Science.gov

Sample records for egyptian ras cheese

  1. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type.

  2. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Nahed M; Ahmed, Amany S; Ebraheim, Zedan Z

    2010-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the application of some edible plants including cayenne, green pepper, parsley, and dill to Kareish cheese and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these plant materials against natural microflora, coliforms, molds, and Staphylococcus aureus. Twelve different concentrations of ethanol extract of the plants were prepared for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Cayenne and green pepper extracts showed highest activity followed by dill and parsley against S. aureus. Addition of cayenne or green pepper to Kareish cheese during manufacture revealed that both plants were able reduce the S. aureus population to undetectable level within the first and second days of storage. To study the effect of combining plant materials on the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat Kareish cheese, the total bacterial count, coliform count, and yeast and molds counts were determined. It has been found that addition of plant materials to Kareish cheese reduced the total bacterial and coliform populations. All concentrations of cayenne, green pepper, dill, and parsley (9%) completely reduced the yeast count within 2 hours. Cayenne and green pepper completely reduced the mold count within 2 days, whereas parsley and dill were found to be less effective. Kareish cheese prepared with 1% cayenne pepper and 3% and 6% each of green pepper, dill, and parsley were found strongly acceptable to the consumer and considered the most preferable type. Therefore, this study revealed that pepper, parsley, and dill exhibited antibacterial activity against natural microflora, coliforms, yeast and molds, and S. aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese.

  3. Enhancement of Egyptian soft white cheese shelf life using a novel chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/zinc oxide bionanocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Salama, Heba H; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-20

    A novel bionanocomposites packaging material prepared using chitosan (CH), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), namely CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites, was prepared by casting method. The CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites were investigated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. The acquired bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical and thermal properties compare with the biocomposites (CH/CMC) blend. The soft white cheese were manufactured, packaged within the prepared bionanocomposites films and stored at 7°C for 30days. The influence of packaging material on packaged cheese (rheological properties, colour measurements, moisture, pH and titratable acidity) were assessed. Furthermore, the effect of packaging material on the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform in cheese was evaluated. The prepared bionanocomposites displayed good antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). Moreover, the packaging films assisted in increasing the shelf life of white soft cheese. Therefore, it can be used in food packaging applications.

  4. Enhancement of Egyptian soft white cheese shelf life using a novel chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/zinc oxide bionanocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Salama, Heba H; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-20

    A novel bionanocomposites packaging material prepared using chitosan (CH), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), namely CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites, was prepared by casting method. The CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites were investigated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. The acquired bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical and thermal properties compare with the biocomposites (CH/CMC) blend. The soft white cheese were manufactured, packaged within the prepared bionanocomposites films and stored at 7°C for 30days. The influence of packaging material on packaged cheese (rheological properties, colour measurements, moisture, pH and titratable acidity) were assessed. Furthermore, the effect of packaging material on the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform in cheese was evaluated. The prepared bionanocomposites displayed good antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). Moreover, the packaging films assisted in increasing the shelf life of white soft cheese. Therefore, it can be used in food packaging applications. PMID:27474538

  5. Egyptian Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lull, José; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The ancient Egyptians had a wide range of constellations, which populated the skies of ancient Egypt (see Chap. 133, "Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_146) for more than three millennia, whose knowledge has come to us through lists of stars and other representations which have mainly appeared in a dozen of coffins, a few clepsydrae, and a good set of astronomical ceilings. Hence, by making very simple assumptions and using the information provided by the ancient Egyptian sky-watchers, it is possible to uncover a great part of the ancient Egyptian firmament. This celestial tapestry was populated by the images of animals, symbols, and divinities that were most significant in understanding the Egyptian interpretation of the cosmos.

  6. Ras history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

  7. Artisanal cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  8. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  9. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  10. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  11. The RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  12. Influence of microfiltration and adjunct culture on quality of Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    Awad, S; Ahmed, N; El Soda, M

    2010-05-01

    The effects of microfiltration and pasteurization processes on proteolysis, lipolysis, and flavor development in Domiati cheese during 2 mo of pickling were studied. Cultures of starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Egyptian dairy products were evaluated in experimental Domiati cheese for flavor development capabilities. In the first trial, raw skim milk was microfiltered and then the protein:fat ratio was standardized using pasteurized cream. Pasteurized milk with same protein:fat ratio was also used in the second trial. The chemical composition of cheeses seemed to be affected by milk treatment-microfiltration or pasteurization-rather than by the culture types. The moisture content was higher and the pH was lower in pasteurized milk cheeses than in microfiltered milk cheeses at d 1 of manufacture. Chemical composition of experimental cheeses was within the legal limits for Domiati cheese in Egypt. Proteolysis and lipolysis during cheese pickling were lower in microfiltered milk cheeses compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Highly significant variations in free amino acids, free fatty acids, and sensory evaluation were found among the cultures used in Domiati cheesemaking. The cheese made using adjunct culture containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium received high scores in flavor acceptability. Cheeses made from microfiltered milk received a higher score in body and texture compared with cheeses made from pasteurized milk.

  13. Influence of microfiltration and adjunct culture on quality of Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    Awad, S; Ahmed, N; El Soda, M

    2010-05-01

    The effects of microfiltration and pasteurization processes on proteolysis, lipolysis, and flavor development in Domiati cheese during 2 mo of pickling were studied. Cultures of starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Egyptian dairy products were evaluated in experimental Domiati cheese for flavor development capabilities. In the first trial, raw skim milk was microfiltered and then the protein:fat ratio was standardized using pasteurized cream. Pasteurized milk with same protein:fat ratio was also used in the second trial. The chemical composition of cheeses seemed to be affected by milk treatment-microfiltration or pasteurization-rather than by the culture types. The moisture content was higher and the pH was lower in pasteurized milk cheeses than in microfiltered milk cheeses at d 1 of manufacture. Chemical composition of experimental cheeses was within the legal limits for Domiati cheese in Egypt. Proteolysis and lipolysis during cheese pickling were lower in microfiltered milk cheeses compared with pasteurized milk cheeses. Highly significant variations in free amino acids, free fatty acids, and sensory evaluation were found among the cultures used in Domiati cheesemaking. The cheese made using adjunct culture containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium received high scores in flavor acceptability. Cheeses made from microfiltered milk received a higher score in body and texture compared with cheeses made from pasteurized milk. PMID:20412894

  14. Egyptian Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radwan, M. M.; And Others

    Three papers on the Egyptian educational system were delivered at the World Assembly of the International Council of Education for Teaching in Cairo, Egypt, in 1981. The first paper, "Recent Educational Reforms in Egypt," by M. M. Radwan, describes the changes in Egyptian education since 1952, including the adoption of universal basic education.…

  15. Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.

    PubMed

    Saber, Aly

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

  16. Egyptian Cosmology and Cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, James P.

    Ancient Egyptian texts and images reveal a detailed view of the world and its origin. Multiple creation accounts, once seen as rival theologies, concentrate on different aspects of the creation, meshing into a coherent vision that remained stable throughout ancient Egyptian history.

  17. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  18. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  19. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Cancer.gov

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  20. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  1. RAS - Target Identification - Informatics

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Informatics lab group develops tools to track and analyze “big data” from the RAS Initiative, as well as analyzes data from external projects. By integrating internal and external data, this group helps improve understanding of RAS-driven cancers.

  2. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  3. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic. PMID:19244916

  4. Ancient Egyptian Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalinger, Anthony

    The study of the Egyptian calendar lends itself to a deeper analysis in which the original system of calendrics was based on the moon and the later one, organized by a simple device of 365 days per year. The latter, originally determined by the sighting of the star Sothis (Sirius) in the east after a period of 70 days of invisibility, is called the Civil Calendar. The change, however, brought with it an alteration in the names of the Egyptian months.

  5. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (i) Salt. (ii) Cheese whey, concentrated cheese whey, dried cheese whey, or reconstituted cheese whey prepared by addition of water to concentrated cheese whey or dried cheese whey....

  6. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (i) Salt. (ii) Cheese whey, concentrated cheese whey, dried cheese whey, or reconstituted cheese whey prepared by addition of water to concentrated cheese whey or dried cheese whey. (iii) Stabilizers, in...

  7. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  8. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  9. Sit Like an Egyptian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The topic of Egypt is one that students are naturally intrigued and enthusiastic about. In this article, fifth graders create mosaic and mixed-media collaged chairs in their visual arts class as part of their overall study of the art and culture of ancient Egypt. The idea was to embellish a contemporary chair with Egyptian colors, themes, and…

  10. The RAS Problem

    Cancer.gov

    More than 30% of all human cancers, including a high percentage of lung and colon cancers and 95% of pancreatic cancers are driven by mutations and possibly amplification (increased copies) of RAS genes.

  11. The science of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  12. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  13. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  14. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  15. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  16. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  17. Factors regulating cheese shreddability.

    PubMed

    Childs, J L; Daubert, C R; Stefanski, L; Foegeding, E A

    2007-05-01

    Two sets of cheeses were evaluated to determine factors that affect shred quality. The first set of cheeses was made up of 3 commercial cheeses, Monterey Jack, Mozzarella, and process. The second set of cheeses was made up of 3 Mozzarella cheeses with varying levels of protein and fat at a constant moisture content. A shred distribution of long shreds, short shreds, and fines was obtained by shredding blocks of cheese in a food processor. A probe tack test was used to directly measure adhesion of the cheese to a stainless-steel surface. Surface energy was determined based on the contact angles of standard liquids, and rheological characterization was done by a creep and recovery test. Creep and recovery data were used to calculate the maximum and initial compliance and retardation time. Shredding defects of fines and adhesion to the blade were observed in commercial cheeses. Mozzarella did not adhere to the blade but did produce the most fines. Both Monterey Jack and process cheeses adhered to the blade and produced fines. Furthermore, adherence to the blade was correlated positively with tack energy and negatively with retardation time. Mozzarella cheese, with the highest fat and lowest protein contents, produced the most fines but showed little adherence to the blade, even though tack energy increased with fat content. Surface energy was not correlated with shredding defects in either group of cheese. Rheological properties and tack energy appeared to be the key factors involved in shredding defects. PMID:17430914

  18. Inhibition of Ras oncogenic activity by Ras protooncogenes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto; Lue, Jeffrey; Mathews, Jeremy; Yoon, Andrew; Ahn, Daniel; Garcia-España, Antonio; Leonardi, Peter; Vargas, Marcelo P; Pellicer, Angel

    2005-01-10

    Point mutations in ras genes have been found in a large number and wide variety of human tumors. These oncogenic Ras mutants are locked in an active GTP-bound state that leads to a constitutive and deregulated activation of Ras function. The dogma that ras oncogenes are dominant, whereby the mutation of a single allele in a cell will predispose the host cell to transformation regardless of the presence of the normal allele, is being challenged. We have seen that increasing amounts of Ras protooncogenes are able to inhibit the activity of the N-Ras oncogene in the activation of Elk in NIH 3T3 cells and in the formation of foci. We have been able to determine that the inhibitory effect is by competition between Ras protooncogenes and the N-Ras oncogene that occurs first at the effector level at the membranes, then at the processing level and lastly at the effector level in the cytosol. In addition, coexpression of the N-Ras protooncogene in thymic lymphomas induced by the N-Ras oncogene is associated with increased levels of p107, p130 and cyclin A and decreased levels of Rb. In the present report, we have shown that the N-Ras oncogene is not truly dominant over Ras protooncogenes and their competing activities might be depending on cellular context.

  19. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  20. RasGRP Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ksionda, Olga; Limnander, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Summary RasGRP proteins are activators of Ras and other related small GTPases by the virtue of functioning as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In vertebrates, four RasGRP family members have been described. RasGRP-1 through −4 share many structural domains but there are also subtle differences between each of the different family members. Whereas SOS RasGEFs are ubiquitously expressed, RasGRP proteins are expressed in distinct patterns, such as in different cells of the hematopoietic system and in the brain. Most studies have concentrated on the role of RasGRP proteins in the development and function of immune cell types because of the predominant RasGRP expression profiles in these cells and the immune phenotypes of mice deficient for Rasgrp genes. However, more recent studies demonstrate that RasGRPs also play an important role in tumorigenesis. Examples are skin- and hematological-cancers but also solid malignancies such as melanoma or prostate cancer. These novel studies bring up many new and unanswered questions related to the molecular mechanism of RasGRP-driven oncogenesis, such as new receptor systems that RasGRP appears to respond to as well as regulatory mechanism for RasGRP expression that appear to be perturbed in these cancers. Here we will review some of the known aspects of RasGRP biology in lymphocytes and will discuss the exciting new notion that RasGRP Ras exchange factors play a role in oncogenesis downstream of various growth factor receptors. PMID:24744772

  1. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared...

  2. Ras enhances Myc protein stability.

    PubMed

    Sears, R; Leone, G; DeGregori, J; Nevins, J R

    1999-02-01

    Various experiments have demonstrated a collaborative action of Myc and Ras, both in normal cell growth control as well as during oncogenesis. We now show that Ras enhances the accumulation of Myc activity by stabilizing the Myc protein. Whereas Myc has a very short half-life when produced in the absence of mitogenic signals, due to degradation by the 26S proteasome, the half-life of Myc increases markedly in growth-stimulated cells. This stabilization is dependent on the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway and is not augmented by proteasome inhibition, suggesting that Ras inhibits the proteasome-dependent degradation of Myc. We propose that one aspect of Myc-Ras collaboration is an ability of Ras to enhance the accumulation of transcriptionally active Myc protein.

  3. The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhorne, Clifton O.

    A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a heavily controlled press…

  4. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  5. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  6. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese. (a) Description. (1) Neufchatel cheese is the soft...

  7. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  8. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from...

  9. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  10. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  11. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared...

  12. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  13. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared...

  14. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity...

  15. 21 CFR 133.150 - Hard cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hard cheeses. 133.150 Section 133.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.150 Hard cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity...

  16. Microbial interactions in cheese: implications for cheese quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, Françoise; Mounier, Jérôme

    2009-04-01

    The cheese microbiota, whose community structure evolves through a succession of different microbial groups, plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as cheese shelf-life and safety, are largely determined by the composition and evolution of this microbiota. Adjunct and surface-ripening cultures marketed today for smear cheeses are inadequate for adequately mimicking the real diversity encountered in cheese microbiota. The interactions between bacteria and fungi within these communities determine their structure and function. Yeasts play a key role in the establishment of ripening bacteria. The understanding of these interactions offers to enhance cheese flavour formation and to control and/or prevent the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in cheese.

  17. Renin-angiotensin system genes polymorphism in Egyptians with premature coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aziz, Tarek A; Hussein, Yousri M; Mohamed, Randa H; Shalaby, Sally M

    2012-05-01

    Genetics polymorphism of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) affects the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to investigate the association between the RAS genes and premature CAD (PCAD) in Egyptians. 116 patients with PCAD, 114 patients with late onset CAD and 119 controls were included in the study. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor type 1 (ATR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that ACE DD, AGT TT and ATR1 CC increased the risk of PCAD by 2.7, 2.8 and 2.86 respectively). Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were independent risk factors for the development of PCAD. We conclude that the ACE DD, AGT TT and ATR1 CC genotypes may increase the susceptibility of an individual to have PCAD. The coexistence of CAD risk factors with these risky RAS genotypes may lead to the development of PCAD in Egyptian patients. PMID:22387727

  18. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  19. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  20. Ottoman Perception of Egyptian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out before the period described as "Arab Spring" in Egypt which is one of the highly effective countries of Middle East in political, economic and demographic structuring. The aim was to determine the Ottoman Turks image of Egyptian secondary school third grade students. Descriptive scanning model out of…

  1. [Role of RAS in prehypertension].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Shinji; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension has long been recognized as a major risk factor of several cardiovascular diseases. It is well known that the renin-angiotensin system(RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of both hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage. Untreated hypertension is self-accelerating condition through RAS stimulation. Activation of RAS contributes to the transition from borderline hypertension to established hypertension. Recently, "the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7)" proposed a new classification of borderline blood pressure levels, as "prehypertension". The therapeutic focus has begun to shift from the therapy of established hypertension to the prevention of hypertension. This review addressed the relationship between hypertension, prehypertension and the role of RAS. PMID:18700549

  2. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    PubMed

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  3. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    PubMed

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  4. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. Ras CAAX peptidomimetic FTI-277 selectively blocks oncogenic Ras signaling by inducing cytoplasmic accumulation of inactive Ras-Raf complexes.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E C; Qian, Y; Blaskovich, M A; Fossum, R D; Vogt, A; Sun, J; Cox, A D; Der, C J; Hamilton, A D; Sebti, S M

    1995-11-10

    Ras-induced malignant transformation requires Ras farnesylation, a lipid posttranslational modification catalyzed by farnesyltransferase (FTase). Inhibitors of this enzyme have been shown to block Ras-dependent transformation, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains largely unknown. We have designed FTI-276, a peptide mimetic of the COOH-terminal Cys-Val-Ile-Met of K-Ras4B that inhibited potently FTase in vitro (IC50 = 500 pM) and was highly selective for FTase over geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase I) (IC50 = 50 nM). FTI-277, the methyl ester derivative of FTI-276, was extremely potent (IC50 = 100 nM) at inhibiting H-Ras, but not the geranylgeranylated Rap1A processing in whole cells. Treatment of H-Ras oncogene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells with FTI-277 blocked recruitment to the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf-1 in cells transformed by farnesylated Ras (H-RasF), but not geranylgeranylated, Ras (H-RasGG). FTI-277 induced accumulation of cytoplasmic non-farnesylated H-Ras that was able to bind Raf and form cytoplasmic Ras/Raf complexes in which Raf kinase was not activated. Furthermore, FTI-277 blocked constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in H-RasF, but not H-RasGG, or Raf-transformed cells. FTI-277 also inhibited oncogenic K-Ras4B processing and constitutive activation of MAPK, but the concentrations required were 100-fold higher than those needed for H-Ras inhibition. The results demonstrate that FTI-277 blocks Ras oncogenic signaling by accumulating inactive Ras/Raf complexes in the cytoplasm, hence preventing constitutive activation of the MAPK cascade.

  10. Lipids in cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  11. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  12. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  13. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  14. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  15. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese,...

