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Sample records for egypt paleoimmunological investigation

  1. Egypt.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  2. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  3. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  4. Hydrogeophysical Investigation at Luxor Archaeological Site, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. M.; Anderson, N. L.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2003-12-01

    Accelerated deterioration of the fabled monuments on the banks of the Luxor, southern Egypt, due to the elevated groundwater and increased salinity has caused global concern for preservation of these monuments. Groundwater delivering salts into the monuments' foundations evaporates leaving salts behind. Pressure developed during crystallization and hydration of residual salts within the foundations is suggested as the most likely cause for deterioration. The viable and safe mitigation of the deterioration problem requires an understanding of the hydrostratigraphy of the Luxor area. An integrated geophysical and hydrological investigations including resistivity soundings, seismic refraction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and chemical analysis of ground and surface water were conducted. The objective was to characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units and identify sources responsible for rise in groundwater and increase in salinity. Integrated interpretations of the geophysical and hydrological data successfully characterized the shallow subsurface (<100m) into seven geoelectric (geologic /hydrologic) units. A thick silty clay unit (12-28m) underlies the area of the Karnak and Luxor Temples, which we interpret as a paleo-meander of the River Nile. Depth to the top of water-saturated zone was determined to be about 9m at the area of the temples. Based on the GPR results, the upper limit of capillary water at the Karnak Temples complex was determined to be 0.0- 2m, which indicates that the capillary rise within the silty clay can reach up to 9m. The groundwater flow direction was determined to be from the central cultivated areas towards the River Nile. The regional increase in groundwater salinity was towards the River Nile (or area of temples) in the same direction of the groundwater flow with maximum concentration beneath the temples. Based on these results, we suggest that, the salt accumulation on the monument's foundations is mainly due to salt

  5. An Initial Investigation of Do Not Resuscitate Acceptance in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Fetouh S; Schaalan, Mona F; Kamal, Karim M; Miller, F DeWolfe

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain objective data on the extent of knowledge and attitudes of the do not resuscitate (DNR) concept in an Egyptian urban setting. This survey was conducted in Cairo, Egypt, using a structured questionnaire including 23 questions. Questions and questionnaire were developed from literature on DNR in the region and from pilot testing. A total of 461 persons participated. In all, 48 participants (10.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-13.7) agreed on the concept of DNR, 226 (49%, 95% CI: 36.1-45.2) stated that it depends on the patient condition, and 187 (40.5%, 95% CI: 44.4-53.7) rejected DNR. Combining the first 2 categories, agree and depends on patient condition, over 60% of the respondents in effect supported DNR. Family members (35.6%, 95% CI: 31.4-40.3) and attending physicians (43.3%, 95% CI: 30.1-39.0) were selected over religious leaders (21%, 95% CI: 17.5-25.2) and representatives from state institutions (4.6%, 95% CI: 2.9-7.0) as to who should have authority for making a DNR decisions. These and additional results provide objective evidence that DNR will not be rejected outright in Egypt. More formal surveys are justified and will provide needed guidance for implementing DNR and related end-of-life medical care in Egypt. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Geophysical investigations of a geothermal anomaly at Wadi Ghadir, eastern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.; Basta, N. Z.; Melek, Y. S.

    1984-01-01

    During regional heat flow studies a geothermal anomaly was discovered approximately 2 km from the Red Sea coast at Wadi Ghadir, in the Red Sea Hills of Eastern Egypt. A temperature gradient of 55 C/km was measured in a 150 m drillhole at this location, indicating a heat flow of approximately 175 mw/sqm, approximately four times the regional background heat flow for Egypt. Gravity and magnetic data were collected along Wadi Ghadir, and combined with offshore gravity data, to investigate the source of the thermal anomaly. Magnetic anomalies in the profile do not coincide with the thermal anomaly, but were observed to correlate with outcrops of basic rocks. Other regional heat flow and gravity data indicate that the transition from continental to oceanic type lithosphere occurs close to the Red Sea margin, and that the regional thermal anomaly is possibly related to the formation of the Red Sea.

  7. Remote sensing and geochemical investigations of selected surface processes in Egypt and Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, Mary Katherine

    This thesis consists of three studies of surface processes on Earth: 1. Age and isotopic constraints of pluvial episodes in the Western Desert of Egypt. North Africa has undergone drastic climatic change over the past several hundred thousand years. Timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium- series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. Stable oxygen isotopes of the travertines were used in equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicating the Kurkur travertines have δ18O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters (~[- ]11/perthous). The ages of the of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during periods of enhanced northern summer insolation. 2. Identification of soil moisture as an environmental risk factor for filariasis in Egypt. Bancroftian filariasis is a deforming illness transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex. pipiens) and caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (WHO technical report 821; Neva and Brown, 1994). Environmental variables, such as humidity, play an important role in the transmission cycle of filariasis. Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to model the surface soil moisture conditions of the southern Nile Delta region of Egypt as a proxy for environmental humidity. Filariasis infection rates were found to be negligible for areas with low surface soil moisture availability (>20%). Variable infection rates were observed for regions with higher surface soil moisture content, possibly due to anthropogenic influences such as insect control and the use of anti- filarial drugs. 3. Monitoring of Pb aerosol fallout in the vicinity of the Glover smelter, Southeastern

  8. An investigation of selected chemical contaminants in commercial pet foods in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; El Sharkawy, Nabela I; Moustafa, Gihan G

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to identify the levels of various contaminants in both wet and dry commercial pet foods in Egypt. A total of 20 local and imported pet food products (3 samples each) were screened for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, for mycotoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for nitrate and nitrite levels by nitrate-nitrite spectrophotometry. Cat food, on average, had greater concentrations of the metals cadmium, chromium, lead, and tin than dog food. Of the investigated metals, only tin concentration exceeded the safe level compared with the standards of the National Research Council and the European Commission for the dog and cat. According to the guidelines of the Association of American Feed Control Officials for canned pet foods, the nitrate and nitrite contents of examined foods greatly exceeded the recommended level. No total aflatoxins were detected in the surveyed samples. None of the samples analyzed had levels above international limits established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for ochratoxin, and only 1 sample exceeded the level for aflatoxin B1. Of the 20 samples analyzed for zearalenone, 4 samples had higher levels than the FAO maximum tolerable levels. These results indicate that pet foods marketed in Egypt, especially cat foods, occasionally contain contaminants that could result in adverse effects in pets. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. A socio-ecological investigation of options to manage groundwater degradation in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    King, Caroline; Salem, Boshra

    2012-07-01

    Under increasing water scarcity, collective groundwater management is a global concern. This article presents an interdisciplinary analysis of this challenge drawing on a survey including 50 large and small farms and gardens in a village in an agricultural land reclamation area on the edge of the Western Desert of Egypt. Findings revealed that smallholders rely on a practice of shallow groundwater use, through which drainage water from adjacent irrigation areas is effectively recycled within the surface aquifer. Expanding agroindustrial activities in the surrounding area are socio-economically important, but by mining non-renewable water in the surrounding area, they set in motion a degradation process with social and ecological consequences for all users in the multi-layered aquifer system. Based on the findings of our investigation, we identify opportunities for local authorities to more systematically connect available environmental information sources and common pool resource management precedents, to counterbalance the degradation threat.

  10. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Clivia nobilis Flowers Cultivated in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Amaryllidaceae is a well-known family for its high alkaloidal content. These alkaloids comprise a unique group of bases that have been found to occur in this family. The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids represent a large and still expanding group of isoquinoline alkaloids, the majority of which are not known to occur in any other family of plants. This article reports on the phytochemical investigation of the alkaloidal content of the flowers of clivia nobilis cultivated in Egypt which resulted in the isolation of four alkaloids; lycorine with pyrrolo{de}phenanthridine nucleus (lycorine-type) which is the common alkaloid of the amaryllidaceae family, clivatine and nobilisine, both with [2]benzopyrano (3,4-g) indole nucleus (lycorenine-type) and (+) 8-O-demethylmaritidine with 5,10b-ethanophenanthridine nucleus (crinine-type). Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the chloroform extract of the flowers of c. nobilis along with some of the isolated alkaloids has been studied. PMID:27980589

  11. Chemical Investigation of Some Capparis Species Growing in Egypt and their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Ahmed R.; Abdel-Shafeek, Khaled A.; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S.; Ismail, Shams I.

    2007-01-01

    Capparis cartilaginea and C. deserti growing in Egypt were investigated for their glucosiolates and rutin content. From Capparis cartilaginea four isothiocynates were isolated and identified using GC and EI/MS techniques. These compounds were butyl isothiocyanate (1), 6-methylsulphonylhexyl isothiocyanate (2), 7-methylsulphonylheptyl isothiocyanate (3) and 5-benzylsulphonyl-4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (4). In addition to compounds (1) and (2), two other compounds were isolated and identified from Capparis deserti. These compounds are 3-methylthiopropyl isothiocyanate (5) and [11-(2-butenylthio)6-undecenyl isothiocyanate] (6). Compounds (1), (2), (5) and (6) are reported in this study for the first time from Capparis deserti. The main flavonoid component in the studied species was isolated and identified as rutin by comparing the data with those reported. Also, quantitative evaluation of rutin in the two species was carried out by TLC-densitometric analysis. The antioxidant activity was done using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The butanol fraction from C. cartilaginea and C. deserti showed the highest antioxidant properties. PMID:18227928

  12. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  13. Hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation of the coastal shallow aquifers in El-Omayed area, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Atwia, M G; Masoud, A A

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring and assessment of the coastal aquifers are becoming a worldwide concern for the need of additional and sustainable water resources to satisfy demographic growth and economic development. A hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation was conducted in the El-Omayed area in the northwestern coast of Egypt. The aim of the study was to delineate different water-bearing formations, provide a general evaluation of groundwater quality, and identify the recharge sources in aquifers. Thirty-seven water samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. Fifteen profiles of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) were obtained in the oolitic limestone aquifer to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The groundwater reserves in the El-Omayed area are mainly contained in sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. The aquifer of sand dune accumulations contains freshwater of low salinity (average total dissolved solids (TDS) = 974 mg/l). Groundwater of oolitic limestone aquifer is slightly brackish (average TDS = 1,486 mg/l). Groundwater of these aquifers can be used for irrigation under special management for salinity control, and regular leaching as indicated by electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio. Results of VES interpretation classified the subsurface sequence of oolitic limestone aquifer into four geoelectric zones, with increasing depth, calcareous loam, gypsum, oolitic limestone, and sandy limestone. Oolitic limestone constitutes the main aquifer and has a thickness of 12-32 m.

  14. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  15. Molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from Gharbia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagi

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affecting cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in Egypt during 2012/2013. The present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the FMD virus (FMDV) and the prevalence of FMD among cattle and buffalo in Gharbia, Egypt. The diagnostic sensitivity of two RT-PCR assays for the detection of FMDV was evaluated. The results revealed that SAT2 was the causative agent. The percentage of infected of animals varied with the detection method, ranging from 62.5 % by the untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR to 75.6 % by SAT2 RT-PCR. The overall prevalence and mortality rates were 100 and 21 %, respectively. The mortality was higher in buffalo (23.3 %) than it was in cattle (17 %). A partial sequence of SAT2 was identical (90-100 %) to Egyptian isolates and was close in similarity to sequences from Sudan and Libya. In conclusion, FMD in Egypt is caused by SAT2. No other serotypes were detected. The results of this study provided the valuable data regarding the epidemiology of SAT2 in cattle and water buffalo from Egypt, which strengthens the need to change the strategies of both control and prevention that help to prevent the spread of the disease.

  16. Remote Sensing and Shallow Geophysical Investigations on Moghra Lake in Northeastern Qattarra Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. D.; Fathy, M. S.; Azeem, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Desert of Egypt encompasses two thirds of the land area of Egypt and constitutes one of the driest regions of the Sahara. This desert has seven depressions; Siwa, Qattara, Fayium, Bahariya, Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga. These depressions may be the manifestation of old drainage basins with extensive erosion and possibly some tectonic activity. Several oases with freshwater can be found in these depressions. Geological and geophysical investigations in Qattara Depression indicate several buried fluvial channels with flow direction from highlands in southeast to northwest. Moghra Lake at the northeastern tip of Qatarra basin may be a small remnant of a larger paleo-lake including the mouth of a paleo-river. This study probed this area for presence of buried channels that may have fed the larger Moghra paleo-lake. We have used ALOS - PALSAR radar remote sensing data to identify the surface features in this region, such as channels, channel fills, and fractures. In addition, dual polarization PALSAR data (HV, HH) allowed analysis of the near surface geology and assisted in delineating areas of interest for GPR surveys. GPR data along 2D profiles were acquired using the GSSI SIR-3000 system with a 400 MHz antenna that provided images to approximately three meters in depth. All the GPS data were processed using RADAN 6.6 software. A conventional processing flow was used for data processing: The positional correction tool removed the air wave. A range-gain balanced the amplitudes and a final band-pass (50 kHz to 500 kHz) filter was applied to the data. Deconvolution was also applied for highlighting the finer details. In addition, spatial filters were used to attenuate continuous vertical noise. The migrated sections of GPR identified a major paleochannel distributary with two minor channels at the margins. The bedrock of the studied area consists of the Lower Miocene Moghra Formation (sandstone and shale intercalations). The area around the present lake is

  17. Thermochronological investigation of the timing of rifting and rift segmentation in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, W.; Stockli, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Tertiary Gulf of Suez rift system is one of the best-studied continental rift systems and has inspired many fundamental geodynamic models for continental rifting. However, our limited knowledge of how extensional strain is spatially and temporally distributed has made it difficult to adequately evaluate models for the dynamic evolution of this rift. A critical aspect of constraining the evolution of rifting and rift segmentation in the Gulf of Suez involves acquiring reliable geochronological constraints on extensional faulting. This study has commenced a systematic investigation of the timing and spatial distribution of rifting, lateral rift segmentation, and rift localization within the Gulf of Suez, Egypt, employing apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. (U-Th)/He thermochronometric analysis of sample transects from exhumed fault blocks within the rift integrated with structural data will allow us to directly determine the timing, distribution, and magnitude of extension. The onset of major rifting (~24-19 Ma) in the Gulf of Suez was marked by the development of crustal domino-style tilt blocks and syn-rift deposition of the late Oligocene non-marine Abu Zenima Fm and non-marine to restricted marine Nukhul Fm. Development of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform cut off the rift from the Red Sea rift at an early extensional stage. Apatite (AHe) and zircon (ZHe) (U- Th)/He data were collected from basement and pre-rift sedimentary sample transects from the central and southern Sinai Peninsula portion and the Gebel El Zeit area in the southern Gulf of Suez as well as from basement samples from selected drill cores off Gebel El Zeit. Preliminary data exhibit partially reset ages trending as old as ~70 Ma (AHe) and ~450 Ma (ZHe) from shallower structural levels (Proterozoic basement and Phanerozoic cover sequence). Structurally deeper samples yield abundant AHe ages of ~22-24 Ma, indicative of rapid cooling and exhumation during the early Miocene. More

  18. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  19. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  20. 1st paleomagnetic investigation of Nubia Sandstone at Kalabsha, south Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, R.; Khashaba, A.; El-Hemaly, I. A.; Takla, E. M.; Abdel Aal, E.; Odah, H.

    2016-06-01

    Two profiles have been sampled from the Nubia Sandstone at Aswan, south Western Desert: the 1st profile has been taken from Abu Aggag Formation and the 2nd one was from Sabaya Formation (23.25 °N, 32.75 °E). 136 oriented cores (from 9 sites) have been sampled. Abu Aggag Formation is of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) and Sabaya Formation is of early Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian). The studied rocks are subjected to rock magnetic measurements as well as demagnetization treatment. It has been found that hematite is the main magnetic mineral in both formations. Four profile sections from Abu Aggag Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 352.7°, I = 36.6° with α95 = 5.2° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 82.8 °N and Long. = 283.1 °E. Five profile sections from Sabaya Formation, yielded a magnetic component with D = 348.6°, I = 33.3° with α95 = 5.8° and the corresponding pole lies at Lat. = 78.3 °N and Long. = 280.4 °E. The obtained paleopole for the two formations lies at Lat. = 80.5 °N and Long. = 281.7 °E. The obtaind magnetic components are considered primary and the corresponding paleopole reflects the age of Nubia Sandstone when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for Egypt.

  1. Phytochemical and biological investigations of Atriplex semibacata R .BR. growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Wafaa A; Abdel-Mohsen, Mona M; Radwan, Hany M; Habib, Amira A; Yeramian, M A

    2011-01-01

    The lipid content of Atriplex semibacata growing in Egypt was studied. The unsaponifiable fraction was identified by GLC. A series of hydrocarbons ranging from C(14)- C(28) in addition to cholesterol, stigmasterol and the triterpenoids α and β - amyrin were identified. GLC analysis of fatty alcohols fraction revealed the presence of six fatty alcohols in which dotriacontanol (C(32)H(66)O) was the major (14.68%). Six compounds (five coumarins and one phenolic acid) were isolated for the first time from A. semibacata. The coumarin constituents isolated from the chloroform and the ethyl acetate fractions of the aqueous alcoholic extract of A. semibacata were identified as scopoletin, umbelliferorne, coumarin, scopolin, 7-methoxy coumarin in addition to a phenolic acid P-coumaric acid. Also, the flavonoidal compounds isolated from the n-butanol fraction of the plant revealed the presence of kaempferol 3-O glucoside and acacetin. Their identity was proved by m.p., TLC, PC, UV and MS analysis. The alcohol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against G-ve bacteria, moderate activity against G+ve bacteria. On the other hand, the pet. Ether extract showed marked activity against G+ve bacteria and fungi, also the G-ve bacteria was greatly inhibited by the chloroform extract. The different extracts of the plant exhibited no cytotoxic activity against Erlich-ascites carcinoma cells line at the tested concentrations, also showed a strong antioxidant activity using DPPH.

  2. Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hanaa Mohamed; Afifi, Rabab

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt. A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes. The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90.9%) followed by crows (88.6%), semi-captive pigeons (44.8%), and moorhens (39.1%). In cattle egrets, semi-captive pigeons and moorhens, H5 antibodies predominated. In crows, H9 antibodies predominated. Multiple infections with two or three virus subtypes were highest in crows (6/39, 15.4%) followed by cattle egrets (3/30, 10%) and moorhens' (1/9, 11.1%) positive samples. Multiplex RRT-PCR results revealed two positive samples in cattle egrets and moorhens. The results indicated high seropositive rates against AI virus subtypes H5 and H9 in the examined wild birds. Multiple infections with more than one AI virus (AIV) subtypes were detected in some birds. This requires a collaboration of efforts to monitor AIV infection in wild birds and implement suitable early intervention measures.

  3. Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Hanaa Mohamed; Afifi, Rabab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes. Results: The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90.9%) followed by crows (88.6%), semi-captive pigeons (44.8%), and moorhens (39.1%). In cattle egrets, semi-captive pigeons and moorhens, H5 antibodies predominated. In crows, H9 antibodies predominated. Multiple infections with two or three virus subtypes were highest in crows (6/39, 15.4%) followed by cattle egrets (3/30, 10%) and moorhens’ (1/9, 11.1%) positive samples. Multiplex RRT-PCR results revealed two positive samples in cattle egrets and moorhens. Conclusion: The results indicated high seropositive rates against AI virus subtypes H5 and H9 in the examined wild birds. Multiple infections with more than one AI virus (AIV) subtypes were detected in some birds. This requires a collaboration of efforts to monitor AIV infection in wild birds and implement suitable early intervention measures. PMID:28717324

  4. Investigation of geotechnical parameters from CSEM mapping and monitoring data at the oases Kharga and Baris of Sahara desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Attia, Magdy; Khalil, Ahmed; Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Soliman, Mamdouh

    2016-04-01

    The site of investigation, oasis Kharga, is located at about 600 km south of Cairo, Egypt; Baris is about 90 km from Kharga also to south and towards more inside the desert. The work was aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at Baris and to estimate the water intake in the Oasis Kharga. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure of the Baris. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Here we can show the first results that we shall continue during some cycles of monitoring. The second part of our work was linked with mapping the massif structure inside the oasis City, where only using our device we could construct the geoelectrical sections for 5 profiles and show the real structure of the water volume and its complicated structure up to 200 meters depth recording the values of real not apparent resistivity. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We can conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation areas is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectrical heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1,2]. References 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability

  5. Geophysical, hydrological, and archaeological investigation in the East Bank area of Luxor-southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed Mahmoud Ali

    The rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater are causing accelerated deterioration of stone foundations of visible temples and monuments at Luxor, southern Egypt. Elevated groundwater is thought to cause a loss of cohesion and breakdown of the stone, while pressure developed within the stone upon salt crystallization and hydration may aid in the stone's disintegration. In addition to the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater, the expansion of urbanization and agriculture are jeopardizing buried monuments that have not been discovered and unearthed. The five main objectives were to: (1) characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units; (2) identify sources responsible for the rise in level and increase in salinity of groundwater; (3) evaluate geometry and water quality of the shallow aquifer; (4) map the upper limit of capillary water and variations in soil moisture and (5) map yet undiscovered, buried monuments in the vicinity of the Karnak Temples complex. These five objectives were achieved based on the interpretations and results of the integrated geophysical and hydrologic data. (1) The shallow subsurface (<100m) was characterized into seven geoelectric (geologic/hydrologic) units. The second unit (silty clay) is thicker (12--28m) underneath the area of the Karnak and Luxor Temples, which may be a paleo-meander of the River Nile. (2) The source of the rise in groundwater level was determined to be due to the flow of groundwater from the central cultivated land towards the area of the temples. The groundwater salinity increased towards the temples, in the direction of groundwater flow, and may account for the increase in groundwater salinity beneath the temples. (3) The Quaternary aquifer in the study area was found to have a thickness and water quality that makes it usable for anthropogenic purposes. (4) The upper limit of capillary water was determined to be at depths of 0.0--2m. Salt accumulation on the monuments' foundations

  6. Comparative DNA profiling, phytochemical investigation, and biological evaluation of two Ficus species growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashoury, El-Sayeda A.; Hetta, Mona H.; Yassin, Nemat Z.; Hassan, Hossam M.; El-Awdan, Sally A.; Afifi, Naglaa I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Background: A comparison between two Ficus species, cultivated in Egypt, was carried out in this study. Their DNA analysis revealed that they are not closely related. Materials and Methods: The pharmacopoeial constants of the leaves showed higher total ash and acid insoluble ash in F. lyrata than in F. platypoda. The other parameters were close in both species. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenes in their leaves and was detected in traces in their stems. Results: Saponification of n-hexane extract of the leaves yielded 46% and 74.8% for the unsaponifiable matters and 20% and 15% for the fatty acids for F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. n-Docosane (21.69%) and n-heptacosane (33.77%) were the major hydrocarbons in F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. b-Sitosterol was the main sterol, palmitic (22.07%) and carboceric (35.72%) acids were the major identified saturated fatty acids in both species, while linoleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid (18.66% and 16.7%) in both species, respectively. The acute toxicity study revealed that the two species were safe up to 2 g/kg. The antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and pyrogallol as the standard was more significant for F. platypoda (232.6 μg/ml) than for F. lyrata, (790.9 μg/ml). The oral antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats using alloxan revealed that the 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. platypoda was more active than that of the leaves of F. lyrata in decreasing the blood glucose level at 200 mg/kg/day (107.9 ± 5.817, 127.2 ± 4.359) and 400 mg/kg/day (64.11 ± 4.358, 127.7 ± 6.889), respectively, when compared with the diabetic control gliclazide (172.3 ± 2.089). Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that the two Ficus species have antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity, in the order F. platypoda and then F. lyrata

  7. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Snitkuvienė, Aldona; Rutkauskas, Tadas; Sutherland, M Linda

    2016-01-01

    Among the collections belonging to the National Museum of Lithuania at Vilnius, resides an ancient Egyptian coffin containing a mummified human body. The coffin and its occupant are believed to have belonged to the King of Poland and to have been located in his palace at Warsaw. At the turn of the last century, Egyptologists dated the coffin to the end of the 21st dynasty (1070 BC-945 BC), and described the item as coming from Thebes, belonging to Hori, priest of Amun-Ra. However, no investigation was ever carried out on the human body associated with the coffin. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, the preserved human remains underwent computed tomographic investigation in order to reconstruct the biological profile of the subject and to determine the embalming method employed. This led to the identification of a young adult male. Additionally, the mummy shroud was stylistically assessed in order to determine the mummy's chronology in Egyptian history. Interestingly, the body could be ascribed to the Roman period of Egypt (30 BC-395 AD) due to analogies with the burial shrouds of the Soter group. This indicates a reuse of the coffin at some point in history.

  8. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  9. Shallow groundwater investigation using time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) method at Itay El-Baroud, Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, H.; El-Qady, G.; Al-Sayed, E.; Ghazala, H.; Taha, A. I.

    2016-12-01

    The Nile Delta is one of the oldest known ancient delta, largest and most important depositional complex in the Mediterranean sedimentary basin. Furthermore, it is a unique site in Egypt that is suitable for accumulation and preservation of the Quaternary sediments. In this work we applied time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) method to investigate the Quaternary sediments sequence as well as detecting the groundwater aquifer in the area of study. A suite of 232 TEM sounding at 43 stations were carried out using a "SIROTEM MK-3" time-domain electromagnetic system. A simple coincident loop configuration, in which the same loop transmits and receives signals, was employed with loop side length of 25 m. The 1-D modeling technique was applied to estimate the depth and the apparent resistivity of the interpreted geoelectrical data. Based on the interpretation of the acquired geophysical data, four geoelectric cross-sections were constructed. These sections show that the Upper Quaternary sequence consists of three geoelectric layers. The Holocene Nile mud is separated into two layers: the agricultural root zone (Layer 1) and thick water saturated mud (Layer 2). The Upper Pleistocene sandy aquifer (Layer 3) is very complicated non-linear boundary. This aquifer is the most important unit since it is considered as the main water bearing unit in the study area.

  10. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  11. Morphologic-anthropological investigations in tomb K93.12 at Dra' Abu el-Naga (Western Thebes, Egypt).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Paladin, Alice; Rummel, Ute; Hower-Tilmann, Estelle; Zink, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we present the analysis of the human remains from tomb K93.12 in the Ancient Egyptian necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga, located opposite the modern city of Luxor in Upper Egypt on the western bank of the Nile. Archaeological findings indicate that the rock tomb was originally built in the early 18th dynasty. Remains of two tomb-temples of the 20th dynasty and the looted burial of the High Priest of Amun Amenhotep have been identified. After the New Kingdom the tomb was reused as a burial place until the 26th dynasty. The skeletal and mummified material of the different tomb areas underwent a detailed anthropological and paleopathological analysis. The human remains were mostly damaged and scattered due to extensive grave robberies. In total, 79 individuals could be partly reconstructed and investigated. The age and sex distribution revealed a male predominance and a high percentage of young children (< 6 years) and adults in the range of 20 to 40 years. The paleopathological analysis showed a high prevalence of stress markers such as cribra orbitalia in the younger individuals, and other pathological conditions such as dental diseases, degenerative diseases and a possible case of ankylosing spondylitis. Additionally, 13 mummies of an intrusive waste pit could be attributed to three different groups belonging to earlier time periods based on their style of mummification and materials used. The study revealed important information on the age and sex distribution and diseases of the individuals buried in tomb K93.12.

  12. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  13. Investigating a hydrothermal venting scenario at the Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano; Sciarra, Alessandra; Hammed, Mohammed S.; Schmindt, Susanne T.; Suessenberger, Annette

    2017-04-01

    The Bahariya depression (BD) (or Bahariya Oasis) is located in the Egyptian Western desert about 300 km SW of Cairo. The depression stretches for approximately 90 km along a NE-SW direction. The BD is known since Roman times for its thermal springs. Hot fluids were still emitted at the surface in the late 70ies before agricultural development caused the deepening of the groundwater table. Today, hot fluids are found at shallow depths and extracted for thermal bathing and farming. The oldest exposed rocks cropping out in the BD are of Early Cenomanian age and mainly consist of sandstones and claystones. Magmatic formations are also found in the BD and crop out as isolated basaltic formations. The most prominent tectonic feature dissecting the whole area is a NE-SW trending strike-slip fault system along which the depression developed. Satellite images reveal that large part of the BD area is characterised by concentric features (similar in shape to impact craters) that increase in number approaching the fault zone. A cross section of these features resembles to flattened crater-like structures (up to 10 m in height) with steeper external flanks and a gently dipping internal zone. Their average diameter is about 100 m. However, some of the largest features may reach nearly 400 m in diameter. We performed CO2 and CH4 soil gas flux measurements completing profiles across the structures finding a higher concentration of CO2 approaching the center. No significant CH4 flux variations were observed through the profiles. The central zone of one structure was targeted for detailed investigations. The samples recovered are characterised by the presence of halite-cemented breccias. XRD and semi-quantitative SEM analysis indicate the presence of mineral phases typical of hydrothermal circulation. In particular, some of the K-feldspars analyzed show a Ba-rich core with outer rims with no Ba content. One of the K-feldspar phases is sanidine and does not appear as an overgrowth

  14. Hydrogeochemical and vertical electrical soundings for groundwater investigations, Burg El-Arab area, Northwestern Coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwia, Mohamed G.; Abu-Heleika, Mohamed M.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated geological, hydrochemical, and geoelectrical investigation of shallow groundwater occurrence in Burg El-Arab area, northwestern coastal zone of Egypt is carried out. Groundwater of oolitic limestone and clastic aquifers is the principal source of water supply for agriculture in the area. The purpose of this study is to describe the hydrogeologic characteristics of aquifers and to provide a general evaluation of the chemical quality of water in aquifers. Chemical analysis was used to evaluate the chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of water quality. Electrical soundings were employed to delineate different water bearing formations and the configuration of the interface between them. Thirty-four water samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the two main aquifers in the area. Groundwaters of oolitic limestone aquifer are dominated by NaCl and have average TDS of approximately 2830 mg/l. Groundwater samples from clastic aquifer are slightly weakly mineralized (TDS approximately 2700 mg/l) and dominated by CaSO4. The hydrochemical data indicate that the groundwater is of meteoric origin. The variation in the chemistry of water is thought to be related to the weathering of minerals of the water-bearing sediments, mixing with marine water, and leaching of fertilizers in the newly reclaimed areas. Groundwater of the area can be used for irrigation under special circumstances management as the sodium hazard is medium while the salinity hazard ranges from high to very high. Thirty-four profiles of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) were obtained in Burg El-Arab area to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. Resistivity and thickness of aquifers, resistivity of the unsaturated zone and depth to the confining bed have been delineated from the interpretation of electrical sounding data. The range of electrical resistivity values have been assigned to different layers by calibrating

  15. Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-20

    ISS01-E-5025 (November 2000) --- This nadir view of Alexandria, Egypt, was provided by a digital still camera image down linked from the International Space Station to flight controllers in Houston. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. According to NASA scientists studying the Expedition One photo collection, the town was originally built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos to the mainland. Since then, the scientists say, sedimentary deposits have added considerably to the width of the mole. Since 1905, when the city’s 370 thousand inhabitants lived in an area of about four square kilometers between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 square kilometers. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation Of Ancient Pigments From The Mortuary Temple Of Seti I, El-Qurna (Luxor, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey Mahmoud, H. H.

