Gamal-Eldin, Saad M.
This syntactic analysis of Egyptian colloquial Arabic is based on the author's dialect which he designates as educated Cairene. This study offers a phonological as well as morphological background for the grammar of this particular dialect. The basic syntactic approach used is immediate constituent analysis. String analysis and transformational…
Omar, Margaret K.
The purpose of this booklet is to describe the major differences between the Levantine (Palestinian and Lebanese) and Egyptian (Cairene) dialects of Arabic, with some references to other geographical varieties of these dialects. It is designed to provide help to persons who have learned either one dialect or the other and need to transfer to the…
This study investigated how the speech act of refusal is realized in Egyptian Arabic by intermediate and advanced American learners of Arabic as a foreign language. It also compared the performance of the learners to that of native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and native speakers of American English. The study aimed to investigate the relationship…
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…
Thermal waters (30-61/sup 0/C) occur in springs and shallow drill-holes (max. 300 m) in several areas of the Yemen Arab Republic. Their mineral content is generally low ( < 1000-2000 ppm TDS) except for waters with high CO/sub 2/ content and those directly influenced by the evaporitic Baid formation (Tertiary) in the Western Lowlands along the Red Sea. The temperature anomalies occur in areas of Quaternary basaltic volcanism (Aden formation) and in fault zones connected with the eastern margin of the Red Sea graben. In the latter zones radiogenic heat may be contributed by Tertiary granitic intrusions.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…
Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas; Saadah, Eman
This study presents an investigation of oral narratives collected from heritage Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic speakers living in the United States. The focus is on a number of syntactic and morphological features in their production, such as word order, use of null subjects, selection of prepositions, agreement, and possession. The degree of…
In order to achieve security and stability, and maximize the chances for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict, should Egypt and Israel adopt declared nuclear deterrence doctrines. Or would such a move be ineffective, dangerous, or even disastrous. The nuclearization of the Middle East is not necessary: military threats to the survival of the states in the region do not justify the introduction of nuclear weapons. Nuclearization is not desirable: deterrence theory's assumptions and implications exhibit intellectual weakness and its explanatory power is unsatisfactory; nuclear deterrence may reduce the frequency of war, but it pays little attention to the consequences of war; and in comparison to defense, nuclear deterrence may lack credibility. Presently, Israel has nuclear capability and delivery systems sufficient to provide security to its vital areas through deterrence of or defense against Arab attacks. The Arabs do not, however, believe that such security extends to the Arab territories occupied by Israel during the June 1967 war. To supply security, nuclear deterrence must be effective, stable, and credible. In a multinuclear environment, the Egyptians and Israelis are likely to meet the requirement for an effective deterrence: the possession of a nuclear capability sufficient to inflict an enormous amount of death and destruction. If the Arabs and Israelis sought and adopted strategies of deterrence, they might be able to meet the requirement for a stable deterrence: the acquisition of second strike capabilities.
Johnson, J. K., Ed.
Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...
Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB12 Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status Correction In notice document 2012-7498 appearing on pages 19026 through 19030...
The Arabic language used in Egypt is traditionally divided into two major types: classical and colloquial. The idea is that classical or literary Arabic is to be found mostly in formal writing and speaking, whereas colloquial Arabic is used mainly in daily conversation. When it comes to actual usage, however, this distinction is not always clearly…
Arab and Turkish people lived together for nearly four hundred years under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, during which time both sides inevitably adopted a certain kind of attitude and view toward the other. This study is an attempt to explore Arab people's views toward Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey. Through a case study…
Brustad, Kristen E.
This book is a comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are distinct and geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups. The analytical approach of the book is both functional and descriptive, combining…
Grolier, Maurice J.; Domenico, J.A.; Donato, Mary; Tibbitts, G.C.; Overstreet, W.C.; Ibrahim, Mohammad Mukred
The results of semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements in 126 specimens of rocks from the Yemen Arab Republic, collected mainly during February 1976 from the Precambrian area in the southeastern part of the country, provide background data for use in geochemical evaluation of areas potentially favorable for mineral deposits. Gold and thorium were undetected; the lower limits of determination are 10 parts per million (ppm) and 20 ppm, respectively. For the other elements, the abundances follow geochemical norms for crustal distribution: (1) Fe, Nb, and Zr in Holocene weathering products; (2) Ca and Sr in Pliocene limestone; (3) Mo in Pliocene(?) or Miocene(?) dikes; (4) Be, La, and Sn in Miocene(?) alkalic granite; (5) As, Be, and La in Tertiary and/or Cretaceous felsic tuff; (6) V in Tertiary and/or Cretaceous carbonaceous sedimentary rocks interbedded with volcanic rocks; (7) Be, La, Sn, and Zr in Tertiary and/or Cretaceous undivided volcanics; (8) Sn and W in Precambrian felsite and pegmatite; (9) Co, Cr, Ni, and Ti in Precambrian mafic rocks; (10) Mg and Sr in Precambrian marble and calcsilicate rocks; (11) Y in Precambrilan schist; (12) B and Sc dispersed in rocks of many ages; and (13) Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn in a hydrothermal replacement deposit in Precambrian sediment. None of the rocks contained as much as 205 ppm equivalent uranium. The highest values for Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd were obtained on a sample of hydrothermally altered siltstone not personally collected by the writers. It was said to have come from the Ma'rib area in the eastern part of the Yemen Arab Republic. The source must be studied, because this single sample is high-grade base-metal ore. Among the samples collected by the writers, the economically most significant are altered tuffs, ignimbrites, and felsites exposed between Jibal Hufash and Manakhah on the road from Hudaydah to San'a'. They are strongly anomalous for As and weakly anomalous, variously
El-Maaty, Amal M Abo; Gabr, Faten I
Sixteen Arab lactating mares belonging to Al-Zahraa Arab Horse Stud underwent two ultrasound examinations at 3 weeks interval starting from the day of demonstration of foaling heat. In addition, daily blood samples were collected from parturition until after exhibiting first postpartum estrus (day 11) with daily observation of estrous signs. Both leptin and estradiol hormones were assayed. Mean day of foaling heat was 8.9+/-0.9 day. Most mares came in foaling heat during days 9 and 10 had high conception rate compared to those who came in estrus earlier or later. Estradiol levels were high after day of foaling then decrease after expression of foaling heat. But leptin levels increase from day 8 to day 10 compared to other days before and after the first ovulation. A significant positive correlation was found between estradiol and leptin (r=0.58, p<0.025). The positive correlation between leptin and estradiol led us to suggest that leptin hormone plays an important role in ovulation of the first postpartum estrus in mares.
Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…
ABDEL-HAMID FAWZI ABDEL-AZIZ
IN THE UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC, MANY GRADUATES OF AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS HAVE NOT BECOME ESTABLISHED IN FARMING. THIS STUDY WAS MADE TO (1) EXAMINE THE FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE DECISION TO ENTER UPON FARMING, (2) PROPOSE THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CHANGE AGENT FOR AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, AND (3) PROVIDE A GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL…
Bashour, H; Mamaree, F
In a prospective study of gender and TB outcomes, 552 newly diagnosed smear-positive patients throughout the Syrian Arab Republic were interviewed at recruitment (from January 2002 to July 2002) and followed until the end of treatment. Delay in diagnosis was significantly longer among males. Significant differences between males and females were noted in relation to the place they usually use to seek care. Gender did not seem to affect knowledge and attitudes of TB patients. Although the women reported more barriers to seeking care, compliance with treatment tended to be higher and the treatment success rate was significantly higher among females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex was a significant predictor of a negative treatment outcome, after controlling for other significant sociodemographic and health care related variables.
Grolier, Maurice J.; Tibbitts, G. Chase; Ibrahim, M.M.
Six series of Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 images taken between 1972 and 1976 were analyzed to describe the flow regimens of streams and the regional distribution of vegetation in the Yemen Arab Republic. The findings provide a factual basis for planning a surface-water data collection program, and for preparing maps of plant distribution and agricultural land use. They lay the foundation for modernized water development, for effecting a program of country-wide water management. The work was undertaken as part of the program of the U.S. Agency for International Development with the cooperation of the Yemen Mineral and Petroleum Authority, Ministry of Economy. A false-color composite mosaic of the nine images which cover the country was prepared using Landsat 1 images taken at relatively low sun-angle in winter 1972-73. Catchment areas and the major drainage basins of the country were delineated on this mosaic. In order of increasing water availability, the four catchment areas of the YAR are: Ar Rub al Khali, Wadi Jawf (Arabian Sea), Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden. Most streams are ephemeral. No lakes were detected during the period under investigation, but sebkhas--salt flats or low salt-encrusted plains--are common along the Red Sea coast. In spite of resolution and scale constraints, streamflow was interpreted as perennial or intermittent, wherever it could be detected on several Landsat images covering the same scene at seasonal or yearly intervals. Much of the land under cultivation is restricted to valley floors, and to valley slopes and irrigated terraces adjacent to stream channels. Little or no vegetation could be detected over large regions of the Yemen Arab Republic. (USGS)
In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. A successful appraisal drilling program has demonstrated satisfactory lateral reservoir continuity. Further wildcat drilling demonstrates macro-unit correlation within the eastern part of the basin. Rapid basin development apparently commenced in the late Kimmeridgian, culminating with the deposition of Tithonian evaporites. Available geochemical analysis indicates sourcing from restricted-basin sediments. Excellent traps, reservoirs, and source beds underlying the Tithonian evaporites indicate that a significant new petroliferous province is present.
Tibbitts, G. Chase; Aubel, James
A program of hydrologic studies and exploratory drilling was conducted intermittently between 1974 and 1978 to evaluate the water-bearing properties of the unconsolidated alluvial sediments and associated rocks in the semi-arid Amran Valley basin, an 800-square-kilometer area in north-central Yemen Arab Republic. Inventory data from 395 wells were compiled, observation well and rain-gage networks were established and 16 standard complete chemical analyses were made for samples from selected wells. The water resources of the area were overexploited. The chemical quality of the water is generally good. Four aquifer tests were run to determine transmissivity and storage characteristics. The pumping tests show that groundwater occurs under semi-confined leaky-aquifer conditions in the valley fill. Wells drilled in the alluvial fill of the south-central part of the valley have the highest yields. Wells penetrating the limestone and volcanic rocks generally have little or no yield except in fracture zones. Basalt flows occur interbedded with the wadi alluvium at several depths. Cropping out rocks in the Amran Valley range in age from late Jurassic to Holocene. (USGS)
In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well, Alif-1, drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. Appraisal and development drilling followed. The Alif field is believed to contain in excess of 400 million bbl of recoverable oil. Subsequent wildcat drilling has located additional accumulations while further amplifying basin stratigraphy. Rapid basin development took place in the Late Jurassic culminating with the deposition of Tithonian salt. The evaporites provide an excellent seal for hydrocarbons apparently sourced from restricted basin shales and trapped in rapidly deposited clastics.
Hallaj, F A
Malnutrition is common among residents of homes for the elderly. This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of people in residential homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic, and to determine the factors that affected nutritional status in these homes. A total of 103 elderly people in 3 residential homes were interviewed individually using an Arabic version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, and anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess nutritional status. The mean age was 70.9 (SD 6.4) years. Two-thirds of residents were either at risk of malnutrition (39.8%; score 17-23 on the MNA) or malnourished (19.4%; score < 17 on the MNA). Mean body mass index was 22.0 (SD 4.7) kg/m(2). Nutritional status was significantly affected by age, level of education, source of income, duration of stay in the home, number of diseases, number of medicines taken, anthropometric data and teeth and vision problems.
Hurd, Spencer P.
Presented is the ancient Egyptian algorithm for the operations of multiplication and division of integers and fractions. Theorems involving unit fractions, proved by Fibonacci, justifying and extending the Egyptian or Ahmes' methods into the Hindu-Arabic numeric representational system are given. (MDH)
Pegram, R G; Hoogstraal, H; Wassef, H Y
Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica sp. n. is described from 62 adults (29 males, 33 females) taken throughout the year from 23 goats and two sheep, mostly at 200 m altitude in the southern tihama foothills of Ta'izz Province, Yemen Arab Republic. One female from a goat at 2,300 m altitude in this Province may have attached to the host elsewhere and a male from Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was on a goat imported from an unknown source for the traditional religious pilgrimage feast. We postulate that the original host of adults was the Nubian ibex, Capra ibex nubiana F. Cuvier (Artiodactyla: Caprinae). This parasite is most closely related to H. (H.) kumari Sharif, which infests chiefly wild and domestic Caprinae from India to northwestern Iran and Tadzhik, SSR. It also shows relationships to H. (H.) punt Hoogstraal, Kaiser and Pedersen, which parasitizes gazelles and domestic mammals in Somalia and Ethiopia, but differs more widely from the third African-Arabian member of this subgenus, H. (H.) rhipicephaloides Neumann, which feeds on the Nubian ibex and gazelles in the Red Sea and Dead Sea areas. The Hyalomma subgenus Hyalommina now contains seven species, four confined to the Indian subcontinent (including Nepal, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Afghanistan) and Southwest Asia, and three in eastern Africa north of the equator and Arabia.
Al Ali, W; Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Khoury, A; Woodcock, A
Few data are available from Eastern Mediterranean countries about levels of domestic allergens and endotoxins. Dust samples were collected from mattresses and floors of 457 homes in the Syrian city of Aleppo and analysed for antigens and endotoxins. The most important predictors for detectable levels of house-dust mite allergen Der p 1 were Arabic-style houses (OR 3.21) and newer houses (OR 1.56). In homes without cats, rubber mattresses were associated with detectable cat allergen Fel d 1 in mattress dust (OR 1.6). Cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was significantly more likely to be detected in houses over 20 years old than newer houses. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in wool/cotton mattresses and older houses.
This research was carried out before the period described as "Arab Spring" in Egypt which is one of the highly effective countries of Middle East in political, economic and demographic structuring. The aim was to determine the Ottoman Turks image of Egyptian secondary school third grade students. Descriptive scanning model out of…
mentioned by the writer Yaacov Lev in his book Saladin in Egypt since there were black Egyptians who served in the Army. . 17 Salah Eldin’s...the emblem of the Revolution, the Eagle of Saladin , in the center. The flag of the Kingdom remained in official use until the formation of the...black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of
Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.
Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…
Lull, José; Belmonte, Juan Antonio
The ancient Egyptians had a wide range of constellations, which populated the skies of ancient Egypt (see Chap. 133, "Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_146) for more than three millennia, whose knowledge has come to us through lists of stars and other representations which have mainly appeared in a dozen of coffins, a few clepsydrae, and a good set of astronomical ceilings. Hence, by making very simple assumptions and using the information provided by the ancient Egyptian sky-watchers, it is possible to uncover a great part of the ancient Egyptian firmament. This celestial tapestry was populated by the images of animals, symbols, and divinities that were most significant in understanding the Egyptian interpretation of the cosmos.
Abdel-Khalek, A; Beshai, J A; Templer, D I
Using a standardized Arabic version of the Templer Death Anxiety Scale with Egyptian students (214 males and 214 females), five factors were extracted which corresponded to those reported for several cultures in Asia, Europe, Africa, and America. Means for the Egyptian students of both sexes were significantly higher than those reported in Arab and western cultures. Egyptian female students scored significantly higher than males. The first two factors were mostly comprised of items relating to cognitive/affective components of death and life experiences. These observations support the universality of structures within death anxiety across culture and gender.
area. 15 Certain scholars offer further perspective in the area of leaderless social movements. These studies focus on the capabilities of groups ...21Credit for this concept must be given to Dr. Wesch, who coined it during the course of our discussions regarding this topic . 26 of one...the general topics discussed in this work—namely, social media and Arab Spring—are broad, the contribution to scholarship is both specific and
This study will address the role of Arab transnational media in the Egyptian uprising. The main argument is that the emergence of the Arab satellite media in the region, such as al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Internet, has had a significant impact on the political and socio-cultural transformation in different Arab countries. It examines how the…
Cooper, Anne Messerly
A study of 4,692 news stories from Egyptian, Algerian, and Tunisian electronic and print news media was conducted to see how state-controlled media reflected government policy changes following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and the subsequent diplomatic break between Egypt and Arab League nations. The study found that the three controlled…
Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M
This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.
Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.
The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.
Fayen, Emily Gallup; And Others
The 1981 design specifications for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical Information Network (ENSTINET) stipulated that major end-user facilities of the system should be bilingual in English and Arabic. Many characteristics of the Arabic alphabet and language impact computer applications, and there exists no universally accepted character…
Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem
The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…
Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians' attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of 'accidents' and fatalism. Participants were 14-26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah ('accident') signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah ('injury') was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries.
Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.
Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)
Peterson, Mark Allen
One of the fundamental problems facing middle-class Egyptian parents is the problem of how to ensure that their children are simultaneously modern and Egyptian. Arabic children's magazines offer a window into the processes by which consumption links childhood and modernity in the social imaginations of children and their parents as they construct…
FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS
THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)
Moshref, Ola Ahmed
Morpho-syntactic features of Modern Standard Arabic mix intricately with those of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic in ordinary speech. I study the lexical, phonological and syntactic features of verb phrase morphemes and constituents in different tenses, aspects, moods. A corpus of over 3000 phrases was collected from religious, political/economic and…
Hanna, Sami A.; Greis, Naguib
Because of the diversity of Arabic dialects (Lebanese, Iraqi, Syrian, Algerian, Moroccan, Libyan, Sudanese, Saudi Arabian, Palestinian, and Egyptian), and the fact that Arabic writing allows for a wide range of different pronunciations, the question faced by students is where to begin. It is instructive to consider how this problem is dealt with…
Caillods, Francoise; Hajjar, Habib
To train 19 participants from nine Arab governments in educational and human resources planning, an intensive four-week course was offered covering the use of population census data, assessment of economies' demands for education and training, and techniques of evaluation and of manpower forecasting. This report describes the organizing and…
This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has
Allen, James P.
Ancient Egyptian texts and images reveal a detailed view of the world and its origin. Multiple creation accounts, once seen as rival theologies, concentrate on different aspects of the creation, meshing into a coherent vision that remained stable throughout ancient Egyptian history.
Abdellah, Antar Solhy
Egyptian English majors in the faculty of Education, South Valley University tend to mistranslate the plural inanimate Arabic pronoun with the singular inanimate English pronoun. A diagnostic test was designed to analyze this error. Results showed that a large number of students (first year and fourth year students) make this error, that the error…
Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).
One hundred seventy entries on 69 topics are contained in the selective annotated bibliography of Egyptian publications on education. Included are journal articles, books, and government documents published during 1976. Content includes the following topics: Arabic language, art education, civics, commercial schools, comparative education,…
Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).
The annotated bibliography identifies 134 selected educational materials from Egypt published during 1977. The materials are drawn from Egyptian newspapers, journals, government publications, and university research reports. The entries are organized into 54 categories, including Art Education, Arabic Language, Commercial Schools, Curricula,…
Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).
This annotated bibliography of Egyptian publications on education contains 108 entries. Publications include journal articles, books, and government documents. The following educational topics are covered: adult education, teaching Arabic language, art education, audiovisual aids, teaching civics, formation of committees, secondary school courses…
For this Egyptian economisat Dr. (;alal Amin has cT’npared CODE witI, tht, Cais.ec de la Dette Publique established bv Khedive Ismail in 1876...Arab economic measures agreed to at the Baghdad summit conference in March 1979, were, in his opinion "not intended to affect relations between the
Marshall, Patrice; Lodhi, M. A. K.
In this paper, we discuss how certain astronomical concepts are related to the ancient Egyptian culture and their daily life. One of them is different ways of creating their calendar systems. The ancient Egyptian calendar seems to have quite a bit of its origin in astronomy and its development over the course of history. There is an important role played by events, as determined in the heavens, in developing their calendar system. Along with astronomical observations by the ancient people of Egypt, there were several outside cultures that helped develop their calendar system and Egyptian idea of how life was created on this planet, most notably the inclusion of the star Sirius in the constellation of Canis Major. We give a brief discussion of these influences. For the ancient Egyptians, the cycle of life and death is a concept that ties in with a calendar system used to determine daily events.
The study of the Egyptian calendar lends itself to a deeper analysis in which the original system of calendrics was based on the moon and the later one, organized by a simple device of 365 days per year. The latter, originally determined by the sighting of the star Sothis (Sirius) in the east after a period of 70 days of invisibility, is called the Civil Calendar. The change, however, brought with it an alteration in the names of the Egyptian months.
Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.
Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).
McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.
Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069
The topic of Egypt is one that students are naturally intrigued and enthusiastic about. In this article, fifth graders create mosaic and mixed-media collaged chairs in their visual arts class as part of their overall study of the art and culture of ancient Egypt. The idea was to embellish a contemporary chair with Egyptian colors, themes, and…
Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005
This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…
Describes a relief printmaking unit for sixth graders with the objective of decorating the inside of a pyramid. Ancient Egyptian imagery was used to help students become familiar with the style. Students designed and printed linoleum prints in different colors. They then critiqued their work and made their selection for the pyramid. (KM)
Discusses the processing of Arabic materials at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) library and describes the creation of an Arabic online catalog that supplements the catalog for non-Arabic materials. User needs are reviewed, library automation is discussed, and search strategies in the Arabic catalog are described.…
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquin
Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n = 132) and Spain (n = 126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native language. Alpha reliabilities of the total score scales ranged from 0.65 to 0.91 (Egyptian sample) and between 0.71 and 0.90 (Spanish sample). The Spanish respondents attained significantly lower mean scores than the Egyptian sample in all the 5 scales. All the intercorrelations between these scales were statistically significant, and yielded two factors: Death Anxiety and General Anxiety in both countries. The correlations between these factors were significant, positive, and moderate, that is, 0.57 and 0.50 in the Egyptian and Spanish samples, respectively. The general conclusion is that Death Anxiety and General Anxiety are 2 different, but correlated factors.
Parliamentary elections in Egypt this month look set to change the political landscape. Former member of parliament and equity campaigner Hoda Rashad tells Fiona Fleck why the country's public health programmes need to take a social justice approach.
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
This profile of the English language teaching situation in Egypt examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. The status of English as the main foreign language and as the medium of instruction in a small number of influential schools is discussed as well as the extent and content of the university English course. Also…
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A description of the status and role of English language use and instruction in Syria, in which English has been given the status of the first foreign language, is presented. The following topics are reported on: (1) general usage; (2) English within the educational system, including the length of English training, testing, syllabus construction,…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
The status of English as a first foreign language is discussed as well as the reasons why the standard of English and the extent to which it is spoken in Syria do not match its official status. The use of English within the educational system is examined with particular reference to secondary and university levels. The manner of determination of…
The celestial phenomena have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of some celestial phenomena. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we know very little about the people who made these achievements. The goal of this paper is to bring some light on the life of Senenmut, the chief architect and astronomer during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut.
Mar'i, Sami Khalil
Arab education in Israel and sociocultural, socioeconomic and political issues of being a minority in Israel are considered in this book. Arab education in Israel is traced from elementary to university levels, and from its historical background to its present administration. Numerous Arabic, English, and Hebrew studies in education are analyzed,…
facilitate additional Arabic language processing research by the greater community. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arabic, treebank, parsing 16. SECURITY...linguistics, and, by releasing this dependency treebank back to them for redistribution, we hope to facilitate Arabic natural language processing...format with one or more blank lines between sentences. All files are UTF-8 encoded. An example is presented below. Approved for public release
Alomoush, Omar Ibrahim Salameh
This paper is devoted to the investigation of synonymy in Jordanian Arabic. It has been assumed that synonymy in Jordanian Arabic has partial rather than complete synonymy. This means that the abundance of Jordanian Arabic in synonyms can be attributed to a number of explanations, namely dialectical variations, the speaker's attitude, and origin…
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
A sample of 224 Egyptian college students (101 men, 123 women) was recruited. Their ages ranged from 17 to 29 years (M = 18.9, SD = 1.5). They responded to the Arabic versions of the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Love of Life Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale, as well as five separate single-item self-rating scales assessing physical health, mental health, happiness, satisfaction, and religiosity. All correlations between the measures and rating scales of subjective well-being and religiosity were statistically significant and positive, the largest between satisfaction and religiosity. Only one factor was retained in principal components factor analysis of the correlation matrix and labeled "Well-being and religiosity." It was concluded that religious persons in the present sample reported higher subjective well-being.
Richards (2006, 2010) suggests that wh-movement is prosodically driven. Based on the position of the Comp(lementizer) and the marking of prosodic phrase edges, he claims that if Comp is on one side and the language marks the opposite side of prosodic phrases, then the wh-phrase does not move since Comp and wh-phrase can create a prosodic wh-domain…
Pierce, Anne R
Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome.
Israeli Prime Minister Olmert, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, and Jordanian King Abdullah II “to communicate his commitment to active engagement in...the Arab Peace Initiative to be part of the effort to reach this goal. On April 22, after meeting King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Obama said...sovereignty over East Jerusalem, particularly the Haram al Sharif/ Temple Mount, a site holy to Jews and Muslims. On September 28, Israeli opposition leader
Khater, Mahmoud Roushdi
The methods and objectives of teaching Arabic in the Arab world are outlined here. In elementary school (ages 6-12) about 1/3 of the instructional time is allotted to teaching Arabic. It aims to provide the child with basic skills in reading, conversation and writing. The speech taught is that of modern Arabic used by educated speakers. Reading…
This study investigates Arab university scientists' views of the status of English and Arabic in the 21st century, and their attitudes towards using English and Arabic as media of instruction in science faculties in the Arab world. Twenty-seven science instructors at a Saudi University coming from different backgrounds responded to a written…
Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…
Ahmed, Hossam Eldin Ibrahim
A class of Modern Standard Arabic complementizers known as "'?inna' and its sisters" demonstrate unique case and word order restrictions. While CPs in Arabic allow both Subject-Verb (SV) and Verb-Subject (VS) word order and their subjects show nominative morphology, CPs introduced by "?inna" ban a verb from directly following…
Theories in art education with a western origin have been applied in Egypt to support the revival of folkloric art. There are three important phases in the teaching of a unit on applique, a decorative craft dating back to the earliest Egyptian history. (AM)
Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid
Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).
El-sakka, M I
The economic impact on the Egyptian economy and balance of payments of remittances from Egyptians working abroad is analyzed. The results indicate that the overall effect on the Egyptian economy is positive. (SUMMARY IN ARA)
Focuses on the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) by Arabic-speaking secondary school students. To see which variety students transferred from, they were asked to translate into English two versions of a short Arabic text: one Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and the other non-standard Arabic (NSA). Results indicate the importance of…
Shaltout, M. A. M.
We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.
Gómez-Casado, E; del Moral, P; Martínez-Laso, J; García-Gómez, A; Allende, L; Silvera-Redondo, C; Longas, J; González-Hevilla, M; Kandil, M; Zamora, J; Arnaiz-Villena, A
The gene profile of Arabic-speaking Moroccans has been compared with those of other Mediterranean populations in order to provide additional information about the history of their origins. Our HLA data suggest that most Moroccans are of a Berber (Imazighen) origin and that Arabs who invaded North Africa and Spain in the 7th century A.D. did not substantially contributed to the gene pool; however, they imposed their advanced culture and their religion. Present-day Egyptians are also related to Moroccan Berbers and this supports an ancient Saharan origin for part of the present-day Mediterraneans, particularly for the Arabic-speaking ones (also Algerians) and also for the older substratum of Mediterranean people.
Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Ali, Rawhia; Abd El-Hamid, Haidy
Phonological awareness (PA) is one of the most important components in the development of normal reading ability. It refers to the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structure of words independently of their meaning. The current study aimed to assess Arabic PA skills and the relation to word reading abilities in Egyptian Arabic-speaking children. The designed assessment was applied to 80 typically developing children, divided into two subgroups ranging in age from 5 years 6 months to 8 years 6 months. The design of assessment involved six PA tasks covering three levels: rhyme awareness, syllabic awareness, and phonemic awareness, as well as the assessment of reading abilities that include real word and nonsense word reading tasks. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation), Student's t tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were used to analyze the data. The reliability of the test was proven using the test-retest procedure. Validity of the test was estimated through internal consistency validity. The results revealed that the Arabic PA assessment test (APAAT) proved to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing Arabic reading skills. Findings from the study provided important insights into the developmental patterns of Arabic PA. In addition, the findings revealed a strong relationship between phonological awareness skills and the proficiency in word reading abilities in Arabic school-aged children.
Chejne, Anwar G.
This book reviews the position Arabic has traditionally occupied in Arab-Muslim society, and its role in the task of building a nation state. The work is aimed to aid students of Arabic and Arabic lore and add to a greater understanding of the historical factors which made Arabic a revered language in Arabic-Muslim cultural and religious…
The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki's book "Sex and the Citadel" is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world.
Salem, Abdel Halim A.; Abdel Hamed, Alaa Eldin S.; Abdalla, Essam M.; Almawi, Wassim
Background Polymorphisms of the human platelet alloantigens (HPA) arise from single base pair substitutions in alleles and lead to changes in amino acids of glycoproteins expressed on platelets. The aim of this study was to determine the gene frequencies of the five common HPA (HPA-1 to −5) in Egyptians and Jordanians and to compare these data with those established for other populations. Materials and methods HPA genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. Results The gene frequencies obtained in Egyptians were: HPA-1a/b, 0.767/0.233; HPA-2a/b, 0.759/0.241; HPA-3a/b, 0.704/0.296; HPA-4a/b, 1/0; HPA-5a/b, 0.728/0.272, while the frequencies in Jordanians were: HPA-1a/b, 0.821/0.179; HPA-2a/b, 0.877/0.123; HPA-3a/b, 0.660/0.340; HPA-4a/b, 1/0; HPA-5a/b, 0.795/0.205. The observed gene frequencies in both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies for HPA-2b and HPA-5b among Egyptians were the highest reported among Arabs. Except for HPA-2, there were no significant differences in the distribution of HPA-1 to −5 between the two populations. Conclusion The distributions of HPA alleles among Egyptians and Jordanians are similar to those reported for other Arabs. This study reports the first data on gene frequencies of HPA in Egyptians and Jordanians. PMID:23736919
Falke, T H; Zweypfenning-Snijders, M C; Zweypfenning, R C; James, A E
The use of CT in the documentation of ancient Egyptian mummified human remains has previously been described in this and other journals. We recently applied this technique to a collection of ancient Egyptian mummified fauna and sarcophagi. We selected an example to illustrate that CT is also uniquely suitable for the study of such specimens in a noninvasive way.
Presents an art lesson for sixth-grade students in which the students study the Egyptians' jewelry techniques and designs and create their own amulets. Provides background information on the importance of life after death to the Egyptians and how religion influenced the designing of their amulets. Describes the jewelry-making procedure. (CMK)
MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS
INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…
Melki, Henry H.
Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at…
In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…
El Sioufi, M
The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
Snow, James A.
This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…
Terry, Janice J.
Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)
Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…
Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar
We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…
Nucho, Leslie S., Ed.; Hurd, Robert, Ed.
This document is a collection of three lessons to assist high school teachers in introducing the Arab world to their classrooms. The intended purpose of the lessons is to promote greater cross cultural awareness, understanding of the interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciation for the different approaches other cultures may choose in…
Qafisheh, Hamdi A.
Instructional materials for advanced Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 25 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontaneous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the topics are: medical services, marriage, jobs, an interview, a car accident, proverbs…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
Volumes 1 and 2 (Lesson Units 1-55) of this beginning course in Arabic follow the Defense Language Institute format for intensive 12-week language courses, designed for native-speaker instructors using audiolingual methodology in the classroom. The third (and final) volume in this series constitutes a reference guide to pronunciation and grammar…
Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre
This intensive course is designed to teach students to understand and speak Chad Arabic. The course is intended to be covered in approximately 360 hours in the classroom and the language laboratory. About 90 hours should be occupied with the pre-speech phase, which emphasizes passive recognition rather than active production. This phase consists…
Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…
Alshahrani, Ali A.
The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…
Bateson, Mary Catherine
This handbook is designed to give the kind of information about Arabic that will be useful to students of the language, specialists in the region where Arabic is spoken, or linguists interested in learning about the structure and use of one of the world's principal language. Three sections present the following: (1) "An Outline of Arabic…
Abstract The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki’s book “Sex and the Citadel” is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world. PMID:28210484
with the Berber tribes of North Africa. The eastern region of Cyrenaica is more closely associated with the Arab states of the Middle East...Springborg’s analysis is nationalism. Libya has a strong sense of national identity as well as a very homogeneous population that is 97% Berber /Arab
Smith, Harlie L., Jr., Ed.
This text was prepared for use in the Foreign Service Institute programs of instruction for members of the United States Foreign Service and is intended to be used with the help of a native-speaking Arabic instructor and with tape recordings. Instruction in modern written Arabic is planned in three stages: (1) prepared materials allow the student…
Zehr, Mary Ann
Since terrorists from Arab countries attacked the United States on Sept. 11, 2001, the U.S. government has been desperately seeking to hire Arabic speakers. Even now, more than 2 1/2 years later, the nation has only a small pool of students who are seriously studying the language. Furthermore, the author states that only a smattering of public…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio
Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.
This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…
Aman, Mohammed M.
Identifies technical and linguistic problems associated with use of Arabic in input and output devices and describes efforts to introduce a unified code for the Arabic language (CODAR-U/FD). The Hydriyya Method, requirements for Arabic terminals suitable for library use, manufacturers of bilingual terminals, and Arabization of software are…
The Arabization process in the Maghreb countries--Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia--is unique in that these countries are officially committed to the use of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) while widespread use of French, a colonial language, persists, and the formal Arabic used in Arabization differs from the colloquial forms used in each country. The…
Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S
Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.
Quack, J F
The term "paranatellonta" is well-known in greek astrological literature. It designates stars either rising together with the sun or being in other conspicuous positions to it. Tentatively, a forerunner of this conception is identified in an egyptian depiction attested several times from the 13th century BC onwards. There, "gods" are depicted who are defined by their positions in regard to the sun-god. It seems possible to connect their positions with the typical meanings of the word paranatellonta. Some reflections on the contribution of Egypt to hellenistic astrology are added, including some references to the largely unpublished corpus of demotic egyptian astrological texts.
Helmy, Mohamed M; Frerichs, Sabine
The Egyptian Revolution 2011 has shaken the Arab world and stirred up Middle-East politics. Moreover, it caused a rush in political science and the neighboring disciplines, which had not predicted an event like this and now have troubles explaining it. While many things can be learned from the popular uprising, and from the limitations of previous scholarship, our focus will be on a moral resource, which has occasionally been noticed, but not sufficiently explored: the role of humor in keeping up the spirit of the Revolution. For 18 days, protestors persevered at Liberation Square in Central Cairo, the epicenter of resistance; at times a few dozens, at times hundreds of thousands. What they did was to fight the terror of the regime, which reached absurd peaks during those days, with humor-successfully. We offer a social-functionalist account of the uprising, which includes behavioral as well as cultural levels of analysis, and illuminates how humorous means helped to achieve deadly serious goals. By reconstructing how Egyptians laughed themselves into democracy, we outline a social psychology of resistance, which uses humor both as a sword and a shield.
Madkour, Samia A; Laurence, J A
The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O3). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O3 levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O3 than the universally used O3-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O3 injury symptoms faster and at lower 03 concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O3 response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Pnet). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O3. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in 03 tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between g(s), restriction of O3 and CO2 influx into the mesophyll tissues, and Pnet. Changes in Pnet seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in g(s).
Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane
Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.
Neill, Charlotte M.
This article explores the important role that the religion of Islam plays in the education of Egyptian children. The scrutiny under which the Islamic world finds itself in the after-math of September 11, 2001 has resulted in calls for educational reform, not only from the outside world, but also from the Muslim world itself. The author has a…
A survey of childhood disabilities was conducted in Yemen covering the three main cities and 37 towns and villages. Results indicated a disability prevalence rate of approximately 13% of which over 30% were oral or auditory based and over 20% were visual. (Author/DB)
Marib, in the Eastern Y. A. R. , about a three hour drive from Sanaa. The famous queen of Saba ( Sheba ), in visiting Solomon, Followed a common trade...about 20 to 30 miles wide. The Tihama is dry desert, very hot and humid, almost unbearable -re- "’"" • " " ’" " " ’-i":.%.., .,, ,- i ..s...AlIone) w ith the P. D. R. Y. Ethiopia and Djiboutj, the V. A. P. overloo~s the Bab al Mandab Strait which control the southern entrance to the Red
Douba, M; Mowakeh, A; Wali, A
Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been endemic in Aleppo, Syria, for generations. Recently there has been a clear increase in the incidence of the disease, and more patients have shown a lack of response to antimonials. We report the results of a survey, undertaken over the period 2-17 January 1995, at a general hospital in Aleppo, of all patients presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients were grouped according to the stage of their disease, and surgical biopsies were carried out for histopathological investigation. Patients who were unresponsive to treatment and proceeded to chronicity were predominantly children aged under 15 years with facial lesions. Histopathological examination showed that the inflammatory changes had reached the upper layers of the subcutaneous tissues in 10 of the 25 chronic cases (40%) and three of the four acute cases (75%). These levels of the skin are not directly reached by the antimonials administered intralesionally. The inadequacy of the intralesional method alone and technical errors in administration are discussed.
Mahdy, Heba M
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Involuntary choreaform movements are the main symptom. The prevalence of HD in Arab countries is not fully understood, as there are only a few reports indicating disease incidence. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an investigation to determine the frequency of HD in the Middle East, especially within Arab countries, and at the same time enhance people's awareness of the disease.
Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc
The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.
Saeed, Aziz Thabit; Fareh, Shehdeh
This study investigates the problems that translators and Arab learners of English encounter in translating Arabic sentences containing the Arabic discourse marker "fa" into English. Several types of texts were surveyed in order to identify the salient functions that this marker has in Arabic discourse. Five major functions were identified:…
Elnakeeb, Mayar; Abdel-Dayem, Samia; Gaafar, Maha; Mavundla, Thandisizwe R
The attributional style is one domain of social cognition that involves perceiving, interpreting, and generating responses to others' intentions and behaviours in different situations. This study describes the attributional style of Egyptians with schizophrenia. The study took place in a psychiatric hospital in Egypt. Eight psychiatric wards were randomly selected, and all participants (150) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated. Data were collected using the Ambiguous Intention Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), the attributional style interview schedule, and the sociodemographic/clinical data sheet. Participants' scores on the AIHQ varied significantly between different situations (intentional, accidental, and ambiguous). The attributional style of the studied participants regarding their perceived psychosocial problems tended to be related to specific causes. These causes were mostly externally attributed to other people and to circumstances, and were perceived not to persist in the future. It would seem that Egyptians with schizophrenia tend to blame other people for negative events if these events are perceived to cause intentional harm.
Egyptian medicine is the base of Greek medicine. Egyptian people and their medical knowledge are often mentioned in the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer (VIII sec. BCE). Many Greek doctors, such as Melampus, Asclepius as well as Hippocrates visited Egypt to study and understand medicine. This work intends to focus particularly on Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch's letters, where the importance of Egypt in religion, science and medicine is clear. Herodotus (484-420 BCE) in the second book of "The Histories" describes Egypt and the medical knowledge of its doctors. Plutarch (I-II sec CE) in "The virtues of Sparta" and "Life of Lycurgus", tells about an energy beverage, named nepenthe, made with drugs from Egypt.
Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu
The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.
borneiof common experience and Cconn& social background; (2) Therq-mi-1it - seek the political universe in perpetual conflict-They--.>avJ will continue...elite has a common approach to decision making borne of common experience and common social background. 2) The Egyptian military sees the political... experience affects the military’s operational code. The historical analysis is divided into four time periods: 1955-61, 1961-67, 1967-73, 1973-75. The
Nasser, S; Baligh, R
In ancient Egypt, at least one woman carried the title of physician. University education for women started in 1930. Today, women are practicing in all disciplines and are effective in health care. Egyptian medical women represent 35% to 45% of the staff of faculties of medicine and about one-third of all medical graduates. They have contributed to the improvement of health, particularly in maternal and child health, and are role models for young girls in rural areas.
Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.
Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.
A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…
Campbell, Stuart J.
Investigates why graduates of Arabic courses in English-speaking countries are so few in number and why they so often compare poorly in spoken language performance with graduates of other language courses. The most important factor in this phenomenom is the gap that separates written Arabic from spoken Arabic. (SED)
ElObeidy, Ahmed A.
Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…
Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...
Ayyad, Hadeel Salama; Bernhardt, B. May; Stemberger, Joseph P.
Background: Arabic, a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic variety, has a rich consonant inventory. Previous studies on Arabic phonological acquisition have focused primarily on dialects in Jordan and Egypt. Because Arabic varies considerably across regions, information is also needed for other dialects. Aims: To determine acquisition benchmarks…
Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland
The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.
Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad
A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.