  16. Fendiline Inhibits K-Ras Plasma Membrane Localization and Blocks K-Ras Signal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoeven, Dharini; Cho, Kwang-jin; Ma, Xiaoping; Chigurupati, Sravanthi; Parton, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Ras proteins regulate signaling pathways important for cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Oncogenic mutant Ras proteins are commonly expressed in human tumors, with mutations of the K-Ras isoform being most prevalent. To be active, K-Ras must undergo posttranslational processing and associate with the plasma membrane. We therefore devised a high-content screening assay to search for inhibitors of K-Ras plasma membrane association. Using this assay, we identified fendiline, an L-type calcium channel blocker, as a specific inhibitor of K-Ras plasma membrane targeting with no detectable effect on the localization of H- and N-Ras. Other classes of L-type calcium channel blockers did not mislocalize K-Ras, suggesting a mechanism that is unrelated to calcium channel blockade. Fendiline did not inhibit K-Ras posttranslational processing but significantly reduced nanoclustering of K-Ras and redistributed K-Ras from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and cytosol. Fendiline significantly inhibited signaling downstream of constitutively active K-Ras and endogenous K-Ras signaling in cells transformed by oncogenic H-Ras. Consistent with these effects, fendiline blocked the proliferation of pancreatic, colon, lung, and endometrial cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic mutant K-Ras. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibitors of K-Ras plasma membrane localization may have utility as novel K-Ras-specific anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23129805

  17. Extraordinarily Egyptian Jewelry Fit for a Pharaoh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Berniece

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for sixth-grade students in which the students study the Egyptians' jewelry techniques and designs and create their own amulets. Provides background information on the importance of life after death to the Egyptians and how religion influenced the designing of their amulets. Describes the jewelry-making procedure. (CMK)

  18. Cardiac remodelling and RAS inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Carlos M

    2016-06-01

    Risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes are known to augment the activity and tissue expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), the major effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Overstimulation of the RAS has been implicated in a chain of events that contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease, including the development of cardiac remodelling. This chain of events has been termed the CV continuum. The concept of CV disease existing as a continuum was first proposed in 1991 and it is believed that intervention at any point within the continuum can modify disease progression. Treatment with antihypertensive agents may result in regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, with different drug classes exhibiting different degrees of efficacy. The greatest decrease in left ventricular mass is observed following treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), which inhibit Ang II formation. Although ACE-Is and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) provide significant benefits in terms of CV events and stroke, mortality remains high. This is partly due to a failure to completely suppress the RAS, and, as our knowledge has increased, an escape phenomenon has been proposed whereby the human sequence of the 12 amino acid substrate angiotensin-(1-12) is converted to Ang II by the mast cell protease, chymase. Angiotensin-(1-12) is abundant in a wide range of organs and has been shown to increase blood pressure in animal models, an effect abolished by the presence of ACE-Is or ARBs. This review explores the CV continuum, in addition to examining the influence of the RAS. We also consider novel pathways within the RAS and how new therapeutic approaches that target this are required to further reduce Ang II formation, and so provide patients with additional benefits from a more complete blockade of the RAS. PMID:27105891

  19. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  20. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making.

  1. Therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Ras Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stephan; Salt, Megan; Young, Amy; McCormick, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Ras genes are frequently activated in cancer. Attempts to develop drugs that target mutant Ras proteins have, so far, been unsuccessful. Tumors bearing these mutations, therefore, remain among the most difficult to treat. Most efforts to block activated Ras have focused on pathways downstream. Drugs that inhibit Raf kinase have shown clinical benefit in the treatment of malignant melanoma. However, these drugs have failed to show clinical benefit in Ras mutant tumors. It remains unclear to what extent Ras depends on Raf kinase for transforming activity, even though Raf proteins bind directly to Ras and are certainly major effectors of Ras action in normal cells and in development. Furthermore, Raf kinase inhibitors can lead to paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway. MEK inhibitors block the Ras-MAPK pathway, but often activate the PI3’-kinase, and have shown little clinical benefit as single agents. This activation is mediated by EGF-R and other receptor tyrosine kinases through relief of a negative feedback loop from ERK. Drug combinations that target multiple points within the Ras signaling network are likely to be necessary to achieve substantial clinical benefit. Other effectors may also contribute to Ras signaling and provide a source of targets. In addition, unbiased screens for genes necessary for Ras transformation have revealed new potential targets and have added to our understanding of Ras cancer biology. PMID:21779505

  2. Ras in Cancer and Developmental Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Medarde, Alberto; Santos, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Somatic, gain-of-function mutations in ras genes were the first specific genetic alterations identified in human cancer about 3 decades ago. Studies during the last quarter century have characterized the Ras proteins as essential components of signaling networks controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation, or survival. The oncogenic mutations of the H-ras, N-ras, or K-ras genes frequently found in human tumors are known to throw off balance the normal outcome of those signaling pathways, thus leading to tumor development. Oncogenic mutations in a number of other upstream or downstream components of Ras signaling pathways (including membrane RTKs or cytosolic kinases) have been detected more recently in association with a variety of cancers. Interestingly, the oncogenic Ras mutations and the mutations in other components of Ras/MAPK signaling pathways appear to be mutually exclusive events in most tumors, indicating that deregulation of Ras-dependent signaling is the essential requirement for tumorigenesis. In contrast to sporadic tumors, separate studies have identified germline mutations in Ras and various other components of Ras signaling pathways that occur in specific association with a number of different familial, developmental syndromes frequently sharing common phenotypic cardiofaciocutaneous features. Finally, even without being a causative force, defective Ras signaling has been cited as a contributing factor to many other human illnesses, including diabetes and immunological and inflammatory disorders. We aim this review at summarizing and updating current knowledge on the contribution of Ras mutations and altered Ras signaling to development of various tumoral and nontumoral pathologies. PMID:21779504

  3. Cloning and characterization of Ras-GRF2, a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras.

    PubMed

    Fam, N P; Fan, W T; Wang, Z; Zhang, L J; Chen, H; Moran, M F

    1997-03-01

    Conversion of Ras proteins into an activated GTP-bound state able to bind effector proteins is catalyzed by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors in response to a large number of extracellular stimuli. Here we report the isolation of mouse cDNAs encoding Ras-GRF2, a multidomain 135-kDa protein containing a COOH-terminal Cdc25-related domain that stimulates release of GDP from Ras but not other GTPases in vitro. Ras-GRF2 bound specifically to immobilized Ras lacking bound nucleotides, suggesting stabilization of the nucleotide-free form of Ras as a mechanism of catalyzing nucleotide exchange. The NH2-terminal region of Ras-GRF2 is predicted to contain features common to various signaling proteins including two pleckstrin homology domains and a Dbl homology region. Ras-GRF2 also contains an IQ motif which was required for its apparent constitutive association with calmodulin in epithelial cells ectopically expressing Ras-GRF2. Transient expression of Ras-GRF2 in kidney epithelial cells stimulated GTP binding by Ras and potentiated calcium ionophore-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1) dependent upon the IQ motif. Calcium influx caused Ras-GRF2 subcellular localization to change from cytosolic to peripheral, suggesting a possible mechanism for controlling Ras-GRF2 interactions with Ras at the plasma membrane. Epithelial cells overexpressing Ras-GRF2 are morphologically transformed and grow in a disorganized manner with minimal intercellular contacts. Northern analysis indicated a 9-kb GRF2 transcript in brain and lung, where p135 Ras-GRF2 is known to be expressed, and RNAs of 12 kb and 2.2 kb were detected in several tissues. Thus, Ras-GRF2 proteins with different domain structures may be widely expressed and couple diverse extracellular signals to Ras activation.

  4. Inhibitors of Ras-SOS Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-19

    Activating Ras mutations are found in about 30 % of human cancers. Ras activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, such as the son of sevenless (SOS), which form protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with Ras and catalyze the exchange of GDP by GTP. This is the rate-limiting step in Ras activation. However, Ras surfaces lack any evident suitable pockets where a molecule might bind tightly, rendering Ras proteins still 'undruggable' for over 30 years. Among the alternative approaches is the design of inhibitors that target the Ras-SOS PPI interface, a strategy that is gaining increasing recognition for treating Ras mutant cancers. Herein we focus on data that has accumulated over the past few years pertaining to the design of small-molecule modulators or peptide mimetics aimed at the interface of the Ras-SOS PPI. We emphasize, however, that even if such Ras-SOS therapeutics are potent, drug resistance may emerge. To counteract this development, we propose "pathway drug cocktails", that is, drug combinations aimed at parallel (or compensatory) pathways. A repertoire of classified cancer, cell/tissue, and pathway/protein combinations would be beneficial toward this goal.

  5. [Egyptian mummies as anthropological artifacts].

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Ancient human remains like Egyptian mummified bodies cannot be considered on a physical anthropological perspective only. So severe and invasive were the operations on the body, so various were the materials involved in the preservation techniques, so complicated was the embalming and wrapping procedure according to specific rituals, that the final result, the mummy, is to be considered a highly composite product. The human remains are a relevant part of it indeed, but a very wide set of information can be taken.also from the other components, relating to environment, resources, technology, religious beliefs, cultural and technical traditions, skills and arts at the time of the individual's life. That a plain anthropological approach could not be exhaustive on cataloguing such a kind of archaeological finds emerged during the sessions of the scientific board charged by the Italian ICCD of defining a data track for filing anthropological remains as a special kind of cultural heritage.

  6. Mycotoxins in two Spanish cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    López-Díaz, T M; Román-Blanco, C; García-Arias, M T; García-Fernández, M C; García-López, M L

    1996-07-01

    Samples of cheeses naturally contaminated with moulds (12 samples of mouldy Manchego cheese and 10 of a naturally ripened blue cheese) were analysed for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins BI and MI, sterigmatocystin, patulin, penicillic acid and mycophenolic acid in Manchego cheese, and mycophenolic acid and roquefortine in blue cheese). In addition, 24 Penicillium and Aspergillus strains isolated from the samples were assessed for their mycotoxigenicity. Four of Manchego cheese samples were positive to mycophenolic acid and one sample of blue cheese contained roquefortine. The rest of mycotoxins investigated were not found. One Aspergillus strain isolated from Manchego cheese showed the ability to produce aflatoxin MI. The rest of strains from these samples being no producers. In contrast, 7 out of 9 Penicillium (P. roqueforti) strains isolated from blue cheese were able to produce roquefortine, with one strain also producing mycophenolic acid. PMID:8854191

  7. Biobutanol from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summarize the natural metabolic pathways for biobutanol production by Clostridia and yeasts, together with the metabolic engineering efforts performed up to date with the aim of either enhancing the yield of the natural producer Clostridia or transferring the butanol production ability to other hosts with better attributes for industrial use and facilities for genetic manipulation. Molasses and starch-based feedstocks are main sources for biobutanol production at industrial scale hitherto. We also review herewith (and for the first time up to our knowledge) the research performed for the use of whey, the subproduct of cheese making, as another sustainable source for biobutanol production. This represents a promising alternative that still needs further research. The use of an abundant waste material like cheese whey, that would otherwise be considered an environmental pollutant, for biobutanol production, makes economy of the process more profitable. PMID:25889728

  8. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  9. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments - A Review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-03-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models.

  10. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  11. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  12. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  15. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  16. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  17. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  18. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  19. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  20. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  1. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  2. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  3. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese...

  4. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  5. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms...

  6. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  7. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  8. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  9. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  10. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  11. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  12. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  13. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  14. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  15. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  16. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  17. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese...

  18. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to...

  19. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard...

  20. RAS oncogenes: weaving a tumorigenic web

    PubMed Central

    Pylayeva-Gupta, Yuliya; Grabocka, Elda; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    RAS proteins are essential components of signalling pathways that emanate from cell surface receptors. Oncogenic activation of these proteins owing to missense mutations is frequently detected in several types of cancer. A wealth of biochemical and genetic studies indicates that RAS proteins control a complex molecular circuitry that consists of a wide array of interconnecting pathways. In this Review, we describe how RAS oncogenes exploit their extensive signalling reach to affect multiple cellular processes that drive tumorigenesis. PMID:21993244

  1. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A.

    PubMed

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence.

  2. Turning cheese wastes into energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    In a project sponsored by New York State, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor system - developed by Ecolotrol, Inc. of Bethpage, N.Y. - was used to produce biogas from cheese whey and bottling plant residues.

  3. Binding of calcium ions to Ras promotes Ras guanine nucleotide exchange under emulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jun-Ming; Mo, Zhong-Ying; Wu, Ling-Jia; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2008-11-01

    Both Ras protein and calcium play significant roles in various cellular processes via complex signaling transduction networks. However, it is not well understood whether and how Ca(2+) can directly regulate Ras function. Here we demonstrate by isothermal titration calorimetry that Ca(2+) directly binds to the H-Ras.GDP.Mg(2+) complex with moderate affinity at the first binding site followed by two weak binding events. The results from limited proteinase degradation show that Ca(2+) protects the fragments of H-Ras from being further degraded by trypsin and by proteinase K. HPLC studies together with fluorescence spectroscopic measurements indicate that binding of Ca(2+) to the H-Ras.GDP.Mg(2+) complex remarkably promotes guanine nucleotide exchange on H-Ras under emulated physiological Ca(2+) concentration conditions. Addition of high concentrations of either of two macromolecular crowding agents, Ficoll 70 and dextran 70, dramatically enhances H-Ras guanine nucleotide exchange extent in the presence of Ca(2+) at emulated physiological concentrations, and the nucleotide exchange extent increases significantly with the concentrations of crowding agents. Together, these results indicate that binding of calcium ions to H-Ras remarkably promotes H-Ras guanine nucleotide exchange under emulated physiological conditions. We thus propose that Ca(2+) may activate Ras signaling pathway by interaction with Ras, providing clues to understand the role of calcium in regulating Ras function in physiological environments.

  4. [Microbiological studies of brynza cheese].

    PubMed

    Khadzhianastasov, D; Georgiev, L

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the changes occurring in the microflora at the time of 45-day ripening and 4-month storage of cheese produced in pitchers (earthen jugs) were performed. It was established that at the beginning of the ripening period the total number of microorganisms as well as the number of lactic acid producing microorganisms increases, but after the 15th day of ripening until the end of storage their number diminishes. At the time of ripening and storage of cheese curdled in pitchers, coliform bacteria diminish progressively. In case cheese curd is used, these bacteria vanish as soon as ripening comes to an end, while in case lactic acid or butter curd is used they vanish during the 1st month of storage. In spontaneously curdled cheese coliform bacteria vanish during the third month of storage. At the time of cheese ripening in a pitcher the yeast quantity increases, while during storage it varies. At the time of ripening fungae get into the cheese produced in pitchers and their number increases along with the ripening process.

  5. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in the Egyptian Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…

  6. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed

    Cox, Adrienne D; Der, Channing J; Philips, Mark R

    2015-04-15

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biologic activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anticancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated posttranslational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1819-27. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers." PMID:25878363

  7. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed

    Cox, Adrienne D; Der, Channing J; Philips, Mark R

    2015-04-15

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biologic activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anticancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated posttranslational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1819-27. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers."

  8. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  9. Degradation of Activated K-Ras Orthologue via K-Ras-specific Lysine Residues Is Required for Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Mika; Majd, Nazanin; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Takahashi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Koh; Kuroda, Taruho; Lee, Susan; Charest, Pascale G.; Takeda, Kosuke; Asara, John M.; Firtel, Richard A.; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Sasaki, Atsuo T.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells encode three closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. Oncogenic K-Ras mutations frequently occur in human cancers, which lead to dysregulated cell proliferation and genomic instability. However, mechanistic role of the Ras isoform regulation have remained largely unknown. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of negative regulation of GTP-loaded K-Ras have not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrate RasG, the Dictyostelium orthologue of K-Ras, is targeted for degradation by polyubiquitination. Both ubiquitination and degradation of RasG were strictly associated with RasG activity. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that RasG ubiquitination occurs at C-terminal lysines equivalent to lysines found in human K-Ras but not in H-Ras and N-Ras homologues. Substitution of these lysine residues with arginines (4KR-RasG) diminished RasG ubiquitination and increased RasG protein stability. Cells expressing 4KR-RasG failed to undergo proper cytokinesis and resulted in multinucleated cells. Ectopically expressed human K-Ras undergoes polyubiquitin-mediated degradation in Dictyostelium, whereas human H-Ras and a Dictyostelium H-Ras homologue (RasC) are refractory to ubiquitination. Our results indicate the existence of GTP-loaded K-Ras orthologue-specific degradation system in Dictyostelium, and further identification of the responsible E3-ligase may provide a novel therapeutic approach against K-Ras-mutated cancers. PMID:24338482

  10. Optimizing depuration of salmon in RAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire "earthy" or "musty" off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  11. Structural analysis of autoinhibition in the Ras-specific exchange factor RasGRP1

    PubMed Central

    Iwig, Jeffrey S; Vercoulen, Yvonne; Das, Rahul; Barros, Tiago; Limnander, Andre; Che, Yan; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Wemmer, David E; Roose, Jeroen P; Kuriyan, John

    2013-01-01

    RasGRP1 and SOS are Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factors that have distinct roles in lymphocyte development. RasGRP1 is important in some cancers and autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to SOS, its regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Activating signals lead to the membrane recruitment of RasGRP1 and Ras engagement, but it is unclear how interactions between RasGRP1 and Ras are suppressed in the absence of such signals. We present a crystal structure of a fragment of RasGRP1 in which the Ras-binding site is blocked by an interdomain linker and the membrane-interaction surface of RasGRP1 is hidden within a dimerization interface that may be stabilized by the C-terminal oligomerization domain. NMR data demonstrate that calcium binding to the regulatory module generates substantial conformational changes that are incompatible with the inactive assembly. These features allow RasGRP1 to be maintained in an inactive state that is poised for activation by calcium and membrane-localization signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00813.001 PMID:23908768

  12. A New View of Ras Isoforms in Cancers.

    PubMed

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chakrabarti, Mayukh; Jang, Hyunbum

    2016-01-01

    Does small GTPase K-Ras4A have a single state or two states, one resembling K-Ras4B and the other N-Ras? A recent study of K-Ras4A made the remarkable observation that even in the absence of the palmitoyl, K-Ras4A can be active at the plasma membrane. Importantly, this suggests that K-Ras4A may exist in two distinct signaling states. In state 1, K-Ras4A is only farnesylated, like K-Ras4B; in state 2, farnesylated and palmitoylated, like N-Ras. The K-Ras4A hypervariable region sequence is positively charged, in between K-Ras4B and N-Ras. Taken together, this raises the possibility that the farnesylated but nonpalmitoylated state 1, like K-Ras4B, binds calmodulin and is associated with colorectal and other adenocarcinomas like lung cancer and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. On the other hand, state 2 may be associated with melanoma and other cancers where N-Ras is a major contributor, such as acute myeloid leukemia. Importantly, H-Ras has two, singly and doubly, palmitoylated states that may also serve distinct functional roles. The multiple signaling states of palmitoylated Ras isoforms question the completeness of small GTPase Ras isoform statistics in different cancer types and call for reevaluation of concepts and protocols. They may also call for reconsideration of oncogenic Ras therapeutics. PMID:26659836

  13. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Adrienne D.; Der, Channing J.; Philips, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biological activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anti-cancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated post-translational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. PMID:25878363

  14. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  15. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  16. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and up until a little over a century ago, all types of cheese were made from raw milk. Over the centuries, signature quality traits were established for the many different types, styles, and varieties of cheese found around the world. ...

  17. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability...

  18. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability...

  19. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability...

  20. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor components in cheese shall have a pleasing and desirable taste and odor and shall have the ability...

  1. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese. 133.118 Section 133.118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Products § 133.118 Colby cheese. (a) Colby cheese is the food prepared from milk and other...

  2. [Evolution of Egyptian neurosurgery: an overview].