    The present paper aims to apply different analytical techniques to characterize some ancient pigments from the first group of samples collected on the wall paintings of the mortuary temple of Seti I (c.1291-1278 BC), El-Qurna (Luxor, Egypt). The analytical characterization has been carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with anenergy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), μ-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results allowed the identification of different pigments used in the polychromatic decorations of the temple and to establish a preliminary analytical database of the chromatic palette used in this period of the Egyptian history.

  17. Investigating the backscatter contrast anomaly in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the dunes along the Israel-Egypt border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Siegal, Zehava; Blumberg, Dan G.; Adamowski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The dune field intersected by the Israel-Egypt borderline has attracted many remote sensing studies over the years because it exhibits unique optical phenomena in several domains, from the visual to the thermal infrared. These phenomena are the result of land-use policies implemented by the two countries, which have differing effects on the two ecosystems. This study explores the surface properties that affect radar backscatter, namely the surface roughness and dielectric properties, in order to determine the cause for the variation across the border. The backscatter contrast was demonstrated for SIR-C, the first synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor to capture this phenomenon, as well as ASAR imagery that coincides with complementary ground observations. These field observations along the border, together with an aerial image from the same year as the SIR-C acquisition were used to analyze differences in vegetation patterns that can affect the surface roughness. The dielectric permittivity of two kinds of topsoil (sand, biocrust) was measured in the field and in the laboratory. The results suggest that the vegetation structure and spatial distribution differ between the two sides of the border in a manner that is consistent with the radar observations. The dielectric permittivity of sand and biocrust was found to be similar, although they are not constant across the radar spectral region (50 MHz-20 GHz). These findings support the hypothesis that changes to the vegetation, as a consequence of the different land-use practices in Israel and Egypt, are the cause for the radar backscatter contrast across the border.

  18. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  19. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies.

  20. Weathering behavior investigations and treatment of Kom Ombo temple sandstone, Egypt - Based on their sedimentological and petrogaphical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.

    2016-01-01

    The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.

  1. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    The Day Part of the Interne died: Egypt Goes Dark ,” The New Zealand Herald, 28 January 2011, sec. Technology. Egypt’s primary Internet providers...cookies, cakes, and chocolates ; his initials “CC” are baked into pastries and molded into jewelry, children and sandwiches have been named after him...NewsContent/1/64/10293/Egypt/Politics-/Bosses,- enforcers-and-thugs-in-Egypts-Battle-of-th.aspx. “The Day Part of the Interne died: Egypt Goes Dark .” The

  2. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  3. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  4. Napoleon in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  5. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  6. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  7. Education in Egypt, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.; Ibrahim, Fawzia El-Sayed, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1978, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  8. Education in Egypt, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Youssef Khalil, Ed.

    This publication of the National Center for Educational Research of Egypt describes the status of education in Egypt in 1979, with respect to administration, structure, the educational ladder including university education, as well as the quantitative side of education. It also briefly presents the historical background of Egyptian education, its…

  9. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  10. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  11. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  12. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Copley, M S; Bland, H A; Rose, P; Horton, M; Evershed, R P

    2005-06-01

    Man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. The most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. A wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. Reported herein are the results of chemical investigations of a number of lamps recovered from excavations of the site of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic analyses of both free (solvent extractable) and 'bound'(released from solvent extracted pottery by base treatment) lipids have revealed a wide range of saturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids. Examination of the distributions of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised. Specific illuminants identified include Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) seed oil (most likely radish oil, Raphanus sativus), castor oil (from Ricinus communis), animal fat, with less diagnostic distributions and delta(13)C values being consistent with low stearic acid plant oils, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) or sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils. The identifications of the various oils and fats are supported by parallel investigations of illuminant residues produced by burning various oils in replica pottery lamps. The findings are entirely consistent with the classical writers including Strabo, Pliny and Theophrastrus.

  13. An Investigation of Pre-Service Teacher's Self-Efficacy and Self-Image as a Science Teacher in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Deghaidy, Heba

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the possible impact of a science teaching methods course on pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and perceptions of self as science teachers. The study also investigated the probable relationship between these two variables, which both measure issues related to the expected behaviour teachers adopt when teaching science.…

  14. Schools' Television in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blezard, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Chronicles the short (1970-77) and troubled history of instructional television in Egypt. Among the problems which led to the discontinuation of television programing for schools were production delays, inadequate repair service, and lack of training. (LLS)

  15. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  16. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  17. Geomorphic and lithologic characteristics of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt, using remote sensing and field investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed; Asran, Asran M.; Mahran, Tawfig M.

    2017-08-01

    Wadi Feiran is an important drainage basin in southern Sinai Peninsula covering an area of about 1785 km2, its streams drain into the Gulf of Suez crossing variety of rocks and sedimentary units varied in age from Precambrian to Quaternary. Field investigations, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing studies including Landsat-7 ETM+, Radarsat-1, and SRTM DEM were integrated to reveal its lithologic, geologic and geomorphic features. Besides the field investigations, rock units including basement and pre- and syn-rift sedimentary units were discriminated using band ratios and principal component analysis techniques (PCA). Such techniques revealed that the crystalline rocks covering W. Feiran are unaltered rocks lacking OH-bearing minerals. Radar data successfully displayed the structures and geomorphic features related to topography. Moreover, the techniques allowed the extraction of the dyke-like structures along faults and shear zones. This also characterized the topographic variations through analysis of the shaded terrain and the altitudinal profiles. The results of data integration, lineament analysis and lineament density maps revealed that the structural grain in the present study has four different trends: N20-45E, N30-45W, N-S and E-W. Based on analysis of radar data and geomorphic indices, W. Feiran is an asymmetrical basin, its left side occupies ˜ 34% of the total area that leads to a supposedly massive tilt towards the south which caused the southwestward slope.

  18. Reading Habits of Adults in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Zikri, Lawrence B.

    Investigating the reading habits of adults in Egypt, East Africa, a study examined 294 Egyptians (233 males and 61 females) in post-secondary education in Cairo, and in the industrial cities of Shopra El-Khema, and Impapa, El-Giza. Marital status, sex, and occupation were used to group the subjects. Subjects completed a 29-item questionnaire…

  19. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  1. Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Nile Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population of 57 million. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta in the middle of the scene. Across the river from Cairo can be seen the three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  2. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  3. Surgery in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals.

  4. Nile River Delta, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    The Nile River Delta of Egypt (30.0N, 31.0E) irrigated by the Nile River and its many distributaries, is some of the richest farm land in the world and home to some 45 million people, over half of Egypt's population. The capital city of Cairo is at the apex of the delta. Just across the river from Cairo can be seen the ancient three big pyramids and sphinx at Giza and the Suez Canal is just to the right of the delta.

  5. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  6. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-06

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt. On the left is an optical image from NASA Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR.

  7. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  8. Egypt's National Education Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bradley James

    2000-01-01

    Examines the vigorous dialectic occurring among intellectuals, religious leaders, and politicians trying to define the appropriate role of Islam in Egyptian education. Discusses the call for the Islamization of education in contemporary Egypt, aspects of Islamic law, the position of the state on religious education, and the influence of a small…

  9. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  10. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  11. Egypt-United States Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-10

    Issues Economic Reforms Previous Issues EgyptAir Flight 990 Militant Islamic Movement in Egypt Shaikh Umar Abd al-Rahman U.S. Foreign Assistance to...Israeli war following Egyptian charges that the United States had provided direct assistance to Israel. Anwar al- Sadat became President of Egypt upon the...1975 after an 8-year hiatus. The United States endorsed Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat’s dramatic and courageous trip to Jerusalem in November 1977

  12. Egypt-United States Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-07

    Reforms Economic Issues Economic Reforms Previous Issues EgyptAir Flight 990 Militant Islamic Movement in Egypt Shaikh Umar Abd al-Rahman U.S. Foreign...to Israel. Anwar al- Sadat became President of Egypt upon the death of al-Nasir in September 1970, and it was al-Sadat who expelled Soviet advisors...disengagements in 1975. The United States resumed economic aid to Egypt in 1975 after an eight-year hiatus. The United States endorsed Egyptian President Anwar

  13. Myxomycetes from upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Ahmed M

    2002-01-01

    The results of the first inventory of Myxomycetes from the subtropical region Upper Egypt are reported. The substrates were wood, bark of living and dead tree and leaf litter. 20 species belonging to 17 genera of Myxomycetes were identified. Wood was the best substrate for Myxomycetes colonization. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Didymiun melanospermum, Licea biforis and Lycogala epidendrum were the most common species. Brief description and classification of species are provided.

  14. Mental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.

  15. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  16. Modern Egypt: A Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rosalind; And Others

    Egypt is a culture which combines the traditional with the modern. This text aims to foster an appreciation of Egypt as a changing culture facing the challenges of development. Topics included are: (1) Village Life; (2) Urban Life; (3) Nile; (4) Government; (5) Agriculture; (6) Economy; (7) Health/Games; (8) Education; (9) Religion; (10)…

  17. Investigating the complex structural integrity of the Zeit Bay Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, using interpretation of 3D seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afife, M.; Salem, M.; Aziz, M. Abdel

    2017-07-01

    Zeit Bay Field is one of the most important oil-bearing fields in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt, producing oil from the fractured basement rocks. Due to the complex structural setting of the area and the classical exploration concept that was based mainly on 2D seismic survey data, the area suffered from limited hydrocarbon interest for several years. During this time, most of the drilled wells hit structural highs and resulted in several dry holes. The present study is based on the interpretation of more recently acquired 3D seismic survey data as, matched with the available well logs, used to understand the complex structural setting of the Zeit Bay Field and provide insight into the entrapment style of the implied hydrocarbons. Several selected seismic cross sections were constructed, to extract subsurface geologic information, using available seismic profiles and wells. In addition, structure contour maps (isochronous maps, converted to depth maps) were constructed for the peaks of the basement, Nubian Sandstone, Kareem and Belayim Formations. Folds (anticlines and synclines) and faults (dip-slip) are identified on these maps, both individually and in groups, giving rise to step-like belts, as well as graben and horst blocks.

  18. Preliminary lead isotope investigations of brine from the Red Sea, Galena from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and galena from United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.

  19. A preliminary investigation of insect colonization and succession on remains of rabbits treated with an organophosphate insecticide in El-Qalyubiya Governorate of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-bar, M M; Sawaby, R F

    2011-05-20

    A preliminary field study in the summer in a rural village in El-Qalyubiya Governorate (Egypt) compared the necrophagous insects colonizing the cadavers of two male rabbits (Oryctolagus cunicullus domesticus L.) killed by asphyxia (control), with two poisoned by the organophosphate (OP) pesticide pirimiphos-methyl (test). Decay of control carcasses was rapid since they reached the skeletal stage in only 19 days. Test carcasses did not decay completely, even 40 days post-killing. Insect species colonizing both carcasses types were not different, indicating that despite its odor, the OP were not masking the decomposition odors which were drawing the species to the bodies. The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Weidemann) constituted 76.6% of all samples collected. They were the first colonizers and played a major role in the decomposition process of control carcasses and in the partial decay of the test ones. They were significantly fewer numbers of immature stages developing on the test carcasses which probably contributed to their distinct lag and poor decomposition. Samples indicate that 17.3% of the insects were members of the Formicidae. This family was present in all carcasses, mostly in the early stages of decomposition. Formicidae may be considered omnivorous, and one of the fauna which use the cadaver as a refuge, to obtain humidity and food. This study provides additional knowledge in the context of Egyptian forensic entomology and the influence of OP which is of relevance to forensic science.

  20. "Discourse on the Go": Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Nashar, Mohamed; Nayef, Heba

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations. Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel…

  1. The Landing of CMS Missionaries to an Ottoman Dominion: Missionary Education in Egypt (1825-1862)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurdogan, Azru M.

    2016-01-01

    During the period under investigation (1825-1862), Egypt was a dominion of the Ottoman Empire and attracted the attention and interest of all European states that had been displaying their military and commercial superiority for a long time. In the nineteenth century, Egypt was not only destitute of schools, but had also entered a rapid…

  2. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  3. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  4. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.

  5. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  7. [The wild boar of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Manlius, N; Gautier, A

    1999-07-01

    The wild boar, Sus scrofa, is not a typical member of the Egyptian wild fauna, although it appears to have lived in the Nile Delta and other suitable regions in the north of the country. However, historic populations were probably of mixed origin, including feral domestic pigs. It is incorrect, as is sometimes still done, to include the wild boar in the iconographic bestiary of Ancient Egypt and assume that the domestic pigs of Ancient Egypt derive from local wild boars.

  8. The Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer was acquired on June 3, 2002. The fertile land along the Nile River supports lush green vegetation, amid the desert landscape. At its delta at the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile broadens into a large fan-shaped delta. All of Egypt's large cities fall along the Nile, which sustains life in a region of scant rainfall. At the point where the river widens into the delta, a grayish cluster of pixels marks the location of Cairo. To the east is the Sinai Peninsula, whose impermanent water courses create silvery streaks on the pale brown, arid landscape. At lower right is the Red Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  10. [Bonaparte's expedition in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Richet, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Bonaparte's expedition in Egypt was not only a military operation. It was also a tentative colonial move which was used as a model for over a century as well as a cultural and scientific adventure, quite unique for its time. The evacuation of the Oriental Army stands as a milestone in the history of civilisations because the protocols which marked its achievement - to which Desgenettes and Larrey contributed-displayed outstanding humanitarian and medical dimensions. The humanitarian dimension is highlighted by the remarkable contribution of the British Authorities in taking care of the wounded, sick and disabled as well as in ensuring that the French troops safely got home or dealing with the various civilian people not following the army back to France. These agreements between belligerents clearly anticipated what became, 63 years later, the cornerstone of the Red Cross. The medical dimension is illustrated with all the sanitary measures which were taken in order to keep away from any risk of plague epidemics which were rightly feared at the time. Scurvy was also an issue. Although Lind had stated its "deficiency" characteristic 50 years earlier scurvy was still considered as an infectious and contagious disease. Not surprisingly the remarkable 3000 case study made by Larrey, which undoubtedly led up to the conclusion that the disease stemmed exclusively from nutritional deficiencies, had been almost neglected.

  11. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  12. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  13. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  14. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  15. Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A269 664 i l•l lI ,iI I i h4Ji PUBLICATION REPORT 1753 SEP TE5195, 31/93EYP CRYPTOGENIC TUBERCULOSIS - 1990 CAIRO - EGYPT BY Z. Farid, M.E...FUNDING NUMBERS Cryptogenic Tuberculosis - 1990 Cairo - Egypt PE- 61102A WU- 3M161102BS13.AK.311 6. AUTHORjS) Farid, Z., Kilpatrick, M.E. and Kamal...is unlimited. 13- A8B TRACT %’ 4 , n ;.’ Please see attached. DTIC 7T-3 t A 2-d~~t (r’ oa Dist__ _._ .S pecial. Cryptogenic tuberculosis ; Prolonged

  16. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  17. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  18. The Regional Environmental Impacts of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, Ashraf; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the origin (natural versus anthropogenic) and the dynamics of aerosols over Egypt at varying temporal and spatial scales provide valuable knowledge on the regional climate impacts of aerosols and their ultimate connections to the Earth's regional climate system at the MENA region. At regional scale, Egypt is exposed to air pollution with levels exceeding typical air-quality standards. This is particularly true for the Nile Delta region, being at the crossroads of different aerosol species originating from local urban-industrial and biomass-burning activities, regional dust sources, and European pollution from the north. The Environmental Climate Model (EnvClimA) is used to investigate both of the biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over Egypt. The dominant natural aerosols over Egypt are due to the sand and dust storms, which frequently occur during the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In winter, the maximum frequency reaches 2 to 3 per day in the north, which decreases gradually southward with a frequency of 0.5-1 per day. Monitoring one of the most basic aerosol parameters, the aerosol optical depth (AOD), is a main experimental and modeling task in aerosol studies. We used the aerosol optical depth to quantify the amount and variability of aerosol loading in the atmospheric column over a certain areas. The aerosols optical depth from the model is higher in spring season due to the impacts of dust activity over Egypt as results of the westerly wind, which carries more dust particles from the Libyan Desert. The model result shows that the mass load of fine aerosols has a longer life-time than the coarse aerosols. In autumn season, the modelled aerosol optical depth tends to increase due to the biomass burning in the delta of Egypt. Natural aerosol from the model tends to scatter the solar radiation while most of the anthropogenic aerosols tend to absorb the longwave solar radiation. The overall results indicate that the AOD is lowest in winter

  19. Team Egypt! Integrating the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Amanda Welsh

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on Egypt used in an interdisciplinary curriculum that involves activities in social studies, art, science, language (Latin), and computers. Explains that each discipline is assessed separately in order to reward students' strengths. Highlights the benefits of interdisciplinary curricula. (CMK)

  20. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  1. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    visited Egypt, promising to “help Egypt deal with its economic challenges, including meeting immediate financial concerns, providing debt relief...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ...negotiating with Egypt the terms for obligating funds that have already been appropriated by Congress, such as up to $1 billion in bilateral debt

  2. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  3. Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    These images show two views of a region of south-central Egypt, each taken by a different type of spaceborne sensor. On the left is an optical image from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, and on the right is a radar image from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). This comparison shows that the visible and infrared wavelengths of Landsat are only sensitive to the materials on the surface, while the radar wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR can penetrate the thin sand cover in this arid region to reveal details hidden below the surface. Field studies in this area indicate that the L-band radar can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels, shown at the bottom of this image, are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. Only the most recently active channels are visible in the Landsat scene. Some geologic structures at the surface are visible in both images. However, many buried features, such as rock fractures and the blue circular granite bodies in the upper center of the image on the right, are visible only to the radar. The Safsaf Oasis is located near the bright yellow feature in the lower left center of the Landsat image. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas to study structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. Each image is 30.8 kilometers by 25.6 kilometers (19.1 miles by 15.9 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. In the Landsat image, the colors are assigned as follows: red is Band 7 (mid-infrared); green is Band 4 (near infrared); and blue is Band 1 (visible blue light). The colors assigned to the radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green

  4. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Ismael M.; El-Qady, Gad M.; ElGalladi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The geoelectric survey includes 93 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) and 26 TEM stations were conducted to delineate the subsurface structures and hydrogeological regime of El-Nubariya-Wadi El-Natrun area. The VESes AB/2 was varying from 1 up to 700 m in successive steps, while TEM stations were measured using coincident loop of 50 m side length. The interpretation of the geoelectrical data shows that the depth to the main aquifer ranges from 6 m at the northern part near the Nubariya city to about 90 m at the southern parts where it increases to the south and southeast directions. Generally the aquifer system in the area can be divided into Pleistocene and Pliocene aquifers. The Pleistocene aquifer is the shallower aquifer in the area and it consists almost of gravelly to clayey sand deposits. The Pliocene aquifer is the main aquifer where it is composed of sand to gravelly sand deposits. Depending on the results of the geoelectric prospecting represented by the true resistivity map, we can infer the quality of the groundwater. A brackish groundwater can be found at the northern and northeastern parts of the study area at shallow depths whereas relatively fresh water can be detected at the southern and southeastern parts around Wadi El Natrun city at deep depths. The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  5. Egypt- Old Ally, New Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    history , then discussion on traditional soft and hard power, then introduce the concept of smart power. Next, this essay will provide a description...Finally, this essay will summarize the recommendations in one holistic strategy. Brief Sinai History It is important to understand, at least at...the cursory level, the modern struggle for control of the Sinai. In recent modern history the area was torn by war between Egypt and Israel

  6. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo, Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    COW 03 PUBLICATION REPORT 94-30227 * ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN CAIRO, BY RWIavni 0. IHibbs6 M. Kuanmm ad Z. Fun .Y .~ ... W I Form ApprovedREPORT...Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 8 April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Abdominal Tuberculosis in Cairo...abdominal tuberculosis patients seen at Abbassia Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt from January 1990 to August 1992 are described; their mean age was 21.5

  7. Cataract surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-03-01

    Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.

  8. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  9. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  10. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  11. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  12. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-12

    smuggling of illegal workers, prostitutes, and even Palestinian brides for grooms inside Gaza. It is not uncommon for Palestinian smugglers to bribe security...Egypt in a difficult diplomatic position. On the one hand, Egypt has attempted to symbolically support international efforts to alleviate the

  13. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  14. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  15. Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs, Feluccas and Fellahin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Evelyn R.

    In a random study of five middle school social studies textbooks available for adoption in the state of Indiana in 1984, great variation in the treatment of Egypt was noted. Coverage of contemporary history was incomplete in all cases. All texts dealt with Egypt's ancient history, but what was reported was questionable. Only one text addressed in…

  16. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  17. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  18. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  19. The Kamil Crater in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Folco, Luigi; Di Martino, Mario; El Barkooky, Ahmed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lethy, Ahmed; Urbini, Stefano; Nicolosi, Iacopo; Hafez, Mahfooz; Cordier, Carole; van Ginneken, Matthias; Zeoli, Antonio; Radwan, Ali M; El Khrepy, Sami; El Gabry, Mohamed; Gomaa, Mahomoud; Barakat, Aly A; Serra, Romano; El Sharkawi, Mohamed

    2010-08-13

    We report on the detection in southern Egypt of an impact crater 45 meters in diameter with a pristine rayed structure. Such pristine structures are typically observed on atmosphereless rocky or icy planetary bodies in the solar system. This feature and the association with an iron meteorite impactor and shock metamorphism provides a unique picture of small-scale hypervelocity impacts on Earth's crust. Contrary to current geophysical models, ground data indicate that iron meteorites with masses of the order of tens of tons can penetrate the atmosphere without substantial fragmentation.

  20. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied.

  1. Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery.

  2. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  3. Antigenic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 sublineages co-circulating in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Ellakany, Hany F; Kawashita, Norihito; Daidoji, Tomo; Takagi, Tatsuya; Yasunaga, Teruo; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has spread across Eurasia and Africa, and outbreaks are now endemic in several countries, including Indonesia, Vietnam and Egypt. Continuous circulation of H5N1 virus in Egypt, from a single infected source, has led to significant genetic diversification with phylogenetically separable sublineages, providing an opportunity to study the impact of genetic evolution on viral phenotypic variation. In this study, we analysed the phylogeny of H5 haemagglutinin (HA) genes in influenza viruses isolated in Egypt from 2006 to 2011 and investigated the effect of conserved amino acid mutations in the HA genes in each of the sublineages on their antigenicity. The analysis showed that viruses in at least four sublineages still persisted in poultry in Egypt as of 2011. Using reverse genetics to generate HA-reassortment viruses with specific HA mutations, we found antigenic drift in the HA in two influenza virus sublineages, compared with the other currently co-circulating influenza virus sublineages in Egypt. Moreover, the two sublineages with significant antigenic drift were antigenically distinguishable. Our findings suggested that phylogenetically divergent H5N1 viruses, which were not antigenically cross-reactive, were co-circulating in Egypt, indicating that there was a problem in using a single influenza virus strain as seed virus to produce influenza virus vaccine in Egypt and providing data for designing more efficacious control strategies in H5N1-endemic areas.

  4. Hazard estimation deduced from GPS and seismic data of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  5. Observations on rift valley fever virus and vaccines in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV, genus: Phlebovirus, family: Bunyaviridae), is an arbovirus which causes significant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. RVFV was introduced for the first time in Egypt in 1977. In endemic areas, the insect vector control and vaccination is considering appropriate measures if applied properly and the used vaccine is completely safe and the vaccination programs cover all the susceptible animals. Egypt is importing livestock and camels from the African Horn & the Sudan for human consumption. The imported livestock and camels were usually not vaccinated against RVFV. But in rare occasions, the imported livestock were vaccinated but with unknown date of vaccination and the unvaccinated control contacts were unavailable for laboratory investigations. Also, large number of the imported livestock and camels are often escaped slaughtering for breeding which led to the spread of new strains of FMD and the introduction of RVFV from the enzootic African countries. This article provide general picture about the present situation of RVFV in Egypt to help in controlling this important disease. PMID:22152149

  6. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  7. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface.

  8. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    PubMed Central

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women’s health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women’s health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  9. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services.

  10. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-27

    a total of 1,200 tanks. Under the terms of the program, a percentage of the tank’s components are manufactured in Egypt at a facility on the...co-production program. The parts are shipped to a production facility near Cairo, Egypt, where the tanks are manufactured for the Egyptian Land...the end of 1976, one of every three loaves of bread consumed by urban Egyptians was a product of wheat purchased under the PL-480 program. See

  11. Implications of terrain movements in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Mohamed M.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the causes of localized terrain movements in Egypt. The motivation behind this research has been the vast progress in constructing huge engineering structures (dams, bridge,, tall buildings, etc.) as well as extending the urban activities in many new cities. These must be properly studied to ensure their safety versus their cost and other economic factors. In addition, the recent tendency is towards building nuclear power stations whose locations must be carefully investigated against the hazard and danger of inevitable atomic leakage, especially in the case of seismically active regions. Also the discovery of new oil wells and mines and the effects of future depletion require considerable attention from qualified investigators. The relative tectonic movements of North Africa and Southern Europe, the seismic activities around the Alexandria region, the presence of faults related to the region of the High Dam and its reservoir in Aswan, the erosion of the banks of the River Nile and its islands as well as coastal lines along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and the deformation and damage to large buildings in the Cairo area are examined here as a few examples of the implications of the earth's deformations within Egyptian territory. Strong recommendations are made concerning the necessity of studying and monitoring the terrain movements in the areas where new cities, large engineering constructions and power plants are planned to be erected.

  12. Homozygous nonsense mutation in SGCA is a common cause of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Hemakumar M; Hamed, Sherifa A; Lek, Monkol; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Estrella, Elicia; Jones, Michael D; Mahoney, Lane J; Duncan, Anna R; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Macarthur, Daniel G; Kunkel, Louis M; Kang, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    The genetic causes of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been studied in numerous countries, but such investigations have been limited in Egypt. A cohort of 30 families with suspected LGMD from Assiut, Egypt, was studied using immunohistochemistry, homozygosity mapping, Sanger sequencing, and whole exome sequencing. Six families were confirmed to have pathogenic mutations, 4 in SGCA and 2 in DMD. Of these, 3 families harbored a single nonsense mutation in SGCA, suggesting that this may be a common mutation in Assiut, Egypt, originating from a founder effect. The Assiut region in Egypt appears to share at least several of the common LGMD genes found in other parts of the world. It is notable that 4 of the 6 mutations were ascertained by means of whole exome sequencing, even though it was the last approach adopted. This illustrates the power of this technique for identifying causative mutations for muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 54: 690-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

    2015-01-05

    The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given. 

  14. Familial aggregation of colorectal cancer in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A S; Bondy, M L; Levin, B; El-Badawy, S; Khaled, H; Hablas, A; Ismail, S; Adly, M; Mahgoub, K G; McPherson, R S; Beasley, R P

    1998-09-11

    We have investigated the familial aggregation of colorectal cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in Egypt because of the high incidence of colorectal cancer in Egyptian children and young adults and the prevalence of consanguinity there. In a pilot study, we conducted detailed interviews with 111 Egyptian colorectal cancer patients and 111 healthy Egyptian controls about their family histories of colorectal cancer, and other cancers, consanguinity, age at diagnosis, symptoms and recurrence. Eight patients (7.2%) had one or more first- or second-degree relatives under age 40 with colorectal cancer, suggestive of HNPCC by the Amsterdam criteria. One of these families had a typical history of HNPCC, with 4 relatives having colorectal cancer in 3 generations; 3 of these relatives were younger than age 45 at colon cancer diagnosis, and other relatives had extracolonic tumors. Another 14 patients (12.6%) had a first- or second-degree relative with a family history of other neoplasms such as endometrial, urinary and hepatobiliary cancers that could also be related to HNPCC. Four patients with early-onset colon cancer and a family history of other HNPCC-related cancers reported that their parents were first-degree cousins.

  15. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level < 0.01 IU/ml), 43% had basic protection (0.01-0.09 IU/ml), and 33.1% were fully protected (0.1 IU/ml). The results revealed that serum levels of antitoxin antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  16. Northeast Egypt as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This oblique view, looking northeast from central Egypt, shows great expanses of the sand covered and rocky Western Desert in the foreground (bottom). The dark patches bottom right are the Dakhla Oases on the south side of an escarpment. The northern half of Egypt's Nile appears here, from about the latitude of Luxor to the delta. Green colors indicate the small area of crops which feed Egypt's population of 55 million. The Nile Delta is partly obscured by a band of clouds, but can be discerned at the coast as a flattened triangle of green. The smaller triangle close by is the Falyum Basin, a depression irrigated by water from the Nile. The coast of the Mediterranean Sea appears left.

  17. Women's position and family planning in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Malhotra, A

    1996-01-01

    In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case of the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy.

  18. Arabic and English during Study Abroad in Cairo, Egypt: Issues of Access and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentman, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the experiences of 18 students studying abroad in Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified version of the language contact profile (Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004), I investigate their language use and find that students use English more than they use Arabic and that there is considerable individual variation in…

  19. Arabic and English during Study Abroad in Cairo, Egypt: Issues of Access and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentman, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the experiences of 18 students studying abroad in Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified version of the language contact profile (Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004), I investigate their language use and find that students use English more than they use Arabic and that there is considerable individual variation in…

  20. The crustal structure of Egypt and the northern Red Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Nyblade, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    P-wave receiver functions from 26 stations in the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) have been modeled using the H-k stacking method and in a joint inversion method with Rayleigh wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure across Egypt and the northern Red Sea region. The new estimates of crustal structure, when combined with previous results, show that along the rifted margins of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.77, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.6 km/s. Beneath northern and central Egypt, including the Sinai Peninsula, crustal thickness ranges from 32 to 38 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.79, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.5 km/s. Beneath southern Egypt, crustal thickness ranges from 35 to 40 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.76, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.7 km/s. In southern Egypt, the crust is also characterized by a 10-20 km thick mafic lower crust. These findings indicate that crust along the rifted margins of the northern Red Sea, and Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba have been thinned by about 5 to 10 km. The thick mafic lower crust in southern Egypt can be attributed to suturing during the Neoproterozoic collision of east Gondwana against the Sahara metacraton. Overall, the structure of the crust in Egypt away from the northern Red Sea region is similar to the structure of Precambrian crust in many other parts of Africa.

