca(2+) response in a dose-dependent manner, corroborating the results of our previous study with cofilin. In addition, the eggs microinjected with the anti-depactin antibody displayed reduced rate of successful elevation of the fertilization envelope and an elevated tendency of polyspermic interaction. Taken together, our data suggest that the actin cytoskeleton is implicated not only in meiotic maturation and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, but also in the fine regulation of gametes interaction and cortical granules exocytosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal antibodies but not carotenoids in barn swallow eggs covary with embryo sex.

    PubMed

    Saino, N; Romano, M; Ferrari, R P; Martinelli, R; Møller, A P

    2003-05-01

    Mothers influence their offspring phenotype by varying egg quality. Such maternal effects may be mediated by transmission of antibodies and antioxidants. Mothers should adjust allocation of maternal substances depending on embryonic sex because of differences in reproductive value, potentially dependent on paternal genetic effects as reflected by secondary sexual characters. We manipulated sexual attractiveness of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) and investigated maternal investment in eggs in relation to offspring sex. Mothers allocated more antibodies against a pathogen to eggs with a daughter than a son. However, concentration of antioxidants was independent of embryonic sex. Sex-dependent allocation was independent of paternal attractiveness. Thus, mothers adjusted allocation of substances to offspring in a complex manner, that may be part of a strategy of favouritism of daughters, which have larger mortality than sons. Such effects may have important consequences for secondary and tertiary sex ratios, but also for ontogeny of adult phenotype.

  4. Development of a low resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic technique for the study of matrix mobility in fresh and freeze-thawed hen egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Au, Carmen; Wang, Tong; Acevedo, Nuria C

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted in developing a low resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic technique to study matrix mobility in fresh and freeze-thawed gelled yolk. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence was used to measure spin-spin relaxation times of proton pools representing major yolk constituents. A component identification test distinguished 3-4 pools. The least mobile pool was assigned to proteins, protein-lipid and protein-water interactions, and the most mobile to unbound water. The remaining pools were assigned to lipids, lipid-protein and lipid-water interactions. A stability test indicated that yolk had varied matrix mobility within the same sample across five days of refrigeration storage. A reproducibility test demonstrated high repeatability of fresh yolk measurements, but significant differences (p<0.05) were found within gelled yolk samples. This research determined that (1)H NMR spectroscopy, a non-destructive technique, can identify yolk components and detect changes in the matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  6. Egg-yolk protein by-product as a source of ACE-inhibitory peptides obtained with using unconventional proteinase from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

    PubMed

    Eckert, Ewelina; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Polanowski, Antoni; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2014-10-14

    In the present study angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated from egg-yolk protein preparation (YP). Enzymatic hydrolysis conducted using unconventional enzyme from Cucurbita ficifolia (dose: 1000 U/mg of hydrolyzed YP (E/S (w/w)=1:7.52)) was employed to obtain protein hydrolysates. The 4-h hydrolysate exhibited a significant (IC₅₀=482.5 μg/mL) ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, hydrolysate showed no cytotoxic activity on human and animal cell lines which makes it a very useful multifunctional method for peptide preparation. The compiled isolation procedure (ultrafiltration, size-exclusion chromatography and RP-HPLC) of bioactive peptides from YP hydrolysate resulted in obtaining peptides with the strong ACE inhibitory activity. One homogeneous and three heterogeneous peptide fractions were identified. The peptides were composed of 9-18 amino-acid residues, including mainly arginine and leucine at the N-terminal positions. To confirm the selected bioactive peptide sequences their analogs were chemically synthesized and tested. Peptide LAPSLPGKPKPD showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC₅₀ value of 1.97 μmol/L. Peptides with specific biological activity can be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industries. Because of their potential role as physiological modulators, as well as theirhigh safety profile, they can be used as natural pharmacological compounds or functional food ingredients. The development of biotechnological solutions to obtain peptides with desired biological activity is already in progress. Studies in this area are focused on using unconventional highly specific enzymes and more efficient methods developed to conduct food process technologies. Natural peptides have many advantages. They are mainly toxicologically safe, have wide spectra of therapeutic actions, exhibit less side effects compared to synthetic drugs and are more efficiently absorbed in the intestinal tract. The complexity of