    PubMed

    Orief, Tamer

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of Egyptian neurosurgery. It highlights the experiences of the ancient Egyptians in treatment of the central nervous system diseases. These experiences were documented through their papyrus writings and their drawings over the walls in ancient temples. The aim of this article is not only to search for the roots of neurosurgery in Egypt but also to showcase the present and future status of neurosurgery. Neurosurgery developed as a specialty earlier in Egypt and has led the development of this specialty in Africa and the Middle East. It is worthwhile tracing the history of neurosurgery of past civilizations, ancient medicine, and the work of pioneers. PMID:20166531

  3. Two types of RAS mutants that dominantly interfere with activators of RAS.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, V; Wei, W; Ballester, R; Camonis, J; Mi, S; Van Aelst, L; Wigler, M; Broek, D

    1994-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ras1 regulates both sexual development (conjugation and sporulation) and cellular morphology. Two types of dominant interfering mutants were isolated in a genetic screen for ras1 mutants that blocked sexual development. The first type of mutation, at Ser-22, analogous to the H-rasAsn-17 mutant (L. A. Feig and G. M. Cooper, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:3235-3243, 1988), blocked only conjugation, whereas a second type of mutation, at Asp-62, interfered with conjugation, sporulation, and cellular morphology. Analogous mutations at position 64 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAS2 or position 57 of human H-ras also resulted in dominant interfering mutants that interfered specifically and more profoundly than mutants of the first type with RAS-associated pathways in both S. pombe or S. cerevisiae. Genetic evidence indicating that both types of interfering mutants function upstream of RAS is provided. Biochemical evidence showing that the mutants are altered in their interaction with the CDC25 class of exchange factors is presented. We show that both H-rasAsn-17 and H-rasTyr-57, compared with wild-type H-ras, are defective in their guanine nucleotide-dependent release from human cdc25 and that this defect is more severe for the H-rasTyr-57 mutant. Such a defect would allow the interfering mutants to remain bound to, thereby sequestering RAS exchange factors. The more severe interference phenotype of this novel interfering mutant suggests that it functions by titrating out other positive regulators of RAS besides those encoded by ste6 and CDC25. Images PMID:8196614

  4. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  5. Metabolic Dependencies in RAS-Driven Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kimmelman, Alec C

    2015-04-15

    The ability to inhibit the RAS oncogene has been the holy grail of oncology because of the critical role of this gene in a multitude of tumor types. In addition, RAS-mutant tumors are among the most aggressive and refractory to treatment. Although directly targeting the RAS oncogene has proven challenging, an alternative approach for treating RAS-driven cancers is to inhibit critical downstream events that are required for tumor maintenance. Indeed, much focus has been put on inhibiting signaling cascades downstream of RAS. Recent studies have shown that oncogenic RAS promotes a metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, shifting them toward an anabolic metabolism necessary to produce biomass to support unconstrained proliferation. These cancers also use a diverse set of fuel sources to meet their metabolic needs and have even developed a variety of mechanisms to act as metabolic scavengers to obtain necessary metabolic substrates from both extracellular and intracellular sources. Collectively, these adaptations can create "metabolic bottlenecks" whereby tumor cells rely on particular pathways or rate-limiting metabolites. In this regard, inhibiting individual or combinations of these metabolic pathways can attenuate growth in preclinical models. Because these dependencies are tumor selective and downstream of oncogenic RAS, there is the opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although targeting tumor metabolism is still in the early days of translation to patients, our continued advances in understanding critical metabolic adaptations in RAS-driven cancers, as well as the ability to study this altered metabolism in relevant tumor models, will accelerate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1828-34. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers." PMID:25878364

  6. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except...

  7. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except...

  8. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  9. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  10. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  11. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except...

  12. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except...

  13. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  14. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized...

  15. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  16. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  15. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  16. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  5. Islam in Egyptian Education: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Charlotte M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the important role that the religion of Islam plays in the education of Egyptian children. The scrutiny under which the Islamic world finds itself in the after-math of September 11, 2001 has resulted in calls for educational reform, not only from the outside world, but also from the Muslim world itself. The author has a…

  6. The radiographic investigation of two Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Fodor, J; Malott, J C; King, A Y

    1983-01-01

    Radiography is a well-recognized method of nondestructive analysis of art objects and ancient relics. The methods and techniques used in the examination of two ancient Egyptian mummies are presented here. Additionally, the use of radiographic findings to help substantiate alleged historical information and to establish sex, age, and pathology of each specimen is discussed.

  7. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses. PMID:25048865

  8. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.

  9. Biochemical similarity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ras1 protein with RAS2 protein of Saccharomyces cervisiae.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, T; Danjoh, I; Fujiyama, A

    1995-07-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains single ras oncogene homologue, ras1, that functions in the signal transduction pathway conducting the cell's mating processes. To understand the biochemical basis of yeast ras proteins, we have purified the ras1 protein and compared the major biochemical constants with those of RAS2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian ras proteins. The purified ras1 protein showed a remarkably high Kd value for GDP binding (178 nM) and for binding with ATP. In contrast, the Kd value for GTP binding and the rate of GTPase activity were 64 nM and 77 x 10(-6) s-1 at 37 degrees C, respectively; both were higher than normal p21ras protein, but at the same level as the RAS2 protein. We directly measured rate of GTP binding and GDP binding which were 3.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and 1.8 x 10(-3) s-1 at 30 degrees C, respectively. On the other hand, exchange rates between bound and free nucleotides remained almost constant throughout the tested combination of GTP and GDP, and were several-fold lower than the binding rate. These results suggest that the release of the guanine nucleotide is the rate-limiting step in the ras-GTP/GDP cycle. As a whole, the biochemical properties of the ras1 protein are close to those of the RAS2 protein, although these two proteins function differently in the signal transduction pathway in the cells. PMID:7483844

  10. A Small Molecule RAS-Mimetic Disrupts RAS Association with Effector Proteins to Block Signaling.

    PubMed

    Athuluri-Divakar, Sai Krishna; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Dutta, Kaushik; Baker, Stacey J; Cosenza, Stephen C; Basu, Indranil; Gupta, Yogesh K; Reddy, M V Ramana; Ueno, Lynn; Hart, Jonathan R; Vogt, Peter K; Mulholland, David; Guha, Chandan; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2016-04-21

    Oncogenic activation of RAS genes via point mutations occurs in 20%-30% of human cancers. The development of effective RAS inhibitors has been challenging, necessitating new approaches to inhibit this oncogenic protein. Functional studies have shown that the switch region of RAS interacts with a large number of effector proteins containing a common RAS-binding domain (RBD). Because RBD-mediated interactions are essential for RAS signaling, blocking RBD association with small molecules constitutes an attractive therapeutic approach. Here, we present evidence that rigosertib, a styryl-benzyl sulfone, acts as a RAS-mimetic and interacts with the RBDs of RAF kinases, resulting in their inability to bind to RAS, disruption of RAF activation, and inhibition of the RAS-RAF-MEK pathway. We also find that ribosertib binds to the RBDs of Ral-GDS and PI3Ks. These results suggest that targeting of RBDs across multiple signaling pathways by rigosertib may represent an effective strategy for inactivation of RAS signaling. PMID:27104980

  11. Ras moves to stay in place.

    PubMed

    Schmick, Malte; Kraemer, Astrid; Bastiaens, Philippe I H

    2015-04-01

    Ras is a major intracellular signaling hub. This elevated position comes at a precarious cost: a single point mutation can cause aberrant signaling. The capacity of Ras for signaling is inextricably linked to its enrichment at the plasma membrane (PM). This PM localization is dynamically maintained by three essential elements: alteration of membrane affinities via lipidation and membrane-interaction motifs; trapping on specific membranes coupled with unidirectional vesicular transport to the PM; and regulation of diffusion via interaction with a solubilization factor. This system constitutes a cycle that primarily corrects for the entropic equilibration of Ras to all membranes that dilutes its signaling capacity. We illuminate how this reaction-diffusion system maintains an out-of-equilibrium localization of Ras GTPases and thereby confers signaling functionality to the PM.

  12. NAM: The 2004 RAS National Astronomy Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie; Norton, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This year's RAS National Astronomy Meeting was held at the Open University's Milton Keynes campus from 29 March to 2 April. The event was organized by members of the OU Physics & Astronomy Department and Planetary & Space Science Research Institute. Around 450 people attended the meeting, at which more than 220 talks were presented, along with around 90 posters. Co-chairs of RAS NAM04, Barrie Jones and Andrew Norton, summarize.

  13. Inhibition of RAS in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Rabi; Campbell, Kirk N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a progressive proteinuric renal disorder in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, particularly in developed countries. Therapeutic targeting of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is the most validated clinical strategy for slowing disease progression. DKD is paradoxically a low systematic renin state with an increased intrarenal RAS activity implicated in its pathogenesis. Angiotensin II (AngII), the main peptide of RAS, is not only a vasoactive peptide but functions as a growth factor, activating interstitial fibroblasts and mesangial and tubular cells, while promoting the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. AngII also promotes podocyte injury through increased calcium influx and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Blockade of the RAS using either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers can attenuate progressive glomerulosclerosis in animal models, and slows disease progression in humans with DKD. In this review, we summarize the role of intrarenal RAS activation in the pathogenesis and progression of DKD and the rationale for RAS inhibition in this population. PMID:25926752

  14. ASPP1 and ASPP2 bind active RAS, potentiate RAS signalling and enhance p53 activity in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Godin-Heymann, N; Dan Wang, X; Bergamaschi, D; Llanos, S; Lu, X

    2013-01-01

    RAS mutations occur frequently in human cancer and activated RAS signalling contributes to tumour development and progression. Apart from its oncogenic effects on cell growth, active RAS has tumour-suppressive functions via its ability to induce cellular senescence and apoptosis. RAS is known to induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, yet its effect on p53-dependent apoptosis remains unclear. We report here that apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 1 and 2, two activators of p53, preferentially bind active RAS via their N-terminal RAS-association domains (RAD). Additionally, ASPP2 colocalises with and contributes to RAS cellular membrane localisation and potentiates RAS signalling. In cancer cells, ASPP1 and ASPP2 cooperate with oncogenic RAS to enhance the transcription and apoptotic function of p53. Thus, loss of ASPP1 and ASPP2 in human cancer cells may contribute to the full transforming property of RAS oncogene. PMID:23392125

  15. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  16. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  17. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  18. Investigating the use of Egyptian blue in Roman Egyptian portraits and panels from Tebtunis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganio, Monica; Salvant, Johanna; Williams, Jane; Lee, Lynn; Cossairt, Oliver; Walton, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The use of the pigment Egyptian blue is investigated on a corpus of fifteen mummy portraits and Roman-period paintings from Tebtunis, Egypt, housed in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. Egyptian blue has a strong luminescence response in the near infrared that can be exploited to created wide-field images noninvasively showing the distribution of the pigment on a work of art. A growing body of publications in the last decade highlights the increasing use of this tool and its sensitive detection limits. However, the technique is not wavelength specific. Both excitation and emission occur in a broad range. Although Egyptian blue has a strong emission in the NIR, a myriad of other compounds may emit light in this spectral region when excited in the visible. The limited number of studies including complementary analysis to verify the presence of Egyptian blue does not allow its identification on the basis of NIR luminescence alone. Through the use of in situ X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy of cross sections, this paper confirms the identification of Egyptian blue by NIR luminescence in unexpected areas, i.e., those not blue in appearance.

  19. VPS35 binds farnesylated N-Ras in the cytosol to regulate N-Ras trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Wiener, Heidi; Su, Wenjuan; Zhou, Yong; Liot, Caroline; Ahearn, Ian; Hancock, John F; Philips, Mark R

    2016-08-15

    Ras guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate signaling pathways only when associated with cellular membranes through their C-terminal prenylated regions. Ras proteins move between membrane compartments in part via diffusion-limited, fluid phase transfer through the cytosol, suggesting that chaperones sequester the polyisoprene lipid from the aqueous environment. In this study, we analyze the nature of the pool of endogenous Ras proteins found in the cytosol. The majority of the pool consists of farnesylated, but not palmitoylated, N-Ras that is associated with a high molecular weight (HMW) complex. Affinity purification and mass spectrographic identification revealed that among the proteins found in the HMW fraction is VPS35, a latent cytosolic component of the retromer coat. VPS35 bound to N-Ras in a farnesyl-dependent, but neither palmitoyl- nor guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-dependent, fashion. Silencing VPS35 increased N-Ras's association with cytoplasmic vesicles, diminished GTP loading of Ras, and inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and growth of N-Ras-dependent melanoma cells. PMID:27502489

  20. RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 Are Required for Efficient Generation of Early Thymic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Golec, Dominic P; Henao Caviedes, Laura M; Baldwin, Troy A

    2016-09-01

    T cell development is dependent on the migration of progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the thymus. Upon reaching the thymus, progenitors undergo a complex developmental program that requires inputs from various highly conserved signaling pathways including the Notch and Wnt pathways. To date, Ras signaling has not been implicated in the very earliest stages of T cell differentiation, but members of a family of Ras activators called RasGRPs have been shown to be involved at multiple stages of T cell development. We examined early T cell development in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3, and RasGRPs 1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1- and RasGRP3-deficient thymi show significantly reduced numbers of early thymic progenitors (ETPs) relative to wild type thymi. Furthermore, RasGRP1/3 double-deficient thymi show significant reductions in ETP numbers compared with either RasGRP1 or RasGRP3 single-deficient thymi, suggesting that both RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 regulate the generation of ETPs. In addition, competitive bone marrow chimera experiments reveal that RasGRP1/3 double-deficient progenitors intrinsically generate ETPs less efficiently than wild type progenitors. Finally, RasGRP1/3-deficient progenitors show impaired migration toward the CCR9 ligand, CCL25, suggesting that RasGRP1 and RasGRP3 may regulate progenitor entry into the thymus through a CCR9-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that, in addition to Notch and Wnt, the highly conserved Ras pathway is critical for the earliest stages of T cell development and further highlight the importance of Ras signaling during thymocyte maturation. PMID:27465532

  1. Contributions of Egyptian Women in Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nadi, Lotfia

    2009-04-01

    Physics is a dynamic, global field. Progress in research motivates scientists to explore new areas and find useful applications for their work. Femtosecond ultrashort pulsed lasers and progress in nanostructures to study the properties of extremely dense matter, as well as one-dimensional materials, are two examples of innovations that encourage students and scientists—male and female—to pursue physics. Young Egyptian women's contributions to physics grew from 46% in 2003 to 69% in 2008. This paper discusses the role of women in physics in Egypt; presents statistics regarding their contributions and presence at Egyptian universities and institutes; and gives information about their decision making leadership roles. Ideas, applicable in Egypt as well as in developing countries, to address problems facing women are raised.

  2. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Vânia F.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella. PMID:22438717

  3. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon (Columba livia breed Egyptian swift).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei; Shi, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    The Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding. In this work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,239 bp and its overall base composition was estimated to be 30.2% for A, 24.0% for T, 31.9% for C and 13.9% for G, indicating an A-T (54.2%)-rich feature in the mitogenome. It contained the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Egyptian swift Rock Pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  4. Egyptian medical women, past and present.

    PubMed

    Nasser, S; Baligh, R

    2000-01-01

    In ancient Egypt, at least one woman carried the title of physician. University education for women started in 1930. Today, women are practicing in all disciplines and are effective in health care. Egyptian medical women represent 35% to 45% of the staff of faculties of medicine and about one-third of all medical graduates. They have contributed to the improvement of health, particularly in maternal and child health, and are role models for young girls in rural areas.

  5. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H; Kruijswijk, Z; Molenaar, D; Kleerebezem, M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T

    2009-12-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughputs required for systematic screening programs. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the parallel manufacturing of approximately 600 cheeses in individual cheese vats each with individual process specifications. Protocols for the production of miniaturized Gouda- and Cheddar-type cheeses have been developed. Starting with as little as 1.7 mL of milk, miniature cheeses of about 170 mg can be produced and they closely resemble conventionally produced cheese in terms of acidification profiles, moisture and salt contents, proteolysis, flavor profiles, and microstructure. Flavor profiling of miniature cheeses manufactured with and without mixed-strain adjunct starter cultures allowed the distinguishing of the different cheeses. Moreover, single-strain adjunct starter cultures engineered to overexpress important flavor-related enzymes revealed effects similar to those described in industrial cheese. Benchmarking against industrial cheese produced from the same raw materials established a good correlation between their proteolytic degradation products and their flavor profiles. These miniature cheeses, referred to as microcheeses, open new possibilities to study many aspects of cheese production, which will not only accelerate product development but also allow a more systematic approach to investigate the complex biochemistry and microbiology of cheese making.

  6. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

    PubMed

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  7. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614

  8. Regulation of Ras proteins by reactive nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael F; Vigil, Dom; Campbell, Sharon L

    2011-08-01

    Ras GTPases have been a subject of intense investigation since the early 1980s, when single point mutations in Ras were shown to cause deregulated cell growth control. Subsequently, Ras was identified as the most prevalent oncogene found in human cancer. Ras proteins regulate a host of pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. Regulation of Ras activity is controlled by cellular factors that alter guanine nucleotide cycling. Oncogenic mutations prevent protein regulatory factors from down-regulating Ras activity, thereby maintaining Ras in a chronically activated state. The central dogma in the field is that protein modulatory factors are the primary regulators of Ras activity. Since the mid-1990s, however, evidence has accumulated that small molecule reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can also influence Ras guanine nucleotide cycling. Herein, we review the basic chemistry behind RNS formation and discuss the mechanism through which various RNS enhance nucleotide exchange in Ras proteins. In addition, we present studies that demonstrate the physiological relevance of RNS-mediated Ras activation within the context of immune system function, brain function, and cancer development. We also highlight future directions and experimental methods that may enhance our ability to detect RNS-mediated activation in cell cultures and in vivo. The development of such methods may ultimately pave new directions for detecting and elucidating how Ras proteins are regulated by redox species, as well as for targeting redox-activated Ras in cancer and other disease states.

  9. Volatile fraction and sensory characteristics of Manchego cheese. 1. Comparison of raw and pasteurized milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Estrella; Carbonell, María; Nuñez, Manuel

    2002-11-01

    Manchego cheese can be manufactured from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. An automatic purge and trap apparatus, coupled to a GC-MS was used to isolate. identify and compare the relative amounts of the volatile components of raw and pasteurized Manchego cheese during ripening. The majority of volatile compounds were more abundant in raw milk (RM) cheeses than in pasteurized milk (PM) cheeses. Alcohols and esters predominated in the profile of RM Manchego cheese, while methyl-ketones and 2,3-butanedione were quantitatively important in PM cheeses. Branched chain alcohols were much more abundant in RM cheeses. The discriminant analysis separated 100% samples into RM or PM cheeses by using only 16 volatile compounds. Aroma intensity was correlated with esters, branched chain aldehydes and branched chain alcohols in RM cheeses, and with esters, branched chain aldehydes, 2-methyl ketones and 2-alkanols in PM cheeses. Diacetyl was positively correlated with the aroma attribute 'toasted' and negatively correlated with aroma quality in PM cheeses. PMID:12463695

  10. ''Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, C.; Stela, J.