  1. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-25

    ability to import food and fuel. 3 Tourism receipts, a major source of foreign exchange, 4 declined by 15% in 2015, as concern over terrorism...Egypt earned $7.2 billion in tourism revenues. In 2010, it had earned $12.5 billion. See, “Egypt sees Tourist Returns down 10 pct after Plane Crash...retaliation for Russia’s military deployment to Syria. The Metrojet bombing may both harm Egypt’s tourism sector and undermine government claims of success

  2. Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: Limitations of the current strategy.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Marisa; Samaha, Hamid; Makonnen, Yilma Jobre; Saad, Ahmed; Abd-Elnabi, Amira; Galal, Saber; Ettel, Toni; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Lubroth, Juan; Roger, François; Domenech, Joseph

    2009-12-09

    Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in Vietnam and the People's Republic of China. However, three years on, the impact on disease control of AI vaccination in Egypt has been very limited. Despite the continuous vaccination of poultry against HPAI, poultry outbreaks and human cases are reported regularly. A recent assessment study highlighted substantial weaknesses in the current immunisation programme and its lack of positive impact on the spread of infection or the maintenance of public health safety. The shortcomings of the vaccination strategy may be attributed in part to a lack of sufficient support in terms of funding and communication, the absence of an efficient monitoring system, and inadequate training of field technicians. The difficulties of blanket vaccinations in semi-commercial farms and household poultry sectors are well known, however, improvements in the industrial sector should be possible though better government controls and greater collaboration with the private sector. AI vaccination should be regarded as just one control tool within a broader disease control program integrating surveillance, outbreak investigation, disease management systems, and the rigorous implementation of bio-security measures. If incorrectly implemented, AI vaccination has a limited impact as a disease control measure. Moreover, without strict bio-security precautions undertaken during its application, farm visits to vaccinate poultry could facilitate the spread of the virus and therefore become a risk factor with important implications on the maintenance of the virus and potential risk for human exposure.

  3. Geodynamics Studies in the active seismic regions in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. S.

    2003-04-01

    The recent crustal movement studies have a great role for evaluating the geodynamics of the seismo-active areas in the country. The crustal deformations must be in mind where it connecting significantly with the human life and its resources. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active areas in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes gad been occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt, Cairo, Aswan, Red Sea, Sinia and Nile Delta regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated areas and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GPS will be used where geodetic networks are covering such seismic-active areas, around Nasser Lake, gulf of Suez, Cairo, Sinai and the Nile Delta. The main goal of these studies are monitoring of the crustal deformations associated with the earthquake occurrence in these seismo-active areas in order to study its geodynamical behavior and reducing the earthquake losses. The results of these movements at all networks in Egypt represent the form of the dynamic models for the deformations occurred during the different epochs of measurements. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active areas.

  4. Multicenter study of brucellosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Hassan; Al-Rowaily, Meshref; Khoudair, Ramadan M; Ashour, Hossam M

    2008-12-01

    Brucellosis causes appreciable economic losses in livestock. Examination of milk and tissues from animals in Egypt for Brucella spp. showed increased prevalence rates of serologically reactive animals. All isolates were B. melitensis biovar 3. One Brucella sp. was isolated from milk of serologically nonreactive buffaloes.

  5. Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

    1998-04-01

    The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

  6. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  7. Women's "Justification" of Domestic Violence in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    We explored the influences of women's social learning, marital resources and constraints, and exposure to norms about women's family roles on their views about wife hitting or beating among 5,450 participants in the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. One half justified wife hitting or beating for some reason. Women from rural areas who were…

  8. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  9. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  10. English Teaching Profile: Arab Republic of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Egypt examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. The status of English as the main foreign language and as the medium of instruction in a small number of influential schools is discussed as well as the extent and content of the university English course. Also…

  11. Journey to Egypt: A Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvidge, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This author describes how her elementary students first became interested in studying ancient Egypt. Her students' interest in the ancient Egyptian studies began when a student checked out a library book on Egyptology that contained colorful images and was soon swarmed by interested classmates. Many of her students began practicing writing…

  12. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  13. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  14. Supply and Demand for Graduates in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, Gholamreza

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of university graduates in Egypt are used to test the effect of a mismatch in higher education policy and labor demand on future employment patterns. The results are delayed employment or underemployment and consequent lowering of lifetime earnings of college graduates. (MSE)

  15. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  16. Earth's motions in pharaonic Egypt: Religious interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambon, Emmanuel

    This paper will deal with the representations of the earth's movements in pharaonic Egypt. At first, testimonies of an ancient literary pattern, the "sky and earth" figure, will be observed, and then, the pictures where earth is represented "alone". We will explore the different ways the Egyptians depicted and interpreted this phenomena through various texts.

  17. Detection of Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a USAID-MERC funded project, ‘Disease-indexing and mass propagation of superior strawberry cultivars’, an effort was made to evaluate the virus status of strawberries in Egypt. Diagnostic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for Strawberry mottle, Strawberry cri...

  18. Special Education in Egypt: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghobrial, Talaat Mansour; Vance, H. Robert

    During the past three decades, there has been a growing concern for handicapped children and youth in Egypt. Current legislation recognizes the rights of the handicapped, and the Egyptian government supports the care, education, rehabilitation, and personal/social adjustment of handicapped citizens. The responsibility for the disabled is divided…

  19. Directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bashary, Ahmed, Comp.

    The directory of Adult Education Agencies in Egypt is a listing of six different types of organizations: national bodies and central agencies; teachers' training institutes and research institutions; adult education institutions (governmental); adult education institutions (non-governmental); central libraries and documentation centers; and…

  20. Video Usage in Egypt: Limits and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Fawal, Nagwa Amin

    A review of research conducted in Egypt to assess the impact of videocassette recorders (VCRs) on society and on other communication media indicates that the use of VCRs--a new phenomenon in mass communication in that country--has been accelerating over the past five years as more people have been gradually exposed to the advantages of unlimited…

  1. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  2. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  3. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    PubMed

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia.

  4. Stratigraphy of the Jurassic system in northern Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, M.L.; Shaw, D.; Forbes, G.A.

    1988-08-01

    A regional synthesis is presented of the stratigraphy of Jurassic strata in Egypt north of 30/degree/N, based on the study of about 80 wells and outcrops from northeastern Egypt. Almost all fossil groups have been investigated for biostratigraphic control. Published work on ammonite faunas from Gebel el Maghara (north Sinai) is integrated with extensive original work on palynofloras (and, to a lesser extent, ostracod/foraminiferal faunas) recovered from marine rocks in the subsurface. The recovery of rich dinocyst assemblages enables the recognition of a ten-fold zonation scheme, largely within the Middle-Late Jurassic sedimentary package. The upper limit of this package is marked by the Cimmerian erosional event; strata younger than Oxfordian are rarely preserved. Only east of 30/degree/E is significant sedimentation known to have occurred immediately prior to the major early Bajocian transgressive event. Thereafter mean sea level rose steadily. The Lower Triassic-Lower Jurassic sedimentary package is poorly understood, largely the result of scanty and ambiguous stratigraphic evidence. However, regional correlations suggest that only very thin earliest Jurassic (Hettangian ) clastic deposition succeeded a sequence of Upper Triassic carbonates and evaporites (Wadi en Natrun Formation) in the north. Arising from these studies is a standard lithostratigraphical scheme. The upper sedimentary package, the Gebel el Maghara Group, comprises three formations (Masajid, Khatatba, and Inmar) and seven members; new units are defined and old units redefined.

  5. Modeling Solute Transport by DLA in Soils of Northeastern Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97–0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach. PMID:25790463

  6. Prevalence of dementia in Egypt: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Elshahidi, Mohamed H; Elhadidi, Muhammad A; Sharaqi, Ahmed A; Mostafa, Ahmed; Elzhery, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    Background With the growing prevalence of dementia worldwide, two-third of the people with dementia are projected to be from the developing countries by 2050. Aim This study reviews the literature regarding dementia prevalence in Egypt. Methods Six databases were systematically searched from their dates of inception till July 2016. Studies published in English and reporting dementia prevalence among nonhospitalized individuals after clinical examinations were considered eligible. References were screened independently by two reviewers in two steps: 1) abstract screening and 2) full-text reviewing. In addition, quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Results Of the 1,630 references retrieved, six studies (n=28,029 participants) met our inclusion criteria. In all studies, dementia was ascertained using a three-phase survey (Phase I: screening, Phase II: clinical diagnosis, Phase III: laboratory investigations). The dementia prevalence ranged from 2.01% to 5.07%. Dementia increased with age, with the rapid increase among those aging ≥80. Also, its prevalence was higher among illiterate groups than among educated groups. Included studies were of low risk of bias. Conclusion Dementia prevalence in Egypt demands including people with dementia in the health care system and promoting the awareness of dementia among the public. Also, more epidemiological studies in this field are needed. PMID:28293113

  7. Modeling solute transport by DLA in soils of northeastern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Yasser Ahmed; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Persson, Magnus; Berndtsson, Ronny; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Arid soils in Egypt display large variability in solute transport properties, causing problems in soil management. To characterize this variability, dye infiltration experiments were conducted on four plots representing three main soil types in northeastern Egypt. The plots represented both cultivated and uncultivated land use. The observed dye patterns displayed a large variability and especially the clay soils indicated a high degree of preferential flow. The loamy sand and sandy soils displayed a more uniform dye distribution indicating more homogeneous soil properties. The observed dye patterns were modeled using a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model. The DLA is a random walk model where model parameters can be optimized using genetic algorithms (GA). The DLA model reproduced the observed dye patterns for all soils in an excellent way. The best fit was obtained with a specific combination of directional random walk probabilities Pu, Pd, Pr, and Pl for each plot (correlation 0.97-0.99). To account for soil layers with different hydraulic properties a two layer DLA model was developed. For all plots the Pu (upward random walk probability) was higher for the upper more homogeneous soil layer. The overall results showed that spatial variability resulting from solute transport for the investigated soils can be modeled using a DLA approach.

  8. Implementation, barriers and challenges of smoke-free policies in hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ghada Nasr; Loffredo, Christopher A; Aziz, Rasha; Abdel-Aziz, Nagah; Labib, Nargis

    2012-10-15

    Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in North Africa, and health professionals play a vital role in tobacco control. In Egypt, limited data are available on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers regarding tobacco control policies. Such data are especially relevant due to Egypt's tobacco control laws, adopted in 2007, prohibiting smoking in hospitals and other public places. This study surveyed 49 senior administrative staff, 267 physicians, 254 nurses, and 109 administrative employees working in El-Kasr El-Aini Hospital in Cairo, assessing their knowledge and attitudes regarding Egypt's tobacco control laws and barriers to their effective implementation in health care facilities. We also investigated the hospital's compliance with smoke-free policies. The majority (>90%) of the hospital workers knew that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful to health. Physicians and nurses had a more favorable attitude towards the smoking ban when compared to administrative employees. Hospital staff identified the following barriers to successfully implementing the smoking ban: lax enforcement of tobacco control laws, the lack of penalties for violators, the lack of cessation programs, and the prevalence of smoking among physicians. Overall, smoke-free policies were poorly enforced in this large teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Interventions to address the identified barriers to their implementation could include the provision of cessation training and services as well as effective communication programs to educate health care workers at all levels regarding the dangers of second-hand smoke exposure and effective measures for protection.

  9. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Treesearch

    Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Chris Soriano; John A. Stanturf

    2009-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is allocated according to international treaty obligations and is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing wastewater reuse strategies to meet...

  10. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Treesearch

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  11. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  12. [Concepts of the heart in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    The heart was regarded in Ancient Egypt as the organic motor of the body and also the seat of intelligence, an important religious and spiritual symbol. It was considered as one of the eight parts of human body. Counter to other organs it had to be kept carefully intact in the mummy to ensure its eternal life. In Ancient Egypt, the concept of heart included three constituents: heart-haty, heart-ib, and the spiritual seat of intelligence, emotion and memory. The hieroglyphs representing the heart early in the first dynasty were drawn with eight vessels attached to it. Egyptian doctors have elaborated an original conception of cardiovascular physiology which endured 30 centuries.

  13. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  14. Radiocarbon-based chronology for dynastic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Dee, Michael W; Rowland, Joanne M; Higham, Thomas F G; Harris, Stephen A; Brock, Fiona; Quiles, Anita; Wild, Eva M; Marcus, Ezra S; Shortland, Andrew J

    2010-06-18

    The historical chronologies for dynastic Egypt are based on reign lengths inferred from written and archaeological evidence. These floating chronologies are linked to the absolute calendar by a few ancient astronomical observations, which remain a source of debate. We used 211 radiocarbon measurements made on samples from short-lived plants, together with a Bayesian model incorporating historical information on reign lengths, to produce a chronology for dynastic Egypt. A small offset (19 radiocarbon years older) in radiocarbon levels in the Nile Valley is probably a growing-season effect. Our radiocarbon data indicate that the New Kingdom started between 1570 and 1544 B.C.E., and the reign of Djoser in the Old Kingdom started between 2691 and 2625 B.C.E.; both cases are earlier than some previous historical estimates.

  15. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  16. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  17. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-19

    Saudi Arabia as countries that “have a great distance still to travel” in making democratic reforms. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit...Egypt’s Inshas reactor and providing them to agents of Israel’s Mossad intelligence service in return for $17,000. Earlier in the year, Egypt asked the...genocide,” and has denounced the U.S. imposition of sanctions on the Sudanese government. According to Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit, “Sanctions

  18. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  19. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  20. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  1. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-08

    December 6, 2005, U.S. State Department Deputy Spokesman Adam Ereli remarked that “We’ve also seen a number of developments over the past couple weeks...when Egypt hosted the signing of an Israeli-Palestinian agreement for implementing past commitments and meetings between then Secretary of State...Mubarak. Over the past several years, Mubarak’s forty-one year old son, Gamal, increasingly has become involved at the highest levels of the NDP, though

  2. Seismicity and kinematic evolution of middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, A.; Abdel-Monem, S. M.; Sakr, K.; Ali, Sh. M.

    2006-08-01

    Based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as recent GPS measurements, the seismicity and kinematic evaluation of middle Egypt is presented. Middle Egypt suffered in historical times by six major earthquakes and the Ramses II temple on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, was almost destroyed by an ancient event. The temporal distribution of recent earthquakes (1900-1997) is highly scattered with only nine events recorded. Only after the installation of the modern Egyptian national seismograph network (ENSN) the seismic record of middle Egypt increased with a total of 280 earthquakes from 1998 to 2004. Focal mechanism solutions of the largest five events during the ENSN's operation period reveal reverse faulting mechanism with minor strike-slip component on the west bank of the Nile, while a normal faulting mechanism dominate in the eastern side. The orientations of both P- and T-axes are consistent with the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez stress field. Dynamic source parameters of these five events were derived from P-wave spectra as well. Three campaigns of GPS measurements were carried out for the middle Egypt network that established after the first instrumental earthquake on 14 December 1998 in this area. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 4 mm/year across the network. The deformation pattern suggests significant contraction across the southeastern sector of the study area while, the northwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. High shear strain is observed along the epicenteral area of the Mw = 4.0 June 2003 earthquake possibly reflecting the stress accumulation stage of a seismic cycle.

  3. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  4. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  5. Pediatric eye injuries in upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Sebaity, Dalia M; Soliman, Wael; Soliman, Asmaa MA; Fathalla, Ahmed M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the patterns, causes, and outcome of pediatric ocular trauma at Assiut University Hospital in Upper Egypt (South of Egypt). Methods All ocular trauma patients aged 16 years or younger admitted to the emergency unit of Ophthalmology Department of Assiut University between July 2009 and July 2010 were included in the study. The demographic data of all patients and characteristics of the injury events were determined. The initial visual acuity and final visual acuity after 3 months follow-up were recorded. Results One hundred and fifty patients were included. The majority of injuries occurred in children aged 2–7 years (50.7%). There were 106 (70.7%) boys and 44 (29.3%) girls. The highest proportion of injuries occurred in the street (54.7%) followed by the home (32.7%). Open globe injuries accounted for 67.3% of injuries, closed globe for 30.7%, and chemical injuries for 2%. The most common causes were wood, stones, missiles, and glass. LogMar best corrected visual acuity at 3 months follow-up was: 0–1 in 13.3%; <1–1.3 in 27.3%; <1.3–perception of light (PL) in 56%; and no perception of light (NPL) in 3.3%. Conclusions Pediatric ocular trauma among patients referred to our tertiary ophthalmology referral center in Upper Egypt over a period of 1 year was 3.7%. Of these, 67.3% of cases had open globe injury, 30.7% had closed injury, and only 2% had chemical injury. In Upper Egypt, socioeconomic and sociocultural status, family negligence, and lack of supervision are important factors in pediatric eye injuries, as 92% of children were without adult supervision when the ocular trauma occurred. Nearly 86.6% of children with ocular trauma end up legally blind. Modification of these environmental risk factors is needed to decrease pediatric ocular morbidity. PMID:22034563

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  7. Egypt’s Air War in Yemen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    financial and military aid to the Imam‟s tribal forces that essentially served as its proxy in a war with Egypt. 11 Saudi Arabia did send jets and...longer the war dragged on with little to no discernable progress, the more frustrated the Egyptians became and the more they bombed. Airplanes began...1968. Terrill, W. Andrew. “The Chemical Warfare Legacy of the Yemen War ,” Comparative Strategy (Vol 10, Issue 2 , Apr 1991): 109-119. Witty, David

  8. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  9. Pregnancy during breastfeeding in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Glasier, Anna F

    2008-05-01

    Breastfeeding does not reliably protect against pregnancy except during the first 6 months postpartum and only then if accompanied by amenorrhea. Reluctance to use other methods of contraception during lactation may result in unplanned pregnancy. The aims of this study were to describe, among women in rural Egypt attending for antenatal care the prevalence of pregnancy during breastfeeding, contraceptive practice and unintended pregnancy. Finally, the study assessed women's impressions of the effect of conception during breastfeeding on breast milk and on the health of the breastfed infant. A descriptive study using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire for 2617 parous women attending a hospital in Egypt for antenatal care. More than 95% of women breastfed the child before their current pregnancy; 25.3% conceived while breastfeeding. Conception occurred during the first 6 months postpartum in 4.4%, before resumption of menstruation in 15.1% and while exclusively or almost exclusively breastfeeding in 28.1%. Only 10 pregnancies (1.5%) occurred when all the prerequisites of the lactational amenorrhea method of contraception (LAM) were present. Twenty-nine percent of pregnancies conceived during breastfeeding were unintended, 10% of women had considered terminating their pregnancy while 4.4% of them reported trying to do so. Pregnancy during breastfeeding is common in Egypt and is often unintended. There is great potential for using LAM, but it must be properly taught, and women should be encouraged to start using effective contraception as soon as any of the prerequisites of LAM expires.

  10. 'Like a Virgin': Hymenoplasty and Secret Marriage in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, women seek hymenoplasty to disguise evidence of premarital sexual intercourse. Physicians hide the fact that they perform the procedure, and laypeople condemn it as against religion and morality, a way of cheating men of knowledge of their wives' sexual history. Yet high-ranking religious leaders have condoned hymenoplasty. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, archival research, and formal interviews with laypeople and physicians, in this article, I investigate this discrepancy between religious and lay opinions. Many Egyptians believe women resort to hymenoplasty after contracting secret `urfi (customary) marriages, and I examine the relationship between hymenoplasty and extramarital and paramarital sexuality. Egyptian debates around hymenoplasty and marriage are concerned with the notion that women's sexual status must be socially visible, believing that doctors and kin have the ability and obligation to read women's sexual history through physiological markers and social rituals. Hymenoplasty and secret marriage render women's sexual histories illegible to observers.

  11. Human fascioliasis and anaemia in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Atef M; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abdel-Mageed, A A; El Beshbishi, S N; Azab, M S; Abou El Hasan, M; Arafa, Wafaa A S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    Fasciola infection (fascioliasis) appeared to be endemic in Egypt. Stool samples of fourty eight patients were coprologically diagnosed. According to Fasciola egg counting per gram stool, the severity of infection was divided into light infection in 60.5%, moderate in 27.1% and severe infection in 12.5%. No significant correlation was detected between severity of infection and patients' sex. Complete blood picture, reticylocytic count, serum iron, immunological assays as anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti-body, anti-DNA tests and rheumatoid factor and occult blood in stool were investigated. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was detected in 62.5% of the fascioliasis patients, microcytic hypochromic anaemia in 31.3% and macrocytic one in 6.3%. Highly significant negative correlation (R = -0.68) was detected between haemoglobin concentration and egg count per gram faeces. Human fascioliasis was associated with normocytic normochromic anaemia and to a lesser extent microcytic hypochromic anemia.

  12. Influence of circulation indices upon winter temperature variability in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmallah, E. S.; Elsharkawy, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Trends of winter surface air temperature anomalies, WSATA, are investigated using data obtained from 13 monitoring stations. The analysis is performed in two steps; one deals with separate stations independently and the other deals with stations' groups. Groups' anomalies are correlated to circulation indices showing negative correlation between temperature with North Atlantic Oscillations and positive one with Mediterranean Oscillation Index. Both power analysis and frequency distribution analysis are applied. The results show existence of Schwabe, Hale and Gleissberg cycles and declare that there are no critical thermal changes of climate in Egypt. It is concluded that the temperature changes during the past three decades are not only because of the human activity but the extraterrestrial impacts as well.

  13. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  14. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  15. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  16. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  17. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  18. Separate but Equal: Segregated Religious Education in Egypt's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, John

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring exposed the hidden secrets of Egyptian society to the global community. In spite of the insatiable media attention paid to the Mubarak regime and the toll it took on the entire country, Egypt's education system received little attention. For decades, Egypt's public schools have forced students to attend segregated classes, based on…

  19. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  20. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  1. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  2. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  3. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  4. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  5. Technologies Applied in the Toshka Project of Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahby, Wafeek S.

    2004-01-01

    The Toshka Project, located in Egypt, involves excavating a canal to carry about 380 billion ft[supercript 3] of water every year from Lake Nasser to the Toshka Depression, southwest of Aswan. This will eventually create a new valley to the River Nile in the western desert of Egypt in addition to the currently existing prehistoric river course.…

  6. The corrosive well waters of Egypt's western desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1979-01-01

    The discovery that ground waters of Egypt's Western Desert are highly corrosive is lost in antiquity. Inhabitants of the oases have been aware of the troublesome property for many decades and early investigators mention it in their reports concerning the area. Introduction of modern well-drilling techniques and replacements of native wood casing with steel during the 20th century increased corrosion problems and, in what is called the New Valley Project, led to an intense search for causes and corrective treatments. This revealed that extreme corrosiveness results from combined effects of relatively acidic waters with significant concentrations of destructive sulfide ion; unfavorable ratios of sulfate and chloride to less aggressive ions; mineral equilibria and electrode potential which hinder formation of protective films; relative high chemical reaction rates because of abnormal temperatures, and high surface velocities related to well design. There is general agreement among investigators that conventional corrosion control methods such as coating metal surfaces, chemical treatment of the water, and electrolytic protection with impressed current and sacrificial electrodes are ineffective or impracticable for wells in the Western Desert's New Valley. Thus, control must be sought through the use of materials more resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steel wherever well screens and casings are necessary. Of the alternatives considered, stainless steel appears to. be the most promising where high strength and long-term services are required and the alloy's relatively high cost is acceptable. Epoxy resin-bonded fiberglass and wood appear to be practicable, relatively inexpensive alternatives for installations which do. not exceed their strength limitations. Other materials such as high strength aluminum and Monel Metal have shown sufficient promise to. merit their consideration in particular locations and uses. The limited experience with pumping in these desert

  7. Uranium-series dated authigenic carbonates and Acheulian sites in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, B. J.; Mchugh, W. P.; Schaber, G. G.; Breed, C. S.; Haynes, C. V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Field investigations of aggraded paleovalleys, which were identified in southern Egypt using SIR, are discussed. Acheulian artifacts were found in authigenic carbonate deposites along the edges of the paleovalleys. Uranium series dating of 25 carbonate samples shows that widespread carbonate deposition in the area occurred about 45, 141, and 212 thousand years ago. Analysis of the carbonate suggests that the deposition may be related to late Pleistocene humid climates that facilitated human settlement in the region.

  8. Experienced EFL Teachers' Professional Practical Knowledge, Reasoning and Classroom Decision Making in Egypt: Views from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the areas that constituted the professional practical knowledge of experienced English as a Foreign Language teachers in Egypt and how their knowledge informed their classroom practice. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 236 preparatory and secondary school teachers in 38 schools through…

  9. Experienced EFL Teachers' Professional Practical Knowledge, Reasoning and Classroom Decision Making in Egypt: Views from the Inside Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the areas that constituted the professional practical knowledge of experienced English as a Foreign Language teachers in Egypt and how their knowledge informed their classroom practice. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 236 preparatory and secondary school teachers in 38 schools through…

  10. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  11. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-20

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000. This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02667

  13. Eastern Egypt, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    STS031-79-015 (24-29 April 1990) --- The 330-plus nautical mile orbital altitude of the Space Shuttle Discovery allowed for this unique high oblique 70mm Hasselblad frame. Egypt is in the foreground, with the Nile River and Lake Nasser readily identifiable. Cairo and Alexandria are visible. The Mediterranean Sea is on the horizon in upper left. The Red Sea is in the center. Other areas seen include Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel; the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez.

  14. [The patients' view in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Although many medical texts are preserved from Ancient Egypt, these texts are giving only little information about the relationship between the Egyptian doctor and the patient. The aim of this article is to draw the reader's attention to personal documents such as letters between members of the royal court or private persons as well as to literary texts from the New Kingdom until the Roman Period. The article does also focus on Mesopotamian legal texts (Codex Hammurapi) and letters from the kingdom of Mari.

  15. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    agricultural output, large domestic market , and strategic location between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Most importantly, the British saw Egypt as vital to...the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), March 6, 2008. 17 Steven A. Cook, "Adrift on the Nile: The Limits of...widespread due to Israel’s total blockade of Gaza, Hamas’s demand for weapons, and the lack of viable economic alternatives to black market activity on

  16. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  17. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  18. Access denied: institutional barriers to justice for victims of torture in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hebatullah Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the question - how do practices in key justice institutions affect the incidence and success of prosecutions of torture perpetrators in Egypt? The research question is grounded in the theory that torture prosecutions are crucial to ending the practice of torture, and based on the judgment that the number of prosecutions of torture perpetrators in Egypt is very small compared to the widespread practice of torture. This research observes practices in three main justice institutions: the Department of Public Prosecutions, the Department of Forensic Medicine and the criminal courts. Based on international and local literature, but also on interviews conducted with lawyers, forensic doctors and human rights activists, the research observes the practices most common to the three institutions, while analyzing their impact on the incidence and success of prosecutions. The research finds that different practices, backed by Egyptian legislation, and endorsed by poor institutional capabilities, violate the international standards for investigations, and affect the incidence and outcome of prosecutions.

  19. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt.

  20. A preliminary study on dicrocoeliasis in Egypt, with a general review.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A; Ibrahim, Badawia B; Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed

    2003-04-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum (D. dendriticum) is a lancet-shape liver fluke that affects sheep and mammals including man. Human and animal infections have been world widely reported particularly in some of the Eastern Mediterranean sheep raising countries. Infection is acquired by eating the second intermediate host (17 species of ants) with raw fruits, vegetables, herbs or even with the drinking water. As for the first intermediate host, there is about 54 different species of land snails. In spite of the fact that both the first and second intermediate hosts of D. dendriticum are available in Egypt, data about human and animal dicrocoeliasis is lacking. This investigation is a preliminary study to report on the presence of D. dendriticum (in sheep, goats and man in North Sinai Governorate) in Egypt.

  1. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  2. Altruistic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants of organ donation intention in Egypt: a social marketing perspective.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamed M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various altruistic, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on the organ donation intention in Egypt. Using a large sample, a conceptual model has been developed. The findings from the structural equation model confirm the influence of the respondents' altruistic values, perceived benefits and risks, and knowledge on their attitudes towards organ donation. Respondents' attitudes towards organ donation, in turn, are also found to affect their organ donation intention. One of the other important findings suggests that on a declarative level, more and more individuals in Egypt express their concern over the shortage of available organs and declare their willingness to contribute somehow to alleviate the problem. However, in reality this concern may not be manifested consistently.

  3. ADHD, autism and neuroradiological complications among phenylketonuric children in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saad, Khaled; Elserogy, Yasser; Abdel Rahman, Ahmed A; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman Abdullah; Mohamad, Ismail L; ElMelegy, Tarek T H; Bjørklund, Geir; El-Houfy, Amira A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological status in a cohort of children with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria in Assiut, Upper Egypt. The study was implemented in seventy-eight phenylketonuria (PKU) children. Only 34 patients met the inclusion criteria. Investigated patients were evaluated according to detailed history, neurological examination, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, full scale Intelligence Quotient, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study concluded that the prognosis for early diagnosed children with PKU treated from the first weeks of life is generally good. However, they are at increased risk for neurological complications and behavioral problems. So, neonatal screening for PKU is highly recommended in Egypt, for early detection and management. In addition, neuropsychological and MRI assessments in PKU children should be done.

  4. Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role.

  5. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions.

  6. Risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ashraf; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; Khairy, Ahmed; Omar, Heba

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common disorder worldwide and ranks 2nd and 6th most common cancer among men and women in Egypt. HCC has a rising incidence in Egypt mostly due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis and its complications. Proper management requires the interaction of multidisciplinary HCC clinic to choose the most appropriate plan. The different modalities of treatment include resection (surgery or transplantation), local ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization and molecular targeted therapies. This paper summarizes both the environmental and host related risk factors of HCC in Egypt including well-established risk factors such as hepatitis virus infection, aflatoxin, as well as possible risk factors.