This study of Egyptian aesthetics interprets the historical and political context of artistic discourse in the early twentieth century. In a period marked by intense struggle between landlords and rural laborers during the Depression and World War II, the author compares the rise of the Egyptian Surrealists, from the late 1930s, and the…
The Intelligence Prelude to the October War of 1973 (Washington, DC: Defense Intelligence School, 1973); and Nadav Safran , Israel: The Embattled Ally...Richard Marek, 1981. Safran , Nadav. Israel: The Embattled Ally. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1981. Sewell, T. P. Toyne. "The War of Atonement
El-Seedy, A; Pasquet, M C; Shafiek, H; Morsi, T; Kitzis, A; Ladevèze, V
Cystic fibrosis (CF) occurrence in Arab populations is not common and still remains underidentified. Furthermore, the lack of disease awareness and diagnosis facilities have mislead the identification of cystic fibrosis for decades. The knowledge about cystic fibrosis (CF) in Egypt is very limited, and a few reports have drawn attention to the existence of CF or CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RDs) in the Egyptian population. Therefore a comprehensive genetic analysis of the CFTR gene was realized in patients of North Egypt. DNA samples of 56 Egyptian patients were screened for the CFTR gene mutations. The 27 exons and their flanking regions of the CFTR gene were amplified by PCR, using the published primer pairs, and were studied by automated direct DNA sequencing to detect disease-causing mutations. Moreover, large duplication/deletion was analysed by MLPA technique. CFTR screening revealed the identification of thirteen mutations including four novel ones: c.92G>A (p.Arg31His), c.2782G>C (p.Ala928Pro), c.3718-24G>A, c.4207A>G (p.Arg1403Gly) and nine previously reported mutations: c.454A>T (p.Met152Leu), c.902A>G (p.Tyr301Cys), c.1418delG, c.2620-15C>G, c.2997_3000delAATT, c.3154T>G (p.Phe1052Val), c.3872A>G (p.Gln1291Arg), c.3877G>A (p.Val1293Ile), c.4242+10T>C. Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found: c.743+40A>G, c.869+11C>T, c.1408A>G, c.1584G>A, c.2562T>G, c.3870A>G, c.4272C>T, c.4389G>A. These mutations and polymorphisms were not previously described in the Egyptian population except for the c.1408A>G polymorphism. Here we demonstrate the importance of the newly discovered mutations in Egyptian patients and the presence of CF, whereas the p.Phe508del mutation is not detected. The identification of CFTR mutations will become increasingly important in undocumented populations. The current findings will help us expand the mutational spectrum of CF and establish the first panel of the CFTR gene mutations in the Egyptian population and design an appropriate
Abourezk, James G.; Revell, Oliver B.
Abourezk holds that Arab Americans are victims of much racial hatred and stereotyping and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been the primary governmental agency abusing the civil rights of this group. Revell, an official of the FBI, counters Abourezk's contentions. (GC)
Peace Corps, Rabat (Morocco).
The textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers learning the variety of Arabic mostly widely spoken in Morocco. It contains 10 lessons, each consisting of a dialogue, vocabulary list, grammar notes, a popular proverb, and supplementary dialogue and/or idiomatic and socially correct expressions. Dialogue topics include introductions and…
Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre
This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…
Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…
AlBzour, Naser N.
This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically…
Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A
Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.
Abdel-Fattah, M. A.
Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…
Nucho, Leslie Schmida, Ed.; And Others
Each of the three issues of this volume of "Arab World Almanac" features a self-contained lesson plan on one aspect of the Arab world. The Fall, 1990 issue focuses on "Oil and the Arab World." The Winter, 1991 issue looks at "The Arab World in the World Wars." The Spring, 1991 issue examines "Islamic Revival in the Arab World." Each issue includes…
Feibel, R M
During the Napoleonic Wars from 1798-1815, severe epidemics of keratoconjunctivitis affected the military and civilian populations of Western Europe. This disease was known as the Egyptian ophthalmia because it was first described in troops stationed in Egypt. Most physicians believed this condition was not infectious, but caused by various climatological factors. John Vetch, a British physician, emphasized that this disease was spread by direct conveyance of pus from the diseased to the healthy eye. His insistence that the ophthalmia was contagious, and his suggestions for prevention and treatment were milestones in the history of ophthalmology.
Hegazi, E M; Shaaban, M A; Sabry, E
A general survey was made on the zoosaprophagous insects and their associates in a natural ecosystem in the Egyptian western desert (80 km west of Alexandria, 12 km from the Mediterranean Sea shore). Two types of traps were used, one for flying insects and the other for soil-burrowing insects. Two types of decaying media were used as baits: the common freshwater fish (Tilapia zilii Gerv.) and the desert snail (Eremina desertorum). More than 30 insect species were trapped. The following orders and families were represented: Diptera (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae); Coleoptera (Histeridae, Scarabaeidae, Dermestidae, Tenebrionidae); Hymenoptera (Chalcididae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae). Monthly totals of numbers trapped in each of these groups are presented.
Sonnevend, Á; Ghazawi, A; Yahfoufi, N; Al-Baloushi, A; Hashmey, R; Mathew, M; Tariq, W Z; Pál, T
Screening 34 carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae recovered in Abu Dhabi hospitals identified an Enterobacter cloacae strain carrying bla(VIM-4) , bla(CMY-4) and bla(CTX-M-15) . It was isolated from the urine of an Egyptian patient repeatedly hospitalized and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, including carbapenems, in the United Arab Emirates. The bla(VIM-4) coding class I integron, highly similar to In416, was carried on a 175-kilobase non-conjugative incA/C type plasmid also hybridizing with the bla(CMY-4) probe. This is the first detailed report on the isolation of a Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) -producing enteric bacterium in the Arabian Peninsula with characteristics suggestive of spreading from the Mediterranean region.
Kharma, Nayef N.
Analysis of errors collected from English essays of native Arabic-speaking university students and their translations from Arabic into English identified 14 error classifications, with the vast majority of errors attributable to negative transfer or interference from Arabic. (CB)
Melki, Jad P.
The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…
Gross, Zehavit; Gamal, Eshan
The aim of this study was to examine how Muslim Arab-Israeli teachers conceptualize the Israeli-Arab conflict with their students. The findings show that Arab schools are in a constant state of tension between opposing poles of identity and belonging. The teachers emphasize their students' alienation from the Israeli establishment and their lack…
Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.
This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…
Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3
Sangare, A; Sanogo, I; Meite, M; Ambofo, Y; Abesopie, V; Segbena, A; Tolo, A
The authors report 44 cases of hemoglobin O Arab share out in 3 phenotypes (A O Arab, C O Arab and S O Arab). The study of this abnormal hemoglobin has allowed the following conclusions: The Hb O Arab is a rare mutant of hemoglobin. The heterozygote form A O Arab and the association Hb C--Hb O Arab do not present any clinical and hematological manifestations. The associations Hb S--Hb O Arab brings about a serious hemoglobinopathy which has clinical and hematological features like the sickle-cell disease (SSFA2).
El Bassiouny, Mahmoud
The author's art instruction for young Egyptian children focuses on design, creative expression, and appreciation of Egypt's unique artistic tradition. This article is one of several in this issue on art education in other countries. (SJL)
This paper provides an historical look at the Egyptian contribution to mental health from Pharaonic times through to the Islamic era and up to today. The current situation as regards mental health in Egypt is described.
13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA
14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA
1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN REVIVAL TOMB SITUATED WITHIN SURROUNDING GRAVES - Mount Pleasant Cemetery, George Opdyke Tomb, 375 Broadway Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ
El Atrash, Gamal; Ali, Mohamed H.; Abdelwahab, Hassan A.; Abdelreheem, Lobna A.; Shamaa, Mostafa
Introduction Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been reported in 46% of women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). FSD is a common health problem that remains under-investigated, especially in Eastern communities, where discussion of the issue is considered a taboo. In this study we determined the prevalence of various subtypes of FSD in relation to LUTS in women in Ismailia, Egypt. Patients and methods This was a case-control study to assess FSD in women with LUTS in comparison to normal women. In all, 101 women patients attending the Urology clinic at our institution were divided into two groups, a study group of 52 with LUTS and a control group of 49 with no LUTS. Validated Arabic versions of the FSD index and the Bristol questionnaire were used to assess the participants, and the data analysed statistically. Results FSD was diagnosed in 75 of the 101 patients (74%); 87 (86%) reported hypoactive sexual desire, 61 (60%) reported sexual arousal disorder, 56 (55%) had lubrication disorders, 65 (64%) complained of orgasmic deficiency, 36 (36%) had satisfaction disorder, and 59 (58%) had sexual pain disorder (e.g., dyspareunia or non-coital genital pain). Arousal, satisfaction, orgasmic and lubrication disorders were more common in the women with LUTS. There was no statistically significant difference in desire disorders between the groups. Conclusions FSD and its subtypes are more prevalent in women with LUTS in this sample of Egyptian women. PMID:26019956
Bdolah, A; Kochva, E; Ovadia, M; Kinamon, S; Wollberg, Z
The Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) is known for its resistance to viperid and elapid venoms. The current work demonstrates that it is also resistant to the venom of Atractaspis and its most toxic component, sarafotoxin-b. Intravenous administration of this toxin, at a dose of about 13 times LD100 for mice, resulted in disturbance in electrocardiograms in the mongoose, which returned to normal after several hours. Sarafotoxin-b failed to induce contraction of mongoose aortal preparations. Endothelin-1, which was demonstrated in tissue extracts of the mongoose by immunological methods, induced contraction of the isolated mongoose aorta. This contraction, however, was greatly reduced when endothelin-1 was applied on top of sarafotoxin-b. Binding studies revealed endothelin/sarafotoxin-specific binding sites in brain and cardiovascular preparations of the mongoose. It is suggested that some structural features of endothelin/sarafotoxin receptors in the mongoose enable them to differentiate between the two peptides.
Ghatass, Z. F.; Nashed, A. W.; Saleh, I. H.; Mohmed, M. M.
Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil.
Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.
Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares
This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…
Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal
Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…
Aljlayl, M.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.
Machine-Readable Dictionaries (MRD) and Machine Translation (MT) systems are important resources for query translation in Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR). Investigates use of MT systems and MRD to Arabic-English and English-Arabic CLIR. Translation ambiguity is the key problem. Presents three methods of query translation using a…
Alsabaan, Majed; Ramsay, Allan
Our proposed work is aimed at teaching non-native Arabic speakers how to improve their pronunciation. This paper reports on a diagnostic tool for helping non-native speakers of Arabic improve their pronunciation, particularly of words involving sounds that are not distinguished in their native languages. The tool involves the implementation of…
SOBELMAN, HARVEY; AND OTHERS
FOUR BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW ARTICLES ON ARABIC DIALECT STUDIES THAT HAD PREVIOUSLY APPEARED WERE CORRECTED AND UPDATED FOR PUBLICATION. THE PURPOSE OF THESE REVISED ARTICLES IS TO PROVIDE THE INTERESTED STUDENT WITH A CAREFULLY EVALUATED LIST OF ALL THE SIGNIFICANT SCHOLARLY WORK PUBLISHED ON ARABIC DIALECTS. THE AUTHORS OF THE ORIGINAL FOUR…
Le Gassick, Trevor
This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…
Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.
This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…
Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.
This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…
Conceptual program for TRS-80, Model 12 (or equivalent) computer transliterates from English letters of computer keyboard to Arabic characters in output of associated printer. Program automatically changes character sequence from left-to-right of English to right-to-left of Arabic.
Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco
Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…
Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz
Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.
Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan
This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…
Salameh, Mohammad Yahya Bani; Abu-Melhim, Abdel-Rahman
The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as…
El Sayed, Karimat
Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.
Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R
The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.
The autosomal recessive inherited Krabbe disease (KD) is a devastating pediatric lysosomal storage disorder affecting white matter of the brain. It is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase. While most patients present with symptoms within the first 6 months of life, others present later in life throughout adulthood. The early infantile form of KD (EIKD) is frequent in the Muslim Arab population in Israel, with a very high prevalence of approximately 1/100 to 1/150 live births. The homozygous variant c.1582G > A (p.D528N) was found to be responsible for EIKD in Palestinian Arab patients. KD was reported in different Arab countries with much lower frequency. While most Arab patients presented with EIKD, late infantile and late onset KD forms were also reported. Most Arab patients presented with variable symptoms ranging from EIKD to late onset KD, with variable clinical findings. Based on literature studies, this review focuses on the clinical and molecular findings of KD patients with Arab ancestry, and highlights the need for developing universal genetic screening programs to overcome the under-reported status of KD prevalence in Arabia. This is expected to improve the prognosis of the disease and promote targeted molecular diagnostics to the Arab patients. PMID:27617109
Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami
In the present experiment we used a semantic judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether semantic priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and semantic processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for semantically related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, semantically unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, semantic, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed.
El-Mehallawi, I H; Soliman, E M
The production of a three-dimensional plastic face on an unknown human skull has been practiced sporadically since the latter part of the last century. In recent years, the technique has been revived and applied to forensic science cases. The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. Moreover, it has been established that measurements made on the living are of more value than those made on the dead. In view of the well-known genetic complexities of the Egyptians, and the lack of knowledge of average facial soft tissue depths of the Egyptians that makes facial reconstruction questionable, it was decided to set up a table of norms for facial tissue thicknesses in 204 adult Egyptians aged 20-35 years. Tissue depths at 17 established landmarks (according to Aulsebrook et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 79 (1996) 83]) were obtained using ultrasonic probing. The study revealed a unique spectrum of measurements for the Egyptians that might be useful for facial reconstruction purposes with obvious sexual dimorphism in facial soft tissue thickness. Additionally, the study provided evidence for the presence of interpopulation differences in average facial soft tissue thicknesses as evidenced from the comparison of the present data of Egyptians with those previously reported for some other populations.
El-Bassyouni, Hala T; Afifi, Hanan H; Aglan, Mona S; Mahmoud, Wael M; Zaki, Moushira E
This study analyzes the body anthropometric measurements in females with Turner syndrome (TS) not treated with recombinant human growth hormone. Height, weight, head circumference, and body mass index (BMI) data were collected from 93 patients. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 24 years (mean 10 ± 4.3 years). Chromosomal analysis revealed: 55 patients with 45,X and 38 patients with mosaic karyotypes. Patients were divided into yearly age groups. Standard growth curves were constructed for these Egyptian Turner syndrome (TS) patients. Mean and standard deviations were estimated across the age groups. When comparing the mean heights of patients to the Egyptian standards, short stature (≤2 SD) was found in 96.8% of patients older than 6 years. Patients' mean weight and BMI were higher than controls. The mean height of the studied Egyptian patients was slightly lower than that of females with TS in UK and European patients. Therefore, local reference values are more appropriate than International standards. The charts presented here can be used to optimize routine healthcare for Egyptian TS patients. The use of growth charts specific for Egyptian TS patients can help to discover early physical developmental delay and suggests the necessity of looking for concomitant diseases affecting growth.
Boujaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian
In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among members of three Muslim sects—Sunni, Shiite, and Druze—in two cultural contexts; one in which the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim (Egypt) and another in which there is a sizable Christian community (Lebanon). Data were collected via surveys that examined students' scientific and religious understandings of evolution among 162 Egyptian students (all Sunni Muslims; 63% females and 37% males) and 629 Lebanese students (38.5% Sunni, 38% Shiite, and 23.5% Druze; 49% females and 51% males). Additional data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 30 Lebanese students to allow triangulation of data for accuracy and authenticity. Results indicate that many Egyptian and Lebanese Muslim students have misconceptions about evolution and the nature of science which often lead to rejection of evolution. Also, Lebanese Sunni and Shiite students and Egyptian Sunni students tend to exhibit high levels of religiosity, and these students report that their religious beliefs influence their positions regarding evolution. Finally, Sunni and Shiite Lebanese students have religious beliefs, conceptions of evolution, and positions regarding evolution similar to those of Sunni Egyptian students. These conceptions and positions, however, are substantially different from those of Druze Lebanese students.
Birks, S; Sinclair, C
The large-scale recent migrations from Arab countries for jobs in the Persian Gulf and Libya are examined with analyses of the problems from the perspectives of both the importing and the exporting countries. In 1975 there were more than 2.5 million Arab workers living in Arab states other than their own, about 1/2 of whom were employed. Since that time the numbers have increased by about 9% annually; an estimated 1,570,000 Arab workers were living abroad in early 1979. It is estimated that another 975,000 non-Arab migrant workers were employed within the Arab world in January 1979, a total of over 2,500,000 migrants for employment in the Arab Near East. The sheer volume of this migration for employment and its relative importance within the labor markets of the Arab world, the impact that migration for employment has upon economic development, and the mutual independence among countries that labor exporting and importing brings about have made migrant labor movements a leading issue in the Near East. Focus is on the distribution of wealth in the Near East, population and workforce in the Arab states, economic development of the capital-rich and the capital-poor states, the international transfers of labor, and impacts on the labor-supply countries. The impacts of an emigrant workforce vary considerably with the conditions in the different exporting countries. Some of these effects are highlighted by citing examples from Egypt, Jordan, the Yemen and Sudan.
UNITED STATES : • l i A~\\fYWAPRESS ’ Carli!<lc lh..fl".lcb, PA STItt: NGTII_.WI S OOM AFTER THE SPRING: REFORMING ARAB ARMIES Florence Gaub U.S...SUBTITLE After the Spring: Reforming Arab Armies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press AFTER THE SPRING: REFORMING ARAB ARMIES Florence Gaub September 2014 The views expressed in this report
THE GULF MOMENT: ARAB RElATIONS SINCE 201 t Florence Gaub UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS CarlisleBarracks,PA .., STRENGTH-’WISDOM U.S...SUBTITLE The Gulf Moment: Arab Relations Since 2011 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Institute and U.S. Army War College Press THE GULF MOMENT: ARAB RELATIONS SINCE 2011 Florence Gaub May 2015 The views expressed in this report are
Farahat, Fayssal M; Fenske, Richard A; Olson, James R; Galvin, Kit; Bonner, Matthew R; Rohlman, Diane S; Farahat, Taghreed M; Lein, Pamela J; Anger, W Kent
Neurobehavioral deficits have been reported in Egyptian pesticide application teams using organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but whether these effects are related to OP pesticide exposures has yet to be established. In preparation for a comprehensive study of the relationship between OP pesticide dose and neurobehavioral deficits, we assessed exposure within this population. We conducted occupational surveys and workplace observations, and collected air, dermal patch and biological samples from applicators, technicians and engineers involved in chlorpyrifos applications during cotton production to test the hypotheses that: (1) dermal exposure was an important contributor to internal dose and varied across body regions; and (2) substantial differences would be seen across the three job categories. Applicators were substantially younger and had shorter exposure histories than did technicians and engineers. Applicators and technicians were observed to have relatively high levels of skin or clothing contact with pesticide-treated foliage as they walked through the fields. Both dermal patch loadings of chlorpyrifos and measurements of a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (TCPy) in urine confirmed substantial exposure to and skin absorption of chlorpyrifos that varied according to job category; and dermal patch loading was significantly higher on the thighs than on the forearms. These findings support our hypotheses and support the need for research to examine neurobehavioral performance and exposures in this population. More importantly, the exposures reported here are sufficiently high to recommend urgent changes in work practices amongst these workers.
Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S
Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia.
Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan
This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified.
Selim, Laila; Salama, Emad; Elbadawy, Amera; Gamaleldin, Iman; Abdelmoneim, Mohamed; Selim, Abeer
Introduction The Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare inherited metabolic disorders. They are characterized by the progressive systemic deposition of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs accumulate in the myocardium and the cardiac valves. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) is available for MPS I, II, and VI. However, ERT does not appear to improve cardiac valve disease in patients with valve disease present at the start of ERT. Aim To evaluate the cardiac involvement in Egyptian children with MPS. Materials and Methods Echocardiograms (ECG) were done for 34 patients. Both quantitative and qualitative Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in urine and enzyme assay confirmed the diagnosis. Mitral, tricuspid and aortic valves were evaluated for increased thickness, regurgitation and/or stenosis, left ventricular chamber dimensions, septal and posterior wall thicknesses. Results The patients’ age ranged from 0.9-16 years (median age 4 years). They included 19 cases of MPS I (55.9%), 3 cases of MPS II (8.8%), 2 cases of MPS III (5.9%), 6 cases of MPS IV (17.6%) and 4 cases of MPS VI (11.8%). Heart murmur was heard in 9 of the participants (9/34) (26%). However, 15 patients (15/34) (44%) revealed cardiac lesions on ECG examinations. Mitral regurge (47%), followed by pulmonary hypertension (40%), were the most frequent findings. Conclusion The absence of Cardiac murmurs does not exclude the heart involvement. Cardiac valve dysfunction may not be reversible. Regular ECG should be routinely warranted in children with MPS and early ERT are recommended. PMID:28050459
El-Meligy, Manal M S; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Abdel-Maaboud, Ragaa M; Mohamed, Zaghloul T
Identification of an unknown body and prediction of growth from specific body measurements are very important tasks in the fields of physical anthropology and forensic medicine. Height and weight are two factors among others required to establish individuality of an unidentified body. In the present work, an attempt has been made to calculate the stature and weight from percutaneous tibial length and bimalleolar breadth. The study was carried out on 1000 living Egyptian individuals comprising 500 males and 500 females; their age was between 19 and 21 years. A significant positive correlation between stature and tibial length in both sexes was recorded. The coefficient of determination showed that 56% of variation in stature was due to tibial length and bimalleolar breadth in males, while in females the coefficient of determination was 23%. On the other hand, the coefficient of determination for weight showed that 11% of variability in weight was due to tibial length and bimalleolar breadth in males, while in females it was 5%. Linear regression analysis was done for all variables in all cases. The regression equation formulae are helpful in the estimation of stature and weight of the deceased from tibial length and bimalleolar breadth when leg or foot is the only portion available for autopsy examination.