    1987-11-15

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein--de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ''Swiss cheese'' models.

  11. Pyroglutamic acid in cheese: presence, origin, and correlation with ripening time of Grana Padano cheese.

    PubMed

    Mucchetti, G; Locci, F; Gatti, M; Neviani, E; Addeo, F; Dossena, A; Marchelli, R

    2000-04-01

    Pyroglutamic acid is present in many cheese varieties and particularly in high amounts (0.5 g/100 g of cheese) in extensively ripened Italian cheeses (Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano) that are produced with thermophilic lactic acid bacteria as starters. The mechanism of pyroglutamic acid formation in cheese seems to be mostly enzymatic, as demonstrated by the presence of only L-pyroglutamic acid enantiomer. Thermophilic lactobacilli are involved in pyroglutamic acid production, as suggested by the low pyroglutamic acid content found in Bagos, a ripened Italian mountain cheese produced without addition of starter. Because milk pasteurization did not influence the pyroglutamic acid content in the ripened Grana Padano cheese, the formation of pyroglutamic acid mainly depends on the whey starter microflora rather than that of raw milk. Pyroglutamic acid concentration is linearly correlated (R2 = 0.94) with the age of Grana Padano cheese.

  12. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  13. More South Polar 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Some of the surface of the residual south polar cap has a pattern that resembles that of sliced, swiss cheese. Shown here at the very start of southern spring is a frost-covered surface in which there are two layers evident--a brighter upper layer into which are set swiss cheese-like holes, and a darker, lower layer that lies beneath the 'swiss cheese' pattern. Nothing like this exists anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap.

    This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired on August 2,1999. It is located near 84.8oS, 71.8oW, and covers an area 3 km across and about 6.1 km long (1.9 by 3.8 miles).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. Cheese whey management: a review.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated.

  15. Egyptian Art Institutions and Art Education from 1908 to 1951

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study of Egyptian aesthetics interprets the historical and political context of artistic discourse in the early twentieth century. In a period marked by intense struggle between landlords and rural laborers during the Depression and World War II, the author compares the rise of the Egyptian Surrealists, from the late 1930s, and the…

  16. RAS Symposium Draws Hundreds of Attendees | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    They call themselves “rasologists”: scientists who study the RAS family of genes and the cancers that can arise due to mutations within them. This field of research is at the heart of some sobering numbers. Almost a third of all human cancers, including 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, are driven by mutated RAS genes. The American Cancer Society estimates there were 48,960 new cases of pancreatic cancer in the United States in 2015 and 40,560 deaths from the disease.

  17. RAS Projects at the NCI Frederick National Lab

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative involves a number of projects focusing on ways to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells by mutant RAS proteins. Projects are conducted at the FNLCR hub, with collaboration from the research community nationwide.

  18. The RAS Problem: Turning Off a Broken Switch

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS gene is commonly mutated in cancer and researchers are working to better understand how to develop drugs that can target the RAS protein, which for many years has been considered to be “undruggable.”

  19. Calmodulin binds to K-Ras, but not to H- or N-Ras, and modulates its downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Villalonga, P; López-Alcalá, C; Bosch, M; Chiloeches, A; Rocamora, N; Gil, J; Marais, R; Marshall, C J; Bachs, O; Agell, N

    2001-11-01

    Activation of Ras induces a variety of cellular responses depending on the specific effector activated and the intensity and amplitude of this activation. We have previously shown that calmodulin is an essential molecule in the down-regulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in cultured fibroblasts and that this is due at least in part to an inhibitory effect of calmodulin on Ras activation. Here we show that inhibition of calmodulin synergizes with diverse stimuli (epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, bombesin, or fetal bovine serum) to induce ERK activation. Moreover, even in the absence of any added stimuli, activation of Ras by calmodulin inhibition was observed. To identify the calmodulin-binding protein involved in this process, calmodulin affinity chromatography was performed. We show that Ras and Raf from cellular lysates were able to bind to calmodulin. Furthermore, Ras binding to calmodulin was favored in lysates with large amounts of GTP-bound Ras, and it was Raf independent. Interestingly, only one of the Ras isoforms, K-RasB, was able to bind to calmodulin. Furthermore, calmodulin inhibition preferentially activated K-Ras. Interaction between calmodulin and K-RasB is direct and is inhibited by the calmodulin kinase II calmodulin-binding domain. Thus, GTP-bound K-RasB is a calmodulin-binding protein, and we suggest that this binding may be a key element in the modulation of Ras signaling.

  20. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  1. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  2. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  3. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  4. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  5. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  6. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  7. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  8. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should...

  9. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other...

  10. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the...

  11. 21 CFR 133.148 - Hard grating cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hard grating cheeses. 133.148 Section 133.148 Food... Related Products § 133.148 Hard grating cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are hard grating cheeses for which specifically...

  12. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  13. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  14. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  15. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  16. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  17. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the...

  18. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  20. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., by the use of the terms “milkfat and nonfat milk” or “nonfat milk and milkfat”, “milkfat from goat's milk and nonfat goat's milk”, “milkfat from sheep's milk and nonfat sheep's milk”, etc., as appropriate. ..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either...

  1. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., by the use of the terms “milkfat and nonfat milk” or “nonfat milk and milkfat”, “milkfat from goat's milk and nonfat goat's milk”, “milkfat from sheep's milk and nonfat sheep's milk”, etc., as appropriate. ..., and skim milk cheese for manufacturing may not be used. All cheese ingredients used are either...

  2. Major technological advances and trends in cheese.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2006-04-01

    Over the last 25 yr, cheese production in the United States has more than doubled with most of the increase due to production in the western states. Processing large volumes of milk into cheese has necessitated changes in vat size and design, reliance on computer software, and milk standardization, including use of membrane concentration of milk either at the cheese plant or on the farm. There has been increased interest in specialty cheeses including cheese made from sheep, goat, and organic milks. In addition, membrane processing of whey into various value-added components has become routine. Changes in cheese manufacturing protocols have resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing time and the necessity for consistent and reliable starter activity. Major advances in the genetics of microorganisms have not only resulted in widespread use of fermentation-produced chymosin but also in starter bacteria with improved resistance to bacteriophage infection. Genomics and proteomics have increased the likelihood of the development of nonstarter adjuncts with specific enzymatic activity. Indeed, the use of adjunct microorganisms to produce cheese with a unique flavor profile or to produce cheese with more consistent or better quality flavor has gained almost universal acceptance.

  3. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review.

  4. Occurrence of Streptococcus macedonicus in Italian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Federico; Cariolato, Diego; Andrighetto, Christian; Lombardi, Angiolella

    2006-08-01

    A new approach for the detection and enumeration of Streptococcus macedonicus in cheese was developed. The method which is based on a first screening of cheeses by a PCR assay specific for S. macedonicus followed by plating positive samples on a differential medium (SM medium) was applied to 51 samples derived from PDO and traditional Italian cheeses. Streptococcus macedonicus was found in 16 of the 51 samples examined in the present work. With the exclusion of an Asiago cheese sample in which very high numbers of S. macedonicus (7.13 log CFU g(-1)) were found, the counts of S. macedonicus in SM medium ranged from 2.48 to 4.70 log CFU g(-1). In the same cheeses, total streptococci enumerated onto M17 agar were found at higher concentrations with values up to 7.88 log CFU g(-1). The system developed was particularly useful for the differential count of S. macedonicus in cheese and allowed to evaluate the occurrence of this species within the complex microbial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, which is typical of traditional cheeses. Results showed that in the examined cheeses S. macedonicus cannot be considered as a dominant LAB species.

  5. ASPP2 Is a Novel Pan-Ras Nanocluster Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Itziar M. D.; Serulla, Marc; Zhou, Yong; Oetken-Lindholm, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Ras-induced senescence mediated through ASPP2 represents a barrier to tumour formation. It is initiated by ASPP2’s interaction with Ras at the plasma membrane, which stimulates the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Ras to Raf signalling requires Ras to be organized in nanoscale signalling complexes, called nanocluster. We therefore wanted to investigate whether ASPP2 affects Ras nanoclustering. Here we show that ASPP2 increases the nanoscale clustering of all oncogenic Ras isoforms, H-ras, K-ras and N-ras. Structure-function analysis with ASPP2 truncation mutants suggests that the nanocluster scaffolding activity of ASPP2 converges on its α-helical domain. While ASPP2 increased effector recruitment and stimulated ERK and AKT phosphorylation, it did not increase colony formation of RasG12V transformed NIH/3T3 cells. By contrast, ASPP2 was able to suppress the transformation enhancing ability of the nanocluster scaffold Gal-1, by competing with the specific effect of Gal-1 on H-rasG12V- and K-rasG12V-nanoclustering, thus imposing ASPP2’s ERK and AKT signalling signature. Similarly, ASPP2 robustly induced senescence and strongly abrogated mammosphere formation irrespective of whether it was expressed alone or together with Gal-1, which by itself showed the opposite effect in Ras wt or H-ras mutant breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that Gal-1 and ASPP2 functionally compete in nanocluster for active Ras on the plasma membrane. ASPP2 dominates the biological outcome, thus switching from a Gal-1 supported growth-promoting setting to a senescence inducing and stemness suppressive program in cancer cells. Our results support Ras nanocluster as major integrators of tumour fate decision events. PMID:27437940

  6. Validation of a Fluorescence Sensor Microtiterplate for Biogenic Amines in Meat and Cheese.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Gasser M; Azab, Hassan A; El-Korashy, Sabry A; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Duerkop, Axel

    2016-09-01

    An optical sensor microtiterplate for quantitative analysis of the total content of biogenic amines (TAC) in meat and cheese was developed and validated for the first time. In the plate, a chameleon dye (Py-1) is embedded in a polymeric cocktail which is deposited on the bottom of the wells in a common microtiterplate. On reaction with biogenic amines (BAs), the fluorescence of Py-1 at 620 nm rapidly delivers a precise TAC. After 10 min incubation at 25 °C the determination of the TAC in various (real) samples is possible in high-throughput with a standard microplate reader. The optimized fluorescence method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision (intraday and inter day repeatability) and recovery using histamine (HIS) as a representative BA. The sensor microtiterplate was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze the TAC in 10 real samples of cheese and meat obtained from various Egyptian markets. The TAC of these real samples obtained by the sensor microtiterplate was validated against the contents of BAs obtained by GC-MS at various times of storage. The data of the sensor microtiterplate agreed well with those of GC-MS. This demonstrates that the sensor microtiterplate is a reliable screening tool for the degradation status of food samples.

  7. Validation of a Fluorescence Sensor Microtiterplate for Biogenic Amines in Meat and Cheese.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Gasser M; Azab, Hassan A; El-Korashy, Sabry A; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Duerkop, Axel

    2016-09-01

    An optical sensor microtiterplate for quantitative analysis of the total content of biogenic amines (TAC) in meat and cheese was developed and validated for the first time. In the plate, a chameleon dye (Py-1) is embedded in a polymeric cocktail which is deposited on the bottom of the wells in a common microtiterplate. On reaction with biogenic amines (BAs), the fluorescence of Py-1 at 620 nm rapidly delivers a precise TAC. After 10 min incubation at 25 °C the determination of the TAC in various (real) samples is possible in high-throughput with a standard microplate reader. The optimized fluorescence method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision (intraday and inter day repeatability) and recovery using histamine (HIS) as a representative BA. The sensor microtiterplate was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze the TAC in 10 real samples of cheese and meat obtained from various Egyptian markets. The TAC of these real samples obtained by the sensor microtiterplate was validated against the contents of BAs obtained by GC-MS at various times of storage. The data of the sensor microtiterplate agreed well with those of GC-MS. This demonstrates that the sensor microtiterplate is a reliable screening tool for the degradation status of food samples. PMID:27481500

  8. Crystal structure of M-Ras reveals a GTP-bound "off" state conformation of Ras family small GTPases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Shima, Fumi; Muraoka, Shin; Liao, Jingling; Okamoto, Hidetsugu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tamura, Atsuo; Yagi, Naoto; Ueki, Tatzuo; Kataoka, Tohru

    2005-09-01

    Although some members of Ras family small GTPases, including M-Ras, share the primary structure of their effector regions with Ras, they exhibit vastly different binding properties to Ras effectors such as c-Raf-1. We have solved the crystal structure of M-Ras in the GDP-bound and guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p)-bound forms. The overall structure of M-Ras resembles those of H-Ras and Rap2A, except that M-Ras-Gpp(NH)p exhibits a distinctive switch I conformation, which is caused by impaired intramolecular interactions between Thr-45 (corresponding to Thr-35 of H-Ras) of the effector region and the gamma-phosphate of Gpp(NH)p. Previous 31P NMR studies showed that H-Ras-Gpp(NH)p exists in two interconverting conformations, states 1 and 2. Whereas state 2 is a predominant form of H-Ras and corresponds to the "on" conformation found in the complex with effectors, state 1 is thought to represent the "off" conformation, whose tertiary structure remains unknown. 31P NMR analysis shows that free M-Ras-Gpp(NH)p predominantly assumes the state 1 conformation, which undergoes conformational transition to state 2 upon association with c-Raf-1. These results indicate that the solved structure of M-Ras-Gp-p(NH)p corresponds to the state 1 conformation. The predominance of state 1 in M-Ras is likely to account for its weak binding ability to the Ras effectors, suggesting the importance of the tertiary structure factor in small GTPase-effector interaction. Further, the first determination of the state 1 structure provides a molecular basis for developing novel anti-cancer drugs as compounds that hold Ras in the state 1 "off" conformation. PMID:15994326

  9. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (<40°C) and harder at high temperatures (>50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability.

  10. Determinants of the Egyptian labour migration.

    PubMed

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to summarize the pattern of Egyptian migration to Arab oil-producing countries (AOPC), to review some factors that are important determinants of labor movement based on theory, and to empirically model the migration rate to AOPC and to Saudi Arabia. Factors are differentiated as to their relative importance. Push factors are the low wages, high inflation rate, and high population density in Egypt; pull factors are higher wages. It is predicted that an increase in income from destination countries has a significant positive impact on the migration rate. An increase in population density stimulates migration. An increase in inflation acts to increase out-migration with a 2-year lag, which accommodates departure preparation. Egypt's experience with labor migration is described for the pre-oil boom, and the post-oil boom. Several estimates of labor migration are given. Government policy toward migration is positive. Theory postulates migration to be determined by differences in the availability of labor, labor rewards between destination and origin, and the cost of migration. In the empirical model, push factors are population density, the current inflation rate, and the ratio of income/capita in AOPC to Egypt. The results indicate that the ratio of income/capita had a strong pull impact and population density had a strong push impact. The inflation rate has a positive impact with a lag estimated at 2 years. Prior to the Camp David Accord, there was a significant decrease in the number of Egyptian migrants due to political tension. The findings support the classical theory of factor mobility. The consequences of migration on the Egyptian economy have been adverse. Future models should disaggregate data because chronic shortages exist in some parts of the labor market. Manpower needs assessment would be helpful for policy makers.

  11. The value of genomics in dissecting the RAS-network and in guiding therapeutics for RAS-driven cancers.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; MacNeil, Shelley M; McQuerry, Jasmine A; Jenkins, David F; Sharma, Sunil; Bild, Andrea H

    2016-10-01

    The rise in genomic knowledge over the past decade has revealed the molecular etiology of many diseases, and has identified intricate signaling network activity in human cancers. Genomics provides the opportunity to determine genome structure and capture the activity of thousands of molecular events concurrently, which is important for deciphering highly complex genetic diseases such as cancer. In this review, we focus on genomic efforts directed towards one of cancer's most frequently mutated networks, the RAS pathway. Genomic tools such as gene expression signatures and assessment of mutations across the RAS network enable the capture of RAS signaling complexity. Due to this high level of interaction and cross-talk within the network, efforts to target RAS signaling in the clinic have generally failed, and we currently lack the ability to directly inhibit the RAS protein with high efficacy. We propose that the use of gene expression data can identify effective treatments that broadly inhibit the RAS network as this approach measures pathway activity independent of mutation status or any single mechanism of activation. Here, we review the genomic studies that map the complexity of the RAS network in cancer, and that show how genomic measurements of RAS pathway activation can identify effective RAS inhibition strategies. We also address the challenges and future directions for treating RAS-driven tumors. In summary, genomic assessment of RAS signaling provides a level of complexity necessary to accurately map the network that matches the intricacy of RAS pathway interactions in cancer.

  12. The Differential Palmitoylation States of N-Ras and H-Ras Determine Their Distinct Golgi Sub-compartment Localizations

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Stephen J.; Snitkin, Harriet; Gumper, Iwona; Philips, Mark R.; Sabatini, David; Pellicer, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high degree of structural homology and shared exchange factors, effectors and GTPase activating proteins, a large body of evidence suggests functional heterogeneity among Ras isoforms. One aspect of Ras biology that may explain this heterogeneity is the differential subcellular localizations driven by the C-terminal hypervariable regions of Ras proteins. Spatial heterogeneity has been documented at the level of organelles: palmitoylated Ras isoforms (H-Ras and N-Ras) localize on the Golgi apparatus whereas K-Ras4B does not. We tested the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity also exists at the sub-organelle level by studying the localization of differentially palmitoylated Ras isoforms within the Golgi apparatus. Using confocal, live cell fluorescent imaging and immunogold electron microscopy we found that, whereas the doubly palmitoylated H-Ras is distributed throughout the Golgi stacks, the singly palmitoylated N-Ras is polarized with a relative paucity of expression on the trans Golgi. Using palmitoylation mutants we show that the different sub-Golgi distributions of the Ras proteins are a consequence of their differential degree of palmitoylation. Thus, the acylation state of Ras proteins controls not only their distribution between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane but also their distribution within the Golgi stacks. PMID:25158650

  13. The value of genomics in dissecting the RAS-network and in guiding therapeutics for RAS-driven cancers.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; MacNeil, Shelley M; McQuerry, Jasmine A; Jenkins, David F; Sharma, Sunil; Bild, Andrea H

    2016-10-01

    The rise in genomic knowledge over the past decade has revealed the molecular etiology of many diseases, and has identified intricate signaling network activity in human cancers. Genomics provides the opportunity to determine genome structure and capture the activity of thousands of molecular events concurrently, which is important for deciphering highly complex genetic diseases such as cancer. In this review, we focus on genomic efforts directed towards one of cancer's most frequently mutated networks, the RAS pathway. Genomic tools such as gene expression signatures and assessment of mutations across the RAS network enable the capture of RAS signaling complexity. Due to this high level of interaction and cross-talk within the network, efforts to target RAS signaling in the clinic have generally failed, and we currently lack the ability to directly inhibit the RAS protein with high efficacy. We propose that the use of gene expression data can identify effective treatments that broadly inhibit the RAS network as this approach measures pathway activity independent of mutation status or any single mechanism of activation. Here, we review the genomic studies that map the complexity of the RAS network in cancer, and that show how genomic measurements of RAS pathway activation can identify effective RAS inhibition strategies. We also address the challenges and future directions for treating RAS-driven tumors. In summary, genomic assessment of RAS signaling provides a level of complexity necessary to accurately map the network that matches the intricacy of RAS pathway interactions in cancer. PMID:27338857

  14. Drugging Ras GTPase: a comprehensive mechanistic and signaling structural view.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Gu, Shuo; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-09-21

    Ras proteins are small GTPases, cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. Through these switches they regulate signaling that controls cell growth and proliferation. Activating Ras mutations are associated with approximately 30% of human cancers, which are frequently resistant to standard therapies. Over the past few years, structural biology and in silico drug design, coupled with improved screening technology, led to a handful of promising inhibitors, raising the possibility of drugging Ras proteins. At the same time, the invariable emergence of drug resistance argues for the critical importance of additionally honing in on signaling pathways which are likely to be involved. Here we overview current advances in Ras structural knowledge, including the conformational dynamic of full-length Ras in solution and at the membrane, therapeutic inhibition of Ras activity by targeting its active site, allosteric sites, and Ras-effector protein-protein interfaces, Ras dimers, the K-Ras4B/calmodulin/PI3Kα trimer, and targeting Ras with siRNA. To mitigate drug resistance, we propose signaling pathways that can be co-targeted along with Ras and explain why. These include pathways leading to the expression (or activation) of YAP1 and c-Myc. We postulate that these and Ras signaling pathways, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR, act independently and in corresponding ways in cell cycle control. The structural data are instrumental in the discovery and development of Ras inhibitors for treating RAS-driven cancers. Together with the signaling blueprints through which drug resistance can evolve, this review provides a comprehensive and innovative master plan for tackling mutant Ras proteins.