  7. Impact of highway geometry and posted speed on operating speed at multi-lane highways in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Semeida, Ahmed M

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of roadway factors and posted speed limits that affect the operating speed at multi-lane highways in Egypt. Field data on multi-lane highways in Egypt are used in this investigation. The analysis considers two categories of highways. The first consists of two desert roads (Cairo-Alexandria and Cairo-Ismailia desert roads) and the second consists of two agricultural roads (Cairo-Alexandria and Tanta-Damietta agricultural roads). The paper includes three separate relevant analyses. The first analysis uses the regression models to investigate the relationships between operating speed (V 85) as dependent variable, and roadway factors and posted speed as independent variables. The road factors are lane width, shoulder width, pavement width, median width, number of lanes in each direction, and existence of side access along each section. The second analysis uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to explore the previous relationships while the third one examines the suitability of the posted speed limits on the roads under study. It is found that the ANN modeling gives the best model for predicting the operating speed and the most influential variables on V 85 are the pavement width, followed by the median width and the existence of side access along section. It is also found that the posted speed limit has a very small effect on the operating speed due to the bad behavior of drivers in Egypt. These results are so important for controlling V 85 on multi-lane rural highways in Egypt.

  8. Geological heritage of the Bahariya and Farafra oases, the central Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyusnina, Ekaterina E.; Sallam, Emad S.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological and cultural heritage of Egypt is world-known, but its geological heritage is yet to be revealed. Investigations in the central Western Desert of Egypt permitted finding a lot of unique features that can be assigned to this heritage. In the Bahariya Oasis, 10 geological heritage types are established, namely stratigraphical, paleontological, sedimentary, igneous, mineralogical, economical, paleogeographical, geomorphological, hydrological and hydrogeological, and pedological types. In the Farafra Oasis and vicinities, only geomorphological and hydrological and hydrogeological types are found. On the area between these oases, sedimentary, mineralogical, paleogeographical, and geomorphological features are established. Chalk and nummulitic limestones, invertebrate and dinosaur localities, paleoreefs and paleokarst, iron ore deposit, and peculiar landforms occur on the study territory. Taken together, these features constitute a highly diverse geological heritage that can be judged global (even if the rank of individual objects is often relatively low). This heritage is well suitable for the purpose of geotourism; for instance, thematic excursions explaining the geological evolution during the last 100 Ma are possible. Participants of such excursions can also see different facies. A geopark in the central Western Desert of Egypt would facilitate geoconservation and geotourism activities.

  9. Geographic distribution of hematopoietic cancers in the Nile delta of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, C. M.; Dey, S.; Hablas, A.; Khaled, H. M.; Seifeldin, I. A.; Ramadan, M.; El-Hamzawy, H.; Wilson, M. L.; Soliman, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous evidence indicated that incidence rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are high in Egypt although little is known about risk factors. Materials and methods Using data from the population-based cancer registry of Gharbiah governorate in Egypt, we assessed the 1999–2005 incidence of hematopoietic cancers (HCs) based on the ICD-O3 by age- and sex-specific urban–rural distribution. Results NHL showed the highest incidence among all HCs (11.7 per 100 000). Urban incidence of HCs was higher than rural incidence. Incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and NHL were high especially among urban males up to the 64-year age category. Rural incidence of HL and NHL was high below age 20. Among the districts of the governorate, we observed NHL incidence pattern similar to that observed for hepatocellular carcinoma because of the possible link to hepatitis C virus for both cancers. Comparison to the published HCs data from Algeria, Cyprus, and Jordan showed the highest NHL rate in Egypt than the other countries in the region. Conclusions Future studies should define the role of environmental exposures in hematopoietic carcinogenesis in this population. In-depth studies should also investigate the role of access to health care in the urban–rural variation of HC distribution in this population. PMID:22553197

  10. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  11. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Travelers Returning from Egypt, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carletti, Fabrizio; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Nisii, Carla; Suter, Fredy; Rizzi, Marco; Tebaldi, Alessandra; Goglio, Antonio; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini

    2010-01-01

    Two travelers returning to Italy from southern Egypt were hospitalized with a fever of unknown origin. Test results showed infection with Alkhurma virus. The geographic distribution of this virus could be broader than previously thought. PMID:21122237

  12. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  13. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  14. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Lake Nasser, (24.0N, 33.0E) at the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, in Egypt is the world's second largest artificial lake, extending 500 km, in length and about 5000 sq. km. in area. The lake has a storage capacity sufficient to irrigate farms in Egypt and Sudan year round allowing up to three harvests per year. Other benefits include year round river navagation, hydroelectric power, more fish harvests, reduced flooding and more industrial employment. opportunites.

  15. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective.

  16. Stratification and mobility in contemporary Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nagi, Saad Z; Nagi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The objectives in this statement are to characterize and explain the patterns of change in stratification and mobility in Egypt, over the last half century, by placing them within conceptual, explanatory, and historical contexts. First, literature relevant to the primary concepts of "class" and "status", is reviewed. Second, four institutions whose influence is fundamental in shaping these patterns are identified to form an explanatory context: family, polity, economy, and education. And third, an historical account is presented to demonstrate the interplay of these institutions and their consequences for stratification and mobility. For this, four periods are identified that are marked by change in the dominance of institutions and their corresponding influence on stratification and mobility. In addition to data available in relevant literature, this analysis utilizes primary data generated through a national probability household survey.

  17. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-09

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate.

  18. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  19. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  20. Dust Plume off the Coast of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dwarfing the Nile, a river of dust flowed out of the deserts of northern Egypt on May 19, 2007. As the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead at 12:05 p.m. local time in Cairo, the sensor captured this image of the dust spreading northward over the Mediterranean Sea from the sandy deserts that span the country. At the margins of the plume, ribbons and ripples of dust are translucent, allowing a glimpse of the desert and water beneath, but in the center, the cloud is opaque, revealing nothing of the surface below. The part of north-central Egypt hidden by the dust plume is the Qattara Depression, the country's lowest point. Dipping down to 133 meters below sea level (436 feet), the depression is home to sandy deserts and dry lake beds that occasionally flood. The sand and fine, lake bed sediments are easily lofted into the air by strong winds that scour the area in late winter and early spring. In the eastern (right-hand) part of the image, the Nile River is lined by narrow ribbons of dull green vegetation. The fan-shaped delta is dotted with tan-colored spots, marking the location of cities and towns. The Nile Valley and Delta make up only a small fraction of the country's total land area, yet they support almost the entire population. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides this image in additional resolutions. The Earth Observatory also provides a 250-meter-resolution KMZ file of this image for use with Google Earth.

  1. The determinants of labor migration in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J

    1969-08-01

    The factors which affect individual decisions with regard to geographic movement in Egypt are examined and the magnitude in which each factor exerts its influence on aggregate geographic labor supply adjustments is estimated. The spatial unit used in the study is the administrative region, of which there are 25. No effort is made to esimate the impact which migration has had on the origin or destination region. The migrant will presumably choose that destination which, given his information, the migrant thinks will be best. The model which is employed attempts to explain gross interregional migration without the explicit introduction of an individual decision function. Rather, migration is related to certain aggregate proxy variables. Among the independent variables employed in the analysis are (origin and destination) income, education, urbanization, and population. The other explanatory variable used is the distance between region i and region j. The migration measure employed refers to cumulative male migration which occurred prior to 1960; the independent variables are defined for a given point in time (1960). The independent variables explain a reasonably large percentage of the variance in migration between regions in Egypt. All variables were significant at the 5% level or better. The findings indicate that distance acts as an important impediment to migration. Migration is away from low wage and toward high wage regions, which may have contributed to a narrowing of regional wage differentials. Migrants are attracted to regions which have large populations and to regions which have a large percentage of urban to total population. A tendency exists for migrants to come from regions with large populations. There is also some tendency for migrants to come from regions which have a relatively large urban population. Migrants do not appear to come from regions with high educational levels.

  2. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  3. The Cretaceous glauconitic sandstones of Abu Tartur, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestitschek, Brigitte; Gier, Susanne; Essa, Mahmoud; Kurzweil, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    The Abu Tartur mine is located in the Western Desert of Egypt, 50 km west of El Kharga City. Geologically, the Abu Tartur plateau is built by a sequence of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian - Maastrichtian) phosphorites, black shales and glauconitic sandstones. The phosphate deposits are of great economic importance and have been mined since their discovery in 1967. Outcrop sections were measured, sampled, sedimentologically characterized and described. One specific glaucony layer was investigated mineralogically and chemically in detail and compared to a subsurface sample from the mine. Two depositional regimes can be interpreted based on sedimentary architecture and structures: 1) a deeper-water hemipelagic environment, where phosphorites and organic carbon-rich shales were deposited and 2) a shallower, prograding higher energy shelf environment with glauconies. From a sequence stratigraphic perspective 1) was deposited during the transgressive systems tract and the early highstand while 2) was deposited during the remaining highstand and a lowstand prograding wedge (Glenn & Arthur, 1990). Petrographic and SEM investigations show that the glaucony grains are of authochtonous origin. XRF, EMPA and thin-section analyses show that the glaucony grains from the outcrop differ significantly in their chemical composition, morphology and color from the grains of the mine sample. The fresh glauconies are enriched in Fe2O3 and K2O compared to the surface samples. XRD analyses of the clay fraction of the six outcrop samples and the mine sample show that the grains consist of illite(glauconite)/smectite mixed-layers, with more illite layers (80 %) in the mine sample. The charge distribution diagram muscovite-pyrophyllite-celadonite shows a clear trend from smectitic glaucony to illitic glaucony, the mine sample plots exactly in the field for glauconites. All these features indicate that the surface samples are strongly altered by weathering and that glauconite progressively

  4. Molecular detection of enteric viruses from diarrheic calves in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Fakry F; Mansour, Shimaa M G; El-Araby, Iman E; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. This study was conducted to investigate the existence of enteric viruses in two Egyptian farms with a history of recurrent diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from 25 diarrheic calves. RNA was extracted and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, torovirus, coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Overall, 76 % (19/25) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses. Rota-, noro- and astroviruses were detected in 48 %, 24 % and 32 % of tested samples, respectively. About 37 % (7/19) of positive samples had two different viruses. One-month-old calves were the group most vulnerable to infections. Based on phylogenetic analysis, bovine rotaviruses were of genotypes G6 and G10, bovine noroviruses were in GIII.2, and bovine astroviruses were in the BAstV lineage 1. Astrovirus sequences showed a high level nucleotide sequence similarity with the Brazilian BAstV sequences available in GenBank. We believe this is the first report of bovine norovirus and bovine astrovirus circulating among calves in Egypt. Further epidemiological studies are recommended to investigate their presence on a wider scale, to predict their association with NCD, and to design appropriate diagnostic and control methods.

  5. Changing pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its risk factors in Egypt: possibilities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A; Khaled, Hussein M; Amra, Hassan A; El-Nezami, Hani; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2008-01-01

    , obesity, high corn oil consumption, and the number of offspring contributed to the variability in occurrence of AFM1 in breast milk. Prevention and intervention approaches directed to risk factors of HCC can play a critical role in its prevention. In the case of HCV infection a prevention programme can be achieved by changing personal behaviors and/or cultural habits which are risk factors for HCV transmission, such as injection with contaminated syringes, blood transfusion, surgical operations, venous catheterization, use of common syringes, dental treatment and circumcision at home. Prevention of exposure to aflatoxins can be achieved either at community (via good agriculture practices) or individual levels (treatment or dietary interventions). In conclusion, due to the alarming increase in the incidence of HCC in Egypt, there is a need to further investigate the contribution of these emerging risk factors to the development of HCC in Egypt. This may enable us to determine the susceptibility to HCC among high-risk groups and to provide these individuals with effective measures for early prevention or intervention.

  6. U.S.-Egypt Security Cooperation after Egypt’s January 2011 Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    East: Ten Years After Camp David (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1988), 137. 5Ibid., 144. 6David Wood, “At Risk In Egypt’s Turmoil: U.S...Military Access to the Middle East,” Politics Daily, (2001), http://www.politicsdaily.com/2011/02/05/at- risk -in-egypts-turmoil-u-s-military -access-to... industrial and economic role in the domestic economy. Under Mubarak, the military became a dominant economic force, which manages industries ranging

  7. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. I. Afforestation strategies

    Treesearch

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Christopher Soriano

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo...

  8. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1989. Egypt: Transition to the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of International Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of four papers on various aspects of development in Egypt prepared by participants in the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Egypt in 1989. Four of the papers are descriptive, one is a lesson plan. The papers included are: (1) "Egypt: Transition to Modern Times" (Katherine Jensen) focuses on the role of…

  9. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  10. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Moulana, Ashraf Abdel Reheem; Elsebaay, Elsebaay Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Egyptians are one of the first civilisations to practice the removal and examination of internal organs of humans. Their practices ranged from embalming to faith healing to surgery and autopsy. Modern radiological studies, together with various forensic techniques, allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago and discovered one of the earliest applications of autopsy, the main element of forensic medicine practice today. The Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority handles a relatively large number of cases annually and depends on different assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology unit, DNA laboratory, forensic chemistry laboratory) as well as the Counterfeiting and Forgery unit. Crime scene investigations are performed mainly through the criminal laboratory related to the Ministry of Interior. Forensic Medicine is studied thoroughly in the faculty of medicine (undergraduates), as well as by forensic medical examiners at postgraduate level (diploma, master's and doctorate). This review recommends more scientific cooperation with universities in the field of forensic medicine and related sciences to solve various crimes with meticulous detail.

  11. Nile River, Lake Nasser, North Sudan and Lower Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-11-01

    STS052-152-026 (22Oct-1 Nov 1992) --- Backdropped over eastern Egypt, the Canadian-built remote manipulator system (RMS) attached to NASA's Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia displays a Canadian Space Agency (CSA) experiment. Materials Exposure in Low Earth Orbit (MELEO) is one of a number of Canadian experiments which flew aboard Columbia for the ten-day STS-52 mission. Principal investigator for the experiment is Dr. David G. Zimick of the CSA. Plastic and composite materials used on the external surfaces of spacecraft have been found to degrade in the harsh environment of space. Evidence suggests that this degradation is caused by interaction with atomic oxygen which induces damaging chemical and physical reactions. The result is a loss in mass, strength, stiffness and stability of size and shape. During the mission, MELEO exposed over 350 material specimens mounted on "witness plates" on the RMS arm. The specimen collection will be analyzed in the weeks following the mission. Typical spacecraft materials and new developments in protective measures against atomic oxygen were tested as part of the MELEO experiment.

  12. Physical restraints practice in adult intensive care units in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Nahed Attia; Attia, Amal Kadry

    2013-03-01

    Physical restraints are commonly used in intensive care units to reduce the risk of injury and ensure patient safety. However, there is still controversy regarding the practice of physical restraints in such units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practices of physical restraints among critical care nurses in El-Mansoura City, Egypt. The study involved a convenience sample of 275 critically ill adult patients, and 153 nurses. Data were collected from 11 intensive care units using a "physical restraint observation form" and a "structured questionnaire." The results revealed that physical restraint was commonly used to ensure patient safety. Assessment of physical restraint was mainly restricted to peripheral circulation. The most commonly reported physically restrained site complications included: redness, bruising, swelling, and edema. The results illustrated a lack of documentation on physical restraint and a lack of education of patients and their families about the rationale of physical restraint usage. The study shed light on the need for standard guidelines and policies for physical restraint practices in Egyptian intensive care units.

  13. Sedimentary provenance of Maastrichtian oil shales, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Mohamed, Ramadan S.; Zaki, Rafat

    2017-04-01

    Maastrichtian oil shales are distributed within the Central Eastern Desert in Egypt. In this study elemental geochemical data have been applied to investigate the probable provenance of the sedimentary detrital material of the Maastrichtian oil shale beds within the Duwi and the Dakhla formations. The Maastrichtian oil shales are characterized by the enrichment in Ca, P, Mo, Ni, Zn, U, Cr and Sr versus post-Archean Australian shales (PAAS). The chondrite-normalized patterns of the Maastrichtian oil shale samples are showing LREE enrichment, HREE depletion, slightly negative Eu anomaly, no obvious Ce anomaly and typical shale-like PAAS-normalized patterns. The total REE well correlated with Si, Al, Fe, K and Ti, suggesting that the REE of the Maastrichtian oil shales are derived from terrigenous source. Chemical weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) indicate moderate to strong chemical weathering. We suggest that the Maastrichtian oil shale is mainly derived from first cycle rocks especially intermediate rocks without any significant inputs from recycled or mature sources. The proposed data illustrated the impact of the parent material composition on evolution of oil shale chemistry. Furthermore, the paleo-tectonic setting of the detrital source rocks for the Maastrichtian oil shale is probably related to Proterozoic continental island arcs

  14. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  15. Silymarin content in Silybum marianum populations growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh F; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-05-01

    Chemical variation of Silybum marianum growing in the north, middle, and south of Egypt was investigated. Variation was assessed according to the content of the individual silymarin components in the fruits of the plant. The fruits were distinguished according to location, plant variety, and fruit color (maturity). Accelerated solvent extraction was used to standardize the silymarin extraction. Quantitative analysis of the content of silymarin components was carried out using HPLC with qNMR-controlled reference standards of taxifolin and seven major flavonolignans including silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, isosilychristin, and silydianin. The quantification method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering were carried out to create homogeneous clusters of samples based on the content of the silymarin components. Taxifolin had the lowest correlation relative to other silymarin components, whereas silybin A was positively correlated with silybin B. The samples clustered into three classes: silydianin-rich samples, samples with an average silymarin content of <18.8 mg/g, and one class enriched in silymarin (>18.8 mg/g). S. marianum growing in the Nile delta showed the highest silymarin content. No correlation was found between fruit color and silymarin content, indicating that the fruit maturity stage has no significance.

  16. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

    PubMed Central

    El-Tallawy, Hamdy; Farghaly, Wafa; Metwally, Nabil; Rageh, Tarek; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Badry, Reda; Moselhy, Esam El; Hassan, Mahmoud; Sayed, Mohamed M; Abdelwarith, Ahmed A; Hamed, Y; Shaaban, I; Mohamed, Talal; Hamed, Mohamed Abd El; Kandil, MR

    2013-01-01

    Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012), a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell’s palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1) data collection; (2) preparation; (3) screening; (4) case ascertainment; (5) investigations; (6) classifications; (7) data entry; and (8) statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2%) than males (3.9%). The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%]) and among the age group 18–39 years (5.4%). PMID:24043938

  17. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  18. "Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, R A

    1998-06-01

    According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt.

  19. Recent temporal and spatial temperature changes in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domroes, Manfred; El-Tantawi, Attia

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect and to estimate trends of temperature change in Egypt, trend analyses applying the least-squares method and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test for trends were carried out at six stations for the period 1941-2000 (60 years), and at nine stations for the period 1971-2000 (30 years).According to the trend computations for the period 1941-2000, variable temperature trends over time and space have been observed. Decreasing trends of the mean annual temperature were observed in northern Egypt and (weakly) increasing trends in southern Egypt. Seasonally, positive trends prevailed in summer compared with negative trends in winter. For the recent period, 1971-2000, positive trends were computed for the mean annual and mean minimum temperatures at all stations except Port Said in northern Egypt, where the annual trend was weakly negative. The mean maximum temperature trends were, however, negative at most stations. Seasonally, a definite trend of warming occurred in summer, in contrast to the observations of a global temperature increase in winter.A principal component analysis was applied to compute the all-Egypt temperature trends. For the observation period, 1941-2000, decreasing trends were shown for annual, maximum, winter and autumn temperatures and increasing trends for minimum, winter and spring temperatures. For the recent period, 1971-2000, all trends were positive except maximum temperature.

  20. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  1. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery for iron ore prospecting in the Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Abdelhady, M. A.; Elghawaby, M. A.; Khawasik, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Prospecting for iron ore occurrences was conducted by the Remote Sensing Center in Bahariya Oasis-El Faiyum area covering some 100,000 km squared in the Western Desert of Egypt. LANDSAT-1 satellite images were utilized as the main tool in the regional prospecting of the iron ores. The delineation of the geological units and geological structure through the interpretation of the images corroborated by field observations and structural analysis led to the discovery of new iron ore occurrences in the area of investigation.

  2. Maternal mortality in Indonesia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A; Susanti, I; Gadalla, S; Saleh, S; Feldblum, P J; Potts, M

    1988-02-01

    Twenty-three percent of deaths to women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Bali, Indonesia and Menoufia, Egypt were due to maternal causes. Among the younger women, the percentage was even higher. In both areas complications of pregnancy and childbirth were a leading cause of death (the first cause in Bali, the second in Menoufia). In both sites, postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal death. Relative to the United States, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births was 20 times higher in Menoufia and 78 times higher in Bali. Families of women of reproductive age who died were interviewed about the conditions leading to death and other characteristics of the deceased. Completed histories were reviewed by a Medical Panel who were able to assign a cause of death in more than 90% of cases. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths occurred to women who were over 30 and/or who had 3 children--the usual targets of family planning programs. Other possible intervention strategies include antenatal outreach programs, training of traditional birth attendants, and better hospital management of obstetric emergencies.

  3. Vector snail control in Qalyub, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, Henry

    1958-01-01

    The author describes a pilot study in vector snail control carried out in 1953-54 by the Bilharziasis Control Project in Qalyub, Egypt. After giving a brief description of the site chosen for the Project—an area of some 5000 acres (2000 hectares) under perennial irrigation—he presents a detailed account of the various snail surveys of the irrigation canals and drains and of the molluscicidal treatment of infested channels. He points out that despite the thoroughness of the surveying and treatment the snails were not completely eliminated from the area and stresses that the high cost of the molluscicide used (copper sulfate) would prohibit its widespread and continual use. He considers, however, that pending the perfection of such long-term bilharziasis control measures as improved sanitation, better treatment facilities, and health education of the public, snail control is of the first importance and determined efforts should be made to find more efficient and cheaper methods of effecting it. PMID:13585074

  4. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abulezz, Tarek; Talaat, Mohamed; Elsani, Asem; Allam, Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome. PMID:27833283

  5. Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xu; Bailey, Kevin; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Young, Linda

    2002-05-01

    We have improved our atom-counting system with the goal of realizing ^81Kr-dating of ancient groundwater and polar ice. We use Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) to count individual ^85Kr (t_1/2 = 10.8 yr) and ^81Kr (t_1/2 = 2 times 10^5 yr) atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10-11 and 10-13, respectively. The counting efficiency demonstrated with our first-generation machine was 2× 10-7. By implementing a RF-driven discharge source of metastable krypton atoms and by adding a gas recirculation system, we can increase the counting efficiency by at least three orders of magnitude. These improvements will allow us to perform Kr81-dating of ancient groundwater samples, which requires a counting efficiency of 10-4. The calibration of the system is in progress. Collaborating with an international team of geologists, we plan to extract water samples in Nubian Aquifer of Egypt and determine the age of groundwater in that area with our ATTA system. Details of the latest results will be discussed at this poster. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  6. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  7. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  8. Expanded spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, D A; Nasef, S A; Mahmoud, F F; Jonas, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Throughout the world, expanded spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, both in humans and animals. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data on ESBL or Ampicillin class C β-lactamase (AmpC) in Egypt, although antimicrobial consumption is high in this developing country. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanisms to expanded spectrum cephalosporins among resistant veterinary Escherichia coli isolates in Egypt. We investigated 50 clinical multi-resistant E. coli strains isolated from 20 chicken farms for production of ESBL or AmpC. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disk diffusion and ESBL confirmatory tests. PCR and sequencing were performed to screen for plasmid mediated ESBL genes and genes encoding AmpC β-lactamases. All the isolates were phylogentically classified, investigated for harboring class 1 integrons, and genotyped by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Three strains showed ESBL and 6 strains AmpC phenotypic patterns, respectively, with confirmed ESBL genes of blaTEM-57, blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCMY-2 for AmpC producing strains. All ESBL strains belonged to phylogroup D with different clones isolated from different flocks, while most of the AmpC strains belonged to phylogroup B1 (4/6) and were assigned to the same genotype distributed in 2 different farms. Class 1 integrons were disseminated in 60% of all tested strains and in 100% of ESBL and AmpC strains. These results highlight the antimicrobial resistance problem in Egypt, caused in all probability by unwise use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. The results call for a nationwide surveillance program to monitor antimicrobial resistance. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Meningeal Preservation in a Child Mummy from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Herrerin, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, and it evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some 3000 years, lasting until the end of the Christian era. In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt), 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign. One of them was a 6-8 old-year male child with a damaged skull that allowed us to see the meningeal structures covering the entire cranial vault, in absence of brain remains. This finding in a child mummy is exceptional, as reflected in the specialized literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D

    1997-06-01

    Television has been extensively used to communicate health messages for over a decade in Egypt. Viewers of the evening soap operas have been seeing six commercials for family planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS), and immunizations. People of all social classes can sing the jingles of the most popular ads. The producers of these health spots use increasingly sophisticated story lines, settings, and characters representing rural peasants, played by popular and well-liked actors. Evaluation of the content and impact of these messages has lagged behind the creative sophistication of their production. This article reviews the context and content of televised health messages in Egypt during the 1980s, critically assesses the evaluation of mass media health education, and suggests strategies for more effective evaluation. The author worked for some years with a private donor agency that funded the production of a number of televised health commercials in Egypt.

  11. No rheumatoid arthritis in ancient Egypt: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Rothschild, Bruce M

    2016-06-01

    Antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial, and its origins in Americas or in the Old World are disputed. Proponents of the latter frequently refer to RA in ancient Egypt, but validity of those claims has never been examined. Review of all reported RA cases from ancient Egypt revealed that none of them represent real RA, instead being either examples of changing naming conventions or of imprecise diagnostic criteria. Most cases represented osteoarthritis or spondyloarthropathies. Also review of preserved ancient Egyptian medical writings revealed many descriptions of musculoskeletal disorders, but none of them resembled RA. This suggests that RA was absent in ancient Egypt and supports the hypothesis of the New World origin of RA and its subsequent global spread in the last several centuries.

  12. Clinical Management of Gender in Egypt: Intersexuality and Transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Mazen, Inas A

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the literature on intersexuality (disorders of sex development [DSD]) and transsexuality in Egypt. Egypt's resources for the diagnosis and treatment of rare conditions, such as DSD and transsexualism, are quite limited. The birth of a child with a DSD is likely to be stressful, especially in regard to decisions on gender assignment, and genital abnormalities are associated with stigma and shame. Gender assignment may be biased toward the male gender, because female infertility precludes marriage and female gender adversely affects employment prospects and inheritance. Later gender change in either direction may also carry stigma. Gender reassignment surgery for transsexuals without somatic intersexuality was legalized in Egypt in 2005, but requires permission by a national Sex Identification and Determination Committee.

  13. Political challenges to biomedical universalism: kidney failure among Egypt's poor.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine F

    2013-01-01

    Why do patients in need of kidney transplants in Egypt decline offers of kidney donation from their family members out of reluctance to cause them harm? Is it not universally the case that a living donor could live in complete health with a single remaining kidney? To address this conundrum, I discuss a case study from Egypt, in which patients reveal social, political, and environmental stresses on organ function that challenge the presumed universal efficacy and safety of kidney transplantation. I demonstrate that the biomedical position on the tolerable risks posed to the living donor is conditional and premised on particular social and historical contingencies that can be misaligned when applied in other contexts. Drawing on the work of Margaret Lock, I illustrate how analytical contributions of medical anthropologists can shed light on a political and public health impasse about how to legally regulate organ transplantation in Egypt.

  14. African refugees in Egypt: trauma, loss, and cultural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Henry, Hani M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their home countries, as well as their life experiences in Egypt. All participants kept continuing bonds with their native cultures, but these bonds manifested differently depending on their ability to assimilate pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses. Participants who successfully assimilated both pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses developed continuing bonds with their native cultures that helped them (a) integrate the Egyptian culture into their life experiences and (b) tolerate difficult political conditions in Egypt. Participants who could not assimilate their pre-immigration trauma and cultural losses also developed continuing bonds with their native culture, but these bonds only provided them with solace.

  15. Education in Egypt and Egyptian response to eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.

  16. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Elgharably, Ahmed; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Crossey, Mary ME; Norsworthy, Peter J; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s) led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. PMID:28053553

  17. Reading Sources and Academic Freedom as Determinants of Trends in English Language Teacher Research in Egypt: An Interview-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to investigating the experiences of teacher researchers while undertaking their studies. In an attempt to explore what accounts for the stereotyped and imitative trends in the studies conducted by English language teachers in Egypt, the present study has explored how they select research topics and the factors…

  18. Reading Sources and Academic Freedom as Determinants of Trends in English Language Teacher Research in Egypt: An Interview-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to investigating the experiences of teacher researchers while undertaking their studies. In an attempt to explore what accounts for the stereotyped and imitative trends in the studies conducted by English language teachers in Egypt, the present study has explored how they select research topics and the factors…

  19. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  20. Post-Revolution Egypt: The Roy Adaptation Model in Community.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Britton S; Buckner, Ellen B

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Arab Spring swept across the Middle East creating profound instability in Egypt, a country already challenged with poverty and internal pressures. To respond to this crisis, Catholic Relief Services led a community-based program called "Egypt Works" that included community improvement projects and psychosocial support. Following implementation, program outcomes were analyzed using the middle-range theory of adaptation to situational life events, based on the Roy adaptation model. The comprehensive, community-based approach facilitated adaptation, serving as a model for applying theory in post-crisis environments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Siam, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:19778428

  2. The Essene's sister sect in Egypt: another medical site?

    PubMed

    Moss, G A

    2002-12-01

    The Essenes were, allegedly, the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and were settled by the Dead Sea. An ancient source locates their sister sect, The 'Therapeutae', as being by the shores of Lake Mareotis in Egypt. No scholar has previously sought to locate where exactly on Lake Mareotis they were settled. Using clues from Essene sites around the Dead Sea, an attempt is made to suggest a specific location for the Therapeutae. Since there are signs of medical activity at many of the Essene sites, a site with medical association is also sought for the location of the Essene's sister sect in Egypt. A suitable site is found at Canopus.