Soliman, Ahmed M.; Hussein, Mustafa; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M.
Objective. To investigate the status of pharmacoeconomics education in Egyptian schools of pharmacy and compile and construct recommendations on how Egypt and similar countries could improve their educational infrastructure in pharmacoeconomics. Methods. A modified version of a published survey instrument was sent to all schools of pharmacy in Egypt (n= 24). The data were assessed to identify associations between offering pharmacoeconomics education and school characteristics. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 20 schools (response rate: 83%). Only 7 schools offered pharmacoeconomics education, with a median of 20 teaching hours per semester. Among respondents, 4 schools had instructors with some training in pharmacoeconomics and only 1 school had a faculty member with PhD-level training. Only 4 schools offered graduate-level courses in pharmacoeconomics. Eight additional schools expressed interest in teaching pharmacoeconomics in the near future. Having 1 or more faculty members with training in pharmacoeconomics was significantly associated with offering pharmacoeconomics education (p = 0.03). Conclusions. Pharmacoeconomics education in Egypt is still in its infancy and there exists a unique opportunity for well-trained instructors and researchers to fill this gap. Providing structured pharmacoeconomics education to student pharmacists, researchers, and stakeholders can help countries establish an integrated scientific community that can start applying pharmacoeconomic evidence to healthcare decision-making. PMID:23610475
The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases.
Za'rour, George I.
Briefly summarizes environmental education goals and topics as identified in elementary and secondary education curricula in four Arab states (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan) and describes environmental education nonformal efforts in Lebanon. (DC)
Leonor, S J; Gómez, J A; Kinoshita, A; Calandreli, I; Tfouni, E; Baffa, O
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated gum Arabic with doses between 0.5 and 5 kGy were studied. A linear relationship between the absorbed dose and the intensities of the ESR spectra was observed. ESR spectra of irradiated gum Arabic showed a decay of relative concentrations of free radicals originated by radiation and the production of at least two species of free radicals with half-times: 3.3 and 125.4 h. The results of spectral simulations for these radical groups were giso=2.0046; A=1.2 mT and gx=gy=2.0062, gz=2.0025. Hydration and dehydration of irradiated gum Arabic returns the ESR spectrum to its initial state before irradiation. The results show that ESR can be used as simple and reliable method to detect irradiated gum Arabic up to 60 days after initial radiation with doses on the order of 5 kGy.
In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.
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be enough to save this union from collapse. Geographic and "’Hoffman, S, contemporary Theory in International relations , (Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1960...NAVAL POSTGRADU1ATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A283 604 THESIS w ’ : ’ ARAB MAGHREB UNION : ACHIEVEMENT AND PROSPECTS by Abderrahmen Messaoudi...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 June Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arab Maghreb Union
Al-Tamimi, Feda; Khamaiseh, Zaidan; Howell, Peter
The current study investigated whether phonetic complexity affected stuttering rate in Jordanian Arabic speakers. Speakers were assigned to three age groups (6-11, 12-17 and 18+ years). An Arabic index of phonetic complexity (AIPC) was developed. Each word was given a score based on the number of complex phonetic properties out of a total of nine that it contained in the AIPC. The results showed that stuttering on function words for Jordanian Arabic did not correlate significantly with the AIPC score for any age group. The AIPC scores of content and function-content words correlated positively with stuttering rate for the 6-11 age group alone with the function-content words affecting fluency more severely than did the content words. The AIPC scores of stuttered function, content and stuttered function-content words were higher than those of fluent words. The non-stuttered words had lower AIPC scores than the stuttered corresponding classes. This showed that the higher the AIPC score on stuttered words, the greater the chance for these word categories to be stuttered. The AIPC factors that most affected fluency in Jordanian Arabic were place of articulation, manner of articulation, word length, word shape and consonant length. We conclude that Arabic is similar to other languages with regard to the loci of stuttering, their phonetic complexity and AIPC factors affecting stuttering most. The correlation between phonetic complexity and the order of the AIPC factors are different between Arabic and other languages.
Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G
Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even
Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Sciarrone, Danilo; Schipilliti, Luisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Fakhry, Hussein A; Dugo, Giovanni
The bitter orange flower oil (or neroli) is an essential product, largely used in perfumery. Neroli is obtained by hydrodistillation or steam distillation, from the flowers of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Since a long time neroli production is limited and its cost on the market is considerably high. The annual production in Tunisia and Morocco is ca. 1500 Kg, representing more than 90% of the worldwide production. A small amount ofneroli is also produced in Egypt, Spain and Comorros (not exceeding 150 kg totally). Due to the high cost, the producers and the users have tried to obtain less expensive products, with odor characters close to that of neroli oil to be used as substitute and sometimes as adulterants of the genuine oil. In this study are investigated five samples of Egyptian neroli oils produced in 2008 and 2009, in the same industrial plant, declared genuine by the producer. For all the samples the composition was determined by GC/FID and by GC/MS-LRI; the samples were also analyzed by esGC to determine the enantiomeric distribution of twelve volatiles and by GC-C-IRMS for the determination of the delta13C(VPDB) values of some mono and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols and esters. The analytical procedures allowed to quantitatively determining 86 components. In particular the variation of the composition seems to be dependent on the period of production. In fact, the amount of linalool decreases from March to April while linalyl acetate presents an opposite trend, increasing in the same period. The RSD determined for the delta13C(VPDB) are very small (max. 3.89%), ensuring the authenticity of all samples. The results are also discussed in function of the limits provided by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) (2004), AFNOR (1995) and ISO (2002) regulations for genuine neroli oils.
MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS
THIS COMPANION BOOK TO "FORMAL ARABIC, PART 1" CONTAINS THE GRAMMATICAL NOTES AND AN INDIVIDUAL VOCABULARY LISTING FOR EACH OF THE 26 SELECTIONS INCLUDED IN "PART 1." ALL WORDS ARE GLOSSED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST 500 WORDS OF LANDAU'S "A WORD COUNT OF MODERN ARABIC PROSE," AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES, NEW YORK,…
MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS
"PART 2" OF THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES CONTAINS THE GRAMMATICAL NOTES AND INDIVIDUAL ARABIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES FOR THE ESSAYS INCLUDED IN "PART 1." PREFACING EACH GLOSSARY IS A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON THE AUTHOR OF THE ESSAY. ALL WORDS OF THE FIRST TEN SELECTIONS ARE GLOSSED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST 200 ITEMS IN…
Various aspects of Arabic and Semitic linguistics are discussed in this text. The nine chapters include: (1) fundamental Semitic vocabulary and the classification of southern dialects; (2) observations on nominal derivation by affixation in several Semitic languages; (3) an automatic analysis of literary Arabic; (4) "Addad" and…
Fiedler, Fred E.; And Others
A five-book programed course in Arab culture is offered for professionals who are about to be stationed in the Middle East. This material is designed to supplement the Defense Language Institute's course in Saudi Arabic. In order to impart awareness of Saudi cultural characteristics, 66 hypothetical situations that might be encountered in…
COWELL, MARK W.
ARABIC, AS IT IS USED IN EVERYDAY CONVERSATION BY EDUCATED CITY-DWELLING SYRIANS, AND MOST PARTICULARLY BY NATIVES OF DAMASCUS, IS DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK. THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR IS INTENDED, FIRST OF ALL, FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE ALREADY ACQUIRED, OR ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING, AN ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE OF SYRIAN ARABIC, AND WHO WISH TO ENHANCE…
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.
The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was constructed and validated in a sample of undergraduates (17-33 yrs) in 3 Arab countries, Egypt (n = 418), Kuwait (n = 509), and Syria (n = 709). In its final form, the ASDA consists of 20 statements. Each item is answered on a 5-point intensity scale anchored by 1: No, and 5: Very much. Alpha…
Abugharsa, ?Azza B.
This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…
Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub
This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…
Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi
Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794
The gallery and weaving workshops of the Wissa Wassef School, located near Cairo, Egypt, are described. The school was started 30 years ago by the Egyptian architect Wissa Wassef, who believed in innate creativity and the need to encourage artistic creation by the practice of the craft from early childhood. (RM)
The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…
Al-Obaidi, Jabbar A.
Examines the level of physical and verbal violence by gender and social class in Egyptian films in three cycles: romantic musicals and melodramas; war and political genres; and drug and gangster films. Concludes that the outrageous level of violence does not accurately reflect the real society. (Contains 20 references.) (LRW)
Swanson, Julie Hanson
New Horizons is a nonschool program that demystifies and communicates essential information on basic life skills and reproductive health to Egyptian girls and young women aged 9-20. The program consists of 100 hour-long sessions, each including an introduction to a specific topic, review of group knowledge level, discussion around key points…
Richardson, Jayson; Finholt-Daniel, Matt; Sales, Greg; Flora, Kevin
This article focuses on exploring the outcomes of an e-learning initiative in Egypt. Researchers conducted training with 17 Egyptian educators on how to build, maintain, and teach using Moodle, an online content management system. The researchers evaluated the outputs of the training using the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) in an effort to assess…
Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Younus, Ayesha; Salort, Simon; Chassagne, Bruno; Recur, Benoît; Ziéglé, Anne; Dautant, Alain; Abraham, Emmanuel
A monochromatic millimeter-wave imaging system coupled with an infrared temperature sensor has been used to investigate historic objects preserved at the Museum of Aquitaine (France). In particular, two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of nearly 3500-year-old sealed Egyptian jars.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Elkhateeb, Ahmed; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Alhammady, Montaser A; Ohta, Shinji; Paré, Paul W; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F
Chemical investigations of the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi have led to the isolation of compounds 1-3 as well as the previously reported marine cembranoid diterpene sarcophine (4). Structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and HRMS experimentation. Isolated compounds were in vitro assayed for cytotoxic activity against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines.
Beck, Charles R.
One of the greatest mysteries of ancient times is how the Egyptians managed to raise huge obelisks using very simple technology. This remarkable task has puzzled engineers for thousand of years. After failing to raise an obelisk with simple machines, such as levers and pulleys, a team of modern engineers solved the mystery using a sandpit and the…
BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian
In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…
5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF BUILDING 1'S MAIN ENTRY TOWER (INCLUDING THE ENGAGED COLUMN CAPITALS, PILASTERS & CAPITALS, CORNICES, AND TERRA COTTA EAGLES); LOOKING SW FROM THE E WING ROOF. (Ryan) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the extent and the quality of student involvement in the quality assurance process (QAP) in Egyptian higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two qualitative methods were used to explore the extent and the quality of student involvement; these were focus groups…
Kirby, David A.; Ibrahim, Nagwa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000…
The present essay is intended to call attention to three problems or areas of investigation that are connected with the study of Egyptian mummies. In each instance a supply of evidence exists and more can probably be found; and in each area much could be learned from historical analysis of appropriate breadth and depth.
The current study investigates the assessment conceptions of both pre-service and in-service English teachers within a high-stakes, test-driven context in Egypt. For this purpose, 170 Egyptian pre-service and in-service teachers completed an assessment conceptions questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis were employed to answer…
Kenawy, Hoda Mohammed
The role played by music in Egyptian education in developing the character of the child is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the characteristics of the elementary school child and examines how each can be developed through musical education. For example, young children have a fertile imagination that can be stimulated by music.…
Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud
The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…
El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K
A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation
Abdou, Ehaab D.
Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…
Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George
This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.
Tadmouri, Ghazi O; Nair, Pratibha; Obeid, Tasneem; Al Ali, Mahmoud T; Al Khaja, Najib; Hamamy, Hanan A
Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity. PMID:19811666
Abdellah, Antar Solhy
Arabic Linguistics has been a full-fledged descriptive science for a long time. However modern Linguistics, as a distinct empirical science, entailed that Arab linguists review their methods of dealing with the linguistic phenomenon. One of the major challenges for this new approach was to create equivalent genuine Arabic terms in modern…
This study of Arabic culture, language, history, and nationalism provides an inside view of key issues in understanding the Arab world. It combines detailed readings of Arabic nationalist literature, the scholarly literature on nationalism, and sociolinguistics work on language and national identity. Seven chapters focus on the following issues:…
Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans may cause misunderstandings when Arab students come to study in American universities. As part of the author's plan to write a guidebook for Arab students who are new to American university life, this paper presents preliminary analysis of differences in the two cultures. The author hopes her…
Shaalan, Khaled F.
This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Ma'Abrah, Mohamdd Akash
The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems and difficulties that face the students of Arabic Language at Mu'tah University when translating oriental texts from English into Arabic in the academic year 2011-2012. The difficulties facing Arabic students when translating oriental texts has never been studied, rising an urgent need to…
Wolowelsky, Joel B.
The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…
Arabic native speaking children are born into a unique linguistic context called diglossia (Ferguson, "word", 14, 47?56, ). In this context, children grow up speaking a Spoken Arabic Vernacular (SAV), which is an exclusively spoken language, but later learn to read another linguistically related form, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA).…
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food....780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the...
Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit
This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...
Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor
In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The…
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...
Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Bucher, Katherine T.
Literature can help children develop their own cultural identity, as it helps them understand and appreciate the culture of others. Research shows that in elementary schools some Arab American students are not exposed to stories that represent their culture. In addition, many teachers are not familiar with literature about Arabs or Arab Americans.…
Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman
This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…
In light of a growing body of research on language death, this paper examines the situation of Judeo-Arabic, an ethnolect of Jews from Arabic-speaking countries with various written and spoken forms. More specifically, the fate of the Iraqi variety of Judeo-Arabic is discussed, particularly in the context of Montreal, Canada. Educational…
Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…
Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D
The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in the regional dialect known as Southern Tunisian Arabic (STA). In two intra-modal auditory-auditory priming experiments, we found similar results with strong priming effects for roots and patterns in both varieties. Despite differences in the timing and nature of the acquisition of MSA and STA, root and word pattern priming was clearly distinguishable from form-based and semantic-based priming in both varieties. The implication of these results for theories of Arabic diglossia and theories of morphological processing are discussed.
Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg
Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy.
Delazer, M; Denes, G
We report on the writing of Arabic numerals in a patient whose alphabetical script was restricted to graphemic jargon (Schonauer & Denes, 1994). The analysis of writing errors in Arabic script over three testing sessions (4, 10, and 13 months after stroke) confirmed the separate processing of syntactic and lexical information in number production proposed by current models. The changing error pattern over time reflected some difficulties observed in developmental studies on the acquisition of Arabic numeral writing. Errors were mostly of the syntactic type and (at a certain stage) were based on the verbal form of the numerals. As reported in neuropsychological (Noel & Seron, 1995) and developmental (Power & Dal Martello, 1990; Seron & Fayol, 1994) studies, sum relations were more difficult to transcode than product relations within complex numerals.
Lorigo, Liana M; Govindaraju, Venu
The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. The domain of handwriting in the Arabic script presents unique technical challenges and has been addressed more recently than other domains. Many different methods have been proposed and applied to various types of images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods. It is the first survey to focus on Arabic handwriting recognition and the first Arabic character recognition survey to provide recognition rates and descriptions of test data for the approaches discussed. It includes background on the field, discussion of the methods, and future research directions.
Benamer, Hani T S; Shakir, Raad A
The Arab world covers a large geographical area over two continents, Africa and Asia and includes 23 countries ranging from low-to-high income. The estimated total population of the Arab world was around 318 million in 2005 and is projected to increase to 480 million in 2030. The percentage of people above the age of 60 will change from an average of 5.1% of the population in 2005 to 10.5% in 2030 with an increase in life expectancy from 68.2 years to 73.4 years. This will have a major effect on the burden of neurological diseases in the region. This article aims to review the available literature on the neurological supply and demand in the Arab countries and draws attention to the gaps in knowledge on the subject.
Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad
This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…
4 struggles currently dominate Afghan politics: 1) the war being fought by regionally and religously oriented guerrillas to overthrow the Soviet-leaning Amin regime; 2) the competition between conservative and religious leaders in the Pushtun area to monopolize funds from friendly Arabs; 3) the attempts by guerrilla forces to establish localized bases of power, so that any new regime in Kabul must grant the various ethno-linguistic groups some type of regional autonomy; and 4) the internal struggle for power within the Khalq leadership. 2 factions of Khalquis are involved: the liberal nationalists, led by Panjsheri and most military members of the Cabinet and Revolutionary Council; and the pro-Soviet opportunists led by Amin. The author lists these points after recounting the events leading to the coup d'etat against the Daoud regime on April 17, 1978 and the subsequent, but not markedly successful, attempts by leaders of the newly proclaimed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan to gain stability and implement land reform. More often, the struggle for security and legitimacy has led to rhetoric and repression--and growing opposition. The Soviet Union, which is currently facing an Islamic revival within its own borders, will only intervene physically against its better judgment, in the opinion of the author; the United States is terminating all aid, including the Peace Corps.
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022
Elabbady, Ahmed; Eid, Ahmed; Fahmy, Ahmed
Introduction Prostate cancer is a common health problem that in the majority of cases starts to develop at the age of 50 years, reaching its peak at 60–70 years of age. A variation in its incidence and prevalence exists between western, Asian and Arabic populations. The aim of our work was to report the pattern of prostate cancer presentation in Alexandria University that as a tertiary referral center provides care for uro–oncology cases. Material and methods Data collection for all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at Alexandria University in Egypt through the year 2012 was done. Results The mean age of the patients was 67. Mean serum total PSA, prostate volume and PSAd were 149 ng/ml, 63 grams and 3.1 ng/ml/gm respectively. 25% of patients were asymptomatic diagnosed accidentally during screening for prostate cancer. The remaining group was presenting with LUTS, including 23 patients who presented initially with back pain. Conclusions Egyptian men with prostate cancer have a markedly high PSA density and Gleason grade at diagnosis. PMID:25667753
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.
Rühli, Frank; Ikram, Salima; Bickel, Susanne
The Valley of the Kings (arab. Wadi al Muluk; KV) situated on the West Bank near Luxor (Egypt) was the site for royal and elite burials during the New Kingdom (ca. 1500-1100 BC), with many tombs being reused in subsequent periods. In 2009, the scientific project "The University of Basel Kings' Valley Project" was launched. The main purpose of this transdisciplinary project is the clearance and documentation of nonroyal tombs in the surrounding of the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmosis III (ca. 1479-1424 BC; KV 34). This paper reports on newly discovered ancient Egyptian human mummified remains originating from the field seasons 2010-2012. Besides macroscopic assessments, the remains were conventionally X-rayed by a portable X-ray unit in situ inside KV 31. These image data serve as basis for individual sex and age determination and for the study of probable pathologies and embalming techniques. A total of five human individuals have been examined so far and set into an Egyptological context. This project highlights the importance of ongoing excavation and science efforts even in well-studied areas of Egypt such as the Kings' Valley.
Rühli, Frank; Ikram, Salima; Bickel, Susanne
The Valley of the Kings (arab. Wadi al Muluk; KV) situated on the West Bank near Luxor (Egypt) was the site for royal and elite burials during the New Kingdom (ca. 1500–1100 BC), with many tombs being reused in subsequent periods. In 2009, the scientific project “The University of Basel Kings' Valley Project” was launched. The main purpose of this transdisciplinary project is the clearance and documentation of nonroyal tombs in the surrounding of the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmosis III (ca. 1479–1424 BC; KV 34). This paper reports on newly discovered ancient Egyptian human mummified remains originating from the field seasons 2010–2012. Besides macroscopic assessments, the remains were conventionally X-rayed by a portable X-ray unit in situ inside KV 31. These image data serve as basis for individual sex and age determination and for the study of probable pathologies and embalming techniques. A total of five human individuals have been examined so far and set into an Egyptological context. This project highlights the importance of ongoing excavation and science efforts even in well-studied areas of Egypt such as the Kings' Valley. PMID:26347313
This paper represents a case study of how social media activists have harnessed the power of Facebook, Twitter and mobile phone networks to address sexual harassment in Egypt. HarassMap plots reports of sexual harassment on a Google Map and informs victims of support services. Tahrir Bodyguard and Operation Anti-Sexual Harassment (OpAntiSH) protect female protestors who have been vulnerable to sexual aggression at the hands of unruly mobs and by agents of the state. Activists have access to an Android app called 'I'm Getting Arrested' or 'Byt2ebed 3alia' in Egyptian Arabic. The app sends the time and GPS coordinates of an arrest to family, fellow activists, legal counsel and social media outlets. The hope is the initiatives described in this paper could inspire public health ministries and activist NGOs to incorporate crowdsourcing social media applications in the spirit of health in all policies (HiAP). To that end, this paper will begin by defining social media activism from the perspective of the communications discipline. This paper will then demonstrate the significance of sexual harassment as a public health issue, and describe several social media efforts to document incidents and protect victims. The paper will conclude with discussion regarding how these innovations could be integrated into the HiAP approach.
Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.
Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.
Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the globe, and this has also impacted people of the Arabic-speaking countries, especially those in higher-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. There is a significant increase in the incidence of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% in adult females and 1%–30% in adult males. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and multiple pregnancies may be important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity engulfing the Arabic-speaking countries. PMID:22175002
Reviews the services provided by translators under colonialism, as compared with their new role in independent Algeria. Stresses the socioeconomic and political importance of translation as a tool for the diffusion of technological and scientific information in Arabic. (MES)
Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub
This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.
Abuyassin, B; Laher, I
The Arab world is experiencing an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the major pathological factors linking obesity to diabetes, focussing on current epidemiological data related to obese diabetic patients in the Arab world, the etiology of the disease and the genetic determinants of diabetes and obesity. There are alarming data related to the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children of Arab ethnicity. Replication studies identify several genetic variants in Arabs with obesitylinked diabetes. For example, variants of the ADIPOQ gene (the rs266729 single-nucleotide polymorphism) are associated with obesity and diabetes in various Arab countries. Gaps exist in our information about diabetes and obesity in Arab populations in relation to ethnic-specific cut-off points for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Further genome-wide association studies in obese and diabetic Arab populations could add to our understanding of the pathophysiology, prevention and reversal of this disease.
Belmonte, J. A.
The ancient Egyptians had just one calendar in operation, the civil one, during most of their history and before the overwhelming influence of Hellenic culture. This calendar may have been invented for a specific purpose in the first half of the third millennium B.C., when the previous local Nile-based lunar calendars were rendered useless, as the result of the unification of the country and new social, economic and administrative requirements. The civil calendar always started at the feast of Wepet Renpet in the first day of the first month of the Inundation season (I Akhet 1). Its peculiar length of only 365 days (without leap years) might have been established from simple astronomical (presumably solar) observations. Consequently, Wepet Renpet wandered throughout the seasons in a period close to 15 centuries. Our research has shown that this phenomenology was reflected in the Egyptian worldview by the orientation of most important sacred structures accordingly.
The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.
Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E
In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.
The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.
Kayed, A S; Kandeil, A; El Shesheny, R; Ali, M A; Kayali, G
Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry has been conducted since 2009. Up to 2011, all the detected viruses were H5N1, and the overall prevalence was 5%. In 2011, H9N2 viruses were observed to be co-circulating and co-infecting the same hosts as H5N1 viruses. Since then, the detection rate has increased to around 10%. In the 2014-2015 winter season, H5N1 was circulating heavily in poultry flocks and caused an unprecedented number of human infections. In contrast, surveillance in the last quarter of 2015 indicated a near absence of H5N1 in Egyptian poultry. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses must continue in Egypt to monitor further developments in H5N1 circulation in poultry.
Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt.
Astronomy and space science educations started in Egypt at the university level since 1939 at Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Cairo University. Undergraduate and graduate education in Egypt will be discussed in this work. About 15 students yearly obtain their PhD degrees in Astronomy from the Egyptian universities. Seven International groups under my supervision have done the total solar Eclipse observations that took place on 29 March 2006, in El-Saloum (Egypt). The results of observations and photos will be discussed. Egyptian-French group have done the total solar eclipse observations that took place on 25 February 1952 in Khartoum by using Worthington Camera. The research groups of Astrophysics in Cairo University and Helwan observatory are interested in the fields of solar physics, binary stars, celestial mechanics, interstellar matter and galaxies. Most of the researches have been published in national scientific journals, and some of them were published in International Journals.
Stevens, John G.; Zhu, Wenjun
Ten pieces of Egyptian pottery ware and eleven silt samples collected at Hierakonopolis (Nile River, Egypt) were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Three Nile silt samples and three pottery sherds were test fired and refired in an oxidized atmosphere up to 1100°C. Changes of the Mössbauer parameters depend upon the firing temperatures as well as the firing atmosphere. Three kinds of pottery were studied: Plum Red Ware, Straw Tempered Ware, and Orange Ware.
Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert
A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.
Hughes, Stephen W.
This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…
January 2014, noted: Over the past year, Israel and Egypt have used lit- tle-known, legally permissible understanding—the Agreed Activities Mechanism—to...terrorist groups if such groups re-directed their attacks to Israeli targets, espe - 31 cially Israeli soldiers guarding the border. Hence, the old...Egyptian relations. Even some 35 legal opposition parties in Egypt have indicated pri- vately that if the terrorism problem emanating from the Sinai
Amr, Khalda; Messaoud, Olfa; El Darouti, Mohamad; Abdelhak, Sonia; El-Kamah, Ghada
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease characterized by hyperphotosensitivity, DNA repair defects and a predisposition to skin cancers. The most frequently occurring type worldwide is the XP group A (XPA). There is a close relationship between the clinical features that ranged from severe to mild form and the mutational site in XPA gene. The aim of this study is to carry out the mutational analysis in Egyptian patients with XP-A. This study was carried out on four unrelated Egyptian XP-A families. Clinical features were examined and direct sequencing of the coding region of XPA gene was performed in patients and their parents. Direct sequencing of the whole coding region of the XPA gene revealed the identification of two homozygous nonsense mutations: (c.553C >T; p.(Gln185)) and (c.331G>T; p.(Glu111)), which create premature, stop codon and a homodeletion (c.374delC: p.Thr125Ilefs 15) that leads to frameshift and premature translation termination. We report the identification of one novel XPA gene mutation and two known mutations in four unrelated Egyptian families with Xermoderma pigmentosum. All explored patients presented severe neurological abnormalities and have mutations located in the DNA binding domain. This report gives insight on the mutation spectrum of XP-A in Egypt. This would provide a valuable tool for early diagnosis of this severe disease.
Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine.
Sharaf El Din, Sayed; Nassar, Marawan
Natural gas hydrates occur worldwide in different oceanic environments, especially in areas of onshore and offshore permafrost and in sediments on continental slops, PT conditions required to initiate the hydrate formation and to stabilize its structure are encountered along the continental slop of the nile delta. Hydocarbon gases in the Nile Delta are not geochemically homogeneous, originating from the decomposition of organic matter by biochemical and thermal processes. The structure of the hydrate determines the type of gas molecules contained. Although Gas hydrates exist over the Egyptian Med. Coastal waters, very little is known on its, origin, quality and quantity. Several studies had been done by several oil companies in the vicinity of the Egyptian territory. High concentration in thin, patchy zones just above the BSR may be, destabilized by Tectonic uplift or climate changes. The seismic profiles taken over the continental slope of the Nile Delta from Damietta to Rashid gave strong evidence of MH with very clear BSR. Geological and geochemical setting of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in front of the Egyptian Nile Delta need more investigations.
Ahmed, Y.H.; Shalaan, A.A.; Zaki, H.A. )
The World Bank-executed Red Sea/Gulf of Aden Regional Hydrocarbon Study Project was organized to synthesize data on the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden basins. The primary objectives were to encourage increased hydrocarbon exploration techniques basin wide, and to train national geoscientists in exploration techniques. The study was carried out be task forces for each participating country, working in Cairo under the supervision of World Bank technical personnel. In addition, biostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and lithostratigraphic analyses by Robertson Group and geochemical studies and BEICIP were carried out on well cuttings and core samples. The study of the Egyptian Red Sea was based on public-domain exploration data, published information, and data released by operating companies. This included reports, sections, and wireline logs from 13 well, samples from ten wells for biostratigraphic analysis, and samples from eight wells for geochemical analysis. Interpretation was carried out on 4,350 line-km of seismic data selected from a grid of 19,000 line-km of data. Four horizons were identified on a regional basis, including the sea floor, top, and near base of middle to upper Miocene evaporites, and approximate acoustic basement. The results show that the Egyptian Red Sea is similar to the better known, productive Gulf of Suez in many respects, including overall tectonic evolution and structural style, present geothermal gradients, and Miocene to Holocene stratigraphic sequence. Based in part on this similarity, the Egyptian Red Sea appears to contain the necessary elements for an attractive petroleum potential.
Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.
New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.
Albustanji, Yusuf M.; Milman, Lisa H.; Fox, Robert A.; Bourgeois, Michelle S.
The studies of agrammatism show that not all morpho-syntactic elements are impaired to the same degree and that some of this variation may be due to language-specific differences. This study investigated the production of morpho-syntactic elements in 15 Jordanian-Arabic (JA) speaking individuals with agrammatism and 15 age-matched neurologically…
Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George
This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab…
Jarrah, Marwan; Zibin, Aseel
The current research argues that definiteness in Arabic can be used for formal purposes. The definite article and the nunnation suffix "-n" (NnnS) manage the information flow in the sentence through maintaining accepted informativity balance. Additionally, the study assumes that NnnS, "-n," is not an indefinite article. Its…
This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…
Al-Ani, Salman H.
This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…
Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah Hassan
The aim of this paper is to explore loanwords in Hadrami Arabic (Yemen). Most of these words, which are now diminishing due to the social and economical development in the region, reflect some stage of bilingualism when the Hadramis (natives of Hadramawt, Yemen) migrated to different parts of the world. The donor languages range from the tongues…
Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.
Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…
Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid
This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…
Amor, Taoufik Ben
This guide is designed for the Arabic language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Tunisia and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 15 lessons, each made up of: a teacher's guide sheet, which outlines specific objectives, contents, and materials needed; a dialogue introducing the lesson's theme; a…
Parrillo, Vincent N.
In order to determine the extent of residential segregation among first or second generation Arabs living in and around Paterson, New Jersey, 286 families were located and interviewed. Field data were combined with statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau Population and Housing Summary Tape File 1-A. It was found that residential segregation was not…
Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer
This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…
Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre
This third volume in the course on Chad Arabic emphasizes the active development of speaking skills in the target language. The active participation of the student requires imitation and induction of linguistic structures to a large extent. Some 45 units present grammatical material on gender, parts of speech, and verbs. Each unit contains a…
The Dearborn Public Schools, with 18,300 students, is located in the Detroit urban area with the largest concentration of Arabic-speaking people in the United States. In order to prepare the students for the 21st century skills and global awareness and in response to parents' requests, the author in collaboration with the school principal and…
This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
AlBzour, Baseel Ali
Arabic varieties show explicit linguistic behavior, especially at the syntactic level. This apparent diversity is mainly due to how syntactic rules confine the scope and the flexibility of movement of certain constituents inside and outside their syntactic domains. This paper examines solely how the mother tongue from which all these varieties…
Suleiman, Mahmoud F.
Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…
Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava
This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…
Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Walter, Philippe; Amatore, Christian
Lead-based compounds were used during antiquity as both pigments and medicines in the formulation of makeup materials. Chemical analysis of cosmetics samples found in Egyptians tombs and the reconstitution of ancient recipes as reported by Greco-Roman authors have shown that two non-natural lead chlorides (laurionite Pb(OH)Cl and phosgenite Pb(2)Cl(2)CO(3)) were purposely synthesized and were used as fine powders in makeup and eye lotions. According to ancient Egyptian manuscripts, these were essential remedies for treating eye illness and skin ailments. This conclusion seems amazing because today we focus only on the well-recognized toxicity of lead salts. Here, using ultramicroelectrodes, we obtain new insights into the biochemical interactions between lead(II) ions and cells, which support the ancient medical use of sparingly soluble lead compounds. Submicromolar concentrations of Pb(2+) ions are shown to be sufficient for eliciting specific oxidative stress responses of keratinocytes. These consist essentially of an overproduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO degrees ). Owing to the biological role of NO degrees in stimulating nonspecific immunological defenses, one may argue that these lead compounds were deliberately manufactured and used in ancient Egyptian formulations to prevent and treat eye illnesses by promoting the action of immune cells.
Sabbour, Nazly; Shafait, Faisal
In this paper, we present a generic Optical Character Recognition system for Arabic script languages called Nabocr. Nabocr uses OCR approaches specific for Arabic script recognition. Performing recognition on Arabic script text is relatively more difficult than Latin text due to the nature of Arabic script, which is cursive and context sensitive. Moreover, Arabic script has different writing styles that vary in complexity. Nabocr is initially trained to recognize both Urdu Nastaleeq and Arabic Naskh fonts. However, it can be trained by users to be used for other Arabic script languages. We have evaluated our system's performance for both Urdu and Arabic. In order to evaluate Urdu recognition, we have generated a dataset of Urdu text called UPTI (Urdu Printed Text Image Database), which measures different aspects of a recognition system. The performance of our system for Urdu clean text is 91%. For Arabic clean text, the performance is 86%. Moreover, we have compared the performance of our system against Tesseract's newly released Arabic recognition, and the performance of both systems on clean images is almost the same.
El-Halawany, Hanan Salah El-Deen
This research aims to compare the effect of higher education on some Upper Egyptian women's practice of self autonomy at both work and home. The most important revelation this research makes is the fact that although no one can deny the importance and significance of higher education to Upper Egyptian women, yet it failed to challenge the…
This report presents information on a 1980/81 U.S. non-degree training program which was designed to provide Egyptian scientific and technical information (STI) specialists with the basic minimum knowledge and skills required for developing national information services in Egypt. The background and purpose of the Egyptian STI program are discussed…
Shutler, Paul M. E.
We consider Egyptian mathematics from a postmodern perspective, by which we mean suspending judgement as to strict correctness in order to appreciate the genuine mathematical insights which they did have in the context in which they were working. In particular we show that the skill which the Egyptians possessed of obtaining the general case from…
This study investigated the acquisition of an Egyptian phonological variant by student participants in a study abroad program at The American University in Cairo. Participants completed pre- and post-study abroad Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews (SOPIs). The SOPI data showed a move toward an Egyptian realization of the phonological variable…
Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F
A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin
Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…
Panahi, F; Asadollahi, R; Asadollahi, M; Hasani-Bafarani, A
Gonu, the second tropical cyclone of the 2007 northern Indian ocean cyclone season, affected Oman, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and the Islamic Republic of Iran. This report examines the effects of cyclone Gonu in the Islamic Republic of Iran where it approached on its path on 6 June 2007 and reviews the actions taken before, during and after the cyclone. The incident highlighted the need for a special protocol to be prepared for all types of natural disasters. Responsible organizations should train their personnel according to the prepared protocols and service packages. Among the important lessons learned were the need for early warning, proper community involvement, access to essential data for risk analysis, special attention to safety of infrastructures, coordination and command integrity.
During the past four decades, the Arab region has undergone tremendous demographic changes, the most significant of which was remarkable population growth. More precisely, the population of the Arab world increased from approximately 132 million in 1974 to 237 million in 1992, and is expected to reach 449 million in the year 2020. Plans and policies are needed to meet population needs in the areas of employment opportunities, education, health, housing, food, and public services. The Arab Population Conference was convened over the period April 4-8, 1994, in Amman, Jordan, in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Talks led to the creation of the Second Amman Declaration on Population and Development in the Arab World. The declaration is presented in the following sections: preamble; general principles; objectives; and recommendations on human development and its relationship to development, population, environment, development, population distribution, urbanization, international migration, women, population, maternal and child health and family planning, the role of nongovernmental organizations in achieving development, special categories, structural adjustment and population policies, data, research, information exchange, training, Arab and international cooperation, and information, education, and communication.
Republic P-47C Thunderbolt: Republic's P-47 was one example of a perfect marriage of airframe and power plant. The engine of this P-47C was still under study, as can ascertained by the survey rake for measuring propeller thrust. This rake protrudes from the fuselage just behind the cowling ahead and in front of the wing.
Republic P-47C Thunderbolt: Republic's P-47 was one example of a perfect marriage of airframe and power plant. The engine of this P-47C was still under study, as can be ascertained by the survey rake for measuring propeller thrust. This rake protrudes from the fuselage just behind the cowling ahead and in front of the wing.
Republic P-47B Thunderbolt: The Republic P-47B Thunderbolt was one of the great fighters used by the U. S. Army Air Force in World War II, and crews praised its ability to absorb punishment. This P-47B was used by NACA engineers to study the horizontal tail loads experienced by a fighter during abrupt maneuvers.
"... This paper represents an exploratory essay that looks at variations (variables) within the Arab region over time and space and that attempts to extract some of the underlying common elements that distinguish present day social change and urbanization in the Arab world." A typology is developed that identifies sub-types of Arab countries on the basis of economic structure. Major categories include heartland/confrontation states, neocolonial dependencies, semi-oil states, and oil-wealthy states.
Arab scientists were various centuries ahead of our current knowledge of the curative power of hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). Modern scientific literature ignores their contribution on the subject. We review in this paper the therapeutic uses of the plant in Arabic medicine from the 8th to the 18th century. Arab physicians knew and used its diuretic, anti-emetic, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain-killing and antipyretic properties, among others.
ARAB BOYCOTT FROM 1946 UNTIL THE 1973 WAR . . 12 A. THE BOYCOTT OF COCA - COLA ..... ........... 14 B. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ON FIRMS AND SHIPS BOYCOTTED...was hindered, all airlines would stop all flights to the Arab countries as well. [Ref. 231 A. THE BOYCOTT OF COCA - COLA An example of partial success of...the Arab boycott was the boycott of Coca - Cola . In April, 1966, Coca - Cola refused to permit establishment of a plant in Israel. Although Coca - Cola at
Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar
Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106
Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake
Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J
This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.
Vaidyanathan, K E
A study or urban population growth in Arab countries has 3 objectives: 1) examination at the micro level of recent demographic trends in selected metropolitan areas of the Arab world and their relationship to changes in the total and urban populations in the respective countries; 2) estimation of net migration by sex and broad age groups for each metropolitan area; and 3) analysis of the pattern of variation in the metropolitan growth rates and their components, migration and natural increase. The study covers the cities proper or urban agglomerations, which includes the suburbs, whose population exceeded 100,000 in the most recent census. Altogether, the study covers 49 metropolitan areas from 9 Arab countries--Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Sudan; Syria; Iraq; and Kuwait. Analysis revealed that metropolitan growth rates do follow geographic patterns. In countries with an oil-based economy, metropolitan growth rates are high; in countries with unexploited resources they are slightly below the 1st group; and countries which have pressure on land have low metropolitan growth rates. Population size of the metropolitan area appears to be an important factor associated with variations in metropolitan growth rates and net migration rates. Natural increase emerges as the predominant factor in metropolitan growth, but the differentials in the growth rates are more clearly associated with variations in net migration rates. As all the possibilities of analysis of relationships of metropolitan growth have not been exhausted, it is proposed to examine additional variables as possible factors associated with the speed of metropolitan growth.
Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5th leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10th as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755
Oweini, Ahmad; Hazoury, Katia
While the English language boasts a century of research into its most frequently-used words, no such attempt has ever formally been made in the Arab world. This pioneering study presents a list of 500 commonly-used words in the Arabic language based on compilations of words gathered from a number of popular reading series in Lebanon, spanning grades K to 3. This list can serve as a powerful tool for language teachers—who face several challenges posed by the inherent nature of Arabic in terms of diglossia, orthography and morphology—and provide them with a handy list of words for their pupils. The study has its limitations in terms of scope, breadth and the nature of the technology used for counting words. Nonetheless, it makes a number of recommendations for the future, including the development of a readability formula based on this list, the expansion of the scope of this word list and improvement to increase its technical accuracy.
Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.
When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.
Wagemans, M; van Bijsterveld, O P
Almost all soldiers of the armies involved in the Egyptian campaign fell victim to what was later called the ophthalmia militaris which we now know to be caused by Haemophilus aegyptius, N. gonorrhoea and possibly to some extent by Chlamydia trachomatis but more likely by the adenoviruses. Because of the enormous incidence of ocular infection and the controversy generated by speculation on the nature of the disease--English surgeons considered this ophthalmia to be of a contagious nature, whereas the French surgeons violently opposed this view-, the interest in diseases of the eye increased, which eventually resulted in the acceptance of ophthalmology as a separate branch of medicine.
Manley, Bill; Eremin, Katherine; Shortland, Andrew; Wilkinson, Caroline
The National Museums of Scotland Mummy Project has provided important new information about a burial excavated in Egypt. This has resulted in the facial reconstruction of a woman who was probably a queen at Thebes ca. 1570-1520 BCE. There are strong suggestions from the grave goods and her diet that this woman may have been ethnically Nubian rather than Egyptian. However, it is not yet possible to establish her ethnic identity for sure, so a definitive reconstruction of her appearance in life remains elusive.
Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O
Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID
Rodrigues, Mónica; Bos, Arthur R; Hoath, Richard; Schembri, Patrick J; Lymberakis, Petros; Cento, Michele; Ghawar, Wissem; Ozkurt, Sakir O; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Merilä, Juha; Fernandes, Carlos
The Egyptian weasel (Mustela subpalmata) is a small mustelid with a distribution restricted to the lower Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. Traditionally considered a subspecies of the least weasel (M. nivalis), it is currently recognized as a separate species based on morphology. Here we present the first genetic assessment of the taxonomic status of the Egyptian weasel by comparing mitochondrial DNA (Cytochrome b gene and control region) sequences to those of least weasels from the western Palearctic, with a focus on the Mediterranean region. Our results provide no evidence to support the view that the Egyptian weasel is genetically distinct from the least weasel, as we found that, for both Cytochrome b and control region, haplotypes were shared between the two taxa. Specifically, the Cytochrome b and control region haplotypes detected in the Egyptian weasel were also present in M. nivalis from Turkey and Malta, two populations genetically analysed here for the first time. Our results suggest that the Egyptian weasel is distinct from the least weasel populations currently living in the Maghreb, which were inferred to be the result of an earlier colonization of North Africa, but the genetic data alone do not allow us to determine whether the Egyptian weasel is native or introduced. Nevertheless, the observed genetic patterns, together with the weasel fossil record in Israel and the unique commensal lifestyle of the Egyptian weasel, are consistent with the hypothesis that the Egyptian population is a relict of past range expansion from the Levant into Egypt. We suggest that the large size and characteristic sexual dimorphism of the Egyptian weasel are likely to represent ecotypic variation, but genomic studies are required to clarify the extent of its functional genetic divergence.
Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.
Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and “We are Arabs.” To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society’s perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society’s honor. “We are Arabs” describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being. PMID:26865811
Alkhateeb, Haitham M
The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Gaina, Alex; Dragan, Dorin
A critical overview of the National Calendars (former Calendars), published in the Moldavian S.S.R. - Republic of Moldova is given, in which one accent on biographies of scientists and not on science itself.
Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T
This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.
Shaban, E A; Ahmed, A A; Ayobe, M H
The aim of the present study was to prepare an effective and safe toxoid for the Egyptian Cobra (Naja haje) Venom by gamma irradiation. The effects of gamma irradiation (0.1-10 M rad) on the toxicity, as well as the antigen antibody complex formation reactivity was described. It appears from the results that the lethality of Naja haje venom irradiated in the dry form was not affected up to a dose of 10 M rad (100 KGy). On the other hand, the venom irradiated in the aqueous solution form showed a decrease in its lethality, and this was proportionately related to the dose of irradiation, while the ability of the venom antigens to react with its corresponding antibodies was retained up to irradiation dose of 5 M rad. The results of double immunodiffusion of non irradiated and the different dose levels of gamma irradiated venom (0.1-5 M rad) against a commercial Egyptian polyvalent antivenin, all showed similar patterns, the four visible lines obtained in the immunodiffusion reactions were identical and joined smoothly at the corners, indicating that there was no change in antigenic reactivity with antibodies determinants.
Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)
This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…
This dissertation presents experimental research on speech errors in Tunisian Arabic. The nonconcatenative morphology of Arabic shows interesting interactions of phrasal and lexical constraints with morphological structure during language production. The central empirical questions revolve around properties of "exchange errors". These…
Zamir, Sara; Baratz, Lea
The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a…
Al-Qaysi, Fouad Hussein; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi
Many studies have investigated vocabulary memorization strategies in the EFL context, but few researches have been conducted on the types of memorization strategies used by the Arab students in Malaysia. Thus, this study investigates the types of vocabulary memorization strategies employed by the Arab students in the Intensive English course at…
McCarus, Ernest N.; Rammuny, Raji M.
A computerized word count is presented of 11 elementary Modern Literary Arabic textbooks used in the United States. The word count was started in 1967 to provide a practical vocabulary base for a fully-programmed self-instructional course on the phonology and script of Modern Literary Arabic. The first part of the count is a cumulative list…
Ryding, Karin C.
Describes the research literature on diglossia, presents the practicality of Formal Spoken Arabic (FSA) from the training point of view, and gives a brief overview of features of FSA as taught at the Foreign Service Institute that have popularized it for teaching spoken proficiency skills to students of Arabic as a foreign language. (30…
MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS
THIS TWO-PART VOLUME IS THE FOURTH IN THE FIVE-VOLUME SERIES "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS." ON AN INTERMEDIATE LEVEL, THE CONTENT OF "SHORT STORIES, PART I"--TEN SHORT STORIES AND ONE PLAY--ASSUMES MASTERY OF BASIC ARABIC GRAMMAR AND PROVIDES FOR VOCABULARY EXPANSION AND APPRECIATION OF STYLE AND IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION. THE SELECTIONS REPRESENT THE…
Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu
Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…
Otero, George G.
In this unit, high-school students identify and evaluate their own images of the Arabs and begin to develop more accurate perceptions of the Arabs through data analysis. Activities emphasize social studies skills, such as mapmaking and reading, use of time lines and the concept of chronology, and data collection and analysis. Students compare…
Chtatou, Mohamed, Ed.
The instructional materials in Moroccan Arabic are designed to meet the language needs of Peace Corps volunteers working in rehabilitation and special education in Morocco. The lessons are almost entirely in Arabic, and include vocabulary lists with both technical and everyday language pertaining to disabilities. Lesson topics include singing, the…
Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Lucking, Robert
American K-12 school curricula are often bereft of acknowledgements of the historical contributions of Arab societies to our present-day intellectual heritage, an oversight most apparent in the sciences. Teachers in a thriving democracy are obliged to introduce contemporary scholarship that reflects the contributions of Arab scientists between the…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This booklet is intended for use as supplementary material in the Advanced Phase of the "Arabic Basic Course," developed and implemented at the Defense Language Institute. The purpose of this book is to acquaint students with specialized airport terminology pertaining to takeoff and landing procedures directed in modern, standard Arabic. The…
Obeidat, Marwan M.
Addresses an on-going controversy in English departments in universities in the Arab World on the respective roles of language and literature in teaching English to Muslim Arab students. Reviews the case against literature, examines the actual teaching of language vs. literature, and ultimately makes a case for teaching literature in the language…
Al Zidjaly, Najma
In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…
Wheeler, David L.; Wilhelm, Ian
As protesters across the Arab world demand an end to autocratic regimes that have drained universities of resources and suffocated critical thinking, scholars see some hope of an Arab renaissance and a new opening for American involvement. From the ancient Library of Alexandria to a new Islamic-arts museum in Qatar that holds 700-year-old…
Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann
To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…
When Loren Siebert struggled to learn vocabulary for his introductory Arabic class three years ago, he figured he would buy tapes or a software package. Those kinds of aids had helped him learn French in high school and, more recently, conversational Indonesian. What he was disappointed to discover was a scarcity in offerings for Arabic, despite…
The Arab world contains one of the greatest cultures and histories of any ethnic group in the world. However, since the 1980s, the education of this region has plummeted despite increases in school enrollers. This is prominently seen in the illiteracy rate of 30% throughout the Arab world. Furthermore, with a high unemployment rate of 14%, which…
Marie-Alsana, Wisam; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Greenbaum, Charles W.
This article examines the prevalence of violence in primary schools attended by Arab children in Israel and the relationship between such exposure and violent behavior among these children. Participants are 388 Arab children (aged 10 to 12 years) living in three localities in Israel. The research focuses on three of the child's roles in relation…
Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.
Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…
Hooglund, Eric, Ed.
This book is the second in a series of works that seeks to examine the Arab-American experience. The original 1984 publication, "Taking Root, Bearing Fruit: The Arab-American Experience" featured surveys of 12 communities in all geographic regions of the United States. Such was the response to that report that its creators decided to continue the…
Ferguson, Charles A.
Examines the historical changes in agreement patterns between Old Arabic and the New Arabic dialects to see whether they support Versteegh's radical hypothesis of pidginization, creolization, and decreolization. The conclusion is reached that the changes are chiefly because of processes of normal transmissions, "drift," and diffusion. (24…
Hager, Tamar; Saba, Tuffaha; Shay, Nava
This paper introduces a Jewish Arab dialogue model of national encounters which has been developed at Tel Hai College in Upper Galilee in Israel. These planned encounters, which have taken place for eight consecutive years within the framework of a course entitled "A Jewish-Arab dialogue--action research" are recognized as part of the…
Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady
Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…
In the past few decades, there has been a steady growth of interest in studying the representations of Arabs in media as shown by the increasing number of journal articles. Scholars have talked abundantly about he ugly images of Arabs that have been shown in American media for over a century. However, research lacks explanation and sufficing…
Abo Rabia, Hazza M.
This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…
Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics…
The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…
Ibrahim, Muhammad H.
This paper examines the results of two sociolinguistic studies of the Arabic spoken by men and women in Jordan and Syria in terms of sex differentiation in Arabic. The study reported in this paper proposes that the terms "prestigious" and "standard" should not be used interchangeably; accordingly, it reinterprets the previous…
Abu Rabia, Hazza M.
The adjustment process and issues of 16 Arab international students enrolled at two universities in the Northeast of the United States were examined through this qualitative, exploratory study. The participants were from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates and had been in the US for 2 to 5 years. In-depth…
This paper examines the spread of English as a medium of higher education in the Arab world, addressing questions about the relationship between higher education, language shift and cultural (re)production through such post-colonial educational bilingualism. Drawing on exploratory ethnographic research, it documents how both Arabic and English…
Abd-el-Jawad, H. R.
Sociolinguistic studies of spoken Arabic show at least three varieties at different levels of prestige: (1) Modern Standard Arabic (MSA); (2) regional standard with local prestige; and (3) vernacular varieties. The social function of the local prestigious nonstandard features can override the influence of the prestige of MSA. (Author/LMO)
Abboud, Peter F.; And Others
This volume consists of ten lessons covering the fundamentals of the phonological and the writing systems of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Objectives include the ability to: (1) read fully vocalized Arabic script; (2) write in an intelligible manner; and (3) distinguish and produce the sounds of MSA. The phonological system used is that of the…
Al Shatter, Ghassan
This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…
Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.
Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…
The aim of this study is to explore (non)morphological processes that native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic and Jordanian Rural Arabic use to expand their own lexicon. Three Jordanian female respondents were interviewed to collect data. The data consist of transcriptions of recorded tokens, which were categorised into groups according to the…
Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.
To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…
Lewicka, Magdalena; Waszau, Anna
The paper is dedicated to the characteristics of the proposal regarding the cultural and regional knowledge curriculum of the Arabic language area whose realization should be correlated with practical teaching of the Arabic Language, both in universities and in language courses. The prototype and the basis for the development of this curriculum…
The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…
This paper is an attempt to investigate the actual pronunciation of the consonants of Arabic and English with the help of phonetic and phonological tools like manner of the articulation, point of articulation, and their distribution at different positions in Arabic and English words. A phonetic and phonological analysis of the consonants of Arabic…
Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia
This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…
The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…
Lieblich, A.; Kugelmass, S.
Patterns of intellectual ability of Arab children aged 6 to 16 years were examined using the new Arab WISC-R. As in prior work, a distinct profile emerged: relative superiority in Verbal over Performance IQ's which diminished with age as a flat profile emerged in adolescence. An environmental explanation is offered. (Author/RD)
Ashkenasi hints that during the first intifada, “socioeconomic concerns of Arabs within Israel may have more to do with self- identification than...Palestine Studies 32, No. 3 (Spring 2003), 6. 38. Ibid., 8-9. 39. Ibid., 10. 40. Yiftachel, 104. 41. Abraham Ashkenasi , Palestinian Identities and Preferences: Israel’s and Jerusalem’s Arabs (NY: Praeger Publishers, 1992), 55.
The Arab Gulf States are the largest hosts of international branch campuses globally. By increasing higher education capacity in the Arab Gulf States by over 30,000 places, foreign institutions have, through various forms of transnational provision, increased significantly the accessibility of higher education to young people living in these…
Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania
This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of…
Muslih, Muhammad; Norton, Augustus Richard
This booklet examines the post-Persian Gulf War Middle East and the reconfiguration of political reality. Six chapters discuss: the Arab crisis; Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the Arab systems of government; new political alignments; windows of opportunity; and building on the Gulf victory. An annotated reading list consisting of 22 items is attached.…
HARRELL, RICHARD S.
THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED TO SERVE AS A PRACTICAL REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE STUDENT WHO HAS ALREADY HAD AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN MOROCCAN ARABIC. ALL THAT IS ATTEMPTED IS AN ORDERLY CATALOGING OF THE PRINCIPAL GRAMMATICAL FACTS OF THE LANGUAGE. NO EXERCISES OR GLOSSARIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND PROFESSIONAL TECHNICAL…
As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…
This study investigates the initial motivation of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). One hundred and twenty students enrolled in first-year and second-year AFL classes participated in this study. The participants were classified into two major groups of learners according to their heritage background: The first group consisted of…
Shoham, Edna; Shiloah, Neomi; Kalisman, Raya
Examined whether change occurred in the attitudes of Arab teachers in Israel toward Holocaust education following an inservice study course. Survey and interview data indicated that after the course, teachers had a better understanding of what occurred during the Holocaust, and their willingness to know about its effects on Jewish people…
Janssens, Wendy; Van Der Gaag, Jacques; Tanaka, Shinichiro
Within Egypt's national framework for improving access to and quality of education, the government has announced the intention of enlarging compulsory basic education with 1 or 2 years of preschool. This report to the World Bank examines early childhood development (ECD) in Egypt from an economic and financial perspective. Following an executive…
Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam
Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…
Riggs, Henry Chiles
Yemen, near the southwest tip of the Arabian Peninsula, is a mountainous country bordered by a desert on the east and a coastal plain on the west. Rainfall is low and seasonal; consequently, most streams (wadis) are ephemeral. The natural flow regimens of many of the smaller wadis are modified by terracing for agriculture. The only streamflow data available in Yemen are short records on four large wadis. A brief field investigation and application of reconnaissance techniques are the bases for the largely qualitative description of the hydrology, and for the proposal to collect streamflow data needed for orderly development of the expanding economy. (Woodard-USGS)
El-anbaawy, M.I.H.; Al-thour, K.A. )
On the basis of the lateral and vertical distribution of the lithofacies identified within the Late Jurassic Amran sequence (Thoma Member) in Jabal Al-Balaq area, Marib, Y.A.R., three megafacies were recognized. Proceeding from the shore landwards they are: Ooid bank, including barriers such as reefs and carbonate sand shoals adjacent to the margin of a shallow platform having intertidal to subtidal agitated water, the bank being composed of skeletal packstone, oolitic grainstone and oncolitic packstone; Shelf lagoon, behind the shoal, characterized by less turbulent pelletoidal wackestone, sandy mudstone and algal stromatolite (boundstone); Alluvial coastal plain, including tidal sand flat of the marine shoreline-intertidal area, where cross-bedded sandstone and alluvial fan toe conglomerate were deposited. The apparent small-scale facies variations which are the result of the allocyclic tectonically controlled sea level fluctuations, reflect a complex interfingering of the depositional environments and the resulting rock types. The paragenetic sequence of the post-depositional processes within the siliciclastics inferred is: iron oxide cementation, authigenic growth of mica clays, generation of pressure solution and compaction, and generation of quartz overgrowths. It is indicated that the compaction process followed the neomorphism and cementation within the carbonates.
... biometrics services fee described below by completing a Request for Fee Waiver (Form I-912), or submitting a... Biometrics (such as fingerprints) are required for all applicants 14 years of age or older. Such applicants..., you may apply for a biometrics fee waiver by completing a Request for Fee Waiver (Form I-912), or...
Ushiogi, Morikazu; Tanaka, Shinichira; O'Gara, Chloe; Sprague, David
This report submitted to the World Bank analyzes the early childhood development (ECD) policies, strategies, and programs in Egypt in 2001. Information was gathered from documents, observations in kindergartens and nurseries, interviews with more than 50 teachers and parents, and a survey of policymakers and program managers in Cairo, Egypt. The…
Abazid, N; Jones, C; Davies, C R
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Aleppo and yet the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of CL patients in Aleppo has never been studied. We conducted a KAP study among 70 CL patients attending 4 clinics in Aleppo. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and then at the end of treatment to ascertain their views on access to treatment and the quality of care provided. The mean age of respondents was 32.3 (SD 12.4) years and 59% were female. Most respondents referred to the disease as "one-year sore", linked it to insect bites and believed it was not contagious. Most believed it was preventable by the use of bednets and insecticides and knew the treatment mode. Only 26 (37%) respondents completed the second part of the questionnaire after treatment. Most of these (80%) rated the quality of care as acceptable or better. Assessment f the quality as "bad" correlated with failure to complete follow-up.
This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey describing the growth of primary schooling in the UAR during the 19th and 20th centuries. Different types of elementary schools were unified in 1951 into one category, and in 1953, all fees were abolished and primary certificate examinations were…
AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin
The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.
After a brief review of the proliferation of newly coined Arabic words to speak about LGBTQIA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and ally) identities, this article interrogates the facile imitation of Western labels and questions their usefulness in the context of Arab societies and cultures. It demonstrates that the assumptions that underlie the creation of new wordlists overlook and ultimately erase the very rich tradition on alternative sexual practices that has been prominent in the Islamicate world at least since the ninth century. Salvaging this tradition and its accompanying terminology on homosexuality challenges the claim that homosexuality is a Western importation, and renders the recourse to English categories superfluous. Moreover, uncovering the forgotten Arabic cultural material on alternative sexualities offers contemporary Arab gays and lesbians a rich and empowering indigenous heritage, as well as home-grown modes of resistance that are poised to challenge homophobic attitudes and policies in the Arab world, and the hegemony of Western sexual and cultural imperialism.
Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar
This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place
Agbaria, Ayman K.
Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…
Examines the influence of exposure to literary Arabic of preschool children on their reading comprehension of literary Arabic stories in grades 1 and 2. Indicates better reading comprehension results for the children who were exposed to literary Arabic than for the children who were exposed only to spoken Arabic. (SC)
Aroian, Karen J.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.; Templin, Thomas N.
This study extends prior work with the Russian-language version of the Demands of Immigration Scale (DIS) with former Soviet immigrants and evaluates the reliability and validity of the Arabic-language version of the DIS with Arab immigrants. Three hundred and ninety-four Arab immigrant women completed the Arabic DIS and two measures of mood.…
Dinero, Steven C.
Examines disproportionality in special education among Israeli Arabs. Arab children are more likely than Jewish children to be placed in special education. Negev bedouin Arab children, however, are underrepresented in special education. Discusses whether a culture of disability is being fostered among the Arab citizens of Israel and whether…
ElObeidy, Ahmed A.
Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…
Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita
Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.
el-Gohary, M A
In the years 1985-1992, ten pairs of conjoined twins were born in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): one dicephalus, two teratopagi, and seven thoracoomphalopagi, one of which was still-born and three who were cared for in other hospitals. The first pair of thoraco-omphalopagus twins died of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 6 months after successful separation. The management of the third set of twins gave rise to moral and ethical problems often encountered in such situations, while one of the teratopagi was a unique case of a parasite projecting from the mouth of the normal twin.
Ancient Egyptian methods of baking and brewing are investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy of desiccated bread loaves and beer remains. The results suggest that current conceptions about ancient Egyptian bread and beer making should be modified. Bread was made not only with flour from raw grain, but sometimes also with malt and with yeast. Brewing blended cooked and uncooked malt with water; the mixture was strained free of husk before inoculation with yeast.