  15. Drugging Ras GTPase: a comprehensive mechanistic and signaling structural view.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Gu, Shuo; Zhang, Jian; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-09-21

    Ras proteins are small GTPases, cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. Through these switches they regulate signaling that controls cell growth and proliferation. Activating Ras mutations are associated with approximately 30% of human cancers, which are frequently resistant to standard therapies. Over the past few years, structural biology and in silico drug design, coupled with improved screening technology, led to a handful of promising inhibitors, raising the possibility of drugging Ras proteins. At the same time, the invariable emergence of drug resistance argues for the critical importance of additionally honing in on signaling pathways which are likely to be involved. Here we overview current advances in Ras structural knowledge, including the conformational dynamic of full-length Ras in solution and at the membrane, therapeutic inhibition of Ras activity by targeting its active site, allosteric sites, and Ras-effector protein-protein interfaces, Ras dimers, the K-Ras4B/calmodulin/PI3Kα trimer, and targeting Ras with siRNA. To mitigate drug resistance, we propose signaling pathways that can be co-targeted along with Ras and explain why. These include pathways leading to the expression (or activation) of YAP1 and c-Myc. We postulate that these and Ras signaling pathways, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR, act independently and in corresponding ways in cell cycle control. The structural data are instrumental in the discovery and development of Ras inhibitors for treating RAS-driven cancers. Together with the signaling blueprints through which drug resistance can evolve, this review provides a comprehensive and innovative master plan for tackling mutant Ras proteins. PMID:27396271

  16. Geophysical investigation of an upper tertiary subbasin in the southern Egyptian Red Sea shelf and its bearing on oil exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattab, M. M.

    Several narrow, elongate and Red Sea-trending gravity lows, suggested recently as due to depositional troughs, are shown on the Egyptian Red Sea shelf Bouguer map. Few drilling data and poor reflectivity below the Pliocene-Miocene uncorformity hinder subsurface evaluation. A 1 mgal anomaly (25 km north of Ras Benas Peninsula) was analysed along a crossing sessmic reflection line. The interpretation was aided by: lithology at an off-shore well, seismic data above the unconformity and aeromagnetic data in the southerly-located Foul Bay. The best fit of computed to observed gravity was for a three-layers model (water, post-evaporites and evaporites) where maximum sediment thickness was 3.8 km of which layers 2 and 3 constittted 1.6 and 2.2 km. The subbasin configuration was found to be controlled by Quaternary (similar to that mapped at Egyptian and Saudi Arabian coastal provinces) and pre-middle Miocence (affecting only middle Miocene evaprites beneath a reflection line at the western margin of the main trough near latitude 24°N) faulting which supports the conceot of Red Sea arching and subsequent faulting at marginal shelves. This subbasin is found associated, in part, with a sea--floor trough and with part of Foul Bay magnetic lineations (interpreted recently as caused by oceanic crust) which, in turn, are shown to constitute continuation of mapped onshore tholeiitic dikes.

  17. EGFR phosphorylates FAM129B to promote Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haitao; Lee, Jong-Ho; Wang, Yugang; Pang, Yilin; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Yan; Zhong, Lianjin; Lyu, Jianxin; Lu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are important regulators for Ras activation, which is instrumental in tumor development. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation remains elusive. We demonstrate here that activated EGFR phosphorylates the Y593 residue of the protein known as family with sequence similarity 129, member B (FAM129B), which is overexpressed in many types of human cancer. FAM129B phosphorylation increased the interaction between FAM129B and Ras, resulting in reduced binding of p120-RasGAP to Ras. FAM129B phosphorylation promoted Ras activation, increasing ERK1/2- and PKM2-dependent β-catenin transactivation and leading to the enhanced glycolytic gene expression and the Warburg effect; promoting tumor cell proliferation and invasion; and supporting brain tumorigenesis. Our studies unearthed a novel and important mechanism underlying EGFR-mediated Ras activation in tumor development. PMID:26721396

  18. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  19. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  20. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  1. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  2. RAS Mutations and Oncogenesis: Not all RAS Mutations are Created Equally

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark Steven; Miller, Lance D.

    2012-01-01

    Mutation in RAS proteins is one of the most common genetic alterations observed in human and experimentally induced rodent cancers. In vivo, oncogenic mutations have been shown to occur at exons 12, 13, and 61, resulting in any 1 of 19 possible point mutations in a given tumor for a specific RAS isoform. While some studies have suggested a possible role of different mutant alleles in determining tumor severity and phenotype, no general consensus has emerged on the oncogenicity of different mutant alleles in tumor formation and progression. Part of this may be due to a lack of a single, signature pathway that shows significant alterations between different mutations. Rather, it is likely that subtle differences in the activation, or lack thereof, of downstream effectors by different RAS mutant alleles may determine the eventual outcome in terms of tumor phenotype. This paper reviews our current understanding of the potential role of different RAS mutations on tumorigenesis, highlights studies in model cell culture and in vivo systems, and discusses the potential of expression array and computational network modeling to dissect out differences in activated RAS genes in conferring a transforming phenotype. PMID:22303394

  3. IAA RAS Radio Telescope Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A.; Lavrov, A.

    2007-07-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) has three identical radio telescopes, the receiving complex of which consists of five two-channel receivers of different bands, six cryogen systems, and additional devices: four local oscillators, phase calibration generators and IF commutator. The design, hardware and data communication protocol are described. The most convenient way to join the devices of the receiving complex into the common monitoring system is to use the interface which allows to connect numerous devices to the data bus. For the purpose of data communication regulation and to exclude conflicts, a data communication protocol has been designed, which operates with complex formatted data sequences. Formation of such sequences requires considerable data processing capability. That is provided by a microcontroller chip in each slave device. The test version of the software for the central computer has been developed in IAA RAS. We are developing the Mark IV FS software extension modules, which will allow us to control the receiving complex of the radio telescope by special SNAP commands from both operator input and schedule files. We are also developing procedures of automatic measurements of SEFD, system noise temperature and other parameters, available both in VLBI and single-dish modes of operation. The system described has been installed on all IAA RAS radio telescopes at "Svetloe", "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories. It has proved to be working quite reliably and to show the perfonmance expected.

  4. 14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit JTL: Detail, oblique view of Egyptian Revival decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  5. 13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  6. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF MAIN AND SIDE ELEVATION, SHOWING EGYPTIAN REVIVAL TOMB SITUATED WITHIN SURROUNDING GRAVES - Mount Pleasant Cemetery, George Opdyke Tomb, 375 Broadway Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  7. Mitogenic signaling mediated by oxidants in Ras-transformed fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Irani, K; Xia, Y; Zweier, J L; Sollott, S J; Der, C J; Fearon, E R; Sundaresan, M; Finkel, T; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J

    1997-03-14

    NIH 3T3 fibroblasts stably transformed with a constitutively active isoform of p21(Ras), H-RasV12 (v-H-Ras or EJ-Ras), produced large amounts of the reactive oxygen species superoxide (.O2-). .O2- production was suppressed by the expression of dominant negative isoforms of Ras or Rac1, as well as by treatment with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor or with diphenylene iodonium, a flavoprotein inhibitor. The mitogenic activity of cells expressing H-RasV12 was inhibited by treatment with the chemical antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was decreased and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was not activated in H-RasV12-transformed cells. Thus, H-RasV12-induced transformation can lead to the production of .O2- through one or more pathways involving a flavoprotein and Rac1. The implication of a reactive oxygen species, probably .O2-, as a mediator of Ras-induced cell cycle progression independent of MAPK and JNK suggests a possible mechanism for the effects of antioxidants against Ras-induced cellular transformation.

  8. An orthosteric inhibitor of the RAS-SOS interaction.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Seth; Joy, Stephen T; Arora, Paramjit S; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Rat sarcoma (RAS) proteins are signaling nodes that transduce extracellular cues into precise alterations in cellular physiology by engaging effector pathways. RAS signaling thus regulates diverse cell processes including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Owing to this central role in governing mitogenic signals, RAS pathway components are often dysregulated in human diseases. Targeted therapy of RAS pathways has generally not been successful, largely because of the robust biochemistry of the targets and their multifaceted network of molecular regulators. The rate-limiting step of RAS activation is Son of Sevenless (SOS)-mediated nucleotide exchange involving a single evolutionarily conserved catalytic helix from SOS. Structure function data of this mechanism provided a strong platform to design an SOS-derived, helically constrained peptide mimic as an inhibitor of the RAS-SOS interaction. In this chapter, we review RAS-SOS signaling dynamics and present evidence supporting the novel paradigm of inhibiting their interaction as a therapeutic strategy. We then describe a method of generating helically constrained peptide mimics of protein surfaces, which we have employed to inhibit the RAS-SOS active site interaction. The biochemical and functional properties of this SOS mimic support the premise that inhibition of RAS-nucleotide exchange can effectively block RAS activation and downstream signaling.

  9. Regulation of Ras Proteins by Reactive Nitrogen Species†

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael F.; Vigil, Dom; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Ras GTPases have been a subject of intense investigation since the early-80’s, when single point mutations in Ras were shown to cause deregulated cell growth control. Subsequently, Ras was identified as the most prevalent oncogene found in human cancer. Ras proteins regulate a host of pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. Regulation of Ras activity is controlled by cellular factors that alter guanine nucleotide cycling. Oncogenic mutations prevent protein regulatory factors from down-regulating Ras activity, thereby maintaining Ras in a chronically activated state. The central dogma in the field is that protein modulatory factors are the primary regulators of Ras activity. Since the mid-90’s, however, evidence has accumulated that small molecule reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can also influence Ras guanine nucleotide cycling. Herein, we review the basic chemistry behind RNS formation and discuss the mechanism through which various RNS enhance nucleotide exchange in Ras proteins. In addition, we present studies that demonstrate the physiological relevance of RNS-mediated Ras activation within the context of immune system function, brain function, and cancer development. We also highlight future directions and experimental methods that may enhance our ability to detect RNS-mediated activation in cell cultures and in vivo. The development of such methods may ultimately pave new directions for detecting and elucidating how Ras proteins are regulated by redox species, as well as for targeting redox-activated Ras in cancer and other disease states. PMID:21616138

  10. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Anticaking agents. (3) Spices. (4) Flavorings other than those which, singly or in combination with other... the presence of any added spice or flavoring. (2) Any cheese varietal names used in the name of...

  11. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  12. Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy in investigating Egyptian archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, N. A.; Sallam, H. A.

    1988-12-01

    This article summarizes the results of applications of the Mössbauer spectroscopy to investigate Ancient Egyptian pottery from the periods: Ancient Egyptian (3200 525 B.C.) Greek-Roman (320 B.C. 640 A.C.) and Early Islamic (800 1000 A.C.). Many objective informations deduced about: provinance, manufacturing techniques for different domestic purposes, civilization transfer between the Arab countries, methods of colouration and applying decorating glazes, and finally dating of ancient pottery.

  13. Interests in Geotrichum candidum for cheese technology.

    PubMed

    Boutrou, R; Guéguen, M

    2005-06-25

    The wide genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Geotrichum candidum strains does not facilitate its classification as yeast or a yeast-like fungus that is still a matter of debate. Whatever its classification, G. candidum possesses many different metabolic pathways that are of particular interest to the dairy industry. G. candidum is of importance in the maturation of cheese, and much is known about its direct contribution to cheese ripening and flavour formation. Its diverse metabolic potential means that G. candidum can play an important role in the ripening of many soft and semi-hard cheeses and make a positive contribution to the development of taste and aroma. It may also influence the growth of other microorganisms, both valuable and detrimental. The significance of the presence of G. candidum in cheese depends on the particular type of production and on the presence of biotypes featuring specific types of metabolism. However, in situ metabolic pathways involved in cheese ripening and their regulations are mainly unknown. The information available provides a good understanding of the potential of G. candidum strains that are used in cheese manufacture, and permits a better choice of strain depending on the characteristics required. The biochemical activities of G. candidum and its application in the dairy industry are presented in this review.

  14. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process. PMID:26869115

  15. TLN-4601, a novel anticancer agent, inhibits Ras signaling post Ras prenylation and before MEK activation.

    PubMed

    Boufaied, Nadia; Wioland, My-Anh; Falardeau, Pierre; Gourdeau, Henriette

    2010-06-01

    TLN-4601 is a structurally novel farnesylated dibenzodiazepinone discovered through DECIPHER, Thallion's proprietary drug discovery platform. The compound was shown to have a broad cytotoxic activity (low micromol/l) when tested in the NCI 60 tumor cell line panel and has shown in-vivo antitumor activity in several xenograft models. Related to its farnesylated moiety, the effect of TLN-4601 on Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was assessed. Downstream Ras signaling events, Raf-1, MEK, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in MCF7 cells were evaluated by western blot analysis. TLN-4601 prevented epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Raf-1, MEK, and ERK1/2. This effect was time-dependent and dose-dependent with complete inhibition of protein phosphorylation within 4-6 h at 10 micromol/l. The inhibition of Ras signaling was not mediated by the inhibition of protein prenylation, documented by the lack of effect TLN-4601 on the prenylation of HDJ2 (specific substrate of farnesyltransferase), RAP1A (specific substrate of geranylgeranyl transferase-1), or Ras. As TLN-4601 did not inhibit EGFR, Raf-1, MEK or ERK1/2 kinase activities, the inhibitory effect of TLN-4601 on Ras signaling is not mediated by direct kinase inhibition. Using an Elk-1 trans-activation reporter assay, we found that TLN-4601 inhibits the MEK/ERK pathway at the level of Raf-1. Interestingly, TLN-4601 induces Raf-1 proteasomal-dependent degradation. These data indicate that TLN-4601 may inhibit the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway by depleting the Raf-1 protein.

  16. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  17. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatass, Z. F.; Nashed, A. W.; Saleh, I. H.; Mohmed, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil.

  18. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses. PMID:26082106

  19. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  20. Experimental aflatoxin production in Manchego-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Blanco, J L; Domínguez, L; Gómez-Lucía, E; Garayzabal, J F; Goyache, J; Suárez, G

    1988-01-01

    Manchego-type cheese, a typical Spanish cheese, was inoculated in various ways with an aflatoxigenic organism, Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999, to study the production of aflatoxin. When the original milk was contaminated with a spore suspension, aflatoxin was not detected in paraffin-covered cheeses although it was present in the top layer of non-paraffin-covered cheeses after ripening at 15 degrees C for 60 d. When the cheese surface was inoculated, no aflatoxins were detected in paraffin-covered cheeses after ripening for 60 d although they were found when the cheeses were ripened for 30 d. In non-paraffin-covered cheeses aflatoxins were detected only in the top layer and in the second 10 mm layer when cheeses were incubated after the normal ripening at 28 degrees C for 30 d. When the centre of the cheese was inoculated, no aflatoxins were detected although Aspergillus grew slightly along the inoculation area. When cheese portions were inoculated, fungal growth was evident after incubation at 28 degrees and 15 degrees C for 6 d but there was no growth at 10 degrees C after 50 d. At 28 degrees C aflatoxins were detected at a concentration of 132 micrograms/g after 13 d, the highest level obtained. In cheese paste at 28 degrees and 15 degrees C, growth was intense, but the level of aflatoxins detected was lower than in cheese portions. At 10 degrees C the growth was heavy, but aflatoxins were not detected. PMID:3350782

  1. Overexpressed galectin-3 in pancreatic cancer induces cell proliferation and invasion by binding Ras and activating Ras signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Shumei; Ji, Baoan; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Wang, Huamin; Hafley, Margarete; Logsdon, Craig; Bresalier, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a five-year survival of 3-5%. Mutations in K-Ras are found in nearly all cases, but K-Ras mutations alone are not sufficient for the development of PDAC. Additional factors contribute to activation of Ras signaling and lead to tumor formation. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a multifunctional β-galactoside-binding protein, is highly expressed in PDAC. We therefore investigated the functional role of Gal-3 in pancreatic cancer progression and its relationship to Ras signaling. Expression of Gal-3 was determined by immunohistochemistry, Q-PCR and immunoblot. Functional studies were performed using pancreatic cell lines genetically engineered to express high or low levels of Gal-3. Ras activity was examined by Raf pull-down assays. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence were used to assess protein-protein interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that Gal-3 was highly up-regulated in human tumors and in a mutant K-Ras mouse model of PDAC. Down-regulation of Gal-3 by lentivirus shRNA decreased PDAC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and reduced tumor volume and size in an orthotopic mouse model. Gal-3 bound Ras and maintained Ras activity; down-regulation of Gal-3 decreased Ras activity as well as Ras down-stream signaling including phosphorylation of ERK and AKT and Ral A activity. Transfection of Gal-3 cDNA into PDAC cells with low-level Gal-3 augmented Ras activity and its down-stream signaling. These results suggest that Gal-3 contributes to pancreatic cancer progression, in part, by binding Ras and activating Ras signaling. Gal-3 may therefore be a potential novel target for this deadly disease. PMID:22900040

  2. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories.

    PubMed

    Moosavy, Mir-Hassan; Esmaeili, Saber; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bagheri Amiri, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with Listeria monocytogenes. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories). Isolation of L. monocytogenes was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50%) of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The concentration of L. monocytogenes in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers. PMID:25528910

  3. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  4. CDK4 coexpression with Ras generates malignant human epidermal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Mirella; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Cai, Ti; Dajee, Maya; Tarutani, Masahito; Lin, Qun; Fang, Min; Tao, Shiying; Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2002-10-01

    Ras acts with other proteins to induce neoplasia. By itself, however, strong Ras signaling can suppress proliferation of normal cells. In primary epidermal cells, we found that oncogenic Ras transiently decreases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 expression in association with cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. CDK4 co-expression circumvents Ras growth suppression and induces invasive human neoplasia resembling squamous cell carcinoma. Tumorigenesis is dependent on CDK4 kinase function, with cyclin D1 required but not sufficient for this process. In facilitating escape from G1 growth restraints, Ras and CDK4 alter the composition of cyclin D and cyclin E complexes and promote resistance to growth inhibition by INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. These data identify a new role for oncogenic Ras in CDK4 regulation and highlight the functional importance of CDK4 suppression in preventing uncontrolled growth.