  3. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  4. Detection of Brucella abortus DNA in aborted goats and sheep in Egypt by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2015-06-03

    Brucellosis is a major zoonoses affects wide range of domesticated as well as wild animals. Despite the eradication program of brucellosis in Egypt, the disease is still endemic among cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels. In the present study, abortion occurred naturally among 25 animals (10 cows, 5 buffaloes, 9 Egyptian Baladi goats and 1 ewe) shared the same pasture were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). DNA of Brucella (B.) abortus was detected in serum of goats and sheep which has aborted recently by species-specific RT-PCR. The results suggest cross-species infection of B. abortus from cattle to non-preferred hosts raised in close contact. This article will renew our knowledge about the Brucella agent causing abortion in small ruminants in Egypt. Information provided in this study is important for surveillance program, because eradication programs and vaccination strategies may have to be adapted accordingly.

  5. Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Upper Egypt: a gender-based perspective.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Ahmed; Courtright, Paul; Kazanjian, Arminee; Bassett, Ken

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence, causes of and risk factors for vision loss in Upper Egypt. In this cross-sectional study, four villages in Upper Egypt were randomly selected; within these four villages, households were randomly selected and within the selected households all residents aged ≥ 40 years were enumerated and enrolled. Door-to-door eye examinations of household members were conducted. Data on relevant demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected. The prevalence and causes of vision loss and associated risk factors were assessed. Sex differences in prevalence and determinants were also evaluated. The prevalence of best eye presenting visual impairment, severe visual impairment, and blindness were 23.9%, 6.4%, and 9.3% respectively. The prevalence of blindness among women significantly exceeded that among men (11.8% vs. 5.4%, respectively, p = 0.021). The prevalence of cataract was 22.9% (higher in women, 26.5% than men 17.2%, p = 0.018). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.7% (higher among women, 12.5%, than men, 5.4%, p = 0.012). The principal causes of blindness were cataract (60%), uncorrected refractive errors (16%) and corneal opacities (12%). Age, sex, family size, illiteracy, unemployment, water source and sanitation methods and living conditions were the major risk factors for vision loss. The prevalence of visual impairment remains high in Egypt, particularly among women. Risk factors for blindness may differ between men and women. There is a need for qualitative investigations to better understand the causes behind the excess in prevalence of blindness among women.

  6. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  7. Knowledge and perceptions of hepatitis c infection and pesticides use in two rural villages in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most fatal types of malignancy, is increasing worldwide, and particularly in Egypt where there is a confluence of its contributing factors, including high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, widespread use of pesticides, and diets that are contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rural areas. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to HCV infection and pesticides use in rural Egypt, where over half of the population resides and agriculture is the predominant occupation. Methods From two rural villages we recruited 67 residents aged 18–80 years, who completed a 40-item survey that included questions about demographics, knowledge of and protective measures relevant to pesticides use in the home and in agriculture, awareness and perceptions of HCV infection and its treatment and prevention. Results Among the 67 study participants, gender distribution was equal, the mean age was 47.2, and one third never attended school. More than 50% reported using pesticides at home, but fewer reported having some knowledge about its health effects. Twelve participants were agricultural workers, and 11 of them applied pesticides in the field and knew about their toxicity; however only one person was correctly using the appropriate protective equipment. Among all the participants, 52 did not know what causes HCV infection, and 42 of those who knew it was a virus mentioned incorrect modes of transmission; and 30 did not know the disease manifestations. Conclusion In rural Egypt, there is a significant lack of knowledge of HCV infection and its transmission mode and limited use of protective measures against pesticides despite familiarity with these chemicals. PMID:24886607

  8. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  9. Chemical and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen leaves (Sapotaceae) cultivated in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.; Shazly, Amani H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen is an evergreen tree, native to the tropical Americas and introduced to Egypt as a fruiting tree in 2002. No previous study was reported on the plant cultivated in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In this study, the leaves of the plant cultivated in Egypt were subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The lipoidal matter was analyzed by GLC. Five compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of the alcoholic extract of the leaves by chromatographic fractionation on silica gel and sephadex, the structures of these compounds were identified using IR, UV, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The LD50 of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves was determined and their antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities were tested by enzymatic colorimetric methods using specific kits. Results: Unsaturated fatty acids represent 32.32 % of the total fatty acids, oleic acid (13.95%), linoleidic acid (10.18 %) and linoleic acid (5.96 %) were the major ones. The isolated compounds were identified as lupeol acetate, oleanolic acid, apigenin-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside and caffeic acid. This is the first report about isolation of these compounds from Manilkara zapota except myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, which was previously isolated from the plant growing abroad. The LD50 recorded 80 g/Kg b. wt. for both the tested extracts, so they could be considered to be safe. They exhibited antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The observed biological activities were attributed to the different chemical constituents present in the plant mainly its phenolic constituents. PMID:22518080

  10. Evaluation of mothers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards the ten steps to successful breastfeeding in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abul-Fadl, Azza M A M; Shawky, Maissa; El-Taweel, Amal; Cadwell, Karin; Turner-Maffei, Cynthia

    2012-06-01

    Despite the proven effectiveness of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), its impact on community practices in Egypt has yet to be assessed. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of Egyptian mothers towards the Ten Steps. We interviewed 1,052 breastfeeding mothers with infants less than 24 months of age from 12 governorates representing Upper Egypt (UE) and Lower Egypt (LE). Marked regional variations are noted in the KAP of the samples from UE and LE. These differences can be explained to some extent by socioeconomic factors. Hospital delivery, lower parity, and a higher level of education were characteristic of mothers in LE compared with UE. More mothers in UE did not know about the protective effects of breastfeeding to the mother. In LE, 75% delayed breastfeeding initiation until after the first hour compared with 61% in UE, with the mothers reporting that they did not experience skin-to-skin care in the first hours after birth. Nipple pain was given as a cause for supplementation in 56% of mothers in UE and 36% in LE (p<0.001). Maintaining milk by expression is practiced by 42.8% of mothers in LE and 12% in UE. Two-thirds of the mothers in both UE and LE offer herbal drinks, and one-third feed infant milk formula before 6 months. Offering pacifiers is more common in LE, and feeding by bottle is more common in UE, being pressured by the mother's social network. To increase the impact of BFHI on community breastfeeding practices, BFHI should focus on involving the family members with the mother throughout the implementation of the Ten Steps while encouraging maternal support groups and taking cultural differences into account.

  11. Knowledge and perceptions of hepatitis C infection and pesticides use in two rural villages in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Doa'a A; Amr, Sania; Jillson, Irene A; Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Khairy, Walaa A; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2014-05-24

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most fatal types of malignancy, is increasing worldwide, and particularly in Egypt where there is a confluence of its contributing factors, including high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, widespread use of pesticides, and diets that are contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rural areas. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to HCV infection and pesticides use in rural Egypt, where over half of the population resides and agriculture is the predominant occupation. From two rural villages we recruited 67 residents aged 18-80 years, who completed a 40-item survey that included questions about demographics, knowledge of and protective measures relevant to pesticides use in the home and in agriculture, awareness and perceptions of HCV infection and its treatment and prevention. Among the 67 study participants, gender distribution was equal, the mean age was 47.2, and one third never attended school. More than 50% reported using pesticides at home, but fewer reported having some knowledge about its health effects. Twelve participants were agricultural workers, and 11 of them applied pesticides in the field and knew about their toxicity; however only one person was correctly using the appropriate protective equipment. Among all the participants, 52 did not know what causes HCV infection, and 42 of those who knew it was a virus mentioned incorrect modes of transmission; and 30 did not know the disease manifestations. In rural Egypt, there is a significant lack of knowledge of HCV infection and its transmission mode and limited use of protective measures against pesticides despite familiarity with these chemicals.

  12. Leptospirosis in animals and human contacts in Egypt: broad range surveillance.

    PubMed

    Samir, Ahmed; Soliman, Rafik; El-Hariri, Mahmoud; Abdel-Moein, Khaled; Hatem, Mahmoud Essam

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of humans and animals worldwide. The disease is caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. These organisms are maintained in nature via chronic renal infection of carrier animals, which excrete the organisms in their urine. Humans become infected through direct or indirect exposure to infected animals and their urine or through contact with contaminated water and soil. This study was conducted to investigate Leptospira infections as a re-emerging zoonosis that has been neglected in Egypt. Samples from 1,250 animals (270 rats, 168 dogs, 625 cows, 26 buffaloes, 99 sheep, 14 horses, 26 donkeys and 22 camels), 175 human contacts and 45 water sources were collected from different governorates in Egypt. The samples were collected from different body sites and prepared for culture, PCR and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The isolation rates of Leptospira serovars were 6.9%, 11.3% and 1.1% for rats, dogs and cows, respectively, whereas the PCR results revealed respective detection rates of 24%, 11.3% and 1.1% for rats, dogs and cows. Neither the other examined animal species nor humans yielded positive results via these two techniques. Only six Leptospira serovars (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Celledoni and Pyrogenes) could be isolated from rats, dogs and cows. Moreover, the seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies among the examined humans determined using MAT was 49.7%. The obtained results revealed that rats, dogs and cows were the most important animal reservoirs for leptospirosis in Egypt, and the high seroprevalence among human contacts highlights the public health implications of this neglected zoonosis.

  13. Three-dimensional structure of Conrad and Moho discontinuities in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.; El-Khrepy, Sami; Qaddah, Atef

    2013-09-01

    The three-dimensional structures of Conrad and Moho discontinuities beneath Egypt are investigated by local earthquake travel time inversion. A number of 2513 events with 24,696 arrival time data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) are used. The station corrections of P- and S-waves and the hypocentral parameters are simultaneously estimated with the Conrad and Moho depths. The results of this study show that the discontinuities form patterns of shallow and deep structures getting shallow toward the northern and eastern coast, and deeper toward western Desert and northeastern Sinai. The Conrad and Moho discontinuities are located within the depth range 9-17 km and 27-41 km, respectively. The depth ranges of Conrad and Moho discontinuities are respectively: 15-16 km and 31-33 km in greater Cairo and Dahshour; 15-18 km and 32-35 km in Sinai; 16-17 and 33-35 km along the Nile River; 9 and 30 km near the Red Sea coast; 15 and 39 km toward the western desert. The comprehensive comparison with previous crustal studies suggests that the main patterns of Moho undulations and the range of Moho depths are in good agreement with the previous crustal models in Egypt, as well as with the Bouguer gravity anomalies that well explain the Nile River sediments, Red Sea mountain belts and Western Desert depression and Oasis. The model of the Moho and Conrad discontinuities improves knowledge of the three dimensional structure of the crust beneath Egypt in wide areas where geophysical data is sparse.

  14. Groundwater sapping processes, Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Crombie, M.K.; Sturchio, N.; El Alfy, Z.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    Depressions of the Western Desert of Egypt (specifically, Kharga, Farafra, and Kurkur regions) are mainly occupied by shales that are impermeable, but easily erodible by rainfall and runoff, whereas the surrounding plateaus are composed of limestones that are permeable and more resistant to fluvial erosion under semiarid to arid conditions. Scallop-shaped escarpment edges and stubby-looking channels that cut into the plateau units are suggestive of slumping of limestones by ground-water sapping at the limestone-shale interfaces, removal of slump blocks by weathering and fluvial erosion, and consequent scarp retreat. Spring-derived tufa deposits found near the limestone escarpments provide additional evidence for possible ground-water sapping during previous wet periods. A computer simulation model was developed to quantify the ground-water sapping processes, using a cellular automata algorithm with coupled surface runoff and ground-water flow for a permeable, resistant layer over an impermeable, friable unit. Erosion, deposition, slumping, and generation of spring-derived tufas were parametrically modeled. Simulations using geologically reasonable parameters demonstrate that relatively rapid erosion of the shales by surface runoff, ground-water sapping, and slumping of the limestones, and detailed control by hydraulic conductivity inhomogeneities associated with structures explain the depressions, escarpments, and associated landforms and deposits. Using episodic wet pulses, keyed by {delta}{sup 18}O deep-sea core record, the model produced tufa ages that are statistically consistent with the observed U/Th tufa ages. This result supports the hypothesis that northeastern African wet periods occurred during interglacial maxima. The {delta}{sup 18}O-forced model also replicates the decrease in fluvial and sapping activity over the past million years, as northeastern Africa became hyperarid. The model thus provides a promising predictive tool for studying long

  15. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  16. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  17. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of highway geometry and posted speed on operating speed at multi-lane highways in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Semeida, Ahmed M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of roadway factors and posted speed limits that affect the operating speed at multi-lane highways in Egypt. Field data on multi-lane highways in Egypt are used in this investigation. The analysis considers two categories of highways. The first consists of two desert roads (Cairo–Alexandria and Cairo–Ismailia desert roads) and the second consists of two agricultural roads (Cairo–Alexandria and Tanta–Damietta agricultural roads). The paper includes three separate relevant analyses. The first analysis uses the regression models to investigate the relationships between operating speed (V85) as dependent variable, and roadway factors and posted speed as independent variables. The road factors are lane width, shoulder width, pavement width, median width, number of lanes in each direction, and existence of side access along each section. The second analysis uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to explore the previous relationships while the third one examines the suitability of the posted speed limits on the roads under study. It is found that the ANN modeling gives the best model for predicting the operating speed and the most influential variables on V85 are the pavement width, followed by the median width and the existence of side access along section. It is also found that the posted speed limit has a very small effect on the operating speed due to the bad behavior of drivers in Egypt. These results are so important for controlling V85 on multi-lane rural highways in Egypt. PMID:25685460

  19. Phenolic Compounds from the Fruits of Medemia argun, a Food and Medicinal Plant of Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Hamed, Arafa I; Mahalel, Usama A; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Medemia argun is a mysterious and little known monotypic fan palm from the Nubian Desert Oases of southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Its fruits have been found in the tombs from the 5th Dynasty (ca. 2500 BC) to Roman times (6-7th century AD), including the celebrated tomb of Tutankhamun. In ancient Egypt, the fruits of this palm were widely distributed and were highly valued, as confirmed by their frequent occurrence in offerings in the tombs. In order to elucidate the chemical composition of the phenolic fraction, phytochemical investigation of the BuOH extract of fruits was carried out to afford eight compounds (1-8), among which was the new 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylacetophenone 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (1). With the aim to investigate if the high shelf life of M argun fruits could be related to the occurrence of antioxidant principles that were able to prevent oxidative reactions, the evaluation was carried out of the in vitro antioxidant activity by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay of the extract and isolated compounds.

  20. Emergence of peste des petits ruminants virus lineage IV in Ismailia Province, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed M

    2014-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious fatal disease of small ruminants characterized by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, erosive stomatitis and severe enteritis that ultimately results in high mortalities. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is widely distributed and endemic in several African, middle eastern and south Asian countries and it poses a threat to European countries. Egyptian veterinary medical authorities stated that Egypt is free from PPRV and the only measures for disease control are test and slaughter of infected population to maintain the free status. The aim of our investigation was to detect PPRV in Ismailia province as an indicator of the infection status in Egypt and perform molecular characterization of the emerging virus to gain insight into the origin of circulating virus. A total of 40 representative clinical samples, from a single goat case and goat flock in 2010 and sheep flock in 2012, were tested for PPRV by RT-PCR. About 21 (52.5%) samples were positive. The phylogenetic analysis of the detected viruses revealed circulation of PPRV lineage IV. The circulating viruses are closely related to Sudanese and Saudia Arabian strains with nucleotide identity ranged from 99.2% to 99.6%, respectively. Also, it is closely related to Moroccan 2008 viruses with identities ranged from 97.6% to 98%. Epidemiological investigation at the national level is recommended for monitoring PPRV spread and implementing an appropriate control program.

  1. Multi pesticide and PCB residues in Nile tilapia and catfish in Assiut city, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Doha; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the levels of multi pesticide residues in the highly consumed types of Nile fish in Egypt: tilapia and cat fish. A total of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 50 African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were collected from two areas in Assiut city, where most industries are situated and where agricultural activities and raising of farm animals are the main activities. In the first area, Elwasta, there is an electrical power station, and the second area, Mankbad, there is a cement factory. Fish samples were analyzed by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Average pesticide residue concentrations±SE in muscle of tilapia and catfish (n = 10 pooled samples with five fish each) were determined. The results indicated the presence of different types of organophosphorous (OPs), organochlorine (OC), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and trifluralin pesticides in Elwasta and Mankbad in varying degrees. Diazenon was the only OP pesticide which exceeded the permissible limit in both investigated areas with the two types of fish. On the other hand, OCs, PCBs, HCB and trifluralin pesticide residue levels have not exceeded the maximum allowable concentration limit. In general, a higher pesticide residue level was obtained in Mankbad than Elwasta. In addition, higher values are realized for the detected pesticide residues in cat fish than tilapia. The results of the study have shown the extensive and recent use of these types of pesticides in the present time in Egypt. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Present Situation of GPS Observations and Seismicity in and around Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    2016-07-01

    Egypt has suffered from a numerous of destructive earthquakes such as Aswan earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks. Studies of crustal movements in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. The first program for monitoring the crustal deformation has been started in Aswan area during the winter of 1983. Since the year of 1994 till now (currently 24 CORS stations), the geodetic observations by means of Space Technique (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out to Estimate the plate motions at stations located at different plates. From the previous results, we could find there are some correlations between the computed surface deformation and the earthquake occurrences in Local and regional scales. In the regional scales, the Hellenic arc is the region which shows very well this correlation. While in the Local scales, there are some

  3. Adherence to medication: A nation-wide study from the Children’s Cancer Hospital, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Malla, Hanan; Ylitalo Helm, Nathalie; Wilderäng, Ulrica; El Sayed Elborai, Yasser; Steineck, Gunnar; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate adherence to medical regimen and predictors for non-adherence among children with cancer in Egypt. METHODS: We administered two study specific questionnaires to 304 parents of children diagnosed with cancer at the Children’s Cancer Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, one before the first chemotherapy treatment and the other before the third. The questionnaires were translated to colloquial Egyptian Arabic, and due, to the high illiteracy level in Egypt an interviewer read the questions in Arabic to each parent and registered the answers. Both questionnaires consisted of almost 90 questions each. In addition, a Case Report Form was filled in from the child’s medical journal. The study period consisted of 7 mo (February until September 2008) and we had a participation rate of 97%. Descriptive statistics are presented and Fisher’s exact test was used to check for possible differences between the adherent and non-adherent groups. A P-value below 0.05 was considered significant. Software used was SAS version 9.3 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, United States). RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-one (90%) parents answered the second questionnaire, regarding their child’s adherence behaviour. Approximately two thirds of the children admitted to their third chemotherapy treatment had received medical recommendations upon discharge from the first or second chemotherapy treatment (181/281, 64%). Sixty-eight percent (123/181) of the parents who were given medical recommendations reported that their child did not follow the recommendations. Two main predictors were found for non-adherence: child resistance (111/123, 90%) and inadequate information (100/123, 81%). In the adherent group, 20% of the parents (n = 12/58) reported trust in their child’s doctor while 14 percent 8/58 reported trust in the other health-care professionals. Corresponding numbers for the non-adherent group are 8/123 (7%) for both their child’s doctor and other health

  4. 77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... for Africa and the Middle East. It is a prime location for the transit of goods, as well as a key... outside of Kuwait. Some are building ports and airports in Egypt and Africa, own facilities in Europe and..., reaching a total value of $15.8 billion. Such growth is expected to attract investments of around...

  5. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  6. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    SciTech Connect

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth.

  7. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  8. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  9. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  10. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  11. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  12. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Burden of stroke in Egypt: current status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Foad; Moustafa, Ramez Reda

    2014-12-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries have a diversity of populations with similar life style, dietary habits, and vascular risk factors that may influence stroke risk, prevalence, types, and disease burden. Egypt is the most populated nation in the Middle East with an estimated 85.5 million people. In Egypt, according to recent estimates, the overall prevalence rate of stroke is high with a crude prevalence rate of 963/100,000 inhabitants. In spite of disease burden, yet there is a huge evidence practice gap. The recommended treatments for ischemic stroke that are guideline include systematic supportive care in a stroke unit or stroke center is still deficient. In addition, the frequency of thrombolysis in Egypt is very low for many reasons; the major one is that the health insurance system is not covering thrombolysis therapy in nonprivate sectors so patients must cover the costs using their own personal savings; otherwise, they will not receive treatment. Another important factor is the pronounced delay in prehospital and in hospital management of acute stroke. Improvement of stroke care in Egypt should be achieved through multi and interdisciplinary approach including public awareness, physicians' education, and synergistic approach to stroke care with Emergency Medical System. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  14. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  15. First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zafer, Mai Mahmoud; Amin, Mady; El Mahallawy, Hadir; Ashour, Mohammed Seif El-Din; Al Agamy, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  16. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  17. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  18. A Mediterranean Rio Grande. Regional report 1: Egypt.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This document concerns the impact of environmental problems on the economic life of people in Egypt and North Africa. With only a quarter of arable land, Egypt is incapable of feeding a population of 59 million people, and at the same time the economic condition has deteriorated. It has been estimated that Egypt needs to create about 450,000 jobs annually to keep up with additions to the labor force. Population growth, on the other hand, was projected to reach 81 million by 2010. In addition, Egypt is facing ever-growing water shortages with an estimate that within the next 20 years the demand for water will exceed the country's allotted share of Nile water by nearly 60%. Likewise, food shortages will likely be exacerbated by a continuous sea level rise through permanent flooding of agricultural lands. People in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco have migrated to Europe for several reasons: first, because of the steady population growth and unmet needs in family planning in these countries; second, because of the population pressures caused by the deterioration of the environment. Also, inadequate water supply has been affecting these countries. The prognosis for these countries must be cautious and conservative and their respective local governments must develop the programs that address these problems.

  19. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I also participated in…

  20. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  1. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  2. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  3. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G; El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abd El-Rahman, Adel Omar; Soliman, Hatem M; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Statham, Robert J; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2007-10-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  5. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M.; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East. PMID:18258017

  6. Molecular Detection of Some Strawberry Viruses in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberry plants exhibiting distinct virus-like symptoms (stunting, mottling, yellowing, vein clearing, vein necrosis and vein banding) were collected from strawberry production fields and nurseries in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt (about 20 km north of Cairo). Plants of 'Festival' and 'Sweet Charlie'...

  7. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  8. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  9. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  10. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  11. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  12. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  13. Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

  14. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  15. Developing & Innovating Education in Egypt: Policy & Plans. Implementation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Educational Research, Cairo (Egypt).

    Policies, plans, and programs for development and innovation in Egyptian education are discussed. Chapter 1 focuses on the fundamentals of general education in Egypt, examining fundamental traits of Egyptian society, local and international variables, general trends of educational development and innovation, traits and goals of future education,…

  16. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  17. Modeling of Groundwater Quantity and Quality Management, Nile Valley, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owlia, R.; Fogg, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater levels have been rising in the Luxor area of Egypt due to increased agricultural irrigation following the construction of the Aswan High Dam (AHD) in 1970. This has led to soil and groundwater salinity problems caused by increasing evapotranspiration from shallower water table, as well as the degradation of historical monuments whose foundations are weakening by capillary rise of water into the columns and stonework. While similar salinity problems exist elsewhere in the world (e.g., San Joaquin Valley of California), we hypothesize that as long as groundwater discharge to the Nile River continues and serves as a sink for the salt, the regional salt balance will be manageable and will not lead to irreversible salinization of soils. Further, we hypothesize that if a groundwater system such as this one becomes overdrafted, thereby cutting off groundwater discharge to the River, the system salt balance will be less manageable and possibly non-sustainable. With groundwater flow modeling we are investigating approaches for managing the irrigation and groundwater levels so as to eliminate water stresses on Egyptian monuments and antiquities. Consequences of possible actions for managing the water table through groundwater pumping and alternative irrigation practices will be presented. Moreover, through the use of high resolution modeling of system heterogeneity, we will simulate the long term salt balance of the system under various scenarios, including the overdraft case. The salt source will be a function of groundwater discharge to the surface via bare-soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The built-in heterogeneity will account for dispersion, fast transport in connected media and slow mass transfer between aquifer and aquitard materials. Key Words: Groundwater, modeling, water quality, sustainability, salinity, irrigated agriculture, Nile aquifer.

  18. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  19. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  20. Radium Isotopes in Nubian Aquifer Groundwater, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, M. I.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of natural radioactivity from Ra isotopes in groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) in northeast Africa. Activities of long-lived Ra isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were analyzed in 40 groundwater samples from the NSAS in the Western Desert of Egypt; including Baharyia, Farafra, Dakhla, and Kharga Oases. The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra ranged from 0.012 Bq/L to 1.512 Bq/L and from 0.012 Bq/L to 2.136 Bq/L, respectively. High activities of Ra isotopes, up to 2000% higher than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.185 Bq/L (combined 226Ra + 228Ra) for drinking water were measured in groundwater from some locations. Groundwater samples from Bahariya Oasis had the highest activities of Ra isotopes among the samples collected. No correlation between salinity and Ra activities was observed. The two radium isotopes are highly correlated in most samples with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio ranging from 1.04 to 3.12 and a median of 2.08; this indicates a high Th/U ratio in the aquifer materials. The weak correlation between Ra activities and salinity indicates that adsorption/desorption processes are not the primary mechanism of Ra release to groundwater. Recoil input of Ra from the aquifer rocks may be the dominant input mechanism. These results indicate that groundwater within the Western Desert must be used with caution for domestic and agricultural purposes, and radium removal may be necessary before water is used for human consumption.

  1. Space science education in Egypt and the 2006 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    The space science research has been started in Egypt since 1910 by measuring the solar constant as indication of solar radiation at Helwan Observatory. The solar sunspot studies and its influence on the Nile flooding was erected and operated at Helwan as a first solar station in Egypt during 1957. Zeiss-Coude' refractor was installed in 1964. Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1936 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology of Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. The total solar eclipse observations on 25th February, 1952 in Khartoum have been done by on Egyptian-French group by using the Worthington Camera. Several international groups observed the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). A coordinated effort partly undertaken in the frame of the French-Egyptian scientific cooperation permitted joined simultaneous eclipse observations of the solar corona. Several Ground base instrumental set-up has been prepared. Spaceborne quasi-simultaneous EIT and Lasco observations of SoHO have been used as well as TRACE observations in Lyman-alpha of HI. W-L images taken with and without a radial filter are processed to show the magnetic structure of the corona. Polarization analysis is performed to study the F-corona in the outer corona. Several filters have been obtained to show the distribution of the emission measures of the inner and middle corona. Spectra were obtained over several emission lines.

  2. Community-based epidemiological study of epilepsy in the Qena governorate in Upper Egypt, a door-to-door survey.

    PubMed

    Fawi, Gharib; Khedr, Eman M; El-Fetoh, Noha Abo; Thabit, Mohamed N; Abbass, Mohamed A; Zaki, Ahmad F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the epidemiological features of epilepsy in a representative governorate of Upper Egypt. A door-to-door community-based survey study was performed using a sample of 10 areas among various districts of the Qena governorate in Upper Egypt. Six were classified as rural areas, and the remaining four were classified as urban areas, with a total population of 8027 inhabitants. The population was screened using an epilepsy-screening questionnaire. Positive cases with suspected epilepsy were referred to Qena University Hospital to be further evaluated by a qualified neurologist and for further investigations, such as neuroimaging and electroencephalography. One hundred patients had a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy, with a lifetime prevalence of 12.46/1000. The active prevalence rate of epilepsy was 2.12/1000, while the incidence rate was 123/100000. Seventy-six percent of the patients had idiopathic epilepsies, while 24% had symptomatic epilepsy. Generalized epilepsies were more common (70.1%) than partial epilepsy (26.3%), meanwhile epilepsies with mixed seizure types were 2.6%. The most common seizure type was generalized tonic clonic seizures (51.8%). The age-specific prevalence rate of epilepsy was much higher in infancy and early childhood (62.5 and 37.04/1000, respectively), which regressed steadily with age. Idiopathic epilepsies were significantly more common in urban areas than in rural areas (P=0.01), while symptomatic epilepsies were more common in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.005). Upper Egypt is characterized by a relatively high incidence and prevalence of epilepsy and epilepsy-related medical service, and more cultural education should be directed to those areas in Egypt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for Hazard Estimation in Some Active Regions in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Mohamed, Abdel-Monem

    2016-07-01

    Egypt rapidly growing development is accompanied by increasing levels of standard living particular in its urban areas. However, there is a limited experience in quantifying the sources of risk management in Egypt and in designing efficient strategies to keep away serious impacts of earthquakes. From the historical point of view and recent instrumental records, there are some seismo-active regions in Egypt, where some significant earthquakes had occurred in different places. The special tectonic features in Egypt: Aswan, Greater Cairo, Red Sea and Sinai Peninsula regions are the territories of a high seismic risk, which have to be monitored by up-to date technologies. The investigations of the seismic events and interpretations led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster prevention and for the safety of the dense populated regions and the vital national projects as the High Dam. In addition to the monitoring of the recent crustal movements, the most powerful technique of satellite geodesy GNSS are used where geodetic networks are covering such seismo-active regions. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. The final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis threw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions and put Aswan and Greater Cairo under the lowest class according to horizontal crustal strains classifications. This work will serve a basis for the development of so-called catastrophic models and can be further used for catastrophic risk management. Also, this work is trying to evaluate risk of large catastrophic losses within the important regions including the High Dam, strategic buildings and archeological sites. Studies on possible scenarios of earthquakes and losses are a critical issue for decision making in insurance as a part of mitigation measures.

  4. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  5. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  6. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage…

  7. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  8. Habitats and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt I. Deltaic Mediterranean coastal habitat.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Omar, G

    2008-11-15

    The present study aims at investigating the vegetation-soil relationships in the Deltaic Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt. The Deltaic coast of the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt can be distinguished into five habitat types, namely: sand dunes, salt marshes, sand sheets, sandy fertile lands and lake shorelines (Manzala, Burullus and Idku). These habitats are categorized into four vegetation groups namely, group A dominated by Rumex pictus, group B codominated by Pancratium maritimum-Cyperus capitatus-Lolium perenne, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-Atriplex portulacoides-Typha domingensis and group D codominated by Echinochloa stagnina-Typha domingensis-Phragmites australis. One hundred and thirty plant species are recorded in this coast and belonging to 38 families. Out of the recorded species, about 41.54% are annuals, 2.31% biennials and 56.15% perennials. The percentages of the life-form indicated that, therophytes attained the highest representation (43.85%). The floristic analysis revealed that, 55.38% of the recorded species are Mediterranean elements. The ecological amplitudes of the leading species along the gradient of edaphic factors are discussed.