  7. Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-α expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Mobley, C Brooks; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Lockwood, Christopher M; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Krieger, Anna E; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Hofheins, John C; Company, Joseph M; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kim, Dae Y; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine. Nine month-old male Brown Norway rats were allowed ad libitum access to WD for 41-43 days and randomly assigned to WD + AF feeding twice daily for the last 31-33 days (n = 8), or WD and water-placebo feeding twice daily for the last 31-33 days (n = 8). Rats fed a low-fat/low-sucrose diet (CTL, n = 6) for 41-43 days and administered a water-placebo twice daily for the last 31-33 days were also studied. Twenty-four hours following the last gavage-feed, liver samples were analyzed for: a) select mRNAs (via RT-PCR) as well as genome-wide mRNA expression patterns (via RNA-seq); b) lipid deposition; and, c) protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum was also examined for TAC, 8-isoprostane and clinical chemistry markers. WD + AF rats experienced a reduction in liver Tnf-α mRNA (-2.8-fold, p < 0.01). Serum and liver TAC was lower in WD + AF versus WD and CTL rats (p < 0.05), likely due to exogenous antioxidant ingredients provided through AF as evidenced by a tendency for mitochondrial SOD2 mRNA to increase in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.07). Liver fat deposition nor liver protein carbonyl content differed between WD + AF versus WD rats, although liver protein carbonyls tended to be lower in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.08). RNA-seq revealed that 19 liver mRNAs differed between WD + AF versus WD when both groups were compared with CTL rats (+/- 1.5-fold, p < 0.01). Bioinformatics suggest that AF prevented WD-induced alterations in select genes related to the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates in favor of select genes related to lipid transport and metabolism. Finally, serum clinical safety markers and liver pathology

  8. Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-α expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine. Methods Nine month-old male Brown Norway rats were allowed ad libitum access to WD for 41–43 days and randomly assigned to WD + AF feeding twice daily for the last 31–33 days (n = 8), or WD and water-placebo feeding twice daily for the last 31–33 days (n = 8). Rats fed a low-fat/low-sucrose diet (CTL, n = 6) for 41–43 days and administered a water-placebo twice daily for the last 31–33 days were also studied. Twenty-four hours following the last gavage-feed, liver samples were analyzed for: a) select mRNAs (via RT-PCR) as well as genome-wide mRNA expression patterns (via RNA-seq); b) lipid deposition; and, c) protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum was also examined for TAC, 8-isoprostane and clinical chemistry markers. Results WD + AF rats experienced a reduction in liver Tnf-α mRNA (-2.8-fold, p < 0.01). Serum and liver TAC was lower in WD + AF versus WD and CTL rats (p < 0.05), likely due to exogenous antioxidant ingredients provided through AF as evidenced by a tendency for mitochondrial SOD2 mRNA to increase in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.07). Liver fat deposition nor liver protein carbonyl content differed between WD + AF versus WD rats, although liver protein carbonyls tended to be lower in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.08). RNA-seq revealed that 19 liver mRNAs differed between WD + AF versus WD when both groups were compared with CTL rats (+/- 1.5-fold, p < 0.01). Bioinformatics suggest that AF prevented WD-induced alterations in select genes related to the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates in favor of select genes related to lipid transport and metabolism. Finally, serum clinical

  9. Characterization of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs) specific for the most prevalent capsular serotypes of mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Li-Ji; You, Jian-Song; Zhou, Ye; Li, Shu-Ying; Xu, Yong-Ping

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the potential of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs) for treating mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Specific IgY against type 5 (IgY-T5), type 8 (IgY-T8) and type 336 (IgY-T336) S. aureus strains were obtained by immunizing hens with whole cell vaccines and the IgY produced were then purified to around 80% purity using a water dilution method coupled with salting out and ultra-filtration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that the IgY specifically targeted the three homologous strains. A growth inhibition assay was performed in Columbia broth (non-encapsulated form) and phosphate-buffered saline (encapsulated form) for an 8h incubation. The results showed that IgY-T336 significantly inhibited (but only 1.5 log units; P<0.01) the growth of all three strains at 15 mg/ml in the Columbia broth. In contrast, the same concentrations of IgY-T5 and IgY-T8 did not show obvious bacteriostatic activity against the two homologous strains. In phosphate buffered saline, no inhibition of the two encapsulated strains was observed with IgY-T5, IgY-T8 and IgY-T336. However, IgY-T336 reduced live bacteria by 1.0 log unit against strain 336 compared with the control. An internalization test indicated that all of the specific IgY (at 5mg/ml) significantly (about 3.0 log units of the control; P<0.01) blocked the internalization of their homologous strains by bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) within 6h. These results suggested that research on the application of IgY as a treatment for mastitis caused by S. aureus should be focused on the internalization inhibition activity rather than on the growth inhibition activity of the IgY. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of supplementation with fish oil and n-3 PUFAs enriched egg yolk phospholipids on anhedonic-like response and body weight in the rat chronic mild stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, M; Trocha, M; Szandruk, M; Słupski, W; Rymaszewska, J

    2013-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in the human organism. They guarantee a normal function of nervous cells, influence neurotransmission, and build some elements of cellular membranes. Several reports indicate an association between a deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diet supplemented with fish oil, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs enriched phospholipids ("super lecithin") obtained from designed eggs on anhedonic-like response and body weight in the rat chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. The results showed that neither fish oil nor n-3 PUFAs enriched egg yolk phospholipids supplementation reversed disturbances caused by CMS, such as anhedonic-like state or reduction of body weight gain.