  5. Recovery and differentiation of long ripened cheese microflora through a new cheese-based cultural medium.

    PubMed

    Neviani, Erasmo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica

    2009-05-01

    A partial picture of the typical microflora of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese was achieved by studying the cultivability of lactic acid bacteria associated with its manufacturing and ripening. A comprehensive sampling design allowed for the analysis of the cheese microflora during its production over 20 months of ripening. An innovative cheese agar medium (CAM) was prepared after testing 18 formulations all based on grated Parmigiano Reggiano ripened cheese. During cheese manufacturing and ripening, different samples were sampled and their microflora was recovered using CAM in comparison with other traditional media. Colonies which formed units from the different agar media tested were picked and isolated; the phylogenetic positions of 154 isolated strains were studied at level of species by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. CAM seems to be able to recover the minority population coming from milk and whey starter, hardly estimable, during the first hours of production, on traditional media.

  6. Dimerize RACK1 upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-05-06

    From our previous studies, we learned that syndecan-2/p120-GAP complex provided docking site for Src to prosecute tyrosine kinase activity upon transformation with oncogenic ras. And, RACK1 protein was reactive with syndecan-2 to keep Src inactivated, but not when Ras was overexpressed. In the present study, we characterized the reaction between RACK1 protein and Ras. RACK1 was isolated from BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus and RACK1 was revealed to react with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), not GDP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K). This selective interaction between RACK1 and GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) was further confirmed with RACK1 of human placenta and mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein. We found that RACK1 was dimerized upon reaction with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), as well as with 14-3-3{beta} and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, as revealed by phosphorylation with Src tyrosine kinase. We reported the complex of RACK1/GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) reacted selectively with p120-GAP. This interaction was sufficient to dissemble RACK1 into monomers, a preferred form to compete for the binding of syndecan-2. These data indicate that the reaction of GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) with RACK1 in dimers may operate a mechanism to deplete RACK1 from reaction with syndecan-2 upon transformation by oncogenic ras and the RACK1/GTP-Ras complex may provide a route to react with p120-GAP and recycle monomeric RACK1 to syndecan-2.

  7. TC21 and Ras share indistinguishable transforming and differentiating activities.

    PubMed

    Graham, S M; Oldham, S M; Martin, C B; Drugan, J K; Zohn, I E; Campbell, S; Der, C J

    1999-03-25

    Constitutively activated mutants of the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 cause tumorigenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells. However, unlike Ras, TC21 fails to bind to and activate the Raf-1 serine-threonine kinase. Thus, whereas Ras transformation is critically dependent on Raf-1 TC21 activity is promoted by activation of Raf-independent signaling pathways. In the present study, we have further compared the functions of Ras and TC21. First we determined the basis for the inability of TC21 to activate Raf-1. Whereas Ras can interact with the two distinct Ras-binding sequences in NH2-terminus of Raf-1, designated RBS1 and Raf-Cys, TC21 could only bind Raf-Cys. Thus, the inability of TC21 to bind to RBS1 may prevent it from promoting the translocation of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane. Second, we found that TC21 is an activator of the JNK and p38, but not ERK, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and that TC21 transforming activity was dependent on Rac function. Thus, like Ras, TC21 may activate a Rac/JNK pathway. Third, we determined if TC21 could cause the same biological consequences as Ras in three distinct cell types. Like Ras, activated TC21 caused transformation of RIE-1 rat intestinal epithelial cells and terminal differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Finally, activated TC21 blocked serum starvation-induced differentiation of C2 myoblasts, whereas dominant negative TC21 greatly accelerated this differentiation process. Therefore, TC21 and Ras share indistinguishable biological activities in all cell types that we have evaluated. These results support the importance of Raf-independent pathways in mediating the actions of Ras and TC21.

  8. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  9. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concentrations, and the flavonoid content of the cheeses were also determined. The addition of fruit liquor did not affect (p> 0.05) the appearance or sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Higher amounts of crude ash, mineral, and flavonoids (p< 0.05) were observed in the liquor supplemented cheese than in the control cheese. Findings from this study suggest that wine supplemented Gouda could provide additional nutrients while maintaining flavor and quality.

  10. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The cheese is pale green in color and has the... for not less than 5 weeks. The ripened curd is dried and ground; salt and dried clover of the...

  11. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The cheese is pale green in color and has the... for not less than 5 weeks. The ripened curd is dried and ground; salt and dried clover of the...

  12. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The cheese is pale green in color and has the... for not less than 5 weeks. The ripened curd is dried and ground; salt and dried clover of the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. The cheese is pale green in color and has the... for not less than 5 weeks. The ripened curd is dried and ground; salt and dried clover of the...

  14. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  15. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  16. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  17. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on...

  18. Complex effects of Ras proto-oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis; Ahn, Daniel; Garcia-Espana, Antonio; Yoon, Andrew; Matthews, Jeremy; Mangues, Ramon; Perez-Soler, Roman; Pellicer, Angel

    2004-04-01

    Ras proteins have been found mutated in about one-third of human tumors. In vitro, Ras has been shown to regulate distinct and contradictory effects, such as cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Nonetheless, the effects that the wild-type protein elicits in tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Depending on the type of tissue, Ras proto-oncogenes appear to either promote or inhibit the tumor phenotype. In this report, we treated wild-type and N-ras knockout mice with 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) to induce fibrosarcomas and found that MCA is more carcinogenic in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. After injecting different doses of a tumorigenic cell line, the wild-type mice exhibited a shorter latency of tumor development than the knockouts, indicating that there are N-ras-dependent differences in the stromal cells. Likewise, we have analyzed B-cell lymphomas induced by either N-methylnitrosourea or by the N-ras oncogene in mice that over-express the N-ras proto-oncogene and found that the over-expression of wild-type N-ras is able to increase the incidence of these lymphomas. Considered together, our results indicate that Ras proto-oncogenes can enhance or inhibit the malignant phenotype in vivo in different systems.

  19. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  20. Activation of a human c-K-ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, F; Perucho, M

    1984-01-01

    The human lung carcinomas PR310 and PR371 contain activated c-K-ras oncogenes. The oncogene of PR371 was found to present a mutation at codon 12 of the first coding exon which substitutes cysteine for glycine in the encoded p21 protein. We report here that the transforming gene of PR310 tumor contains a mutation in the second coding exon. An A----T transversion at codon 61 results in the incorporation of histidine instead of glutamine in the c-K-ras gene product. By constructing c-K-ras/c-H-ras chimeric genes we show that this point mutation is sufficient to confer transforming potential to ras genes, and that a hybrid ras gene coding for a protein mutant at both codons 12 and 61 is also capable of transforming NIH3T3 cells. The relative transforming potency of p21 proteins encoded by ras genes mutant at codons 12, 61 or both has been analyzed. Our studies also show that the coding exons of ras genes, including the fourth, can be interchanged and the chimeric p21 ras proteins retain their oncogenic ability in normal rodent established cell lines. PMID:6096811

  1. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  2. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

    2001-02-01

    Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer.

  3. The IAA RAS Correlator First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surkis, Igor; Melnikov, Alexey; Shantyr, Violet; Zimovsky, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the national Russian VLBI observations were processed by the new correlator ARC (Astrometric Radiointerferometric Correlator). The ARC is a VSI-H correlator and equipped with Mark 5B playback terminals. During 2009 ARC was used to process a series of VLBI sessions, observed on stations Svetloe, Zelenchukskaya, and Badary. NGS files were formed, and EOP parameters were obtained by IAA RAS Analysis Center. The accuracies of the pole coordinates and UT1-UTC were 1-2 mas and 0.07-0.1 ms, respectively.

  4. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193 Section 133.193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for...

  5. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  6. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  7. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  8. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  9. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  10. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  11. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  12. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably...

  13. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and...

  14. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416....

  15. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  16. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  17. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  18. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  19. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition...

  20. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  1. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  2. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  3. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  5. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  6. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  7. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  8. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  9. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  10. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  11. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  12. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  13. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  14. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  15. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  16. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Semisoft part-skim cheeses. 133.188 Section 133.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  17. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Semisoft part-skim cheeses. 133.188 Section 133.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  18. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Semisoft part-skim cheeses. 133.188 Section 133.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 133.188 - Semisoft part-skim cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Semisoft part-skim cheeses. 133.188 Section 133.188 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  20. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  1. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for...

  3. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  4. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  7. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for...

  8. Isolation of bacteriocin-producing staphylococci from Brazilian cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 285 staphylococcus isolates were recovered from Minas Frescal cheese, a traditional Brazilian fresh cheese made with pasteurized milk, and screened for the production of antibacterial substances. The staphylococci were isolated from 50 lots of commercial cheese and cultured on mannitol s...

  9. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  10. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  11. Flavor comparison of natural cheeses manufactured in different countries.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Delores H

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the main flavor components of different natural aged cheese types from various countries and determine whether a unique sensory characteristic exists within specific countries for European cheeses. The flavor of 152 cheeses from Estonia, France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, and Denmark were described during 4 independent studies. The sensory data from these studies were combined. The cheeses were sorted according to milk type and texture, and flavor characteristics of these groups were described. The main flavor characteristics of the cheeses tested were salty, sweet, sour, astringent, biting, pungent, sharp, nutty, musty/earthy, dairy fat, buttery, and dairy sweet. The cluster analysis divided the cheeses into 4 clusters: clusters 1 and 2 were sour, dairy sour, salty, astringent, biting, and varied in buttery (cluster 1) and sharp notes (cluster 2). Cluster 1 and 2 were mainly composed of French cheeses, while clusters 3 and 4 represented cheeses from various countries. Cluster 3 and 4 were sweet, with cooked milk and nutty characteristics and varied from buttery (cluster 3) to sharp notes (cluster 4). Cheeses from some countries, for example, France and Estonia, generally exhibited common sensory characteristics within the specific country, but cheeses from some other countries, such as Italy, varied widely, and seemed to have no common sensory theme. Most regional cheese standards are not specific about flavor profiles and these results suggest it may be possible to start a further characterization of cheeses in some countries.

  12. Small molecule binding sites on the Ras:SOS complex can be exploited for inhibition of Ras activation.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jon J G; Anderson, Malcolm; Blades, Kevin; Brassington, Claire; Breeze, Alexander L; Chresta, Christine; Embrey, Kevin; Fairley, Gary; Faulder, Paul; Finlay, M Raymond V; Kettle, Jason G; Nowak, Thorsten; Overman, Ross; Patel, S Joe; Perkins, Paula; Spadola, Loredana; Tart, Jonathan; Tucker, Julie A; Wrigley, Gail

    2015-03-12

    Constitutively active mutant KRas displays a reduced rate of GTP hydrolysis via both intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein-catalyzed mechanisms, resulting in the perpetual activation of Ras pathways. We describe a fragment screening campaign using X-ray crystallography that led to the discovery of three fragment binding sites on the Ras:SOS complex. The identification of tool compounds binding at each of these sites allowed exploration of two new approaches to Ras pathway inhibition by stabilizing or covalently modifying the Ras:SOS complex to prevent the reloading of Ras with GTP. Initially, we identified ligands that bound reversibly to the Ras:SOS complex in two distinct sites, but these compounds were not sufficiently potent inhibitors to validate our stabilization hypothesis. We conclude by demonstrating that covalent modification of Cys118 on Ras leads to a novel mechanism of inhibition of the SOS-mediated interaction between Ras and Raf and is effective at inhibiting the exchange of labeled GDP in both mutant (G12C and G12V) and wild type Ras.

  13. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in

  14. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese.

  15. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  16. Exploratory study of acid-forming potential of commercial cheeses: impact of cheese type.

    PubMed

    Gore, Ecaterina; Mardon, Julie; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Due to their composition, cheeses are suspected to induce an acid load to the body. To better understand this nutritional feature, the acid-forming potential of five cheeses from different cheese-making technologies and two milk was evaluated on the basis of their potential renal acid load (PRAL) index (considering protein, P, Cl, Na, K, Mg and Ca contents) and organic anions contents. PRAL index ranged from -0.8 mEq/100 g edible portion for fresh cheese to 25.3 mEq/100 g for hard cheese Cantal and 28 mEq/100 g for blue-veined cheese Fourme d'Ambert. PRAL values were greatly subjected to interbatch fluctuations. This work emphasized a great imbalance between acidifying elements of PRAL calculation (Cl, P and proteins elements) and alkalinizing ones (Na and Ca). Particularly, Cl followed by P elements had a strong impact on the PRAL value. Hard cheeses were rich in lactate, thus, might be less acidifying than suspected by their PRAL values only. PMID:27050124

  17. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese.

    PubMed

    Martins, José M; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J; Ribeiro, José I; Furtado, Mauro M; Ferreira, Célia L L F

    2015-03-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April-September) and rainy season (October-March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g (-1) ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g (-1) ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  18. Lactate metabolism by pediococci isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T D; McKay, L L; Morris, H A

    1985-04-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus is commonly found among the adventitious microflora of Cheddar cheese. When this organism was incubated with L-(+)-lactate under anaerobic conditions, L-(+)-lactate was rapidly converted to D-(-)-lactate until racemic (DL) lactate was present. Under aerobic conditions this initial reaction was followed by a slower reaction resulting in the use of both lactate isomers and in the production of acetate and CO2. With intact cells the lactate oxidation system had an optimum pH of 5 to 6, depending on the initial lactate concentration. Cells grown anaerobically possessed lactate-oxidizing activity which increased two- to fourfold as sugar was exhausted from the medium. Aerobic growth further increased specific activities. Cheddar cheese was made with the deliberate addition of P. pentosaceus. When the resulting cheese was grated to expose a large surface area to O2, lactate was converted to acetate at a rate which depended on the density of pediococci in the cheese. The lactate oxidation system remained active in cheese which had been ripened for 6 months.

  19. Test for measuring the stretchability of melted cheese.

    PubMed

    Fife, R L; McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J

    2002-12-01

    A test for measuring the stretchability of cheese was developed by adapting a texture-profile analyzer to pull strands of cheese upwards from a reservoir of melted cheese. Seven different cheeses were analyzed using the Utah State University stretch test. The cheeses were also analyzed for apparent viscosity with a helical viscometer, for meltability using a tube melt test, and for stretch using the pizza-fork test. Cheese was placed into a stainless steel cup and tempered in a water bath at 60, 70, 80, or 90 degrees C for 30 min before analysis. The cup was then placed in a water-jacketed holder mounted on the base of the instrument. A three-pronged hook-shaped probe was lowered into the melted cheese and then pulled vertically until all cheese strands broke or 30 cm was reached. This produced a stretch profile as the probe was lifted through the reservoir of melted cheese and then pulled strands of cheese upwards. Three parameters were defined to characterize the stretchability of the cheese. The maximum load, obtained as the probe was lifted through the cheese, was defined as melt strength (F(M)). The distance to which cheese strands were lifted was defined as stretch length (SL). The load exerted on the probe as the strands of cheese were being stretched was defined as stretch quality (SQ). There was a correlation between F(M) and apparent viscosity. There was also some correlation between SL measured by the fork test and SL when the cheese was tested at 90 degrees C, but no correlation occurred at lower temperatures.

  20. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among members of three Muslim sects—Sunni, Shiite, and Druze—in two cultural contexts; one in which the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim (Egypt) and another in which there is a sizable Christian community (Lebanon). Data were collected via surveys that examined students' scientific and religious understandings of evolution among 162 Egyptian students (all Sunni Muslims; 63% females and 37% males) and 629 Lebanese students (38.5% Sunni, 38% Shiite, and 23.5% Druze; 49% females and 51% males). Additional data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 30 Lebanese students to allow triangulation of data for accuracy and authenticity. Results indicate that many Egyptian and Lebanese Muslim students have misconceptions about evolution and the nature of science which often lead to rejection of evolution. Also, Lebanese Sunni and Shiite students and Egyptian Sunni students tend to exhibit high levels of religiosity, and these students report that their religious beliefs influence their positions regarding evolution. Finally, Sunni and Shiite Lebanese students have religious beliefs, conceptions of evolution, and positions regarding evolution similar to those of Sunni Egyptian students. These conceptions and positions, however, are substantially different from those of Druze Lebanese students.

  1. Ras chaperones: new targets for cancer and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kloog, Yoel; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Haklai, Roni; Mor, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Ras inhibitor S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, Salirasib®) interferes with Ras membrane interactions that are crucial for Ras-dependent signaling and cellular transformation. FTS had been successfully evaluated in clinical trials of cancer patients. Interestingly, its effect is mediated by targeting Ras chaperones that serve as key coordinators for Ras proper folding and delivery, thus offering a novel target for cancer therapy. The development of new FTS analogs has revealed that the specific modifications to the FTS carboxyl group by esterification and amidation yielded compounds with improved growth inhibitory activity. When FTS was combined with additional therapeutic agents its activity toward Ras was significantly augmented. FTS should be tested not only in cancer but also for genetic diseases associated with abnormal Ras signaling, as well as for various inflammatory and autoimmune disturbances, where Ras plays a major role. We conclude that FTS has a great potential both as a safe anticancer drug and as a promising immune modulator agent. PMID:25033809

  2. H-Ras regulation of TRAIL death receptor mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Bozza, William P.; Di, Xu; Zhang, Yaqin; Hallett, William; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through the death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. Here we provide evidence demonstrating the role of H-Ras in TRAIL receptor mediated apoptosis. By analyzing the genome wide mRNA expression data of the NCI60 cancer cell lines, we found that H-Ras expression was consistently upregulated in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. By contrast, no correlation was found between TRAIL sensitivity and K-Ras expression levels or their mutational profiles. Notably, H-Ras upregulation associated with a surface deficiency of TRAIL death receptors. Selective inhibition of H-Ras activity in TRAIL-resistant cells restored the surface expression of both DR4 and DR5 without changing their total protein levels. The resulting cells became highly susceptible to both TRAIL and agonistic DR5 antibody, whereas K-Ras inhibition had little or no effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating H-Ras plays a distinct role in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of H-Ras-specific inhibitors in combination with TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25026275

  3. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  4. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  5. Endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-08-15

    K-ras is one of the most frequently mutated genes in virtually all types of human cancers. Using mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitors as a model system, we studied the role of endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. When oncogenic K-ras is expressed from its endogenous promoter, it hyperactivates cytokine-dependent signaling pathways and results in a partial block in erythroid differentiation. In erythroid progenitors deficient in K-ras, cytokine-dependent Akt activation is greatly reduced, leading to delays in erythroid differentiation. Thus, both loss- and gain-of-Kras functions affect erythroid differentiation through modulation of cytokine signaling. These results support the notion that in human cancer patients oncogenic Ras signaling might be controlled by antagonizing essential cytokines.