  9. Risky exposures and national estimate of HCV seroprevalence among school children in urban Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Abdel Maksoud, Ahmed; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world, particularly in Egypt. Limited data are available concerning the national seroprevalence and the possible modes of transmission of HCV in the pediatric age group. The aim of this study was to obtain a better estimate of the national hepatitis C seroprevalence and the possible risky exposures among healthy school children in Alexandria; the second biggest city in Egypt. HCV knowledge and counseling for school children were also investigated. A total of 500 school children, age between 6 and 15 years were evaluated for HCV seropositivity and interviewed for potential disease risk factors. The seropositivity for Anti-HCV Ab was 2.8 %. About 71.4 % of seropositive children were 10-15 years old. Urban residence, chronic disease, male circumcision and invasive procedures were detected as significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection among the studied children. The level of awareness of hepatitis C among school children was very low (3.6 %) and was correlated with the age and educational level. HCV infection continues to occur in children and is frequently unrecognized. This mandates immediate intervention and robust control strategies in the settings of exposure combined with health education programs to limit further HCV spread.

  10. Microsporidial Spores in Fecal Samples of Some Domesticated Animals Living in Giza, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    AL-HERRAWY, Ahmad Z.; GAD, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present work was to investigate the prevalence and species of intestinal microsporidiosis among animals in Giza, Egypt. Methods: A total of 869 animal fecal samples were collected from domesticated animals (dogs, cats, rabbits, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, donkeys and pigs) living in Giza, Egypt. Spores of microsporidia were concentrated from collected samples by centrifugation and finally stained with modified trichrome (MT) stain to detect microsporidial spores. Microsporidial spores in microscopically-positive samples were molecularly confirmed and identified using species-specific primers. Results: Spores of microsporidia were microscopically detected in 17.0% of the examined animal fecal samples. The highest and lowest rates of infection with intestinal microsporidia were recorded in dogs (33.3%) and buffaloes (6.9%), respectively. Molecularly, the obtained microsporidial spores were classified as Enterocytozoon bieneusi and E. intestinalis. Dual infection with both identified species was observed in fecal samples from buffalo, rabbit, goat, cat, pig and dog. Conclusion: Domestic animals may play a role in dissemination of intestinal microsporidiosis in the environment. Examined animals were infected with E. bieneusi in a higher percentage than E. intestinalis. PMID:28096853

  11. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  12. Religiosity,Conservatism, and Acceptability of Anti-Female Spousal Violence in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kposowa, Augustine J; Aly Ezzat, Dina

    2016-07-25

    Physical violence directed at women is a significant social and public health problem globally. Initial studies tended to concentrate on developed countries, often relying on clinical or shelter samples to assess incidence and prevalence. Although prevalence is critical, reducing or eliminating some problems also requires comprehension of cultural norms and expectations. In the present study, we use a population-based survey to understand factors contributing to attitudes in support of physical violence against married women. More specifically, the aim of the study was to investigate the impact of religiosity and social conservatism on acceptability of physical spousal violence in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Data utilized were derived from Wave 6 of the World Values Survey conducted in 2013. Bivariate and multivariate regression models were fitted to the data. It was found that religiosity was significantly associated with physical spousal violence (b = -123, t = -4.480). Individuals who attended more often were less apt to accept physical spousal violence. Social conservatism was strongly tied to approval of physical violence (b = .368, t = -4.115). It was concluded that culturally biased and patriarchal attitudes that devalue women in Egypt, instead of religion, may be the underlying reason for spousal abuse. It was also concluded that improving higher education for both men and women would reduce physical spousal violence.

  13. Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and the freshwater snail Galba truncatula from Dakhla Oasis, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Arafa, W M; Hassan, A I; Snousi, S A M; El-Dakhly, Kh M; Holman, P J; Craig, T M; Aboelhadid, S M

    2017-02-06

    Infection by Fasciola species was investigated in seven districts of Dakhla Oasis, Egypt, through abattoir inspection of cattle livers for adult worms and sedimentation of faecal samples from local cattle to detect Fasciola eggs. In addition, lymnaeid snails collected from the study area were examined microscopically for developmental stages of Fasciola spp. Abattoir inspection revealed that 51 out of 458 cattle livers (11.1%) contained adult flukes, which were identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica. Examination of the cattle faecal samples revealed that 142 out of 503 (28.2%) contained Fasciola eggs. The collected snails, identified as Galba truncatula and Radix natalensis, showed larval stages of Fasciola in 71 out of 731 (9.7%) G. truncatula, while R. natalensis showed no infection. Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was carried out on DNA extracted from pooled infected snails and adult worms. The F. hepatica size amplicon (1031 bp) was obtained from both the infected G. truncatula and the adult worms isolated from cattle livers from different districts. The amplicon sequences were identical to the published sequences of F. hepatica mitochondrial cox1 gene. In conclusion, the zoonotic importance of Fasciola infection and appropriate hygienic measures must be taken into consideration in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt.

  14. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women's attitudes towards FGM. Results: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation. Conclusions: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice - through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs - may play an important role in modifying women's attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. PMID:21483197

  15. Earthquakes focal mechanism and stress field pattern in the northeastern part of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Hassoup, A.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Othman, Adel A. A.; Hamed, Diaa-Eldin M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Egypt is characterized by moderate size seismicity where earthquakes are distributed within several active regions. In the present study, we investigated the source mechanism of earthquakes using the digital waveform data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) during the period from 2004 to 2008. The focal mechanisms are constructed with high reliability based on the polarity of the first motion of P-wave. These solutions are used to examine the mode of tectonic deformation and the present-day stress field pattern affecting on different tectonic provinces in the northern part of Egypt. The results demonstrate mainly a normal faulting mechanism with minor strike slip component generally trending parallel to the northern Red Sea, the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez and Cairo-Alexandria trend. The inversion technique scheme is used also in the present study for determining the regional stress field parameters for earthquake focal mechanism solutions based on the grid search method of Gephart and Forsyth (1984). The Results of the stress tensor using focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes show a prevailed tension stress field in N52°E, N41°E and N52°E for the northern Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba zone respectively.

  16. Instability improvement of the subgrade soils by lime addition at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shinawi, A.

    2017-06-01

    Subgrade soils can affect the stability of any construction elsewhere, instability problems were found at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt. This paper investigates geoengineering properties of lime treated subgrade soils at Borg El-Arab. Basic laboratory tests, such as water content, wet and dry density, grain size, specific gravity and Atterberg limits, were performed for twenty-five samples. Moisture-density (compaction); California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) were conducted on treated and natural soils. The measured geotechnical parameters of the treated soil shows that 6% lime is good enough to stabilize the subgrade soils. It was found that by adding lime, samples shifted to coarser side, Atterberg limits values of the treated soil samples decreased and this will improve the soil to be more stable. On the other hand, Subgrade soils improved as a result of the bonding fine particles, cemented together to form larger size and reduce the plastiCity index which increase soils strength. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is point to the presence of innovative aggregated cement materials which reduce the porosity and increase the strength as a long-term curing. Consequently, the mixture of soil with the lime has acceptable mechanical characteristics where, it composed of a high strength base or sub-base materials and this mixture considered as subgrade soil for stabilizations and mitigation the instability problems that found at Borg Al-Arab, Egypt.

  17. Association between HCV infection and diabetes type 2 in Egypt: is it time to split up?

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Diego F; Miller, F DeWolfe; Nagelkerke, Nico; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2015-12-01

    There is a conflicting evidence about the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to assess this association in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence in the world. The source of data was from the Egypt Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2008. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses to account for known confounders, the association was investigated at two levels']: (1) HCV exposure (HCV antibody status) and diabetes mellitus and (2) diabetes mellitus and chronic HCV infection (HCV RNA status) among HCV-exposed individuals. We found no evidence for an association between HCV antibody status and diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.19). However, among HCV-exposed individuals, we found an evidence for an association between diabetes and active HCV infection (adjusted OR = 2.44, 95% CI, 1.30-4.57). Although it does not appear that HCV exposure and diabetes are linked, there might be an association between diabetes and chronic HCV infection. The HCV-diabetes relationship may be more complex than previously anticipated. Therefore, a call for an "amicable divorce" to the HCV-diabetes relationship could be premature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The burden of Coxiella burnetii among aborted dairy animals in Egypt and its public health implications.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2017-02-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of mounting public health implications. Dairy animals are major reservoir for such disease whereas abortion is the main clinical outcome. The current study was conducted to investigate the burden of C. burnetii abortions among dairy animals in Egypt to provide more knowledge for better control of such disease. For this purpose, placental cotyledons and vaginal discharges from 108 aborted dairy animals (27 sheep, 29 goats, 26 cattle, 26 buffaloes) were examined for the presence of C. burnetii by nested PCR. Serum samples from 58 human contacts were examined for the presence of C. burnetii IgG antibodies using ELISA. Out of the 108 examined animals only one goat yielded positive result in both placental tissue and vaginal discharges with an overall prevalence 0.9% while that among goats is 3.4%. Moreover, the seroprevalence of C. burnetii IgG antibodies among the examined individuals was 19% whereas the prevalence in farmers is significantly higher than that among veterinarians and veterinary assistants. In conclusion, C. burnetii may play a role in dairy goat abortions rather than other dairy animals in Egypt while its public health implications cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

    2012-10-01

    Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa.

  20. Emergence of Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates from Egypt Coharboring VIM and IMP Carbapenemases.

    PubMed

    El-Domany, Ramadan Ahmed; Emara, Mohamed; El-Magd, Mohammed A; Moustafa, Walaa H; Abdeltwab, Nesma M

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen and the leading cause of nosocomial infections. P. aeruginosa is characterized by massive intrinsic resistance to a multiple classes of antibiotics with carbapenems being the most potent inhibitor of P. aeruginosa and considered the first choice for its treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate novel mechanisms of resistance of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems for achieving successful therapy. A total of 114 P. aeruginosa isolates from two university hospitals in Egypt were recruited in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 50 isolates (43.8%) exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, of them 14 isolates (12.2%) were imipenem (IPM)-resistant. Of these 14 isolates, 13 isolates (11.4%) exhibited the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) phenotype. MBLs encoding genes, VIM and IMP, were identified by PCR. PCR results revealed that four isolates harbored the VIM gene alone, one isolate harbored IMP gene alone, and four isolates harbored both genes. The correct size of PCR products of VIM and IMP genes (390 and 188 bp, respectively) were sequenced to confirm results of PCR and to look for any possible polymorphism among MBL genes of tested isolates. Data analysis of these sequences showed 100% identity of nucleotide sequences of MBL genes among tested Egyptian patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IMP carbapenemase-encoding gene in Africa and the first detection of the emergence of P. aeruginosa coproducing VIM and IMP genes in Egypt.

  1. Socioeconomic determinants of eating pattern of adolescent students in Mansoura, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Elkhawaga, Ghada

    2012-01-01

    Introduction During the last few decades, Egypt experienced rapid socio-cultural changes that were associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits, which, progressively, becomes more westernized. The objective of this study was to investigate the meal patterns of secondary school adolescent students in Mansoura, Egypt. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 891 adolescent students. Thirty clusters were selected to cover both general and vocational public schools of both sexes in urban and rural areas. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about sociodemographic features of the students and their families, as well as meal habits of students. Results About 46% of students eat three meals per day. About 72%, 93% and 95% of respondents consume breakfast, lunch and dinner on daily bases, respectively. Snacks were eaten daily by 34.1% of students. Eating always with the family was stated by the majority (62.5%) of students and taking home made sandwiches during school time was mentioned by 35.8% of students. On logistic regression socioeconomic status is the only predictor associated with daily intake of breakfast, lunch and dinner; with high likelihood of eating with the family and intake of school meal. Conclusion Students practice many faulty meal patterns. School-, family- and community-based interventions are timely needed to promote healthy eating habit in adolescents. PMID:23308327

  2. Urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Egypt (1999–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S.; Hablas, Ahmad; Seifeldein, Ibrahim A.; Ismail, Kadry; Ramadan, Mohamed; El-Hamzawy, Hesham; Wilson, Mark L.; Banerjee, Mousumi; Boffetta, Paolo; Harford, Joe; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Gharbiah, Egypt and to investigate if these differences could be explained by known risk factors of breast cancer. Methods We used data from the population-based cancer registry of Gharbiah, Egypt to assess breast cancer incidence from 1999 through 2006. The Egyptian census provided data on district-specific population, age, and urban-rural classification. Incidence patterns of breast cancer by district and age-specific urban-rural differences were analyzed. Results Overall, incidence rate of breast cancer was three to four times higher in urban areas than in rural areas (60.9/105/year for urban areas versus 17.8/105/year for rural areas; IRR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.30, 4.22). Urban areas had consistently higher incidence of breast cancer across all age-groups for all years. Higher incidence of breast cancer was also seen in the more developed districts of Tanta and El-Mehalla. Conclusions Higher incidence of breast cancer in urban and more developed populations might be related to higher xenoestrogens, as well as other endocrine disruptors and genotoxic substances. PMID:20452771

  3. Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate--Virginia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Julie R; Wallace, Ryan M; Gruszynski, Karen; Freeman, Marilyn Bibbs; Campbell, Colin; Semple, Shereen; Innes, Kristin; Slavinski, Sally; Palumbo, Gabriel; Bair-Brake, Heather; Orciari, Lillian; Condori, Rene E; Langer, Adam; Carroll, Darin S; Murphy, Julia

    2015-12-18

    Canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the United States and multiple other countries. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections. The World Health Organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been subjected to a serologic test for rabies before shipment. On June 8, 2015, an adult female dog that had recently been picked up from the streets of Cairo, Egypt, and shipped by a U.S. animal rescue organization to the United States was confirmed to have rabies by the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS). This dog was part of a large shipment of dogs and cats from Egypt that rescue organizations had distributed to multiple states for adoption. During the investigation, public health officials learned that the rabies vaccination certificate used for entry of the rabid dog into the United States had intentionally been falsified to avoid exclusion of the dog from entry under CDC's current dog importation regulations. This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies.

  4. Preliminary observations on infection of brackish and fresh water fish by heterophyid encysted metacercariae in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Elshazly, Attef M

    2008-09-01

    The infection status with heterophyids in the second intermediate host fish obtained from brackish and fresh water resources in Dakahlia governorate, northern Egypt was investigated. Encysted metacercariae (EMC) in the fish species Mugil cephalus, Mugil capito, Mugil auratus, Tilapia nilotica, and Tilapia zilli from brackish water and T. nilotica and T. zilli from fresh water were isolated by artificial digestion method and identified by microscopic examination. Morphometric analysis of EMC isolated from these fishes identified seven phenotypically distinct groups. No significant morphologic differences were detected between EMC of the same group obtained from different fish species. The adult flukes recovered from seven groups of puppies separately infected with distinct EMC groups were compatible with seven species belong to six genera of Heterophyidae namely Heterophyes heterophyes, Heterophyes aequalis, Pygidiopsis genata, Haplorchis yokogawi, Prohemostomum vivax, Phagicola ascolonga, and Stictodora tridactyla. EMC of these seven heterophyid species were detected in all examined brackish water fishes. On the other hand, only EMC of P. genata, H. yokogawi, and P. ascolonga were detected in fresh water fishes, T. nilotica and T. zilli. These results indicate that heterophyid infections occur in brackish and fresh water fishes in northern Egypt, where the parasites are indigenous.

  5. The genus Macroocula Panfilov in Egypt, with two new species (Hymenoptera: Bradynobaenidae: Apterogyninae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Soliman, Ahmed M; Al-Shahat, Ahmed M; Hossni, Mohammed T

    2015-09-16

    The genus Macroocula Panfilov in Egypt is reviewed. Seven species were previously recorded from Egypt: M. magna (Invrea, 1965), M. mahunkai Argaman, 1994, M. morawitzi (Radoszkowski, 1888), M. nigriventris (Invrea, 1960), M. nitida (Bischoff, 1920), M. savignyi (Klug, 1829) and M. sinaica (Invrea, 1963). Macroocula brothersi Gadallah & Soliman, sp. nov. (Egypt, Wadi Shab, Red Sea) and M. salehi Gadallah & Soliman, sp. nov. (Egypt, Wadi Shaghab, Aswan) are described and illustrated. The subspecies M. nitida nitida (Bischoff, 1920) and M. nitida patrizii (Invrea, 1932) are raised to species level. An illustrated key and a faunistic list of Macroocula species are given.

  6. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed.

  7. Akhenaten and the strange physiques of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Irwin M; Redford, Donald B; Mackowiak, Philip A

    2009-04-21

    Akhenaten was one of Egypt's most controversial pharaohs, in part because of his strange appearance in images produced after he had declared Aten, the Sun-disc, his one-and-only god. Whether these were symbolic representations or realistic ones that indicate a deforming genetic disorder is the subject of continuing debate. The authors present evidence that the bizarre physical features portrayed in these images are not only realistic but were shared by many members of Egypt's 18th Dynasty. The features are best explained by either 2 different familial disorders-the aromatase excess syndrome and the sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome-or a variant of the Antley-Bixler syndrome caused by a novel mutation in one of the genes controlling the P450 enzymes, which regulate steroidogenesis and cranial bone formation.

  8. False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

  9. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  10. Implementation of the Regulatory Authority Information System in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Schetnan, R.; Hasan, A.; Mohamed, Y.T.

    2006-07-01

    As part of the implementation of a bar-code-based system to track radioactive sealed sources (RSS) in Egypt, the Regulatory Authority Information System Personal Digital Assistant (RAIS PDA) Application was developed to extend the functionality of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) RAIS database by allowing users to download RSS data from the database to a portable PDA equipped with a bar-code scanner. [1, 4] The system allows users in the field to verify radioactive sealed source data, gather radioactive sealed source audit information, and upload that data to the RAIS database. This paper describes the development of the RAIS PDA Application, its features, and how it will be implemented in Egypt. (authors)

  11. Oldest epiphyseal osteochondroma in a subadult from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Catalán, Josep Maria; Prat, Carme; Torner, Ferran

    2017-08-01

    Benign bone tumours are pathologies frequently encountered in archaeological human remains, with the most common being osteoma and osteochondroma. We present the case of a juvenile individual recovered from the Necropolis of Sharuna, Middle Egypt and dated to the end of Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt (circa 2150 BC), showing an osteochondroma arising from the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia which, in all likelihood, affected the patellar tendon in life. Osteochondromas are usually discovered during childhood and adolescence. These lesions are commonly located at the metaphysis and diaphysis of long bones and directed away from the joint, with the epiphysis being a rare location. To our knowledge, there have been no similar cases published to date from ancient times and we conclude that this is the oldest case of epiphyseal osteochondroma reported.

  12. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations.

  13. Middle miocene trachypatagus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea),from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. S. M.

    Two species of T rachypatagus, an echinoid restricted to the Mediterranean region: T. tuberculatus (Wright) and T. nehalae n. sp., are described from the Marmarica Limestone Formation (Langhian-Serravalhan) of Mediterranean Seacoast of Egypt. A third species of the same genus is considered to be new, but left in open nomenclature on account of the paucity of material. Stratigraphy of the studied sections, paleogeographic distribution and the habitat of the genus are discussed.

  14. New Political Realities and the Gulf; Egypt, Syria and Jordan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    populations, increasing unemployment, and growing stresses on infrastructures . In all three states, there is increasing resentment of the Gulf states...as societal needs are met, and essential repairs to the shaky Egyptian infrastructure may be again postponed. The annual population growth rate in...Egypt is 2.6 percent-one child every 27 seconds. The current social infrastructure is unable to handle the increasing load of one million new Egyptians

  15. Prevalence of primary headache disorders in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Naglaa A; Masoud, Mohamed; Shalaby, Nevin M; Shehata, Hatem S

    2015-01-01

    There is abundance of epidemiological studies of headache in developed and western countries; however, data in developing countries and in Egypt are still lacking. This study aims to detect the prevalence of primary headache disorders in both urban and rural sectors in Fayoum governorate, Egypt. A total of 2600 subjects were included using multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling, with respondent rate of 91.3 %. A pre-designed Arabic version, interviewer-administered, pilot tested structured questionnaire was developed according to The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version), and this questionnaire was validated and the strength of agreement in headache diagnosis was good. The 1-year headache prevalence was 51.4 %, which was more prevalent in urban dwellers. The most common primary headache type was episodic tension type headache (prevalence; 24.5 %), followed by episodic migraine (prevalence; 17.3 %), both types peaked in midlife. Headache disorders were more common in females with exception of cluster headache that showed the expected male dominance. The risk of chronic headache increased more than one fold and half when the participants were females, married, and in those with high education. More than 60 % of our participants did not seek medical advice for their headaches problem; this percentage was higher in rural areas. Primary headache disorders are common in Egypt; prevalence rate was comparable with western countries with exception of episodic tension headache. Still headache is under-estimated and under-recognized in Egypt and this problem should be targeted by health care providers.

  16. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  17. GT-12 - EARTH SKY - UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (EGYPT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-14

    S66-63533 (14 Nov. 1966) --- United Arab Republic (Egypt) area as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 39th revolution of Earth, looking southeast. Nile River is in center of picture. At bottom center is the Sinai Peninsula. Arabian Peninsula is at lower left. Large body of water is Red Sea. Gulf of Aqaba is on east side of Sinai Peninsula. Gulf of Suez separates Sinai from Egyptian mainland. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Soil-parasites particularly Toxocara eggs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Atef M; Mohammed, Rabae M; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Azab, Manar S; El-Ghareeb, Aza S; Abdeltawab, Ahmed Hussien; Zalook, Tarek K H

    2009-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) remain a major threat to the human health throughout the world, mostly in developing nations. Soil is usually contaminated by different parasitic stages through promiscuous defecation of man particularly children. This is more liable to occur in fields, public gardens and sides of streets or canals. Also, feces of domestic and wild animals & birds play a role in soil contamination. This study was conducted at Mansoura city and Batra village & El-Minia city and Zohra village representing the urban and rural areas of Dakahlia Governorate, Lower Egypt and Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt respectively. The most common helminthic stage presents in the soil of the two Governorates was Toxocara eggs. No ova was detected in-door yards in the urban areas, but only in the sides of streets, crop fields and fruit gardens, around houses and canal banks of both Governorates, and the highest intensity was 13-19 eggs/10 gm soil at canal banks at Zohra village, El-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt.

  19. Lower Eocene carbonate facies of Egypt: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The northern Arabo-Nubian craton witnessed a major Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine transgression that culminated in the deposition of widespread shelf-sea carbonates during Early Eocene (Ypresian) time. Outer shelf facies characterize exposures in central Egypt (Assiut, Luxor, Kharga), and are composed primarily of rhythmically interbedded chalk and micritic limestone with minor intercalated marine hardgrounds. To the south (Kurkur-Dungul), these fine-grained lithologies give way to inner shelf foraminiferal wackestones and grainstones, typical Tethyan Nummulitic facies. Missing in southern Egypt is the restricted dolomitic evaporitic facies predicted by the Irwin model and observed in the lower Eocene of the Sirte basin to the west and the Arabian Platform to the east. Comparing the areal distribution of these lower Eocene carbonates to coeval facies developed across the remained of northern Africa and Arabia reveals the presence of a broad marine embayment which extended through central and eastern Egypt into northern Sudan during Ypresian time. The widespread subsidence that resulted in the development of this features may have been an effect of regional crustal attenuation preceding the rifting of the Red Sea. Concomitant with this regional subsidence were localized uplift and extensional block faulting in the vicinity of the incipient Red Sea rift (the Safaga-Quseir coastal plain). Here, lower Eocene carbonate facies are indicative of shallow water platforms developed on horst blocks, and deeper water, turbidite-fed basins in intervening grabens.

  20. Active Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus, Egypt, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A.; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed. PMID:24655395

  1. A background to the feminist movement in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, H

    1992-01-01

    The origins of the feminist movement in Egypt can be traced back to the social restructuring that occurred during the reign of Mohammed Ali (1805-48). At that time, a debate raged over whether female education was essential to national development. Reformers such as Kassim Amin argued in favor of education for all women and condemned polygamy, supporting their arguments with references to the Koran. Women from the upper classes used their wealth, over which Muslim law gives them full control, to found hospitals, schools, and training centers. By 1914, there were 14 magazines devoted to women's issues. Women participated in anticolonial movements and nationalist party activities while continuing to advocate improvements in women's status. In 1924, Egypt became the 1st Islamic country to deveil women without state intervention. The Egyptian Feminist Party was founded in 1923, and the Women's Political Party was established in 1942 to coordinate the fight for women's equality and the revision of family law. Women's full political rights gained recognition when Egypt won independence in 1956, and the 1st female Minister, Hekmat Abu-Zaid, was appointed in 1962. Ironically, the feminist movement stagnated in the 1st few decades after independence as women's organizations became coopted into the state. The movement has been revitalized, however, by Islamic attacks on women's rights.

  2. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future. PMID:23569767

  3. Distribution of the GNSS-LEO occultation events over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Ibrahim; Mousa, Ashraf El-Kutb; El-Fiky, Gamal

    2017-06-01

    The space-based GNSS RO technique is a promising tool for monitoring the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere (Mousa et al., 2006). The current paper presents the distribution of the occultation events over Egypt using the operating LEO satellites and GNSS by its two operating systems. By the present research, Egypt could raise NWP Models efficiency by improving meteorological data quality. Twenty operating LEO missions (e.g. Argentinean SAC-C, European MetOp-A, German TerraSAR-X, Indian OceanSat-2, etc.) sent by different countries all over the world were used to derive the occultation events position through Egypt borders by receiving signal from the American global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (GLONASS). Approximately 20,000 km Altitude satellites are transmitting enormous number of rays by the day to approximately 800 km satellites passing by the Earth atmosphere. Our mission is to derive all of these rays position (start and end) by calculating satellites position by the time, determine the rays in the occultation case and derive the atmosphere tangent point position for all occultating rays on the Earth surface (Occultation Events).

  4. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  5. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-06-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.

  6. Measurement of Women's Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin E; Dodell, Sylvie; Cheong, Yuk Fai

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread assumptions about women's empowerment and agency in the Arab Middle East, psychometric research of these constructs is limited. Using national data from 6214 married women ages 16-49 who took part in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey, we applied factor analysis to explore and then to test the factor structure of women's agency. We then used multiple indicator multiple cause structural equations models to test for differential item functioning (DIF) by women's age at first marriage, a potential resource for women's agency. Our results confirm that women's agency in Egypt is multi-dimensional and comprised of their (1) influence in family decisions, including those reserved for men, (2) freedom of movement in public spaces, and (3) attitudes about gender, specifically violence against wives. These dimensions confirm those explored previously in selected rural areas of Egypt and South Asia. Yet, three items showed significant uniform DIF by women's categorical age at first marriage, with and without a control for women's age in years. Models adjusting for DIF and women's age in years showed that women's older age at first marriage was positively associated with the factor means for family decision-making and gender-violence attitudes, but not freedom of movement. Our findings reveal the value of our analytical strategy for research on the dimensions and determinants of women's agency. Our approach offers a promising model to discern "hierarchies of evidence" for social policies and programs to enhance women's empowerment.

  7. Estimating the Soil Instability from CSEM Monitoring Data at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga, ,, Prof.; Atya, Magdy, ,, Prof.; Khachay, Oleg; El Sayed, El Said A. El Sayed1 A.

    2014-05-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at 'Quarter 27' in 15th May City. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  8. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY... associated with the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt... via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis...

  9. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: February 27, 2013...

  10. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  11. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  12. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a... importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: December 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  13. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  14. Aspects of conservation in the excavation site of the Athribis temple in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisen, Hans; von Plehwe-Leisen, Esther; Verbeek, Christina; Jürgens, Christine; Krause, Sabine

    2008-12-01

    The late Ptolemaic temple of Athribis in Upper Egypt is built of regional limestone and preciously decorated with reliefs, inscriptions, plaster and polychromy. It is collapsed and only partly preserved and it disposes of some still buried rooms. The temple is situated in a desert climate and highly contaminated with soluble salts. Based on mappings of materials and preservation conditions, on investigations into the materials used and the damaging factors the development of a conservation conception for the limestone remains has been started. Conservation materials have been selected or are specially developed. A test area for some tasks has been prepared and controlled after 1 year of exposure. The paper shows the status quo of the work of the stone conservation group in an archaeological site in desert climate.

  15. Uranium-series dated authigenic carbonates and acheulian sites in southern Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; McHugh, W.P.; Schaber, G.G.; Haynes, C.V.; Breed, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Field investigations in southern Egypt have yielded Acheulian artifacts in situ in authigenic carbonate deposits (CaCO3-cemented alluvium) along the edges of nowaggraded paleovalleys (Wadi Arid and Wadi Safsaf). Uranium-series dating of 25 carbonate samples from various localities as far apart as 70 kilometers indicates that widespread carbonate deposition occurred about 45, 141 and 212 ka (thousand years ago). Most of the carbonate appears to have been precipitated from groundwater, which suggests that these three episodes of deposition may be related to late Pleistocene humid climates that facilitated human settlement in this now hyperarid region. Carbonate cements from sediments containing Acheulian artifacts provide a minimum age of 212 ka for early occupation of the paleovalleys.

  16. Egyptian propolis: 1-antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Upper Egypt propolis.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, A G; El Hady, F K

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples collected from Upper Egypt against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was evaluated. There was a variation in the antimicrobial activity according to the propolis origin. Banisweif propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, but Fayoum propolis had moderate activity against all tested pathogens. Propolis collected from Assiut and Souhag gave lower antimicrobial activity. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS, 71 compounds were identified, 14 being new for propolis. Banisweif propolis is characterized by the presence of 7 caffeate esters and 4 triterpenoids. Fayoum propolis showed the highest amount of lactic acid and the presence of 3 chalcones. But Assiut propolis is characterized by the presence of 4 prenylated coumarates. Souhag propolis is characterized by the presence of 5 aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and some other new compounds to propolis.

  17. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning.

    PubMed

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila

    2003-03-01

    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  18. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  19. Sedimentologic and tectonic evolution of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary succession at Wadi Qena, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Mohamed A.; Habib, Mohamed E.; Ahmed, Ezzat A.

    1986-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary rocks around Wadi Qena, Egypt, represent a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate-phosphorite succession including (from base to top) the Nubia Sandstone, Quseir Shale, Duwi Formation, Dakhla Shale, Tarawan Chalk, Esna Shale and Thebes Formation. Facies and microfacies investigations were carried out. The Nubia Sandstone was deposited by a fluviatile system, whereas the Quseir Shale was laid down by deltaic sedimentation. The Dakhla Shale, Esna Shale and Tarawan Chalk were formed in open marine (pelagic) realms. The Thebes Formation is a shallowing carbonate facies. Phosphorites were accumulated as lag deposits by reworking and winnowing of pre-existing phosphatic materials. The sedimentation of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary rocks were affected by regional and local tectonics (i.e., faulting). The latter played a substantial role in the distribution of the different facies particularly the siliciclastic-carbonate facies.