  11. Increased Macular Pigment Optical Density and Visual Acuity following Consumption of a Buttermilk Drink Containing Lutein-Enriched Egg Yolks: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Made, Sanne M.; Kelly, Elton R.; Kijlstra, Aize; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study the effect of 1-year daily consumption of a dairy drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolks on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual function parameters in elderly subjects with ocular drusen and/or retinal pigment abnormalities. Methods. One hundred and one subjects were recruited to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. Statistical analyses were performed with 46 subjects in the lutein group and 43 in the control group. MPOD, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR), and dark adaptation were measured at the start of the study, after 6 months and after 12 months. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Results. In the lutein group, plasma lutein concentrations increased significantly from 205 ng/mL at baseline to 399 ng/mL after twelve months of intervention. MPOD increased significantly from 0.45 to 0.52 and BCVA improved significantly from −0.04 to −0.09 LogMar. Differences in rod dark adaptation rate between both groups were not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of a dairy drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolks for one year improves visual acuity, MPOD, and plasma lutein concentration in elderly subjects with drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities. PMID:27064326

  12. Environmental influence on yolk steroids in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Albergotti, Lori C; McCoy, Michael W; Mutz, Jessica; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-11-01

    The egg yolk serves as a significant source of maternally derived steroids that are available to the embryo during early development. Altered deposition of yolk steroids can change the developmental trajectory of the embryo and have long lasting or permanent consequences. Alligators from contaminated environments have shown significant reproductive and developmental dysfunction, and it is unclear if altered deposition of yolk steroids could be a contributing factor. Alligator eggs were collected from Lake Woodruff (a reference lake), Lake Apopka (a site of known agricultural contamination), and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) (home of the Kennedy Space Center and a site of heavy metal contamination). The yolks of eggs at embryonic stages 12 (prior to sex determination) and 24 (post-sex determination) were evaluated for concentrations of progesterone, 17-beta estradiol, and testosterone. Yolk concentrations of progesterone were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from Lake Apopka and MINWR when compared to eggs from Lake Woodruff. Yolk concentrations of 17-beta estradiol were significantly lower at embryonic stage 12 in eggs from MINWR when compared to the other two sites. Reductions in yolk 17-beta estradiol concentrations from embryonic stage 12 to 24 were significantly attenuated in eggs from MINWR versus that of Lakes Woodruff and Apopka. This study suggests that altered deposition of yolk steroids, and possibly differential utilization by the embryo, could be a contributory mechanism in the reproductive and developmental abnormalities seen in alligators from contaminated locales.

  13. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  14. Amphibian egg cytoplasm response to altered g-forces and gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Smith, R. C.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Elucidation of dorsal/ventral polarity and primary embryonic axis development in amphibian embryos requires an understanding of cytoplasmic rearrangements in fertile eggs at the biophysical, physiological, and biochemical levels. Evidence is presented that amphibian egg cytoplasmic components are compartmentalized. The effects of altered orientation to the gravitational vector (i.e., egg inversion) and alterations in gravity force ranging from hypergravity (centrifugation) to simulated microgravity (i.e., horizontal clinostat rotation) on cytoplasmic compartment rearrangements are reviewed. The behavior of yolk compartments as well as a newly defined (with monoclonal antibody) nonyolk cytoplasmic compartment, in inverted eggs and in eggs rotated on horizontal clinostats at their buoyant density, is discussed.

  15. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    PubMed

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Grégoire, Arnaud; Staszewski, Vincent; Guerreiro, Romain; Perret, Philippe; Boulinier, Thierry; Doutrelant, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices). We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks. As yolk antibody

  16. Eggshell Spottiness Reflects Maternally Transferred Antibodies in Blue Tits

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Grégoire, Arnaud; Staszewski, Vincent; Guerreiro, Romain; Perret, Philippe; Boulinier, Thierry; Doutrelant, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices). We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks. As yolk antibody

  17. Differences in internal egg quality characteristics between white and brown shell eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the differences among the internal quality characteristics of brown and white shell table eggs and to examine the relationship between quality characteristics. A total of 235 eggs from brown and white laying hens (Nick-chick; 95 wk of age) were used in this study. Internal egg quality characteristics including egg weight, albumen height, Haugh Unit, yolk height, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk color were determined. The Haugh unit (P<0.001), Albumen height (P<0.001), yolk L* (P<0.001) and yolk b* (P<0.05) values of white shell eggs were higher than that of brown shell eggs. On the contrary, the yolk a*(P<0.01), yolk height (P<0.01) and yolk index (P<0.01) values of white shell eggs were lower than that of brown shell eggs. There were no significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs for egg weight, albumen and yolk pH values. Significant (P<0.001) positive correlations were found between albumen height and Haugh unit (r= 0.97), yolk height and yolk index (r=0.91), albumen pH and yolk pH (r=0.95) in internal egg quality of white shell eggs. Similarly, there were significant (P<0.001) positive correlations between albumen height and Haugh unit (r= 0.97), yolk height and yolk index (r=0.88), egg weight and albumen height (r=0.39), albumen height and yolk height (r=0.35), Haugh unit and yolk index (r=0.36) in internal egg quality of brown shell eggs. Significant (P<0.001) negative correlation were found between yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.41) in white shell eggs, and yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.56) in brown shell eggs. No significant relationships were observed among others internal egg quality criteria.

  18. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  19. <