  6. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  7. Chemometric analysis of Ragusano cheese flavor.

    PubMed

    Carpino, S; Acree, T E; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Siebert, K J

    2002-02-27

    Ragusano cheeses were produced in duplicate from milk collected from pasture-fed and total mixed ration (TMR)-fed cattle at four time intervals. The cheeses were subjected to chemical analysis, conventional sensory testing, and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). Data from each type of analysis were examined by principal component and factor analysis and by pattern recognition (SIMCA) to see if sufficient information for classification into pasture-fed and TMR-fed groups was contained therein. The results clearly indicate that there are significant differences in sensory panel and chemical analysis results between the two cheeses. The data were also examined to see if models of sensory responses as a function of analytical or GCO results or both could be constructed with the modeling technique partial least-squares regression (PLS). Strong PLS models of some sensory responses (green and toasted odor; salt, pungent, bitter, and butyric sensations; and smooth consistency) were obtained.

  8. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

    PubMed

    Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified. PMID:24798232

  9. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

    PubMed

    Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified.

  10. Ras activation and symmetry breaking during Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Kortholt, Arjan; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Kataria, Rama; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-10-01

    Central to chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which a shallow spatial gradient of chemoattractant induces symmetry breaking of activated signaling molecules. Previously, we have used Dictyostelium mutants to investigate the minimal requirements for chemotaxis, and identified a basal signaling module providing activation of Ras and F-actin at the leading edge. Here, we show that Ras activation after application of a pipette releasing the chemoattractant cAMP has three phases, each depending on specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs). Initially a transient activation of Ras occurs at the entire cell boundary, which is proportional to the local cAMP concentrations and therefore slightly stronger at the front than in the rear of the cell. This transient Ras activation is present in gα2 (gpbB)-null cells but not in gβ (gpbA)-null cells, suggesting that Gβγ mediates the initial activation of Ras. The second phase is symmetry breaking: Ras is activated only at the side of the cell closest to the pipette. Symmetry breaking absolutely requires Gα2 and Gβγ, but not the cytoskeleton or four cAMP-induced signaling pathways, those dependent on phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], cGMP, TorC2 and PLA2. As cells move in the gradient, the crescent of activated Ras in the front half of the cell becomes confined to a small area at the utmost front of the cell. Confinement of Ras activation leads to cell polarization, and depends on cGMP formation, myosin and F-actin. The experiments show that activation, symmetry breaking and confinement of Ras during Dictyostelium chemotaxis uses different G-protein subunits and a multitude of Ras GEFs and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs).

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Pamela Y.; Johnson, Christian W.; Fang, Cong; Cao, Xiaoqing; Graeber, Thomas G.; Mattos, Carla; Colicelli, John

    2015-01-01

    RAS proteins are signal transduction gatekeepers that mediate cell growth, survival, and differentiation through interactions with multiple effector proteins. The RAS effector RAS- and RAB-interacting protein 1 (RIN1) activates its own downstream effectors, the small GTPase RAB5 and the tyrosine kinase Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase (ABL), to modulate endocytosis and cytoskeleton remodeling. To identify ABL substrates downstream of RAS-to-RIN1 signaling, we examined human HEK293T cells overexpressing components of this pathway. Proteomic analysis revealed several novel phosphotyrosine peptides, including Harvey rat sarcoma oncogene (HRAS)-pTyr137. Here we report that ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS. Increased RIN1 levels enhanced HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation by nearly 5-fold, suggesting that RAS-stimulated RIN1 can drive ABL-mediated RAS modification in a feedback circuit. Tyr137 is well conserved among RAS orthologs and is part of a transprotein H-bond network. Crystal structures of HRASY137F and HRASY137E revealed conformation changes radiating from the mutated residue. Although consistent with Tyr137 participation in allosteric control of HRAS function, the mutations did not alter intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates in vitro. HRAS-Tyr137 phosphorylation enhanced HRAS signaling capacity in cells, however, as reflected by a 4-fold increase in the association of phosphorylated HRASG12V with its effector protein RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RAF1). These data suggest that RAS phosphorylation at Tyr137 allosterically alters protein conformation and effector binding, providing a mechanism for effector-initiated modulation of RAS signaling.—Ting, P. Y., Johnson, C. W., Fang, C., Cao, X., Graeber, T. G., Mattos, C., Colicelli, J. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RAS by ABL allosterically enhances effector binding. PMID:25999467

  12. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed

    Downward, Julian

    2015-04-15

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacologic approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be "undruggable." This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS-mutant but not wild-type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS-mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a reevaluation of the approaches taken. On the basis of experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS-mutant cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1802-9. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers." PMID:25878361

  13. Regulation of collagen I gene expression by ras.

    PubMed Central

    Slack, J L; Parker, M I; Robinson, V R; Bornstein, P

    1992-01-01

    Although transformation of rodent fibroblasts can lead to dramatic changes in expression of extracellular matrix genes, the molecular basis and physiological significance of these changes remain poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism(s) by which ras affects expression of the genes encoding type I collagen. Levels of both alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen mRNAs were markedly reduced in Rat 1 fibroblasts overexpressing either the N-rasLys-61 or the Ha-rasVal-12 oncogene. In fibroblasts conditionally transformed with N-rasLys-61, alpha 1(I) transcript levels began to decline within 8 h of ras induction and reached 1 to 5% of control levels after 96 h. In contrast, overexpression of normal ras p21 had no effect on alpha 1(I) or alpha 2(I) mRNA levels. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the transcription rates of both the alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) genes were significantly reduced in ras-transformed cells compared with those in parental cells. In addition, the alpha 1(I) transcript was less stable in transformed cells. Chimeric plasmids containing up to 3.6 kb of alpha 1(I) 5'-flanking DNA and up to 2.3 kb of the 3'-flanking region were expressed at equivalent levels in both normal and ras-transformed fibroblasts. However, a cosmid clone containing the entire mouse alpha 1(I) gene, including 3.7 kb of 5'- and 4 kb of 3'-flanking DNA, was expressed at reduced levels in fibroblasts overexpressing oncogenic ras. We conclude that oncogenic ras regulates the type I collagen genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that this effect, at least for the alpha 1(I) gene, may be mediated by sequences located either within the body of the gene itself or in the distal 3'-flanking region. Images PMID:1406656

  14. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  15. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  16. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  17. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  18. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese....

  19. Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics of two Egyptian northern Sinai tribes.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M E; Shaaban, M M; Shuwaqah, F A; Bahieg, S M

    1994-01-01

    Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics were analyzed in two northern Sinai tribes. The sample consists of 200 normal individuals (males and females), 100 from each tribe. The results were compared to urban Egyptians and some selected African tribes. A high degree of similarity was observed in most of dermatoglyphic traits between each tribe and the urban Egyptian sample. Certain quantitative dermatoglyphic traits of the two tribes showed a strong resemblance to those of African populations. These results may point to a common gene pool of the two tribes and the urban Egyptians. Moreover, the present study suggests some genetic admixture of the northern Sinai tribes with the neighboring African populations. The study emphasizes that the dermatoglyphic features are important biological elements that may prove or disprove the phenotypical and genotypical relationships between various populations in the different environments and geographical locations.

  20. Dental age estimation in Egyptian children, comparison between two methods.

    PubMed

    El-Bakary, Amal A; Hammad, Shaza M; Mohammed, Fatma

    2010-10-01

    The need to estimate age of living individuals is becoming increasingly more important in both forensic science and clinical dentistry. The study of the morphological parameters of teeth on dental radiographs of adult humans is more reliable than most other methods for age estimation. Willems and Cameriere methods are newly presented methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of using these methods for Egyptian children. Digitalized panoramas taken from 286 Egyptian children (134 boys, 152 girls) with age range from 5 to 16 years were analyzed. The seven left permanent mandibular teeth were evaluated using the two methods. The results of this research showed that dental age estimated by both methods was significantly correlated to real age. However, Willems method was slightly more accurate (98.62%) compared to Cameriere method (98.02%). Therefore, both methods can be recommended for practical application in clinical dentistry and forensic procedures on the Egyptian population.

  1. Low-sodium Cheddar cheese: Effect of fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration retentate and high-hydrostatic pressure treatment of cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2015-10-01

    Low-sodium cheeses often exhibit an acidic flavor due to excessive acid production during the manufacturing and the initial stage of ripening, which is caused by ongoing starter culture activity facilitated by the low salt-in-moisture levels. We proposed that this excessive starter-induced acidity could be prevented by the fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration (UF) retentates (to increase curd buffering), and by decreasing microbial activity using the application of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (that is, to reduce residual starter numbers). Camel chymosin was also used as a coagulant to help reduce bitterness development (a common defect in low-sodium cheeses). Three types of low-Na (0.8% NaCl) Cheddar cheeses were manufactured: non-UF fortified, no HHP applied (L-Na); UF-fortified (cheese milk total solids = 17.2 ± 0.6%), no HHP applied (L-Na-UF); and UF-fortified, HHP-treated (L-Na-UF-HHP; 500 MPa for 3 min applied at 1 d post-cheese manufacture). Regular salt (2% NaCl) non-UF fortified, non-HHP treated (R-Na) cheese was also manufactured for comparison purposes. Analysis was performed at 4 d, 2 wk, and 1, 3, and 6 mo after cheese manufacture. Cheese functionality during ripening was assessed using texture profile analysis and dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology. Sensory Spectrum and quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted with 9 trained panelists to evaluate texture and flavor attributes using a 15-point scale. At 4 d and 2 wk of ripening, L-Na-UF-HHP cheese had ~2 and ~4.5 log lower starter culture numbers, respectively, than all other cheeses. Retentate fortification of cheese milk and HHP treatment resulted in low-Na cheeses having similar insoluble calcium concentrations and pH values compared with R-Na cheese during ripening. The L-Na-UF cheese exhibited significantly higher hardness values (measured by texture profile analysis) compared with L-Na cheese until 1 mo of ripening; however, after 1 mo, all low-Na cheeses

  2. Low-sodium Cheddar cheese: Effect of fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration retentate and high-hydrostatic pressure treatment of cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2015-10-01

    Low-sodium cheeses often exhibit an acidic flavor due to excessive acid production during the manufacturing and the initial stage of ripening, which is caused by ongoing starter culture activity facilitated by the low salt-in-moisture levels. We proposed that this excessive starter-induced acidity could be prevented by the fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration (UF) retentates (to increase curd buffering), and by decreasing microbial activity using the application of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (that is, to reduce residual starter numbers). Camel chymosin was also used as a coagulant to help reduce bitterness development (a common defect in low-sodium cheeses). Three types of low-Na (0.8% NaCl) Cheddar cheeses were manufactured: non-UF fortified, no HHP applied (L-Na); UF-fortified (cheese milk total solids = 17.2 ± 0.6%), no HHP applied (L-Na-UF); and UF-fortified, HHP-treated (L-Na-UF-HHP; 500 MPa for 3 min applied at 1 d post-cheese manufacture). Regular salt (2% NaCl) non-UF fortified, non-HHP treated (R-Na) cheese was also manufactured for comparison purposes. Analysis was performed at 4 d, 2 wk, and 1, 3, and 6 mo after cheese manufacture. Cheese functionality during ripening was assessed using texture profile analysis and dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology. Sensory Spectrum and quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted with 9 trained panelists to evaluate texture and flavor attributes using a 15-point scale. At 4 d and 2 wk of ripening, L-Na-UF-HHP cheese had ~2 and ~4.5 log lower starter culture numbers, respectively, than all other cheeses. Retentate fortification of cheese milk and HHP treatment resulted in low-Na cheeses having similar insoluble calcium concentrations and pH values compared with R-Na cheese during ripening. The L-Na-UF cheese exhibited significantly higher hardness values (measured by texture profile analysis) compared with L-Na cheese until 1 mo of ripening; however, after 1 mo, all low-Na cheeses

  3. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities in Poro cheese, an artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Aldrete-Tapia, Alejandro; Escobar-Ramírez, Meyli C; Tamplin, Mark L; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and structure of Poro cheese, an artisanal food, was analysed by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) in order to gain insight about changes in bacterial communities associated with the cheese-making process. Dairy samples consisting of milk, fermented whey, curd and ripened cheese (during 7 and 60 d) were collected from three manufacturers located in the state of Tabasco, México during dry (March-June) and rainy (August-November) seasons. Independently of producer and season, raw milk samples displayed the highest diversity in bacterial communities. In raw milk, genera found were Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enhydrobacter. Diversity in whey, curd and cheese was lower, principally containing Streptococcus and Lactobacillus; however, bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were occasionally present. After curdling step, the most dominant and abundant species were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

  4. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  5. Cadmium variations in Manchego cheese during traditional cheese-making and ripening processes.

    PubMed

    Zurera-Cosano, G; Sanchez-Segarra, P J; Amaro-Lopez, M A; Moreno-Rojas, R

    1997-07-01

    Variations in cadmium content were determined throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening processes by applying graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry to samples of natural pasteurized milk, rennet, curd whey, pressed curd, pressing whey and cheese. The total mean cadmium contents were 4.79 +/- 2.4 and 4.67 +/- 2.1 microgram/kg fresh weight for newly-made and mature cheeses respectively. ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in cadmium levels (fresh weight) and these differences were due to the influence of moisture content during cheese manufacture, since no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for dry weight. Nevertheless, cadmium levels based on dry weight increased during pasteurization and more noticeably on ferment addition. ANOVA performed during the ripening process revealed significant differences between portions and ripening times for both fresh and dry weights. By Tukey's test (p < 0.05) for portions, two homogeneous groups were established, one corresponding to the outer portion with a greater cadmium content and the other comprising the middle and inner portions. The contribution of cadmium to Spanish mean intake is between 0.098 and 0.147 micrograms/week for new cheese and between 0.168 and 0.245 micrograms/week for mature cheese.

  6. Cadmium variations in Manchego cheese during traditional cheese-making and ripening processes.

    PubMed

    Zurera-Cosano, G; Sanchez-Segarra, P J; Amaro-Lopez, M A; Moreno-Rojas, R

    1997-07-01

    Variations in cadmium content were determined throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening processes by applying graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry to samples of natural pasteurized milk, rennet, curd whey, pressed curd, pressing whey and cheese. The total mean cadmium contents were 4.79 +/- 2.4 and 4.67 +/- 2.1 microgram/kg fresh weight for newly-made and mature cheeses respectively. ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in cadmium levels (fresh weight) and these differences were due to the influence of moisture content during cheese manufacture, since no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for dry weight. Nevertheless, cadmium levels based on dry weight increased during pasteurization and more noticeably on ferment addition. ANOVA performed during the ripening process revealed significant differences between portions and ripening times for both fresh and dry weights. By Tukey's test (p < 0.05) for portions, two homogeneous groups were established, one corresponding to the outer portion with a greater cadmium content and the other comprising the middle and inner portions. The contribution of cadmium to Spanish mean intake is between 0.098 and 0.147 micrograms/week for new cheese and between 0.168 and 0.245 micrograms/week for mature cheese. PMID:9328532

  7. Inhibition of SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of Ras suppresses oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bunda, Severa; Burrell, Kelly; Heir, Pardeep; Zeng, Lifan; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Kano, Yoshihito; Raught, Brian; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Zadeh, Gelareh; Ohh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ras is phosphorylated on a conserved tyrosine at position 32 within the switch I region via Src kinase. This phosphorylation inhibits the binding of effector Raf while promoting the engagement of GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and GTP hydrolysis. Here we identify SHP2 as the ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase that preferentially binds to and dephosphorylates Ras to increase its association with Raf and activate downstream proliferative Ras/ERK/MAPK signalling. In comparison to normal astrocytes, SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice as well as in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GBM specimens exhibiting hyperactive Ras. Pharmacologic inhibition of SHP2 activity attenuates cell proliferation, soft-agar colony formation and orthotopic GBM growth in NOD/SCID mice and decelerates the progression of low-grade astrocytoma to GBM in a spontaneous transgenic glioma mouse model. These results identify SHP2 as a direct activator of Ras and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by a previously ‘undruggable' oncogenic or hyperactive Ras. PMID:26617336

  8. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed Central

    Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacological approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be “undruggable.” This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS mutant but not wild type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a re-evaluation of the approaches taken. Based on experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS mutant cancers. PMID:25878361

  9. Age estimation in subadult Egyptian remains.

    PubMed

    Boccone, S; Micheletti Cremasco, M; Bortoluzzi, S; Moggi-Cecchi, J; Rabino Massa, E

    2010-10-01

    In anthropological analyses of past populations, it is very important to be able to accurately reconstruct the palaeodemographic profile in order to interpret infant mortality as an indicator of the environmental, social and cultural conditions. There are various methods to evaluate the age of immature individuals but some of these methods are strongly influenced by the different rates of skeletal development observed in populations from various geographical areas and/or from various time periods, as well as between the sexes. Clearly, there is a need for adopting a method of estimation of age at death, which will be the one most suitable for analysing the particular skeletal sample. In this study we investigated subadults from the Egyptian osteological collection housed in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the University of Turin. For each individual, the age at death was estimated based on the degree of eruption and mineralisation of the teeth. Then the estimated age at death was correlated with the measurements of the long bones and ilium. We showed that greater regularity and constancy of rates of skeletal growth could be assessed with measurements, alternative to using maximum length of diaphysis. Moreover, using alternative characters, it was possible to markedly increase the number of individuals whose age at death could be estimated. Our study also showed the need to use a reference sample consistent with the sample being analysed and, which was derived from similar biological-environmental context. Therefore, our proposed method can be used for the estimation of age at death in pre/protohistorical populations from the Mediterranean region.