Ramzy, Reda MR; Goldman, Ann S; Kamal, Hussein A
Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination. LF elimination programmes in different countries, including Egypt, are supported financially by national and international agencies. The national programme in Egypt is based on mass drug administration (MDA) of an annual dose of a combination of 2 drugs (DEC and albendazole) to all endemic villages. This study aimed primarily to estimate the Total and Government costs of two rounds of MDA conducted in Egypt in 2000 and 2001, the average cost per person treated, and the cost share of the different programme partners. Methods The Total costs reflect the overall annual costs of the MDA programme, and we defined Government costs as those expenditures made by the Egyptian government to develop, implement and sustain the MDA programmes. We used a generic protocol developed in coordination with the Emory Lymphatic Filariasis Support Center. Our study was concerned with all costs to the government, donors and other implementing parties. Cost data were retrospectively gathered from local, regional and national Ministry of Health and Population records. The total estimates for each governorate were based on data from a representative district for the governorate; these were combined with national programme data for a national estimate. Results The overall Total and Government costs for treating approximately 1,795,553 individuals living in all endemic villages in the year 2000 were US $3,181,000 and US $2,412,000, respectively. In 2001, the number of persons treated increased (29%) and the Total costs were US $3,109,000 while Government costs were US $2,331,000. In 2000, the average Total and Government costs per treated subject were US $1.77 and $1.34, respectively, however, these costs decreased to US $1.34 and $1.00, respectively in 2001. The coverage rate was 86.0% in 2000 and it increased to 88.0% in 2001. Conclusion The Egyptian government provided 75.8% of all resources, as reflected in the Total
Elebrashy, Ibrahim N; El Meligi, Amr; Rashed, Laila; Salam, Randa F; Youssef, Elham; Fathy, Shaimaa A
Purpose High prevalence of thyroid disorders is more common in type 1 diabetes compared to type 2 diabetes, due to associated autoimmunity. Hypothyroidism is the most common disorder. The objective was to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among type 2 diabetic Egyptian females and to find the correlation between metabolic syndrome components and autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. Materials and methods The study included 62 type 2 diabetic Egyptian females and 27 sex- and age-matched controls. All patients in the study were subjected to anthropometric measures, including HbA1c, lipid profile, serum uric acid, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and thyroid ultrasound. Results Hypothyroidism was found in 45.2% of patients (5.49±3.37 μIU/mL) versus 11.1% of controls (1.79±1.21 μIU/mL) (P<0.001). Anti-TPO was found in 75.8% (347.15±244.87 IU/mL) of patients versus 7.4% (32.89±33.26 IU/mL) of controls (P<0.001). Anti-Tg was found in 61.3% (508.03±369.16 IU/mL) of patients versus 0 (51.26±35.53 IU/mL) controls (P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between TSH and antithyroid antibodies (anti-Tg, anti-TPO; P=0.002 and P=0.043, respectively) and between TSH and thyroid-gland volume (P=0.002) in diabetic patients. No correlation was found between any components of metabolic syndrome and thyroid antibodies in diabetic patients. Conclusion Autoimmune thyroid disease is more common in Egyptian women with type 2 diabetes than nondiabetic women, and thus points to a role of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27920545
Maliki, Makki; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Sellahewa, Harin
This paper is concerned with pre-processing and segmentation tasks that influence the performance of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems and handwritten/printed text recognition. In Arabic, these tasks are adversely effected by the fact that many words are made up of sub-words, with many sub-words there associated one or more diacritics that are not connected to the sub-word's body; there could be multiple instances of sub-words overlap. To overcome these problems we investigate and develop segmentation techniques that first segment a document into sub-words, link the diacritics with their sub-words, and removes possible overlapping between words and sub-words. We shall also investigate two approaches for pre-processing tasks to estimate sub-words baseline, and to determine parameters that yield appropriate slope correction, slant removal. We shall investigate the use of linear regression on sub-words pixels to determine their central x and y coordinates, as well as their high density part. We also develop a new incremental rotation procedure to be performed on sub-words that determines the best rotation angle needed to realign baselines. We shall demonstrate the benefits of these proposals by conducting extensive experiments on publicly available databases and in-house created databases. These algorithms help improve character segmentation accuracy by transforming handwritten Arabic text into a form that could benefit from analysis of printed text.
El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.
Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.
Al-Hadhrami, Ahmed A N; Allen, Mike; Moffatt, Colin; Jones, Allison E
From each of four Arabic countries; Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Oman, 150 participants produced handwriting samples which were examined to assess whether national characteristics were discernible. Ten characters, which have different configurations depending upon their position in the word, along with one short word, were classified into distinguishable forms, and these forms recorded for each handwriting sample. Tests of independence showed that character forms used were not independent of country (p<0.001) for all but one character-position (this was dropped from subsequent analyses). A correspondence analysis ordination plot and analysis of similarity (R=0.326, p=0.0002) showed that whole samples were discernibly grouped by country, and a tree analysis produced a classification which was 71% accurate for the original data and 83% accurate for 80 new handwriting samples that underwent 'blind' classification. When the countries were combined into two regions, North Africa and Middle East, the grouping was more marked. Thus, there appears to be some scope for narrowing down the nationality, and particularly the wider geographical region of an author based upon the character forms they use in Arabic handwriting.
Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.
Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.
Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Taniguchi, K.; Nomura, S.; Yoshimura, S.; Kondo, J.; Iskander, N.; Zaghloul, B.
Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1450B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously.
Uda, M; Sassa, S; Taniguchi, K; Nomura, S; Yoshimura, S; Kondo, J; Iskander, N; Zaghloul, B
Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000 B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1420 B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.
Habib, Sahar Refaat; Kamal, Nashwa Nabil
Estimation of stature from extremities plays an important role in identifying the deceased in forensic examinations. This study examines the relationship between stature and hand and phalanges lengths among Egyptians. Stature, hand and phalanges lengths of 159 subjects, 82 males and 77 females (18-25years) were measured. Statistical analysis indicated that bilateral variation was insignificant for all measurements. Sex differences were significant for all measurements. Linear and multiple regression equations for stature estimation were calculated. Correlation coefficients were found to be positive, but little finger measurements of male and distal phalanges of female fingers were not correlated with stature. Regression equations were checked for accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual stature.
The paper deals with a case of a most probable metastatic carcinoma, found in skeletal remains of a 35-45 year old female who lived in Sayala, Egyptian Nubia, during the Christian Period. The macroscopic and radiographic morphology supported by microscopic investigation by M. Schultz (Göttingen) revealed the predominating osteoclastic process in the lesions, combining with the slightly expressed osteoblastic component. Single lesions located in the skull, spine, sacrum, sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapula, radius, metacarpals and hand phalanges, ossa coxae, femur and tibia were described. Of the various differential diagnostic possibilities, the diagnosis was focused on distinction between myeloma multiplex and lytic metastatic carcinoma. The growing evidence of incidence of metastatic carcinoma, its relative frequency compared with that of myeloma multiplex, and the most probable primary source of metastases of our case--the carcinoma of the breast--were discussed.
el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M
One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones.
Hughes, Stephen W.
This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images reveal details of the remains of body organs, wrappings and jewellery. 3D reconstructions of Jeni's teeth suggest that she was probably only around 20 years old when she died, although the cause of death cannot be ascertained from the CT scans. The CT images were used to build a 3D model of Jeni's head which enabled an artist to paint a picture of what Jeni may have looked like during life. A PowerPoint presentation and movie clips are provided as supplementary material that may be useful for teaching.
Hamed, Razan; Alheresh, Rawan; Dahab, Sana Abu; Collins, Brittany; Fryer, Jasmine; Holm, Margo B
Participation is an indicator of healthy functioning and well-being, as emphasized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (World Health Organization, 2001). The Activity Card Sort (ACS) is a valid and reliable assessment tool that measures participation. This study describes the process of developing the Arab heritage version of the ACS (A-ACS). The original ACS was translated to Arabic using World Health Organization forward-backward translation guidelines, and activities that are common in Arab cultures were nominated using the ACS investigators' guidelines. Participant respondents were 156 Jordanians, from different age groups and socioeconomic classes. The process initially yielded 179 activities common to all international versions of the ACS, 19 of which were unique to the Arab culture. Eighty-eight items were validated for the A-ACS. The A-ACS validated in this study is the first assessment tool, for Arab adults whose heritage is in the Middle-East and North Africa, that measures participation. We expect the tool to have excellent clinical utility not only in Arab countries, but also for immigrants and citizens of Arab origins worldwide.
Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.
At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.
Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami
The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the Arabic DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.
The population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was an estimated 61 million (including West Berlin) in 1986 and is in the process of declining gradually as a result of low birth rates. The infant mortality rate is 11/1000, while life expectancy is 73.4 years for women and 67.2 years for men. Of the work force of 27.6 million, 5.4% are engaged in agriculture, 41.6% work in industry and commerce, 10% are employed by the government, and 42.7% are in the service sector. The gross national product was US$898.8 billion in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6% and a per capita income of $10,680. The government is parliamentary and based on a democratic constitution emphasizing protection of individual liberty and divided power in a federal structure. Political life since the establishment of the FRG in 1949 has been characterized by remarkable stability and orderly succession. The FRG ranks among the most important economic powers in the world. The economy is largely export oriented, with 25-30% of the gross national product shipped abroad each year. Competition and free enterprise are fostered, but the state participates in the ownership and management of major sections of the economy, including public services. A major concern at present is the country's ability to adapt to new markets and to develop sophisticated technologies.
Selim, Mohamed Khaled; Ahmed, El-Shahat Farag; Abdelgawad, Mamdouh Morsy; El-Kamel, Mohammed Fawzy
Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a disease of unclear etiology. Propionbacterium acnes (P. acnes) was claimed to be an etiological factor. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathological features of PMH in Egyptian patients and to evaluate the therapeutic outcome. Methods: Patients with clinical features of PMH were recruited. Wood’s lamp examination, skin scrapings for fungi, and skin biopsy specimens were obtained. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, PAS, Fontana-Masson, and S100 protein. Patients received either narrow-band UVB (nbUVB) or nbUVB plus daily topical clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide gel 5% (bcUVB). The period of active treatment was 14 weeks followed by a follow-up period of 24 weeks. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included. Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens showed no significant differences between lesional and normal skin. Fontana-Masson stained sections showed overall reduction of melanin granules in the basal layer of lesional skin only and S100 staining did not detect significant differences in the number of melanocytes in lesional and normal skin. Nearly complete repigmentation was reported in 10 patients treated with bcUVB compared to 9 patients treated with nbUVb with no significant differences between both groups after 14 weeks. Only 2 patients in each group retained the pigmentation and the remaining patients returned to the baseline color before treatment. Conclusions: This study documented the clinicopathological features of PMH among Egyptians. No permanently effective treatment is available. Further studies are needed to prove or disprove the pathogenic role of P. acnes in PMH. PMID:24396712
Fawzi, M H; Fawzi, M M; Abu-Hindi, W
The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a brief questionnaire to assess the presence of a depressive disorder. We prepared an Arabic version of the MDI and tested its reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity as a diagnostic tool of major depressive disorder. A group of 50 Egyptian outpatients with major depressive disorder (assessed clinically and with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders) were compared with 50 healthy controls using the MDI-A, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STA.). Cronbach a was 0.91 and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97-0.99). Scores on the MDI-A strongly correlated with BDI scores (r = 0.81) but insignificantly correlated with STAI scores. Using the MDI scoring algorithm, the sensitivity was 88.4% and specificity 78.9%. We conclude that the MDI-A has an excellent reliability and an acceptable concurrent and discriminant validity.
Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia
Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.
Mahmoud, Mai A; Al-Khafaji, Jawad Thamer Jawad; Al-Shorbaji, Najeeb; Sara, Kaseem; Al-Ubaydli, Mohammad; Ghazzaoui, Ramez; Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Paul
BabelMeSH is a multilanguage search for MEDLINE/PubMed. We created a database of Arabic translations of MeSH terms and other medical terms using MySQL and developed a Web interface for searching MEDLINE/PubMed in Arabic. We evaluated the accuracy of BabelMeSH using a list of medical terms from BMJ Clinical Evidence. The accuracy was 58% (machine scoring) and 65% human review.) The result obtained may be explained by variations in expressing medical terms in Arabic.
Sandler, S G; Kravitz, C; Sharon, R; Hermoni, D; Ezekiel, E; Cohen, T
The distribution of the Fy gene was studied in 1,207 Israeli Jews and 509 Arabs. The Fy(a--b--) phenotype (FyFy) was observed in Moslem, Christian and Druze Arabs, and in Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Iraq, but not in Sephardi or Ashkenazi Jews. The Fy gene frequencies in Arabs and Jews were compatible with historical evidence of interactions with native African and admixed regional populations. Compared with Rho (cDe) and Jsa, Fy(a--b--) is a more useful genetic marker for recognizing African admixture in Middle Eastern populations.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…
1 Income and Wealth Disparities Between Oil-Rich and Oil- Poor Countries .................................... 2 Shifts in the International...provides another source of interstate friction. INCOME AND WEALTH DISPARrrlES B3WETKl OIL-RICH AND OIL- POOR COUNTRI This poesible source of conflict...ofthe •.f.-.* listed earlier: the growing diauqrties in income and wealth between the Arab rich and poor This focus doe not gainsay the fact that some
The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.
Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.
This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…
This study examines the perception of Arabic teachers on whether an integrated approach is critical for students' communicative competence in Arabic. Additionally, the study attempts to uncover what might be potential barriers to the integrated-approach program-wide implementation in the field of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language in higher…
This study is designed to explore the salient linguistic features of the political speeches of the ousted Arab presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution. The sample of the study is composed of seven political speeches delivered by the ousted Arab presidents during the period from December 2010 to December 2012. Three speeches were delivered by…
Raxter, Michelle H; Ruff, Christopher B; Azab, Ayman; Erfan, Moushira; Soliman, Muhammad; El-Sawaf, Aly
Trotter and Gleser's (Trotter and Gleser: Am J Phys Anthropol 10 (1952) 469-514; Trotter and Gleser: Am J Phys Anthropol 16 (1958) 79-123) long bone formulae for US Blacks or derivations thereof (Robins and Shute: Hum Evol 1 (1986) 313-324) have been previously used to estimate the stature of ancient Egyptians. However, limb length to stature proportions differ between human populations; consequently, the most accurate mathematical stature estimates will be obtained when the population being examined is as similar as possible in proportions to the population used to create the equations. The purpose of this study was to create new stature regression formulae based on direct reconstructions of stature in ancient Egyptians and assess their accuracy in comparison to other stature estimation methods. We also compare Egyptian body proportions to those of modern American Blacks and Whites. Living stature estimates were derived using a revised Fully anatomical method (Raxter et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 130 (2006) 374-384). Long bone stature regression equations were then derived for each sex. Our results confirm that, although ancient Egyptians are closer in body proportion to modern American Blacks than they are to American Whites, proportions in Blacks and Egyptians are not identical. The newly generated Egyptian-based stature regression formulae have standard errors of estimate of 1.9-4.2 cm. All mean directional differences are less than 0.4% compared to anatomically estimated stature, while results using previous formulae are more variable, with mean directional biases varying between 0.2% and 1.1%, tibial and radial estimates being the most biased. There is no evidence for significant variation in proportions among temporal or social groupings; thus, the new formulae may be broadly applicable to ancient Egyptian remains.
Aly, A M
In part one of this paper we discussed the use of Arabic as an official and working language in the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and WHO Headquarters. We reviewed the arrangements made to rationalize the Arabic activities in WHO, the development of an authentic Arabic version of the WHO constitution, the impact of WHO restructuring on the Arabic programme and the establishment of the Arab Centre for Medical Literature in Kuwait. In this part we address the developments in Arabic medical terminology, the establishment of the Regional Arabic Programme and the unified WHO Programme of Arabic publications, and last but not least, the production of the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal in English, French and Arabic.
Describes the uniterm system of coordinate indexing and examines its applicability to the indexing of Arabic literature. Unresolved problems in semantics, thesauri development, and standardization are identified and discussed. (CLB)
Li, Chi-Keung; Poon, Nai-Leung; Fung, Wing-Kam; Yang, Chi-Ting
This paper reports the statistical study of writing habits for Arabic Numerals of 187 subjects in Hong Kong. A classification system of writing habits for Arabic numerals based on assigned codes of characteristic features such as slant, writing direction, relative position of strokes, angularity of turnings, shape of initial and ending strokes, etc. was developed. A set of characteristic codes representing the profile of writing habits pertaining to Arabic numerals was assigned to each writer. Apart from the distribution of characteristic features, statistical analysis of the assigned codes demonstrated homogeneity of individual hand-writing patterns. It has been shown that irrespective of the structural simplicity of Arabic numerals, no two individuals exhibited the same set of characteristic codes. The findings support the hypothesis of individuality in handwriting.
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
To estimate the convergent validity of the Arabic Scale of Mental Health, three convenience separate samples (ns = 162, 168, 138) of volunteer Kuwaiti college students, ages 19 to 32 years, responded anonymously to several scales measuring psychopathology. Analyses showed total ratings for the scale correlated negatively with those of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, Factorial Arabic Neuroticism Scale, Somatic Symptoms Inventory, Arabic Scale of Insomnia, the nine subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the seven subscales of the General Health Questionnaire. Three separate correlation matrices were subjected to principal components analyses for which a single bipolar factor, Mental health versus psychopathology, was retained in all three matrices. Loadings for the Arabic Scale of Mental Health were -.76, -.64, and -.76. It was concluded that this scale has suitable convergent validity.
Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor
In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The results of the first experiment demonstrated the early emergence of derivational morphological awareness in children, with root awareness emerging earlier than word-pattern awareness. The second experiment supported the implication of morphological processing in spelling words and pseudo words across all grades tested. The results are discussed within a developmental psycholinguistic framework with particular emphasis on the characteristics of the Arabic language and orthography.
Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968
Angeletti, L R
During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.
Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N.; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death…
Iraq, holding oil reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, is locked in a war with Iran whose outcome will affect Western energy supplies and the prospects for stability in the Arabian Gulf. Yet Iraq even now remains little known to Western governments and publics. This study is intended to enlarge understanding of Iraqi behavior and of the concerns that motivate its leaders. Rather than selecting issues of importance to other countries, the author focuses on the forces that influence policy formulation in Iraq and evokes the perspective from which the Iraqi government itself views its problems and sets its priorities. Part 1 examines the country's evolution into modern Iraq, explaining why problems that have recurred throughout Iraqi history have bedeviled all recent Iraqi governments and created tension between ''Iraq the nation'' and ''Iraq the state.'' Part 2 discusses the Arab Ba'th Socialist party, which has dominated Iraqi political life since 1968. The author neither condemns nor praises this controversial party and its current leader, President Saddam Husain, but seeks to explain why they have adopted the positions and taken the actions that have characterized their rule. Part 3 analyzes the war between Iraq and Iran, its causes, and the decisions Iraq has made in light of its goals and its assumptions about Iran. The author finds that this is not simply ''a war over borders'' but a deeper conflict between Islamic conservatism and Arab nationalism. Looking beyond the war, the final chapter assesses Iraq's potential importance in the Middle East and to the world economy. 8 figs.
Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani
Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.
French, Andrea R; Franz, Timothy M; Phelan, Laura L; Blaine, Bruce E
This study replicated and extended Olson and Fazio (2006) by testing whether evaluative conditioning is a means to reduce negative stereotypes about Muslim and other Arab persons. Specifically, evaluative conditioning was hypothesized to lower implicit biases against Muslim and Arab persons. The FreeIAT was used to measure implicit biases. Participants in the evaluative conditioning group showed a significant lowering in implicit biases. Explicit measures of bias were not affected by the conditioning procedure.
Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties – attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416
Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.
Teebi, A S
Kuwait has a cosmopolitan population of 1.7 million, mostly Arabs. This population is a mosaic of large and small minorities representing most Arab communities. In general, Kuwait's population is characterized by a rapid rate of growth, large family size, high rates of consanguineous marriages within the Arab communities with low frequency of intermarriage between them, and the presence of genetic isolates and semi-isolates in some extended families and Bedouin tribes. Genetic services have been available in Kuwait for over a decade. During this time it has become clear that Arabs have a high frequency of genetic disorders, and in particular autosomal recessive traits. Their pattern is unique and some disorders are relatively common. Examples are Bardet-Biedl and Meckel syndromes, phenylketonuria, and familial Mediterranean fever. A relatively large number of new syndromes and variants have been delineated in Kuwait's population, many being the result of homozygosity for autosomal recessive genes that occurred because of inbreeding. Some of these syndromes have subsequently been found in other parts of the world, negating the concept of the private syndrome. This paper provides an overview of autosomal recessive disorders among the Arabs in Kuwait from a personal perspective and published studies, and highlights the need for genetic services in Arab countries with the goal of prevention and treatment of genetic disorders. PMID:8014972
Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.
The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study.
Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.
The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.
Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M
The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.
Foster, Angel M; Wynn, Lisa; Rouhana, Aida; Polis, Chelsea; Trussell, James
Emergency contraception (EC) has the potential to reduce significantly the incidence of unintended pregnancy worldwide. In May 2003, the first Arabic-language web site dedicated to disseminating information about and increasing awareness of EC was launched. This paper examines patterns of web site use and user profiles over a 19-month period. Analysis of use shows that the Arabic web site users are interested in different aspects of EC than the English web site users, suggesting the importance of creating culturally specific content when adapting and translating health education materials. Arabic web site users demonstrate significant interest in general reproductive health issues not specific to EC, suggesting a need for greater availability of Arabic-language health education resources through the Internet.
This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dawn of Egyptian Art'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Dawn of Egyptian Art,'' imported from abroad for...
Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189
Austin, Anne M; Fawzi, Wafaie; Hill, Allan G
Anaemia remains the most prevalent nutritional disorder among women and children in the Middle East and North Africa region. We examined anaemia trends using data from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys. Between 2000 and 2005, the prevalence of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin concentrations <11 g dL(-1) ) increased from 37.04% to over 52% among Egyptian children between 12 months and 36 months of age. We examined the associations of these changes with food consumption, vitamin A administration, recent illness, immunization status, socio-demographic factors and a child's anaemic status. Children under the age of 24 months who had recently been sick and those who resided in Upper Egypt were significantly more likely to be anaemic. Despite significant improvements in water and sanitation facilities, maternal education and asset-based household wealth, there were marked declines in the consumption of nutritive foods and increases in the prevalence of childhood diarrhoea between 2000 and 2005. Placing these analyses in the broader context of Egyptian economic trends suggests that the nutritional basket consumed by Egyptian households between 2000 and 2005 may have shifted towards less nutritive foods with lower costs per calorie, probably in response to economic difficulties and increasing food prices. Shifts in dietary consumption, in conjunction with increases in diarrhoea, are likely contributing to the rapid increase in childhood anaemia in Egypt between 2000 and 2005. National-level fortification efforts may be one way to combat rising levels of anaemia among Egyptian women and children.