  20. Paleoecology and paleobiogeography of Paleocene ostracods in Dineigil area, South Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Ismail, Abdelmoneim; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-07-01

    Seventy three rock samples were extracted from the Paleocene interval (fourty three meter) in the Dineigil area, South Western Desert, Egypt. The ostracod assemblages in these samples were qualitatively studied. The ostracods are well preserved which allowed us to recognize thirty two species belonging to eighteen genera and nine families. The recorded ostracods could be differentiated into two assemblages. The first assemblage comprises an overlapping combination of the Esna Type and Garra Type and indicates an inner-middle shelf environment (50-70 m depth). The second one comprises a combination of the Tethyan Type and Esna Type, indicating a transitional environment from the middle shelf to the outer shelf (deep infraneritic). The paleobiogeographic distribution of the investigated ostracods shows a strong resemblance to those in many areas of North Africa and Middle East, and a slight affinity to those in West Africa and the South Atlantic.

  1. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Egypt many phytoparasitic nematodes constitute a major constraint to agricultural production, especially in sandy soil and reclaimed desert lands. Nematological surveys were conducted to determine the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes on associated host plants in Egypt. The results i...

  2. English Language Teaching in Egypt. At the Crossroads of Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monem, Doaa Abdul; El-Sokkary, Wael; Haddaway, Carol; Bickel, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English language teaching in Egypt, where students are required to study English beginning in the fourth grade. Describes the educational requirements of Egyptians pursuing careers as English teachers, inservice training opportunities, overseas training programs, and future directions of English teaching in Egypt.(Author/VWL)

  3. Arab Republic of Egypt: Review of Early Childhood Education and Human Capital Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushiogi, Morikazu; Tanaka, Shinichira; O'Gara, Chloe; Sprague, David

    This report submitted to the World Bank analyzes the early childhood development (ECD) policies, strategies, and programs in Egypt in 2001. Information was gathered from documents, observations in kindergartens and nurseries, interviews with more than 50 teachers and parents, and a survey of policymakers and program managers in Cairo, Egypt. The…

  4. Arab Republic of Egypt: An Economic Analysis of Early Childhood Education/Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Wendy; Van Der Gaag, Jacques; Tanaka, Shinichiro

    Within Egypt's national framework for improving access to and quality of education, the government has announced the intention of enlarging compulsory basic education with 1 or 2 years of preschool. This report to the World Bank examines early childhood development (ECD) in Egypt from an economic and financial perspective. Following an executive…

  5. Saudi-Egyptian Relations: the Political and Military Dimensions of Saudi Financial Flows to Egypt,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    million 3 in 1978 were estimated to reach $1 billion bv 1980. The Suez- Mediter - ranean pipeline revenues and incremental productivitv increases have...for Egypt was meanwhile app roved. 2 There are several reasons why the Saudis have been intent on bolstering Egypt’s military capabilities in the

  6. Higher Education in Egypt. Policy Research Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Alan

    This analytical report on higher education in Egypt argues that Egypt's policy must take account of the realities of declining government budgets and employment and the need to rely increasingly on the private sector, which must become more competitive internationally. Previous policy, which expanded higher education rapidly (despite a…

  7. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  8. 78 FR 56768 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive this...

  9. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book...

  10. Community-Based Education in Egypt: Is It Achieving Its Stated Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsten, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Egypt promises "education for all". Primary attendance and completion have increased substantially. Still, many children remain out of school. There remain questions about the quality of education. Since the early 1990s, community-based education (CBE) has been part of Egypt's educational programme. Community-based education is meant to…

  11. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  12. 75 FR 3953 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Egypt, and I hereby waive such restriction...

  13. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  14. Occurence of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants in Northern Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes in Egypt is very important for agricultural production. A nematode survey was conducted in northern Egypt to identify the genera and species of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with some crop plants. A total of 240...

  15. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Egypt and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

  16. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  17. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  18. Community-Based Education in Egypt: Is It Achieving Its Stated Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsten, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Egypt promises "education for all". Primary attendance and completion have increased substantially. Still, many children remain out of school. There remain questions about the quality of education. Since the early 1990s, community-based education (CBE) has been part of Egypt's educational programme. Community-based education is meant to…

  19. Importation of Films for Cinema and Television in Egypt. Communication and Society No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachty, Gehan; Sabat, Khalil

    A study of the nature and sources of films imported into Egypt is examined in this report. The first section of the report explores the social effects of imported films. The second section provides an overview of the effect and distribution of foreign films in Egypt. The third section analyzes the specific foreign films projected in cinemas or…

  20. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  1. Negotiating Sustainability: Reclaiming Ecological Pathways to Bio-Cultural Regeneration in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Abeer Abdel Hamid

    2013-01-01

    What can an indigenous Egyptian paradigm for social evolution that represents the composite of bio-cultural diversities of Egypt and multiple bio-regions within it look like? With such exploratory inquiry in mind, this dissertation research focuses on analyzing the practice of development in Egypt through the lens of place, critiquing its…

  2. Comparative Study of Cognitive Styles in Egypt, Greece, Hong Kong and the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savvas, Michael; El-Kot, Ghada; Sadler-Smith, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive Style Inventory scores for business undergraduates in Greece (n=48), Egypt (n=45), and the United Kingdom (n=42) and postgraduates/managers in Egypt (n=20), Hong Kong (n=38) and the United Kingdom (n=21) indicated that, among undergraduates of different cultures, there were no significant style differences. Some differences in the…

  3. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  4. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  5. A Comparison between Rural Education in Egypt and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith

    1990-01-01

    Compares Egypt and United States rural school systems. Countries share financial limitations, low salaries, and teacher turnover. Discusses Egypt's national curriculum, high student dropout rate, administrative problems, and possible solutions. Concludes that countries' rural education problems are similar but differ as to cause. (TES)

  6. Higher Education in Egypt. Policy Research Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Alan

    This analytical report on higher education in Egypt argues that Egypt's policy must take account of the realities of declining government budgets and employment and the need to rely increasingly on the private sector, which must become more competitive internationally. Previous policy, which expanded higher education rapidly (despite a…

  7. Importation of Films for Cinema and Television in Egypt. Communication and Society No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachty, Gehan; Sabat, Khalil

    A study of the nature and sources of films imported into Egypt is examined in this report. The first section of the report explores the social effects of imported films. The second section provides an overview of the effect and distribution of foreign films in Egypt. The third section analyzes the specific foreign films projected in cinemas or…

  8. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the... Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination shall be...

  9. Evaluation of Quad-Constellation GNSS Precise Point Positioning in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Manaily, Emad; Abd Rabbou, Mahmoud; El-Shazly, Adel; Baraka, Moustafa

    2017-03-01

    Commonly, relative GPS positioning technique is used in Egypt for precise positioning applications. However, the requirement of a reference station is usually problematic for some applications as it limits the operational range of the system and increases the system cost and complexity On the other hand; the single point positioning is traditionally used for low accuracy applications such as land vehicle navigation with positioning accuracy up to 10 meters in some scenarios which caused navigation problems especially in downtown areas. Recently, high positioning accuracy can be obtained through Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique in which only once GNSS receiver is used. However, the major drawback of PPP is the long convergence time to reach to the surveying grade accuracy compared to the existing relative techniques. Moreover, the PPP accuracy is significantly degraded due to shortage in satellite availability in urban areas. To overcome these limitations, the quad constellation GNSS systems namely; GPS.GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou can be combined to increase the satellite availability and enhance the satellite geometry which in turn reduces the convergence time. In Egypt, at the moment, the signals of both Galileo and BeiDou could be logged with limited number of satellites up to four and six satellites for both Systems respectively. In this paper, we investigated the performance of the Quad-GNSS positioning in both dual- and single-frequency ionosphere free PPP modes for both high accurate and low cost navigation application, respectively. The performance of the developed PPP models will be investigated through GNSS data sets collected at three Egyptian cities namely, Cairo, Alexandria and Aswan.

  10. Morphologic characteristics and migration rate assessment of barchan dunes in the Southeastern Western Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, M. A.; Refaat, A. A.; Abdel Wahed, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work explores the morphologic characteristics of aeolian dune sand in the southeastern part of Western Desert of Egypt. It aims to assess the movement of barchan dunes and evaluate their environmental influence on the Toshka Project. Morphometric investigation of barchan dunes in the Toshka area revealed that most barchans have high length/width (a/c) ratios (fat to pudgy), while one-fifth of the studied barchans have lower a/c ratios and so appear normal in their morphologic forms. Statistical analysis of the main parameters of barchan dunes in Toshka and other desert regions in the Kharga (Egypt), Kuwait, Southern Morocco, California and Southern Peru demonstrates that barchans of the Toshka area are distinctive in their appearance. They are characterized by distinct aspect with higher values of length and width and greater growth in height. The high-energy wind environment in addition to the large amount of drifting sand are principal factors responsible for the unique shape of Toshka barchans. The migration rate of barchan dunes in four chosen test locations, within the central and western Toshka area, ranges from about 3 to 10.82 m/year. The calculated average migration rate of these dunes is about 6 m/year in a SSW direction. Sand encroachment is more extensive in the central and western parts of the investigated Toshka area. Risk evaluation of sand dune movements in the southeastern part of the Western Desert points to medium to high sand encroachment risk values. These may represent serious hazards to the newly-established Toshka Project, threatening roads, as well as cultivated lands in the area.

  11. Genetic Aspects of Gold Mineralization at Some Occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Monsef, M.; Slobodník, M.; Salem, I. A.

    2012-04-01

    The Eastern Desert of Egypt is well known as a gold-mining area since ancient times, there're more than 95 gold deposits and occurrences spread the whole area covered by the basement rocks of Precambrian age. The basement rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt constitute the Nubian Shield that has formed a continuous part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield before the opening of Red Sea (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Commonly, the system of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Eastern Desert is clearly structural controlled related to brittle-ductile shear zones that mostly developed during late deformational stages of the evolution history for basement rocks in the Eastern Desert. This running study principally aims to contribute the mineral resource potential of the gold deposits in Egypt, so particularly Fatira, Gidami and Atalla occurrences have been involved into a comprehensive study based on field, structural, mineralogical, geochemical and genetic investigations. It is intended to better understanding for the characteristics, distribution controls, conditions and age of mineralization in relation to the age of the hosting rocks intrusion to find if there're genetic links between the gold mineralization and the evolution of the host intrusive complex. Several authors suggested that the gold mineralization was related to the intrusion of the (postorogenic) Younger granites. Other authors interpret these deposits as products of hydrothermal activity induced either by metamorphism or cooling effects of early Paleozoic magmatism or as combined metamorphic/magmatic episodes. The prime focus will be directed to the ore itself and the associated hydrothermal alteration zones based on detailed maps and well-distributed samples network and geochemical anomalies distribution. The laboratory studies included microscopic examination (reflecting and transmitting microscopy) to allow for determination of the hosting rocks types and mineralogical changes related to the gold mineralization

  12. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt.

  13. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  14. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    We were part of an international reconnaissance team that investigated the Dahsur earthquake. This article summarizes our findings and points out how even a relatively moderate sized earthquake can cause widespread damage and a large number of casualities. 

  15. Assessment and modeling of groundwater quality using WQI and GIS in Upper Egypt area.

    PubMed

    Rabeiy, Ragab ElSayed

    2017-04-04

    The continuous growth and development of population need more fresh water for drinking, irrigation, and domestic in arid countries like Egypt. Evaluation the quality of groundwater is an essential study to ensure its suitability for different purposes. In this study, 812 groundwater samples were taken within the middle area of Upper Egypt (Sohag Governorate) to assess the quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. Eleven water parameters were analyzed at each groundwater sample (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(-) SO4(2-), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cl(-), electrical conductivity, and pH) to exploit them in water quality evaluation. A classical statistics were applied for the raw data to examine the distribution of physicochemical parameters in the investigated area. The relationship between groundwater parameters was tested using the correlation coefficient where a strong relationship was found between several water parameters such as Ca(2+) and Cl(-). Water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical model used to transform many water parameters into a single indicator value which represents the water quality level. Results of WQI showed that 20% of groundwater samples are excellent, 75% are good for drinking, and 7% are very poor water while only 1% of samples are unsuitable for drinking. To test the suitability of groundwater for irrigation, three indices are used; they are sodium adsorption ration (SAR), sodium percentage (Na%), and permeability index (PI). For irrigation suitability, the study proved that most sampling sites are suitable while less than 3% are unsuitable for irrigation. The spatial distribution of the estimated values of WQI, SAR, Na%, PI, and each groundwater parameter was spatially modeled using GIS.

  16. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a large decline in female genital circumcision (FGC) in Egypt in recent decades. Understanding how this change has occurred so rapidly has been an area of particular interest to policymakers and public health officials alike who seek to further discourage the practice elsewhere. Methods We document the trends in this decline in the newest cohorts of young girls and explore the influences of three pathways—socioeconomic development, social media messages, and women’s empowerment—for explaining the observed trends. Using the 2005 and 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate several logistic regression models to (1) examine individual and household determinants of circumcision, (2) assess the contributions of different pathways through which these changes may have occurred, and (3) assess the robustness of different pathways when unobserved community differences are taken into account. Results Across all communities, socioeconomic status, social media messages, and women’s empowerment all have significant independent effects on the risk of circumcision. However, after accounting for unobserved differences across communities, only mother’s education and household wealth significantly predict circumcision outcomes. Additional analyses of maternal education suggest that increases in women’s education may be causally related to the reduction in FGC prevalence. Conclusions Women’s empowerment and social media appear to be more important in explaining differences across communities; within communities, socioeconomic status is a key driver of girls’ circumcision risk. Further investigation of community-level women’s educational attainment for mothers suggests that investments made in female education a generation ago may have had echo effects on girls’ FGC risk a generation later. PMID:24090097

  18. Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny X

    2013-10-03

    There has been a large decline in female genital circumcision (FGC) in Egypt in recent decades. Understanding how this change has occurred so rapidly has been an area of particular interest to policymakers and public health officials alike who seek to further discourage the practice elsewhere. We document the trends in this decline in the newest cohorts of young girls and explore the influences of three pathways--socioeconomic development, social media messages, and women's empowerment--for explaining the observed trends. Using the 2005 and 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate several logistic regression models to (1) examine individual and household determinants of circumcision, (2) assess the contributions of different pathways through which these changes may have occurred, and (3) assess the robustness of different pathways when unobserved community differences are taken into account. Across all communities, socioeconomic status, social media messages, and women's empowerment all have significant independent effects on the risk of circumcision. However, after accounting for unobserved differences across communities, only mother's education and household wealth significantly predict circumcision outcomes. Additional analyses of maternal education suggest that increases in women's education may be causally related to the reduction in FGC prevalence. Women's empowerment and social media appear to be more important in explaining differences across communities; within communities, socioeconomic status is a key driver of girls' circumcision risk. Further investigation of community-level women's educational attainment for mothers suggests that investments made in female education a generation ago may have had echo effects on girls' FGC risk a generation later.

  19. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Alfy, Taha S; Ezzat, Shahira M; Hegazy, Ahmed K; Amer, Aziza M M; Kamel, Gehan M

    2011-04-01

    Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anticancer activity. The aqueous and ethanolic extract as well as its different fractions were tested for antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Investigation of the different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. peregrina yielded lupeol acetate (1), β-amyrin (2), α-amyrin (3), β-sitosterol (4), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5), apigenin (6), rhamnetin (7), neochlorogenic acid (10), rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (12), and 6-methoxy-acacetin-8-C-β-glucoside (13) which were isolated for the first time from the plant. Compound (13) was isolated for the first time from genus Moringa. In addition, quercetin (8), chryseriol-7-O-rhamnoside (9) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (11) were also isolated. Identification has been established by spectral data (UV, MS, IR, 1H, 1H -1H COSY, and 13C-NMR). The major isolated compounds were found to have valuable cytotoxic activities against breast (MCF 7) and colon (HCT 116) cancer cell lines and their activities were comparable to the reference drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts as well as the n-hexane fraction were found to have potent antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. The Egyptian plant M. peregrina is rich in biologically active ingredients which showed potent cytotoxic activity and also its ethanolic extraxt exert a significant antihyperglycemic effect.

  20. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Alfy, Taha S.; Ezzat, Shahira M.; Hegazy, Ahmed K.; Amer, Aziza M. M.; Kamel, Gehan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anticancer activity. The aqueous and ethanolic extract as well as its different fractions were tested for antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Results: Investigation of the different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. peregrina yielded lupeol acetate (1), β-amyrin (2), α-amyrin (3), β-sitosterol (4), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5), apigenin (6), rhamnetin (7), neochlorogenic acid (10), rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (12), and 6-methoxy-acacetin-8-C-β-glucoside (13) which were isolated for the first time from the plant. Compound (13) was isolated for the first time from genus Moringa. In addition, quercetin (8), chryseriol-7-O-rhamnoside (9) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (11) were also isolated. Identification has been established by spectral data (UV, MS, IR, 1H, 1H -1H COSY, and 13C-NMR). The major isolated compounds were found to have valuable cytotoxic activities against breast (MCF 7) and colon (HCT 116) cancer cell lines and their activities were comparable to the reference drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts as well as the n-hexane fraction were found to have potent antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Conclusion: The Egyptian plant M. peregrina is rich in biologically active ingredients which showed potent cytotoxic activity and also its ethanolic extraxt exert a significant antihyperglycemic effect. PMID:21716619

  1. Assessment of biosecurity practices of small-scale broiler producers in central Egypt.

    PubMed

    Negro-Calduch, E; Elfadaly, S; Tibbo, M; Ankers, P; Bailey, E

    2013-06-01

    In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey of the Genetic Diversity of Forensically Important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Salem, Abeer M; Adham, Fatma K; Picard, Christine J

    2015-05-01

    Minimum postmortem interval estimations of a corpse using blow fly larvae in medicolegal investigations require correct identification and the application of appropriate developmental data of the identified fly species. Species identification of forensically relevant blow flies could be very difficult and time consuming when specimens are damaged or in the event of morphologically indistinguishable immature stages, which are most common at crime scenes. In response to this, an alternative, accurate determination of species may depend on sequencing and molecular techniques for identification. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods resulted in the same topological structure and confirmed DNA based identification of all specimens. Interspecific divergence between pairs of species was 5.3% (C. marginalis-C. megacephala), 7% (C. albiceps-C. megacephala), and 8% (C. albiceps-C. marginalis). These divergences are sufficient to confirm the utility of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in the molecular identification of these flies in Egypt. Importantly, the maximum intraspecific divergence among individuals within a species was <1% and the least nucleotide divergence between species used for phylogenetic analysis was 3.6%. This study highlights the need for thorough and diverse sampling to capture all of the possible genetic diversity if DNA barcoding is to be used for molecular identification.

  3. Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment of two main genetic clusters. The 2.2.1/C group where all recent human and majority of backyard origin viruses clustered together, meanwhile the majority of viruses derived from vaccinated poultry in commercial farms grouped in 2.2.1.1 clade. Findings In the present investigation, an HPAIV H5N1 was isolated from twenty weeks old layers chickens that were vaccinated with a homologous H5N1 vaccine at 1, 7 and 16 weeks old. At twenty weeks of age, birds showed cyanosis of comb and wattle, decrease in egg production and up to 27% mortality. Examined serum samples showed low antibody titer in HI test (Log2 3.2± 4.2). The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the isolated virus were closely related to viruses in 2.2.1/C group isolated from poultry in live bird market (LBM) and backyards or from infected people. Conspicuous mutations in the HA and NA genes including a deletion within the receptor binding domain in the HA globular head region were observed. Conclusions Despite repeated vaccination of layer chickens using a homologous H5N1 vaccine, infection with HPAIV H5N1 resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. In endemic countries like Egypt, rigorous control measures including enforcement of biosecurity, culling of infected birds and constant update of vaccine virus strains are highly required to prevent circulation of HPAIV H5N1 between backyard birds, commercial poultry, LBM and humans. PMID:23185975

  4. Prevalence of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt: population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Eman M; Fawi, Gharib; Abbas, Mohammed Abd-Allah; Abo El-Fetoh, Noha; Zaki, Ahmed F; Gamea, Ayman; Al Attar, Ghada

    2016-12-01

    Few epidemiological studies of the prevalence of neuromuscular disorders have been undertaken. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of the most common types of neuromuscular disorders in Qena governorate/Egypt. A random sample was taken from 11 districts, involving 9303 inhabitants with 57.3% urban residents and 42.7% rural residence. Patients were diagnosed using a screening questionnaire for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. All positive cases were referred to Qena University hospital where they underwent full clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory investigations. Out of 9303 participants 448 cases were identified positive during survey. Four hundred and twenty-six cases proved to have neuromuscular disorders giving a crude prevalence rate (CPR) of 4.57%; 408 cases had definite neuropathy and 18 cases had muscular disorders equivalent to CPR of 4.39% and 193/10(5) respectively. There was a higher prevalence in the rural than urban population. The CPR of focal compression neuropathies was 1.8%, with the majority of cases having carpal tunnel syndrome (CPR = 1.67%). CPR of diabetic neuropathy was 1.67%. The CPR of compressive radiculopathy was 0.34%. Traumatic nerve injury had a CPR 0.06%. The lifetime prevalence of Bell's palsy was 0.16%. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy had a CPR 0.08%. The CPR of idiopathic neuropathy was 0.09% and Infective Leprotic neuropathy was 0.04%. Five patients were diagnosed as having muscular dystrophy and another 5 patients had myotonia with CPR of 54/10(5) for each. Two cases of myasthenia gravis and another two cases with systemic myopathy were recorded giving a CPR of 21/10(5). The overall CPR of neuromuscular disorders in the general population in Qena governorate/Egypt was higher than reported in other countries.

  5. Environmental factors controlling benthic foraminiferal distribution in Hurghada area, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounir El-Kahawy, Ramadan; El-Wahab, Mohamed Abd

    2017-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated at Hurghada on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, to determine the distribution and their common environmental factors that control on this distribution. 43 sediment samples were collected and environmental factors (T°C, pH, and salinity ‰), water depth, grain size, organic matter and carbonate content were measured. Faunal abundance (14-1755 tests/g) with an average 709 tests/g, and faunal diversity (6-39 specimens) with an average 31 specimen. Cluster analysis was divided the Hurghada site into four distinct biotopes based on the faunal data: Biotope (1) is dominated by a Quinqueloculina seminula& Quinqueloculina laevigata, and Triloculina terquemiana assemblage. Biotope (2) is dominated by a Sorites marginalis & Triloculina trigonula assemblage. Biotope (3) is dominated by an Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii and Elphidium spp assemblage. Biotope (4) is dominated by a Peneroplis planatus& Coscinospira hemprichii& Sorites orbiculus and Neorotalia calcar assemblage. Some of the recorded foraminiferal tests showed abnormalities in their apertures, coiling and shape of chambers. The distribution of benthic foraminiferal species is governed by environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, substrates-type, water depth and pH. P. planatus and C. hemprichii positively correlate with extreme salinity and temperature, indicating that these species reflect a warm, arid climate conditions. Aside, the heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn) concentrations in the sediment samples were analyzed using ICP-OES. The comparative study between the faunal content and the heavy metals enrichments in each sample displayed positive character indicating the worsening of the environmental conditions. Keywords: benthic foraminifera, Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt

  6. Implementation, barriers and challenges of smoke-free policies in hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is a serious public health challenge in North Africa, and health professionals play a vital role in tobacco control. In Egypt, limited data are available on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers regarding tobacco control policies. Such data are especially relevant due to Egypt’s tobacco control laws, adopted in 2007, prohibiting smoking in hospitals and other public places. This study surveyed 49 senior administrative staff, 267 physicians, 254 nurses, and 109 administrative employees working in El-Kasr El-Aini Hospital in Cairo, assessing their knowledge and attitudes regarding Egypt’s tobacco control laws and barriers to their effective implementation in health care facilities. We also investigated the hospital’s compliance with smoke-free policies. Results The majority (>90%) of the hospital workers knew that exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful to health. Physicians and nurses had a more favorable attitude towards the smoking ban when compared to administrative employees. Hospital staff identified the following barriers to successfully implementing the smoking ban: lax enforcement of tobacco control laws, the lack of penalties for violators, the lack of cessation programs, and the prevalence of smoking among physicians. Conclusions Overall, smoke-free policies were poorly enforced in this large teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Interventions to address the identified barriers to their implementation could include the provision of cessation training and services as well as effective communication programs to educate health care workers at all levels regarding the dangers of second-hand smoke exposure and effective measures for protection. PMID:23069011

  7. An epidemic of Rift Valley fever in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Imam Z. E.; Karamany, R. El; Darwish, Medhat A.

    1979-01-01

    During the epidemic of Rift Valley fever (RVF) that occurred in Egypt and other areas of North Africa in 1977, the virus was isolated from various species of domestic animal and rats (Rattus rattus frugivorus) as well as man. The highest number of RVF virus isolates were obtained from sheep; only one isolate was recovered from each of the other species tested, viz. cow, camel, goat, horse, and rat. RVF virus was reisolated from both camel and horse sera, apparently for the first time. PMID:314355

  8. Detection of crustal strains in Egypt using GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    DETECTION OF CRUSTAL STRAINS IN EGYPT USING GPS NETWORKS S.M. Mahmoud National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Helwan, Cairo, Egypt. Fax: 202 554 80 20 Email: salahm55@yahoo.com Abstract. Studies of crustal deformation in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. Several publications were published and presented in local and international meetings. On November 14, 1981 an earthquake with magnitude 5.6 occurred at kalabsha fault, 70-Km southwest of Aswan City. This earthquake is considered as an important event as it is located not far from the Aswan High Dam. Therefore, the first program for monitoring crustal deformation has been started in Kalabsha area during the winter of 1983 with the cooperation between the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) and the Aswan &High Dam Authority. A local network of 18 terrestrial geodetic points was established at kalabsha area in 1983 in order to monitor the horizontal and vertical crustal movements along Kalabsha fault. The initial measurements were carried out in December 1984. These measurements were repeated twice a year till December 1994.An other terrestrial network were established at seiyal fault, 15 km to the north of kalabsha fault. The initial measurements of seiyal network were carried out in March 1989 and repeated twice a year till August 1992. Analysis of the terrestrial horizontal measurements from both networks for the epoch from December 1984 till December 1994 indicated significant deformations varying from 3x10-6 to 7x10-6. Since the year of 1994 till now, the geodetic observations by means of Space Techniques which known as Global Positioning System (GPS) were applied instead of the Terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. Data adjustment and analysis of the reapted GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which helps in more understanding the geodynamics of

  9. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'.

  10. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan High Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Aswan High Dam, 2.5 miles across and 364 feet high, (24.0N, 33.0E) completed in 1971, was constructed to supply cheap hydroelectric power to both Egypt and Sudan by impounding, controling and regulating the flood waters of the Nile River in Lake Nasser, the world's second largest artifical lake. The lake extends over 500 miles in length, covers an area of some 2,000 square miles and is as much as 350 feet deep at the face of the dam.

  11. Sexual attitudes, preferences and infections in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1995-01-01

    This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496

  12. Familial epilepsy in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt's eighteenth dynasty.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2012-09-01

    The pharaohs of Egypt's famous eighteenth dynasty all died early of unknown causes. This paper comprehensively reviews and analyses the medical literature and current evidence available for the New Kingdom rulers - Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare and Tutankhamun. The integration of these sources reveals that the eighteenth dynasty rulers may have suffered from an inherited condition that may explain their untimely deaths. The description of recurring strong religious visions, likely neurological disease and gynecomastia, supports the theory that these pharaohs may have suffered from a familial temporal epilepsy syndrome that ultimately led to their early downfall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ancient Egypt to modern ophthalmology: via Otago, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Coster, Douglas J

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the contribution of two New Zealanders, Barrie Jones and Rowland Wilson, to the development of modern ophthalmology. Their related contribution was made over a period of 80 years; it began in Egypt with Wilson, developed when they worked together in Dunedin and where they created the foundations for the brilliant career that Jones was to go on to in London. Their story emphasizes the impact of teaching and mentorship. It highlights the extended reach of teaching and the power of continuity in research.

  14. [A critical regard over the medicine in the Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Generally, writing about the medicine in the Ancient Egypt, historians adopt an approach rather benevolent than critical, giving to its practice merits that never had. Reading without prejudice the famous twelve papyri -and now one more- we can't less to pronounce a condemnatory sentence, because at the end this medicine looks like a patchwork of ignorance, superstition, magic believes and a pair of grains of knowledge. However, we can rescue its surgical practice, very useful, sometimes efficient, and quite necessary in those centuries of war, slavery and permanent abuse of the weak and the poor people by the high political rulers and priests.

  15. Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in Egypt, 2009.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Heba; Awa, Fatimah El; Naga, Randa Abou El; Emam, Awatef Hussien; Labib, Sahar; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda J; Asma, Samira; Talley, Brandon

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the differences in overall use of tobacco and in the use of various tobacco products, by sex and by frequency of use across various demographic groups. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2009 in Egypt. The data consist of answers to GATS by 20,924 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older from all regions of Egypt. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco products, either daily or occasionally. We analyzed the differences in current cigarette, shisha, and smokeless tobacco use by sex and frequency of use (daily or occasional); and by demographic characteristics that included age, region, education level and employment status. Overall, 19.7% of the Egyptian population currently use some form of tobacco. Men (38.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.8-39.4]) are much more likely than women (0.6% [95% CI 0.4-0.9]) to use tobacco. Almost 96% of men who use tobacco, do so daily. Men are more likely to use manufactured cigarettes (31.8% [95% CI 30.6-33.1]) than shisha (6.2% [95% CI 5.6-6.9]) or smokeless tobacco (4.1% [95% CI 3.4-4.8]). Few women use tobacco (cigarettes (0.2%), shisha (0.3%) and smokeless tobacco (0.3%)); however, all women who currently smoke shisha, do so daily. Lower educational status, being between ages 25-64 and being employed predicted a higher use of tobacco. Egypt has implemented several initiatives to reduce tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER technical package, which aims to reverse the tobacco epidemic, is implemented at various levels throughout the country. Our findings show that there is significant variation in the prevalence of tobacco use and types of tobacco used by adult men and women in Egypt. GATS data can be used to better understand comparative patterns of tobacco use by adults, which in turn can be used to develop interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Jordan and Syria: A Comparison

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    level of the MB group within their borders. The demographic makeup of the population of the country also had a profound and deterministic effect on...of the country also had a profound and deterministic effect on the acceptable modus operandi that the MB groups could employ to achieve their...authors describe Syria as a ‘Bunker State’ and Egypt as a ‘ Bully State’. A ‘Bunker State’ is described as being “...in a potential state of war with

  17. Circular feature among dunes of the Great Sand Sea, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1981-01-01

    A circular crater, about 4 kilometers in diameter and located at 24.2 deg N, 26.4 deg E, was discovered in Landsat images among the linear dunes of the Great Sand Sea, Egypt. The crater has a sharp and crenulated rim crest, a terraced wall, a discontinuous inner structure (approximately 1.6 kilometers in diameter), and a few rim blocks. Its morphological and morphometric characteristics are similar to those of meteorite impact craters and other circular structures on the moon and the terrestrial planets. Because of its interaction with windblown sand, it is particularly comparable with craters on Mars.