Kim, Yeong C.; Soliman, Amr S.; Cui, Jian; Ramadan, Mohamed; Hablas, Ahmed; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Hussien, Nehal; Ahmed, Ola; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman Nabawy; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.
Genetic predisposition increases the risk of familial breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be ethnic-specific. However, current knowledge of genetic predisposition for the disease is predominantly derived from Western populations. Using this existing information as the sole reference to judge the predisposition in non-Western populations is not adequate and can potentially lead to misdiagnosis. Efforts are required to collect genetic predisposition from non-Western populations. The Egyptian population has high genetic variations in reflecting its divergent ethnic origins, and incident rate of familial breast cancer in Egypt is also higher than the rate in many other populations. Using whole exome sequencing, we investigated genetic predisposition in five Egyptian familial breast cancer families. No pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other classical breast cancer-predisposition genes were present in these five families. Comparison of the genetic variants with those in Caucasian familial breast cancer showed that variants in the Egyptian families were more variable and heterogeneous than the variants in Caucasian families. Multiple damaging variants in genes of different functional categories were identified either in a single family or shared between families. Our study demonstrates that genetic predisposition in Egyptian breast cancer families may differ from those in other disease populations, and supports a comprehensive screening of local disease families to determine the genetic predisposition in Egyptian familial breast cancer. PMID:28076423
When the Arabic-Islamic medicine evolved partly as a consequence of the wave of translations from mainly Greek medical books to Arabic in the 9th century the pharmacological works, which were available, were also translated. The books of Dioscurides and Galen on pharmacological matters became the decisive books of pharmacological translated literature and they formed the basis of the pharmacological understanding in the subsequent extensive literature on pharmacognosy and pharmacology written in Arabic. Nevertheless the Arabs united these two disciplines in a regular pharmacy and they evolved it as an independent discipline, which although attached to medicine was regarded as having its own praxis. The physicians and scientists rationalized and systematized their knowledge of medicinal plants and drugs and extended their knowledge by using original observations and research. Many books on medicaments were written, both as materia medica, i.e. records on simple drugs, and dispensatories, i.e. books on compounded drugs. These two kinds of books were always written separately as they were seen by the Arabs themselves as pertaining to two different subdisciplines, which meant that they were separated too in independent chapters or books in general Arabic works on medicine. When the extensive translations of Arabic medical literature to Latin took place in Italy and Spain in the 11th and 12th centuries, the Arabic pharmacological literature was of course also translated, and its decisive influence on later medieval European medical writings is easy to demonstrate. In the 18th century Peter Forsskaal was one of the first Europeans in the modern scientific tradition to collect and make notes on drugs used in Cairo and in Yemen.
The goal was to provide an overview of main issues relevant to aging in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is a former Eastern Bloc nation of about 10.5 million. Older adults are overrepresented relative to those under age 15. Life expectancy currently hovers around 78 years (75 for men/81 for women), a number slightly higher than most of Eastern Europe but lower than most of Western Europe. Cardiovascular diseases account for about 50% of all mortality, which is one of the highest rates in Europe and therefore of particular concern. Lifestyle habits, especially high alcohol consumption, a high rate of smokers, and high-fat diet relative to most other European countries and the United States, combined with relatively low expenditures for health promotion, appear important in the context of high cardiovascular mortality. Long-term care is funded mostly by state and local governments. The country has tried to address issues associated with insufficient capacity and low quality in long-term care, a particularly prominent problem in the Czech Republic compared with other European countries. The recently established International Clinical Research Center brings new possibilities for collaborative research in the Czech Republic, including research specific to aging. Improving long-term care and establishing methodologically sound longitudinal data sets are among the most pressing issues, although sustaining the pension system strained by increasing life expectancy, low retirement age, and extensive government-sponsored benefits has also recently emerged as a critical issue.
Loewenthal, Nessa P.
The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…
Jordan, Björn; Vercammen, Paul; Cooper, Kimberly L
The lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, is the ideal jerboa species for use as a laboratory model system. As a member of the most derived clade of three-toed jerboas, it shows all of the specialized characteristics for bipedalism, including loss of the lateral digits and fusion and elongation of the metatarsals. It is a small rodent, weighing ∼55 g as an adult, and it does not hibernate through the winter as is common with many other jerboa species. It is the first Dipodoid rodent whose genome is to be sequenced, and multiple genomic resources are being generated. The jerboa has been notoriously difficult to breed in captivity with only a small number of zoos and private breeders achieving success. The Harvard University colony of 60 adult animals (half male/half female) has had 36 offspring born in captivity in one year. The jerboa colony at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE has been operating since 2007 and has had 180 live births. Here, we outline guidelines for successfully maintaining and breeding a colony of J. jaculus in a laboratory setting.
El-Alameey, Inas R.; Ahmed, Hanaa H.; Tawfik, Sawsan M.; Hassaballa, Fawzia; Gawad, Ayman M. Abdel; Eltahlawy, Eman
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature in infants with congenital heart disease. AIM: This study was designed to evaluate age-dependent serum levels of antigliadin antibodies among malnourished Egyptian infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and gastrointestinal symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study conducted on 60 infants with established congenital heart disease. They were subdivided into cyanotic and acyanotic groups, and each group includes 30 patients compared with thirty apparently healthy infants of matched age, sex, and social class. Serum antigliadin antibodies levels were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: The mean age of introduction of cereals in the diet and appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms were six months. On comparison with controls, patients showed highly significant higher serum levels of antigliadin antibodies (P < 0.000). On analysing risk factors using odds ratio, the age at onset of GIT symptoms, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and distension had been found to be significantly associated with high serum antigliadin antibodies among malnourished CHD infants with a prediction of 95%. CONCLUSION: Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG class antibodies to gliadin play a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition in infants with CHD. Gluten containing foods should never be introduced before the end of the six months. PMID:28293318
Schillaci, Michael A; Irish, Joel D; Wood, Carolan C E
The origins of state formation in ancient Egypt have been the focus of recent research utilizing biological data to test hypotheses regarding in situ development of local groups, or large-scale in-migration, possibly by an invading army. The primary goal of the present research is to further test these hypotheses. Our secondary goal is to compare different distance measures and assess how they might affect interpretation of population history. We analyze craniodental nonmetric data using several different measures of biological distance, as well as a method for estimating group diversity using multidimensional scaling of distance estimates. Patterns of biological variation and population relationships were interpreted in temporal and geographic contexts. The results of our analyses suggest that the formation of the ancient Egyptian state likely included a substantial in situ process, with some level of contribution by outside migrants probable. The higher level of population structure in Lower Egypt, relative to Upper Egypt, suggests that such influence and migration by outsiders may not have been widespread geographically. These findings support, but serve to refine further those obtained by the second author in a previous study. Moreover, our comparison of distance measures indicates that the choice of measure can influence identification and interpretation of the microevolutionary processes shaping population history, despite being strongly correlated with one another.
El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A
This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts.
Khalil, H M; el Shimi, S; Sarwat, M A; Fawzy, A F; el Sorougy, A O
Survey on 1800 children was conducted to detect the prevalence of H. nana infection in Egyptian children, by direct smear and concentration techniques. The incidence of infection was found to be 16%. Two hundred cases of them were subjected to full clinical history, thorough physical examination and anthropometric assessment. Different clinical manifestations were found in 84% of cases. Delayed growth manifested by decrease of the body weight below the third percentile was found in 62% of cases, in addition to marked affection of the body, height, head circumference, midarm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness in 16%, 10%, 32% and 28% of cases respectively. Trials on these 200 cases were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of "Praziquantel" in comparison with "Mebendazole". Praziquantel gave significant higher cure rates, being 91.1% and 97.7% after 2 and 4 weeks respectively, compared to Mebendazole which gave cure rates of 50% and 59%. Both drugs were well tolerated and have no side effects, however Praziquantel was given as a single dose, and so have the advantage of being more effective, easily administered, safe with higher cure rate.
El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude
Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type.
El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude
Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434
El-Gamal, A.; Rashad, M.; Ghatass, Z.
The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of 241Am, 137Cs and 60Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of 241Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of 241Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO 3, total dissolved solids, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, CO 32-, HCO 3- and total Fe 2+ have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.
This research effort is concerned with the identification and utilization of practical design guidelines to meet the demand for guidance in innovative planning and building design for Egyptian desert conditions. An energy-conscious design can be realized with a minimum expenditure of exhaustible energy resources and maximum utilization of the natural energies for cooling and heating. The energy design guidelines developed will be applied to an Urban Center, on a site selected to alleviate the stress on Cairo, which has been suffering for over two decades from housing shortages due to overpopulation. Design criteria to meet the challenges of this research include: neighborhood planning; orientation; building details; shading; colors of walls and roofs; materials; and massing configuration. In this research, desert construction and its aspects, use of building materials, approaches to energy conservation, and architectural principles for neighborhood planning are identified. The human requirement for thermal comfort specific to desert environments are analyzed and related to diurnal and annual patterns of outdoor conditions, and to the potential for modifying indoor thermal conditions by designs suitable to prevailing climatic conditions.
El-Zohairy, E A; Youssef, A F; Abul-Nasr, S M; Fahmy, I M; Salem, D; Kahil, A K; Madkour, M K
Fifty-five urban Egyptian males, aged 20-40, were assigned to two main groups to study the effects of their exposure to lead (Pb). Group I, infertile men (INF, n = 30), was divided into environmentally exposed (INF-E, n = 15) and environmentally and occupationally exposed (INF-EO, n = 15). A matching group (II) of fertile men (F, n = 25) was divided into fertile, environmentally exposed (F-E, n = 10), which was the control group, and fertile, environmentally and occupationally exposed (F-EO, n = 15). Semen parameters (i.e., count, morphology, motility, and volume), blood and semen Pb levels, and reproductive hormonal indices (i.e., serum testosterone, FSH, and LH) were measured in all subjects. Lead levels were always higher in blood than semen. Semen lead levels were significantly higher in all groups vs. the control (F-E) group. While no changes were observed in testosterone levels across groups, variable effects on LH and FSH levels were observed. Infertile-EO subjects showed a definite pattern of impaired semen parameters in comparison with infertile-E. No abnormalities were detected in hematologic, hepatic or renal function.
Aboelhadid, Shawky Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Yanai, Tokuma; Fukushi, Hideto; Hassanin, Kamel Mohamed
The present study was carried out during the period from August 2009 to July 2010. The purpose of this study was to identify the genotype of donkeys' echinococcosis in one of the Egyptian governorates. On post-mortem inspection taking place at the zoo of Beni-Suef, Egypt, a total number of 145 donkeys were examined for the presence of hydatid cysts. Ten of these donkeys were found to be infected by hydatid cysts; and location, number and fertility of cysts found were determined. The liver was the predominant site of infection. Molecular identification of these cystic echinococcosis isolates, based on PCR amplification and the sequence of both mitochondrial ND1 and CO1, revealed that they belonged to Echinococcus equinus (G4 genotype). An alignment of ND1 and CO1 partial nucleotide sequences with G4 partial nucleotide sequences revealed replacement of G at position 105 with A and replacement of A at position 276 with G respectively. It can be concluded that the donkeys involved in this study were harboring E. equinus. For the first time in Egypt, the present work allowed us to record the presence of the E. equinus with the molecular tools, and to report new information on the epidemiological status of this parasite in Egypt.
Badraoui, M H; Askalani, H; Mahrous, I; Serour, G; Hefnawi, F
80 Egyptian women, aged 22-35 and with parity 1-6, were inserted immediately after delivery with Progestasert, an IUD releasing a small amount (65 mcg) of progesterone daily. A group of women not using contraception was used as control. The total expulsion rate was 52.5%, and occurred between the 7th and the 10th day postpartum; the devices were reinserted in all cases. The rate of return of menstruation was significantly higher in Progestasert users than in controls; 25% menstruated after 6 weeks, 71.2% by 6 months, and 82.5% by 12 months. Breakthrough bleeding occurred in 27.2% of cases, scanty menstruation in 27.2%, and menorrhagia in 10.6%. The incidence of return of ovulation was significantly higher in the control group, 42.7% compared to 7.5% in Progestasert users; there were 2 uterine pregnancies, or a failure rate of 2.5%. The amount of milk and total protein and glucose content of milk were significantly higher in Progestasert users. The high rate of expulsion was attributed to the increase in volume of the uterine cavity, and the reduced volume of menstrual bleeding to the progesterone released by the device. The incidence of menorrhagia reported with Progestasert is much lower than that reported with other IUD types.
During the Ptolemaic Period (332 BC-31 BC), many Greek medical practitioners settled in Egypt where they established an outstanding medical school and developed a distinctive rational approach to diagnosis and treatment which some scholars have regarded as a significant advance on earlier Egyptian procedures. However, Egyptian medicine itself combined both 'rational' and 'irrational' procedures, and extant ancient sources indicate that 'rationality' was not a new concept. Also, several other medical advances that modern writers have usually attributed to the Greeks can be identified in earlier Egyptian traditions. Nevertheless, the limitations of extant textual and archaeological evidence constrain the scope of studies in this area, and new information is required to carry the debate forward.
Irish, J D; Friedman, R
By c. 2050 BC a small community of C-Group Nubians was present deep within Egyptian territory at the city of Hierakonpolis. Their descendants stayed for the next 400 years. Today, the site of Hierakonpolis, 113 km north of Aswan, is known for its Egyptian deposits; however, it also contains a C-Group cemetery, which documents the northernmost occurrence of this culture. Sixty skeletons were excavated. Tombs feature Nubian architecture and goods, including leather garments, although the use of Egyptian mortuary practices and artifacts increased through time. Dates range from the early 11th Dynasty into the Second Intermediate period. During this time the Egyptian empire occupied Lower Nubia, and their state ideology vilified Nubians. Yet, at least in death, the C-Group inhabitants of Hierakonpolis proudly displayed their cultural heritage. Beyond discerning the reason(s) for their presence at the site (e.g., mercenaries, leather-workers, entertainers?), the focus of this report is to estimate their biological affinity. Were they akin to other Nubians, Egyptians, or both? And, was increasing 'Egyptianization' evident in the mortuary ritual accompanied by concomitant genetic influence? To address these queries, up to 36 dental morphological traits in the recovered individuals were compared to those in 26 regional comparative samples. The most influential traits were identified and phenetic affinities were calculated using the mean measure of divergence and other multivariate analyses. Assuming phenetic similarity provides an estimate of genetic relatedness, these affinities suggest the individuals comprising the C-Group sample were, and remained Nubian during their tenure at Hierakonpolis.
Hussein, Riyad F.; El-Ali, Nasser
Investigates university students' attitudes toward different varieties of Arabic, including Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Bedouin, Fallahi, and Madani. The highest rated variety was MSA, the lowest rated was Madani, and Bedouin was preferred over Madani as a colloquial variety. (GLR)
Sell, R R
Aspects of the international migration of Egypt's urban educated elite are examined using data from a 1987 survey of 874 Egyptian university students. "Specific questions considered are: What has been the migration experience of these elites? In what ways has this experience changed over time and what changes are likely to occur in the future? What are some of the characteristics of the potential participants in these changes? How do answers to these questions vary among different segments of this elite and what can be inferred about the class nature of Egyptian migration processes?"
young Egyptian protesters camped in Tahir Square in downtown Cairo demanding changes in a government that had failed to cope with deteriorating... Egyptian military did not intervene on behalf of the government, tacitly allowing the protests to occur. Much of the success in overthrowing Hosni
Abdoullayeva, Gulchin G.; Aliyev, Telman A.; Gurbanova, Nazakat G.
The studies made by using the domain of graphic images allowed creating facilities of the artificial intelligence for letters, letter combinations etc. for various graphics and prints. The work proposes a system of recognition and identification of symbols of the Arabic graphics, which has its own specificity as compared to Latin and Cyrillic ones. The starting stage of the recognition and the identification is coding with further entry of information into a computer. Here the problem of entry is one of the essentials. For entry of a large volume of information in the unit of time a scanner is usually employed. Along with the scanner the authors suggest their elaboration of technical facilities for effective input and coding of the information. For refinement of symbols not identified from the scanner mostly for a small bulk of information the developed coding devices are used directly in the process of writing. The functional design of the software is elaborated on the basis of the heuristic model of the creative activity of a researcher and experts in the description and estimation of states of the weakly formalizable systems on the strength of the methods of identification and of selection of geometric features.
It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as consultants overseeing care. Prehospital care and emergency medical services (EMS) operate under the auspices of the police department. Standardized protocols have been established for paramedic certification, triage, and destination decisions. The majority of ambulances offer basic life support (BLS/Type 2) with a growing minority offering advanced life support (ALS/Type 3). Medicine residency programs were established 5 years ago and form the foundation for training emergency medicine specialists for UAE. This article describes the full spectrum of emergency medicine in the UAE: prehospital care, EMS, hospital-based emergency care, training in emergency medicine, and disaster preparedness. We hope that our experience, our understanding of the challenges faced by the specialty, and the anticipated future directions will be of importance to others advancing emergency medicine in their region and across the globe. PMID:24401695
Rodgers, A; Nakanishi, K
There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the UAE may be determined with data from global seismic networks, these global networks do not have the sensitivity to record smaller seismic events and do not have the necessary accuracy to locate the events. A National Seismic Monitoring Observatory is needed for the UAE that consists of a modern seismic network and a multidisciplinary staff that can analyze and interpret the data from the network. A seismic network is essential to locate earthquakes, determine event magnitudes, identify active faults and measure ground motions from earthquakes. Such a network can provide the data necessary for a reliable seismic hazard assessment in the UAE. The National Seismic Monitoring Observatory would ideally be situated at a university that would provide access to the wide range of disciplines needed in operating the network and providing expertise in analysis and interpretation.
Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates was formerly defined and governed according to Law 7 of 1975 for the practice of medical professions, which had been a part of civil law. The passing of Law 10 of 2008, namely the "Law on Medical Responsibility in UAE", enacted on 16th December 2008 created a new framework to deal with this issue. One of its provisions required medical practitioners to hold insurance policies, so that insurance companies pays damages to the plaintiff (patient) injured as a result of a physicians' negligence. This paper outlines the issue of medical responsibility and medical negligence. The author's translation of the new law into English is included so that its full text is available for the readers, especially expatriate doctors working in the UAE. Where appropriate, a brief comparison between the old law and new laws is also presented. The objective of this paper is to provide medical practitioners with basic information about the subject in general and to this legislation in particular. It is mandatory for doctors to realize inherent risks involved in the course of their practice. A basic knowledge of the law is required to avoid pitfalls and to safeguard oneself against errors arising from ignorance of the duties and rights of the professional person.
In comparison to families in Western society, the traditional Arabic family plays a relatively greater role in providing support for adult progeny. This serves to condition adult offspring to continue to comply with the will and values of the family. Therefore, in exchange for familial support, Arabic individuals learn to repress authentic needs and emotions, and within that process they relinquish the need for self-actualization. Arabic society discourages individualism and opposes self-actualization by means of simultaneous punishment and moralization. Thus, there is a relatively greater development of the social value system (or superego) and comparatively less development of the self (or ego). In comparison to Western society, Arabic individuals continue to experience greater oppression during adulthood. Given these cultural differences, the processes of reliving and activating repressed needs and emotions, which ultimately serves to promote self-actualization, will transform intrapsychic conflicts into interpersonal and social ones. Thus, personal actions typically encouraged during Western psychotherapy are likely to produce significant social oppression. Indeed, promoting awareness of repressed needs and emotions often leads the Arabic client to become more helpless, because such wishes will rarely be socially sanctioned or satisfactorily fulfilled. Therefore, when addressing repressed needs and emotions in psychotherapy, ego strength, cultural identity, and degree of strictness of the client's family of origin must be considered.
Al-Horaibi, Lamia; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin
Sentiment analysis has become a flourishing field of text mining and natural language processing. Sentiment analysis aims to determine whether the text is written to express positive, negative, or neutral emotions about a certain domain. Most sentiment analysis researchers focus on English texts, with very limited resources available for other complex languages, such as Arabic. In this study, the target was to develop an initial model that performs satisfactorily and measures Arabic Twitter sentiment by using machine learning approach, Naïve Bayes and Decision Tree for classification algorithms. The datasets used contains more than 2,000 Arabic tweets collected from Twitter. We performed several experiments to check the performance of the two algorithms classifiers using different combinations of text-processing functions. We found that available facilities for Arabic text processing need to be made from scratch or improved to develop accurate classifiers. The small functionalities developed by us in a Python language environment helped improve the results and proved that sentiment analysis in the Arabic domain needs lot of work on the lexicon side.