  18. Sand Fly Fever-Naples Infection in Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-02

    virus infection are presented. The virus was isolated from one patient while both patients had diagnostic rises in indirect fluorescent antibody titers...modification of the method of SFN virus was isolated, demonstrating the of Wulffand Johnson.’ 0 Sera containing lgM an- persistence ofSFN infection in Egypt...A M = 64. IgG = 32. IgM = 8). Eight monthsfollowing infection , neither IgG nor IgM anti- Case I bodies to SFN virus were detected by IFA test. In

  19. View of portion of Libya and Arab Republic of Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-20

    AST-02-130 (20 July 1975) --- An oblique view of a portion of Libya and the Arab Republic of Egypt, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The geological features are the Jebel Uweinat and Jebel Arkenu basaltic mountains in the Libyan sand sea. This picture was taken with a 70mm Hasselblad camera using medium-speed Ektachrome QX-807 type film. The spacecraft was at an altitude of 219 kilometers (136 statute miles).

  20. Megaselia scalaris causing human intestinal myiasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mazayad, Said A M; Rifaat, Manal M A

    2005-04-01

    Megaselia scalaris is a worldwide distributed insect of medical importance. In a laboratory-based study, stool samples with undefined maggot infestation were examined and the presence of M. scalaris maggots was confirmed. Binocular stereo-microscopy was used for identification of the maggots. Larvae were allowed to develop into adults onto a human stool culture. The larvae and the emerged flies were identified using standard keys. This may be the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of human myiasis in Egypt. Details of the third instar larva, pupa and adults were given.

  1. The First Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt International Scientific Conference.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S

    2009-10-01

    A wide gathering of scientists, clinicians, pharmacists and nurses specialized in pediatric oncology practice met to celebrate the second anniversary of Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt (CCHE). The celebration was in the form of high-brow teaching lectures and reports presented by international experts in the fields of pediatric CNS tumors, solid tumors (neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, soft tissue and bone tumors, lymphoma, leukemia and pediatric oncology nursing. The conference extends its activities to hospital management, clinical pharmacy and telemedicine. Furthermore, CCHE experts presented the efforts performed to establish a state-of-the-art pediatric oncology hospital equipped with all needed facilities to raise the standard of care to the highest levels.

  2. Management of Egypt's Surface and Groundwater Resources: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    The River Nile is the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Most of Egypt's River Nile water (>85%) originates as precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and is channeled by the Blue Nile. The construction (years: 2011 to 2017) of the Renaissance Dam (reservoir capacity: 70 x 109m3) on the Blue Nile poses an extreme threat to Egypt's population. If the reservoir was to be filled in 7 years, Egypt will lose (during each of 7 years following dam completion) a minimum of 15 x 109m3 of its annual allocation (55 x 109m3) to reservoir filling (10 x 109m3), evaporation (3.5 x 109m3), and infiltration (1.5 x 109m3). Three solutions are proposed: Solution I takes advantage of the cyclicity of Nile floods and is based on findings from a calibrated (against temporal head data) unconfined 2-dimensional transient groundwater flow model for Lake Nasser and surroundings and a calibrated (against lake levels) surface water model. Models show with time: (1) losses to infiltration will decrease (1975-193: 58.4 109m3; 1993-2001: 43.6 x 109m3) due to silting of Lake bottom and encroachment of excess Lake Nasser water will increase (e.g., 1975-1993: none; 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3). We propose to develop sustainable agricultural in the Western Desert: (1) In high flood years, excess Lake Nasser water (e.g., 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3) is channeled across the plateau bounding (from west) the River Nile valley to artificially recharge the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) that crops out west of the plateau and, (2) in low flood years, we extract the recharged groundwater. Solution II calls on mining the NSAS at reasonable rates. Using temporal (January 2003 - September 2012) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data we estimate the annual depletion rates at 2 x 109m3 due to artificial extraction (1.5 x 109m3) and natural discharge (0.5 x 109m3). Assuming current GRACE depletion rates, the recoverable groundwater (5,180 x 109m3) will last for 2500 years; if we were to quadruple

  3. Evaluating tetanus neonatorum as a child survival risk in rural Egypt in the absence of reliable cause-of-death registration.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A B; Kielmann, A A; van der Most van Spijk, M; Hammamy, M T; Nagaty, A A

    1985-12-01

    The principal finding of the investigation is that neonatal tenanus is, indeed an important cause of infant death in rural Egypt even though the normal cause-of-death reporting system had not altered health authorities to the problem. The finding is based on a comparison of registration statistics with (anthropological) reconstruction of pregnancies and child survival using the case-history rather than the epidemiological method. The histories go back ten years and refer to 102 women in two villages of Egypt. An incidental finding is confirmation of the known deficiency of infant death reporting, and associated births, with the extra dividend of showing how serious this may be in the neonatal period. Another incidental finding is the identification of induced abortion as a health problem.

  4. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the origin of Wadi El-Tarfa ground waters, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, M.; Sturchio, N. C.; Abdel Hady, Y.; El Anbeawy, M.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the use of the renewable ground water resources of the Eastern Desert to develop sustainable agriculture in Upper Egypt, an alternative that could alleviate some of Egypt's dependence on water from the Nile River. Ground water from shallow aquifers in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, near the intersection of Wadi El-Tarfa and the Nile River, was analyzed for chemical compositions, stable isotope ratios, and tritium activities. The ground water has a range in total dissolved solids of 300 to 5000 mg/L. Values of {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O range from -10 to +34 %o and -2 to +5.2 %o, respectively, and defines a line having a slope of 5.7 that intersects the meteoric water line at about {delta}D = -15% on a plot of 8D versus {delta}{sup 18}O. These findings indicate that the water might have been derived by a combination of evaporation of and salt addition to regional precipitation. Only one sample could have been derived directly by evaporation and transpiration of modern Nile River water. Salinization of the ground water could have occurred through dissolution of marine aerosol dry fallout, carbonate minerals, gypsum, and other trace evaporitic minerals at and near the ground surface. Tritium activities ranged from 0.04 to 12.9 TU (tritium unite), indicating that all but one of the samples were derived at least partly from precipitation that occurred within the last 45 years. These data indicate that Nubian Aquifer paleowater is not a significant component of the shallow aquifers of this portion of the Eastern Desert. The most likely source of this ground water is sporadic flash flood events yielding locally voluminous recharge that accumulates in coarse sediments and fractured rock beneath alluvial channels. The magnitude of this renewable ground water resource and its potential for supporting sustainable agriculture require further investigation.

  5. Infectious bacterial pathogens, parasites and pathological correlations of sewage pollution as an important threat to farmed fishes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; Abdelsalam, Mohamed; Mahdy, Olfat A; El Miniawy, Hala M F; Ahmed, Zakia A M; Osman, Ahmed H; Mohamed, Hussein M H; Khattab, A M; Zaki Ewiss, M A

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources. In the present study, the impact of the sewage pollution in some fish farms at El-Fayyum, Port Said and El-Dakahlia governorates in Egypt was carried out. Water and fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephalus) samples were collected from private fish farms of such localities. Bacteriological and chemical examination of water samples revealed the existence of coliforms and many other bacterial species of significant human health hazards. The chemical parameters of water showed a marked deviation from normal levels while examination of fish flesh specimens indicated contamination with Streptococcus Sp., Staphylococcus Sp., and Salmonella in all examined localities. Other bacterial isolates of human health importance (Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas cepacia and Enterococcos durans) were identified. The parasitological examination revealed the presence of encysted metacercariae (EMC); Diplostomatidae, Prohemistomatidae and Heterphyidae. Moreover, two protozoan parasites (Mxyoboulus tilapiae and Ichthyophthirius multifilis) were also recorded. The histopathological examination revealed mild tissue reaction in case of bacterial infection and severe pathological lesions in different organs in case of EMC infection. Lamellar hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration in branchial tissue was common findings. In skeletal muscles, atrophy of muscle fibres, myolysis and myophagia were detected.

  6. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  7. Geochemical water signature in the Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Hammed, Mohammed S.

    2017-04-01

    The Bahariya Oasis is located about 200 km SW of Cairo in the central part of the Western Desert of Egypt. It occupies a sub-elliptic 40 km wide depression stretching NE-SW for approximately 90 km. The Bahariya Oasis has been targeted for numerous geological studies on structural geology, stratigraphy, and iron ore deposits. The oasis was characterized since the Roman times by the presence of natural hydrothermal springs venting water from the relatively shallow Nubia Sandstone formation. Inside the depression are visible numerous circular concentric features that morphologically resemble the hydrothermal vent complexes observed at igneous provinces in other localities of the planet. In order to investigate the origin and the mechanisms of formation of these features, we conducted a fieldwork survey as well as fluids sampling from the available well sites. The aim was to constrain the origin of the fluids that potentially triggered or facilitated the formation of the concentric structures observed on the field. This study presents the geochemical results of groundwaters and soil gas samples. Ten samples were collected from deep wells present in the area. In particular, 8 warm waters were collected by wells between 800 m and 1200 m deep. The measured temperatures at these sites range from 36.5 °C to 52.3°C, while the coldest wells have temperatures ranging from 27.9 °C to 36.5°C. For each sample collected from the wells we analyzed the major, minor and trace elements, dissolved gases (He, Ne, H2, O2, N2, CH4, CO2, Rn), and relative isotopic values. In the areas around the wells we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes as well as radon activity. Overall, the water showed a high value of dissolved Rn, ranging from 9 to 43 Bq/l, and dissolved CO2 ranging from 5.9 to 17.4 cc/l. The waters show a radiogenic signature of isotopic helium, highlighting very prolonged interaction with local crust enriched in radiogenic elements. The isotopic values of δ18O and δD show a clear

  8. Bovine viral diarrhoea, bovine herpesvirus and parainfluenza-3 virus infection in three cattle herds in Egypt in 2000.

    PubMed

    Aly, N M; Shehab, G G; Abd el-Rahim, I H A

    2003-12-01

    This study reported field outbreaks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection, either alone or mixed with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) in Egypt during 2000. In Lower Egypt, young calves in three cattle herds in El-Minufiya Province, El-Fayoum Province and in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province, showed symptoms of enteritis, either alone or accompanied by respiratory manifestations. The affected herds were visited and the diseased animals were clinically examined. Many epidemiological aspects, such as morbidities, mortalities and case fatalities, as well as the abortive rate, were calculated. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-blood samples, sterile nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained for virological and serological diagnosis. The laboratory investigations revealed that the main cause of calf mortalities in the three herds was infection with BVDV, either alone, as on the El-Minufiya farm, or mixed with PI-3V, as on the El-Fayoum farm, or mixed with both BHV-1 and PI-3V, as in the herd in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province. A total of nine dead calves from the three herds were submitted for thorough post-mortem examination. Tissue samples from recently dead calves were obtained for immunohistochemical and histopathological studies. The most prominent histopathological findings were massive degeneration, necrosis and erosions of the lining epithelium of the alimentary tract. Most of the lymphoreticular organs were depleted of lymphocytes. In pneumonic cases, bronchopneumonia and atypical interstitial pneumonia were evident. The present study suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of BVDV had predisposed the animals to secondary infection with BHV-1 and PI-3V. This study concluded that concurrent infection with BVDV, BHV-1 and PI-3V should be considered as one of the infectious causes of pneumoenteritis and, subsequently, the high morbidities and mortalities among young calves in Egypt

  9. A statistical model of Rift Valley fever activity in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali N.; Beier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease of animals and humans and a global public health concern due to its ecological plasticity, adaptivity, and potential for spread to countries with a temperate climate. In many places, outbreaks are episodic and linked to climatic, hydrologic, and socioeconomic factors. Although outbreaks of RVF have occurred in Egypt since 1977, attempts to identify risk factors have been limited. Using a statistical learning approach (lasso-regularized generalized linear model), we tested the hypotheses that outbreaks in Egypt are linked to (1) River Nile conditions that create a mosquito vector habitat, (2) entomologic conditions favorable to transmission, (3) socio-economic factors (Islamic festival of Greater Bairam), and (4) recent history of transmission activity. Evidence was found for effects of rainfall and river discharge and recent history of transmission activity. There was no evidence for an effect of Greater Bairam. The model predicted RVF activity correctly in 351 of 358 months (98.0%). This is the first study to statistically identify risk factors for RVF outbreaks in a region of unstable transmission. PMID:24581353

  10. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  12. Sensitivity of Microphyiscs Schemes For Simulating Severe Rainfall Over Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElTahan, Muhammed; Magooda, Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Egypt faced heavy Rainfall starting from 26th October 2016 which caused flooding in Upper Egypt and Red Sea Coast especially Ras Gharib.In this Paper, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used with one domain of 10-km resolution for three days starting from 26th October 2016 to simulate this severe rainy event in terms of Temperature, Wind Speed and Precipitation. In order to use the WRF model several schemes should be configured, one of them is the microphysics scheme. Microphysics is the process by which moisture is removed from the air, based on other thermodynamic and Kinematic fields represented within the numerical models. In this study, the sensitivity of ten microphysics schemes were tested (Kessler, Lin, WRF single moment 3 and 5 class, Eta(Ferrier), WRF single Scheme 6 Class, Goddard, Thompson, Milbrandt-Yau Double Moment and Morrison 2 moment). The output Temperature and Precipitation from the model were compared with Satellite Data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), respectively.

  13. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  15. Schistosomiasis in Egypt: A never-ending story?

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Soliman, Rasha H

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis has plagued the Egyptian population since the antiquity. The disease is still a public health problem in Egypt, despite the tendency of being overlooked. In the first part of this review, the past and current trends of schistosomiasis in Egypt are reviewed, including history, epidemiology, morbidity, therapy, and control of the disease. Most of these aspects are more or less relevant to other schistosome-endemic regions all over the world. As only one drug is currently available for individual treatment and preventive mass chemotherapy, the quest for complementary measures is urgently warranted. Indeed, one promising approach is the discovery of a vaccine. Herein, we point out the efforts of the Egyptian scientists to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine against schistosomiasis - a step forward in the battle of elimination of Schistosoma infection. Based on the candidate vaccine antigens, four types of vaccine formulations are discussed: purified antigen vaccines, DNA constructs, attenuated cercariae, and excretory-secretory antigen vaccines. Finally, this review provides insights into this ancient seemingly long-lasting parasitic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  17. Optimization of municipal solid waste management in Port Said - Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Badran, M.F. . E-mail: mbadran@uoguelph.ca; El-Haggar, S.M.

    2006-07-01

    Optimization of solid waste management systems using operational research methodologies has not yet been applied in any Egyptian governorate. In this paper, a proposed model for a municipal solid waste management system in Port Said, Egypt is presented. It includes the use of the concept of collection stations, which have not yet been used in Egypt. Mixed integer programming is used to model the proposed system and its solution is performed using MPL software V4.2. The results show that the best model would include 27 collection stations of 15-ton daily capacity and 2 collection stations of 10 ton daily capacity. Any transfer of waste between the collection station and the landfill should not occur. Moreover, the flow of the district waste should not be confined to the district collection stations. The cost of the objective function for this solution is 10,122 LE/day (equivalent to US$1716). After further calculations, the profit generated by the proposed model is 49,655.8 LE/day (equivalent to US$8418.23)

  18. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    PubMed

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources.

  19. Optimization of municipal solid waste management in Port Said - Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badran, M F; El-Haggar, S M

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of solid waste management systems using operational research methodologies has not yet been applied in any Egyptian governorate. In this paper, a proposed model for a municipal solid waste management system in Port Said, Egypt is presented. It includes the use of the concept of collection stations, which have not yet been used in Egypt. Mixed integer programming is used to model the proposed system and its solution is performed using MPL software V4.2. The results show that the best model would include 27 collection stations of 15-ton daily capacity and 2 collection stations of 10 ton daily capacity. Any transfer of waste between the collection station and the landfill should not occur. Moreover, the flow of the district waste should not be confined to the district collection stations. The cost of the objective function for this solution is 10,122 LE/day (equivalent to 1716 US dollars). After further calculations, the profit generated by the proposed model is 49,655.8 LE/day (equivalent to 8418.23 US dollars).

  20. Late Cretaceous multicolored shales and phosphatic sedimentary rocks in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.R.; Garrison, R.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1983-03-01

    Upper Cretaceous transitional fluvial to marine variegated shale (upper Nubia Formation) and the fully marine Duwi (phosphate) Formation occur as thin, widespread, shallow-marine deposits in an east-west-trending belt spanning the lower-middle latitudes of Egypt. On a larger scale, the phosphoritic rocks in Egypt represent but a small portion of a laterally extensive Middle Eastern-North African phosphogenic province of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary age that accounts for accumulation of minable marine phosphate in excess of 70 billion tons. Phosphorites, porcelanites/cherts, organic carbon-rich shales, glauconitic sandstones, and bioclastic and fine-grained carbonate rocks variously reflect major hemipelagic and shallow-water carbonate sedimentation. Biosiliceous hemipelagic deposits, now diagenetically altered to procelanite and chert, reflect low energy depositional conditions that were periodically interrupted by high energy, possibly storm-induced currents and/or down-slope redeposition. Both dark shales and porcelanites locally contain abundant organic matter and are commonly finely laminated. Porcelanites and black shales are phosphatic, containing phosphatic grains identical, morphologically and chemically, to those found in associated phosphorites, and are probably the source from which the phosphorites were derived. The organic carbon-rich shales of the Duwi Formation appear to be quite laterally extensive and may, depending on thermal maturity, represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks in other portions of the region (e.g., Western Desert, Gulf of Suez), where they are more deeply buried.

  1. Mucormycosis in Cairo, Egypt: review of 10 reported cases.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Sherif M; Elkholy, Iman M; Elkady, Nadia A; Abdel-Ghany, Khayria

    2014-01-01

    We report on 10 cases of mucormycosis, as defined by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) standards of invasive fungal diseases, among patients with a recent history of neutropenia, prolonged use of corticosteroids and treatment with immunosuppressants. They were all observed at the Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, during the year 2010. These cases were categorized as 50% proven and 50% probable, with none considered to be possible mucormycosis. The median age of the patients discussed in this report was 50 years (range 22-68 years), of which 80% were male and 20% were female. Uncontrolled diabetes with ketoacidosis was noted in 60% of cases, while 40% of the patients had undergone liver transplantations. Pulmonary mucormycosis was the predominant presentation as it was noted in 80% of cases, but there was only 20% sinus involvement. Members of the genus Lichtheimia were the most common etiologic agents (40% of all cases), whereas Rhizopus ssp. were recovered from 30% of cases, Syncephalastrum spp. in 20%, and 10% of patients were infected with Rhizomucor. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (LAMB) was successfully used to treat all the cases described in this report. We concluded that the incidence of mucormycosis was relatively high during the study period in this one-center study and that additional studies looking into the diagnosis and the control of mucormycosis in Egypt are required.

  2. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation already in Egypt 5,000 years ago?].

    PubMed

    Ocklitz, A

    1997-06-06

    In light of the medically relevant features of the ancient Egyptian mouth-opening ceremony, the question of the effectiveness of medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago is examined, whereby the religious and cultural framework also plays a significant role. In the Land on the Nile myth and reality clearly generated special conditions which favoured the systematic treatment of questions of resuscitation. Numerous examples show that this had practical consequences in the area of everyday medicine. In addition, rebirth and resurrection were central elements of the cult of the dead which had exact medical equivalents. These equivalents may demonstrate the advanced state of resuscitation practices in Egypt at that time. In this context, a reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mouth-opening instrument is presented. In the cult of the dead, this instrument played a role which can be compared to the function of a modern laryngoscope. It appears possible that at the time of the pyramids the Egyptians already had an understanding of the technology required to perform instrument-aided artificial respiration. Whether or not they actually possessed a fundamental knowledge of the principles of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation remains unclear. Nevertheless, the astonishingly functional characteristics of the reconstructed mouth-opening instrument suggest that it was developed for more than purely symbolic purposes.

  3. Myrrh and trematodoses in Egypt: an overview of safety, efficacy and effectiveness profiles.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad A; Loutfy, Naguiba; Hassan, Azza

    2009-09-01

    Myrrh is an herbal product that has been used since ancient ages for traditional medication and other purposes. The revolution of myrrh as an antiparasitic agent in Egypt began in the 1990s through scientific evidence-based research. The human trematode infections in Egypt were the main focus of research with stories of success and disagreement, at times. The present paper reviewed the antiparasitary activity of myrrh with stress on its possible mode of action, its safety, efficacy and effectiveness on trematode infections in experimental studies and clinical trials in Egypt as well as its molluscicidal effects on the intermediate hosts of trematodes.

  4. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Dee, Michael; Wengrow, David; Shortland, Andrew; Stevenson, Alice; Brock, Fiona; Girdland Flink, Linus; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2013-11-08

    The Egyptian state was formed prior to the existence of verifiable historical records. Conventional dates for its formation are based on the relative ordering of artefacts. This approach is no longer considered sufficient for cogent historical analysis. Here, we produce an absolute chronology for Early Egypt by combining radiocarbon and archaeological evidence within a Bayesian paradigm. Our data cover the full trajectory of Egyptian state formation and indicate that the process occurred more rapidly than previously thought. We provide a timeline for the First Dynasty of Egypt of generational-scale resolution that concurs with prevailing archaeological analysis and produce a chronometric date for the foundation of Egypt that distinguishes between historical estimates.

  5. Reproduction concepts and practices in ancient Egypt mirrored by modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Sciaky-Tamir, Yael; Hurwitz, Arye

    2005-11-01

    The treasured ancient papyri provide a glimpse into understanding of common concepts and practices in ancient Egypt. The Kahun gynecological papyrus and other texts unveil the traditions of reproduction, conception and delivery. This article addresses the rationale of beliefs and practices of that era. Frequently, the reason for common traditions exercised at the time is based on medical knowledge of female anatomy and physiology during pregnancy. Surprisingly some of the remedies commonly used in ancient Egypt were recently explored and found intriguing. This paper was aimed to look at the reflection of archaic practices and concepts of ancient Egypt by the modern mirror of evidence-based medicine.

  6. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  7. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved water and child health in Egypt: impact of interrupted water supply and storage of household water on the prevalence of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Roushdy, R; Sieverding, M

    2016-04-19

    Egypt is approaching universal access to improved water supply, but the variable quality of improved water may have a measureable health impact. We investigated the impact of different measures of improved water access on the prevalence of diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years. Using data from the 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and propensity score matching techniques we compared children in households with improved water supplies, with/without interruptions to supplies and with/without in-home storage of water. Access to improved water that was not subject to cuts resulted in a significant 2.6 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of diarrhoea (4.7% reduction in rural areas), and access to improved water that was not stored prior to use resulted in a 3.5% reduction. Further research is needed to better understand the nature and causes of piped water interruptions in Egypt, in order to address potential infrastructure challenges that are leading to poorer health outcomes.

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection among children with β-thalassaemia major in Mid Delta, Egypt: a single centre study.

    PubMed

    El-Shanshory, Mohamed R; Kabbash, Ibrahim A; Soliman, Hanan H; Nagy, Hala M; Abdou, Said H

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion dependant patients are at a higher risk of acquiring bloodborne infections even under conditions of safe transfusion. This study was designed to determine sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection and possible associated risk factors in thalassaemic children. One hundred and twenty five children with β thalassaemia major (β-TM) were recruited from the Haematology/Oncology Unit, Paediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt, between April 2010 and October 2011. Patients underwent history taking, full clinical examination, routine investigations and venous blood sampling. Serum was stored at -20°C till tested for hepatitis C (HCV Ab) and B (HBsAg) by ELISA. HCV Ab positive cases were confirmed by PCR. All patients were HBsAg negative. HCV Ab ELISA was positive in 76%, negative in 20% and equivocal in 4%. Fifty patients (40%) had positive PCR for HCV. PCR showed low viraemia in 78%, moderate viraemia in 20% and high viraemia in 2%. A positive family history of HCV, history of minor operative intervention and/or dental procedures were significantly associated with higher frequency of HCV infection in thalassaemic children, while amount and frequency of transfused blood, age at transfusion and chelation state were not. HCV infection is highly prevalent in children with β-TM in Egypt despite strict pre-transfusion blood testing. This should arouse the attention for environmental and community acquired factors. Quality management to insure infection control in minor operative procedures and adding more sensitive tests for blood screening are recommended.

  11. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  12. Egypt, Nile Valley, Gulf of Suez, Sinai as seen from Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63477 (13 Nov. 1966) --- United Arab Republic (Egypt), the Nile Valley from Luxor to Cairo, El Payium, Gulf of Suez, Sinai as seen from Gemini-12 spacecraft on its 25th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  13. [Migrations and economic and social change in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ged, A

    1985-01-01

    The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the

  14. Detection of Imported Wild Polioviruses and of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses by Environmental Surveillance in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Bassioni, Laila; El Maamoon Nasr, Eman M.; Paananen, Anja; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Asghar, Humayun; de Gourville, Esther; Roivainen, Merja

    2012-01-01

    Systematic environmental surveillance for poliovirus circulation has been conducted in Egypt since 2000. The surveillance has revealed three independent importations of wild-type poliovirus. In addition, several vaccine-derived polioviruses have been detected in various locations in Egypt. In addition to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, environmental surveillance can be used to monitor the wild poliovirus and vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in populations in support of polio eradication initiatives. PMID:22582070

  15. The dawn of medicine: ancient egypt and Athotis, the king-physician.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The earliest physician recorded in history is Athotis (Aha), one of the first rulers of ancient Egypt. While it is debatable whether the story of a king-physician is a fact or just a legend, it is clear that ancient Egyptian medicine developed around the time of his reign. The fortunate combination of earlier medical observations, the development of script, and favorable social conditions made the dawn of ancient Egypt also the dawn of medicine.

  16. Neurosurgery in Egypt: past, present, and future-from pyramids to radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    El Gindi, Sayed

    2002-09-01

    THE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT of neurosurgery in Egypt is described, with reference to the ancient past and recent American and European influences. This article traces the steps taken by several leading Egyptian pioneers. Egypt, one of the key countries in the Middle East, has led the development of the specialty in the region and has maintained close ties with the international body of neurological surgeons and surgical societies.

  17. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Hajj Pilgrims who received Predeparture Vaccination, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Amr; Deming, Michael; Elkreem, Eman Abd; El-Refay, Samir; Afifi, Salma; Abukela, Mohammed; Earhart, Kenneth; El-Sayed, Nasr; El-Gabay, Hatem

    2011-07-01

    In Egypt, vaccination against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was required of pilgrims departing for the 2009 Hajj. A survey of 551 pilgrims as they returned to Egypt found 542 (98.1% [weighted]) reported receiving the vaccine; 6 (1.0% [weighted]) were infected with influenza virus A (H3N2) but none with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

  18. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Hajj Pilgrims Who Received Predeparture Vaccination, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeel, Amr; Abdel Kereem, Eman; El-Refay, Samir; Afifi, Salma; Abukela, Mohammed; Earhart, Kenneth; El-Sayed, Nasr; El-Gabaly, Hatem

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, vaccination against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was required of pilgrims departing for the 2009 Hajj. A survey of 551 pilgrims as they returned to Egypt found 542 (98.1% [weighted]) reported receiving the vaccine; 6 (1.0% [weighted]) were infected with influenza virus A (H3N2) but none with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. PMID:21762583

  19. The economic potential of El-Gedida glauconite deposits, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habaak, Galal; Askalany, Mohamed; Faraghaly, Mohamed; Abdel-Hakeem, Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    The mining work at El-Gedida iron mine, El-Bahariya Oasis, in the Western Desert of Egypt extracts commercial iron ore deposits without attention paid to the large glauconite deposits overlying these iron ore deposits. For this reason, the present paper aims at evaluating and attracting the attention to these glauconite deposits as alternative potassium fertilizers. The study was achieved by investigating mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of the green deposits. Mineralogical and physical properties involved the determination of glauconite pellets content in different grain size fractions relative to impurities and the analysis of the percentage of clay matrix and grain size distribution. Different pre-treatment strategies and methods including comminution, sieving, magnetic separation, and X-ray diffraction were used for investigating those mineralogical and physical properties. On the other hand, chemical analyses included potassium content, heavy metal concentrations, and pH and salinity measurements. The major elements and trace elements were measured using ICP-OES and the pH was measured using a pH conductometer. Moreover, this study investigated the nature of grain boundaries and the effect of sieving on glauconite beneficiation. Results of this study suggest that El-Gedida glauconite deposits are mineralogically, physically and chemically suitable for exploitation and can be beneficiated for use as an alternative potassium fertilizer.

  20. A new species of Propliopithecus from the Fayum, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Simons, E L; Rasmussen, D T; Gebo, D L

    1987-06-01

    Propliopithecus ankeli is described as a new species of hominoid from the early Oligocene of Egypt. The new species occurs at a stratigraphic level 80 m below quarries yielding P. chirobates and Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. P. ankeli differs from other species of the genus in its large size, relatively robust canines, larger and proportionally broader premolars, and M1 that has as great or greater mesiodistal length than M2. Thus, P. ankeli is characterized by increased relative size and robustness of the antemolar dentition, which contrasts with the pattern observed in the Fayum's other large hominoid, A. zeuxis. P. ankeli probably represents a lineage not ancestral to other Fayum hominoids. Discovery of this new species emphasizes the diversity of anthropoid primates that had already evolved by the early Oligocene.