  10. Composition of Egyptian nerolì oil.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Sciarrone, Danilo; Schipilliti, Luisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Fakhry, Hussein A; Dugo, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    The bitter orange flower oil (or neroli) is an essential product, largely used in perfumery. Neroli is obtained by hydrodistillation or steam distillation, from the flowers of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Since a long time neroli production is limited and its cost on the market is considerably high. The annual production in Tunisia and Morocco is ca. 1500 Kg, representing more than 90% of the worldwide production. A small amount ofneroli is also produced in Egypt, Spain and Comorros (not exceeding 150 kg totally). Due to the high cost, the producers and the users have tried to obtain less expensive products, with odor characters close to that of neroli oil to be used as substitute and sometimes as adulterants of the genuine oil. In this study are investigated five samples of Egyptian neroli oils produced in 2008 and 2009, in the same industrial plant, declared genuine by the producer. For all the samples the composition was determined by GC/FID and by GC/MS-LRI; the samples were also analyzed by esGC to determine the enantiomeric distribution of twelve volatiles and by GC-C-IRMS for the determination of the delta13C(VPDB) values of some mono and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols and esters. The analytical procedures allowed to quantitatively determining 86 components. In particular the variation of the composition seems to be dependent on the period of production. In fact, the amount of linalool decreases from March to April while linalyl acetate presents an opposite trend, increasing in the same period. The RSD determined for the delta13C(VPDB) are very small (max. 3.89%), ensuring the authenticity of all samples. The results are also discussed in function of the limits provided by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) (2004), AFNOR (1995) and ISO (2002) regulations for genuine neroli oils. PMID:21834247

  11. Malignant tumors in an ancient Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G

    1999-01-01

    Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even

  12. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  13. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  14. GTP-dependent association of Raf-1 with Ha-Ras: identification of Raf as a target downstream of Ras in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koide, H; Satoh, T; Nakafuku, M; Kaziro, Y

    1993-01-01

    Ras is involved in signal transduction of various factors for growth, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Recent studies have revealed several proteins that function upstream and downstream of the Ras signaling pathway. However, its immediate downstream target molecular has not yet been identified. In an effort to identify the Ras-associated downstream proteins, we added recombinant Ha-Ras in a GTP-bound form to cell-free lysates and used several antibodies against Ras to immunoprecipitate Ras complexes. We found that a serine/threonine kinase, Raf-1, was coimmunoprecipitated with Ha-Ras by two anti-Ras antibodies (LA069 and Y13-238), whereas a neutralizing antibody against Ras (Y13-259) could not precipitate Raf-1. The coimmunoprecipitation was observed with a complex of Ras and guanosine 5'-[gamma- thio]triphosphate but not with a complex of Ras and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. The GTP-dependent association of Ha-Ras with Raf-1 was observed with lysates of various types of cultured cells, including NIH 3T3, pheochromocytoma (PC) 12, Ba/F3, and Jurkat T cells, and also with crude extracts from rat brain. Furthermore, Raf-1 was precipitated with a transforming Ha-Ras mutant ([Val12]Ras) and wild-type Ha-Ras but not with an effector-region mutant ([Leu35,ARg37]Ras) that lacks transforming activity. These results indicate that Ras.GTP physically associates with Raf either directly or through other component(s) and strongly suggest that Raf functions in close downstream proximity to Ras in mammalian cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8378348

  15. Serum-dependent transcriptional networks identify distinct functional roles for H-Ras and N-Ras during initial stages of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we compared transcriptional profiles corresponding to the initial cell cycle stages of mouse fibroblasts lacking the small GTPases H-Ras and/or N-Ras with those of matching, wild-type controls. Results Serum-starved wild-type and knockout ras fibroblasts had very similar transcriptional profiles, indicating that H-Ras and N-Ras do not significantly control transcriptional responses to serum deprivation stress. In contrast, genomic disruption of H-ras or N-ras, individually or in combination, determined specific differential gene expression profiles in response to post-starvation stimulation with serum for 1 hour (G0/G1 transition) or 8 hours (mid-G1 progression). The absence of N-Ras caused significantly higher changes than the absence of H-Ras in the wave of transcriptional activation linked to G0/G1 transition. In contrast, the absence of H-Ras affected the profile of the transcriptional wave detected during G1 progression more strongly than did the absence of N-Ras. H-Ras was predominantly functionally associated with growth and proliferation, whereas N-Ras had a closer link to the regulation of development, the cell cycle, immunomodulation and apoptosis. Mechanistic analysis indicated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) mediates the regulatory effect of N-Ras on defense and immunity, whereas the pro-apoptotic effects of N-Ras are mediated through ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Conclusions Our observations confirm the notion of an absolute requirement for different peaks of Ras activity during the initial stages of the cell cycle and document the functional specificity of H-Ras and N-Ras during those processes. PMID:19895680

  16. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  17. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... color of the curd. (ii) Calcium chloride in an amount not more than 0.02 percent (calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes of... the cheese. (v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium...

  18. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2... alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or... ingredients, simulate the flavor of cheese of any age or variety. (v) Enzymes of animal, plant, or...

  19. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  20. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  1. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... temperature of approximately 50 °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  2. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  3. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  4. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  5. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... temperature of approximately 50 °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  6. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  7. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... temperature of approximately 50 °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  8. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  9. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... of approximately 50 °F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  10. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... temperature of approximately 50 °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  11. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... temperature of approximately 50 °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth...

  12. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  13. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture... °F at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic mold growth has developed. During storage, the surface of the cheese may be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable...

  14. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the cheese. (v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate used to bleach the dairy ingredients. The weight of the benzoyl peroxide is... weight of the benzoyl peroxide used. If milk is bleached in this manner, vitamin A is added to the...

  15. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the cheese. (v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate used to bleach the dairy ingredients. The weight of the benzoyl peroxide is... weight of the benzoyl peroxide used. If milk is bleached in this manner, vitamin A is added to the...

  16. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spiced cheeses. 133.190 Section 133.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... applicable definitions and standards of identity are not prescribed by other sections of this part. The...

  17. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Semisoft cheeses. 133.187 Section 133.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... of the following: cutting, stirring, heating, dilution with water or brine. The whey, or part of...

  18. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spiced cheeses. 133.190 Section 133.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... applicable definitions and standards of identity are not prescribed by other sections of this part. The...

  19. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spiced cheeses. 133.190 Section 133.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... applicable definitions and standards of identity are not prescribed by other sections of this part. The...

  20. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Semisoft cheeses. 133.187 Section 133.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... of the following: cutting, stirring, heating, dilution with water or brine. The whey, or part of...

  1. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Semisoft cheeses. 133.187 Section 133.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... of the following: cutting, stirring, heating, dilution with water or brine. The whey, or part of...

  2. 21 CFR 133.190 - Spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spiced cheeses. 133.190 Section 133.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... applicable definitions and standards of identity are not prescribed by other sections of this part. The...

  3. 21 CFR 133.187 - Semisoft cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Semisoft cheeses. 133.187 Section 133.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... of the following: cutting, stirring, heating, dilution with water or brine. The whey, or part of...

  4. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment.

  5. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions.

  6. Canonical RTK-Ras-ERK signaling and related alternative pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Meera V.

    2013-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK)-Ras-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways control many aspects of C. elegans development and behavior. Studies in C. elegans helped elucidate the basic framework of the RTK-Ras-ERK pathway and continue to provide insights into its complex regulation, its biological roles, how it elicits cell-type appropriate responses, and how it interacts with other signaling pathways to do so. C. elegans studies have also revealed biological contexts in which alternative RTK- or Ras-dependent pathways are used instead of the canonical pathway. PMID:23908058

  7. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García-Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment. PMID:27468687

  8. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García- Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment. PMID:27468687

  9. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García-Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-07-28

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment.

  10. Dominant negative Ras attenuates pathological ventricular remodeling in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Rapti, Kleopatra; Mehel, Hind; Zhang, Shihong; Dhandapany, Perundurai S.; Liang, Lifan; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Bobe, Regis; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Adnot, Serge; Lebeche, Djamel; Hajjar, Roger J.; Lipskaia, Larissa; Chemaly, Elie R.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the oncogene Ras in cardiac hypertrophy is well appreciated. The hypertrophic effects of the constitutively active mutant Ras-Val12 are revealed by clinical syndromes due to the Ras mutations and experimental studies. We examined the possible anti-hypertrophic effect of Ras inhibition in vitro using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and in vivo in the setting of pressure-overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (POH) in rats. Ras functions were modulated via adenovirus directed gene transfer of active mutant Ras-Val12 or dominant negative mutant N17-DN-Ras (DN-Ras). Ras-Val12 expression in vitro activates NFAT resulting in pro-hypertrophic and cardio-toxic effects on NRCM beating and Z-line organization. In contrast, the DN-Ras was antihypertrophic on NRCM, inhibited NFAT and exerted cardio-protective effects attested by preserved NRCM beating and Z line structure. Additional experiments with silencing H-Ras gene strategy corroborated the antihypertrophic effects of siRNA-H-Ras on NRCM. In vivo, with the POH model, both Ras mutants were associated with similar hypertrophy two weeks after simultaneous induction of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer. However, LV diameters were higher and LV fractional shortening lower in the Ras-Val12 group compared to control and DN-Ras. Moreover, DN-Ras reduced the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in vivo, and decreased the expression of markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. In isolated adult cardiomyocytes after 2 weeks of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer, DN-Ras improved sarcomere shortening and calcium transients compared to Ras-Val12. Overall, DN-Ras promotes a more physiological form of hypertrophy, suggesting an interesting therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26260012

  11. Dominant negative Ras attenuates pathological ventricular remodeling in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Kuri, Manuel; Rapti, Kleopatra; Mehel, Hind; Zhang, Shihong; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Liang, Lifan; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Bobe, Regis; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Adnot, Serge; Lebeche, Djamel; Hajjar, Roger J; Lipskaia, Larissa; Chemaly, Elie R

    2015-11-01

    The importance of the oncogene Ras in cardiac hypertrophy is well appreciated. The hypertrophic effects of the constitutively active mutant Ras-Val12 are revealed by clinical syndromes due to the Ras mutations and experimental studies. We examined the possible anti-hypertrophic effect of Ras inhibition in vitro using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NRCM) and in vivo in the setting of pressure-overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (POH) in rats. Ras functions were modulated via adenovirus directed gene transfer of active mutant Ras-Val12 or dominant negative mutant N17-DN-Ras (DN-Ras). Ras-Val12 expression in vitro activates NFAT resulting in pro-hypertrophic and cardio-toxic effects on NRCM beating and Z-line organization. In contrast, the DN-Ras was antihypertrophic on NRCM, inhibited NFAT and exerted cardio-protective effects attested by preserved NRCM beating and Z line structure. Additional experiments with silencing H-Ras gene strategy corroborated the antihypertrophic effects of siRNA-H-Ras on NRCM. In vivo, with the POH model, both Ras mutants were associated with similar hypertrophy two weeks after simultaneous induction of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer. However, LV diameters were higher and LV fractional shortening lower in the Ras-Val12 group compared to control and DN-Ras. Moreover, DN-Ras reduced the cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in vivo, and decreased the expression of markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. In isolated adult cardiomyocytes after 2 weeks of POH and Ras-mutant gene transfer, DN-Ras improved sarcomere shortening and calcium transients compared to Ras-Val12. Overall, DN-Ras promotes a more physiological form of hypertrophy, suggesting an interesting therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

  12. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  13. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  14. Identification and characterization of rain, a novel Ras-interacting protein with a unique subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Mitin, Natalia Y; Ramocki, Melissa B; Zullo, Alfred J; Der, Channing J; Konieczny, Stephen F; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J

    2004-05-21

    The Ras small GTPase functions as a signaling node and is activated by extracellular stimuli. Upon activation, Ras interacts with a spectrum of functionally diverse downstream effectors and stimulates multiple cytoplasmic signaling cascades that regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to the association of Ras with the plasma membrane, recent studies have established an association of Ras with Golgi membranes. Whereas the effectors of signal transduction by activated, plasma membrane-localized Ras are well characterized, very little is known about the effectors used by Golgi-localized Ras. In this study, we report the identification of a novel Ras-interacting protein, Rain, that may serve as an effector for endomembrane-associated Ras. Rain does not share significant sequence similarity with any known mammalian proteins, but contains a Ras-associating domain that is found in RalGDS, AF-6, and other characterized Ras effectors. Rain interacts with Ras in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo, requires an intact Ras core effector-binding domain for this interaction, and thus fits the definition of a Ras effector. Unlike other Ras effectors, however, Rain is localized to perinuclear, juxta-Golgi vesicles in intact cells and is recruited to the Golgi by activated Ras. Finally, we found that Rain cooperates with activated Raf and causes synergistic transformation of NIH3T3 cells. Taken together, these observations support a role for Rain as a novel protein that can serve as an effector of endomembrane-localized Ras.

  15. New Horizons: An Empowerment Program for Egyptian Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Julie Hanson

    New Horizons is a nonschool program that demystifies and communicates essential information on basic life skills and reproductive health to Egyptian girls and young women aged 9-20. The program consists of 100 hour-long sessions, each including an introduction to a specific topic, review of group knowledge level, discussion around key points…

  16. Terahertz tomographic imaging of XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Younus, Ayesha; Salort, Simon; Chassagne, Bruno; Recur, Benoît; Ziéglé, Anne; Dautant, Alain; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2011-07-01

    A monochromatic millimeter-wave imaging system coupled with an infrared temperature sensor has been used to investigate historic objects preserved at the Museum of Aquitaine (France). In particular, two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of nearly 3500-year-old sealed Egyptian jars.

  17. Refusals and Communication Style in American English and Egyptian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle L.; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida

    This study investigated similarities and differences in Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals, using a modified discourse completion test (DCT) consisting of three requests, three invitations, three offers, and three suggestions. Each situation included one refusal to a person of higher status, one to a person of equal status, and one to a…

  18. Developing a Parliamentary Research Service: The Egyptian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elah, Wafaa Ali Abdel

    This paper describes the development of a parliamentary research service in Egypt. The first part investigates the impact on the Egyptian parliament (the People's Assembly) of the development of a new social and cultural environment that fostered the democratization process. The second part deals with how the establishment of a parliamentary…

  19. American, Nigerian and Egyptian Student Attitudes on Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, James L.

    The study focused on the attitudes of college students (preservice and inservice teachers) toward sex roles. The survey instrument, a 32-item questionnaire, elicited responses from United States, Nigerian, and Egyptian students on their attitudes about how students should be treated and educated for their roles in society. The responses were…

  20. Terahertz tomographic imaging of XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery.

    PubMed

    Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Younus, Ayesha; Salort, Simon; Chassagne, Bruno; Recur, Benoît; Ziéglé, Anne; Dautant, Alain; Abraham, Emmanuel

    2011-07-10

    A monochromatic millimeter-wave imaging system coupled with an infrared temperature sensor has been used to investigate historic objects preserved at the Museum of Aquitaine (France). In particular, two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of nearly 3500-year-old sealed Egyptian jars.

  1. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  2. Cultural Considerations for Evaluation Consulting in the Egyptian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    Reflecting on his experiences as an evaluation consultant at the Suez Canal University Faculty of Medicine in Egypt the author discusses: (1) implications of the Egyptian political context; (2) adapting to the host culture; and (3) maintaining distance from one's own culture. Personal qualities to complement the recommended naturalistic methods…

  3. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF BUILDING 1'S MAIN ENTRY TOWER (INCLUDING THE ENGAGED COLUMN CAPITALS, PILASTERS & CAPITALS, CORNICES, AND TERRA COTTA EAGLES); LOOKING SW FROM THE E WING ROOF. (Ryan) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  4. Student Involvement in the Egyptian Quality Assurance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the extent and the quality of student involvement in the quality assurance process (QAP) in Egyptian higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two qualitative methods were used to explore the extent and the quality of student involvement; these were focus groups…

  5. Database Software Selection for the Egyptian National STI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slamecka, Vladimir

    The evaluation and selection of information/data management system software for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical (STI) Network are described. An overview of the state-of-the-art of database technology elaborates on the differences between information retrieval and database management systems (DBMS). The desirable characteristics of…

  6. Constructing an Engineering Model for Raising an Egyptian Obelisk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries of ancient times is how the Egyptians managed to raise huge obelisks using very simple technology. This remarkable task has puzzled engineers for thousand of years. After failing to raise an obelisk with simple machines, such as levers and pulleys, a team of modern engineers solved the mystery using a sandpit and the…

  7. Shifting Pedagogical Space: Egyptian Educators Use of Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson; Finholt-Daniel, Matt; Sales, Greg; Flora, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on exploring the outcomes of an e-learning initiative in Egypt. Researchers conducted training with 17 Egyptian educators on how to build, maintain, and teach using Moodle, an online content management system. The researchers evaluated the outputs of the training using the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) in an effort to assess…

  8. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  9. Musical Education and Egyptian Child's Psychological and Social Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenawy, Hoda Mohammed

    The role played by music in Egyptian education in developing the character of the child is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the characteristics of the elementary school child and examines how each can be developed through musical education. For example, young children have a fertile imagination that can be stimulated by music.…

  10. The Case for (Social) Entrepreneurship Education in Egyptian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David A.; Ibrahim, Nagwa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000…

  11. Canine location in different maxillomandibular relationships in Egyptians and Saudis

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Safa’a; Al-Shehri, Sharifa A.; Rashad, Hoda M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The standards or proportions commonly used as guides for the selection of maxillary anterior teeth for a removable prosthesis have been developed mainly on Caucasian populations with normal ridge relationships. Purpose This study was conducted to determine the canine position in relation to commissures in different maxillomandibular relationships among Egyptian and Saudi populations. Material and methods Two hundred subjects participated in this study, 100 from each population. The location of the corners of the mouth for each subject was marked on the buccal surface of a screen previously constructed on the maxillary cast and transferred to the casts. The distances between the corners of the mouth and the canines’ distal aspect were measured on the casts. The measurements were subdivided according to their relation to the commissures: at commissures, medial to commissures, or distal to commissures. The data were then statistically analyzed. Results Coincidence between the canine distal aspects and commissures was recorded only within 8% of both Egyptian and Saudi populations. Additionally, within the Egyptian population, coincidence was recorded only at Class-I ridge relationship. Conclusion Commissures are not a reliable landmark for determination of the distal aspect of the canine distal aspects of both Egyptian and Saudi populations. PMID:23960500

  12. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis caused by imported cheese and evidence of cross-contamination of other cheeses, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Heiman, K E; Garalde, V B; Gronostaj, M; Jackson, K A; Beam, S; Joseph, L; Saupe, A; Ricotta, E; Waechter, H; Wellman, A; Adams-Cameron, M; Ray, G; Fields, A; Chen, Y; Datta, A; Burall, L; Sabol, A; Kucerova, Z; Trees, E; Metz, M; Leblanc, P; Lance, S; Griffin, P M; Tauxe, R V; Silk, B J

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0-825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March-October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.

  13. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis caused by imported cheese and evidence of cross-contamination of other cheeses, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Heiman, K E; Garalde, V B; Gronostaj, M; Jackson, K A; Beam, S; Joseph, L; Saupe, A; Ricotta, E; Waechter, H; Wellman, A; Adams-Cameron, M; Ray, G; Fields, A; Chen, Y; Datta, A; Burall, L; Sabol, A; Kucerova, Z; Trees, E; Metz, M; Leblanc, P; Lance, S; Griffin, P M; Tauxe, R V; Silk, B J

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0-825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March-October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel. PMID:26122394

  14. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  15. South-Pole Swiss Cheese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected December 29, 2003 during the southern summer season. This image shows the surface texture that the ice cap develops after long term sun exposure. The central portion of the image has an appearance similar to swiss cheese and represents surface ice loss.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.9, Longitude 356.4 East (3.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  16. Chemical biology tools for regulating RAS signaling complexity in space and time.

    PubMed

    van Hattum, Hilde; Waldmann, Herbert

    2014-09-18

    Rat sarcoma (RAS) family members are small GTPases that control a number of signaling pathways important for normal cellular proliferation. Therefore, it is no surprise that a significant portion of human tumors express constitutively active mutated RAS proteins, which leads to deregulation of RAS signaling pathways, resulting in pathological perturbations of cell growth and death. Although the molecular details of RAS signaling cascades are well understood, there is still a largely unmet need for small molecule probes to control RAS signaling in space and time. More broadly, given the prevalence of mutated RAS in cancer, the need to translate the insights obtained from using small molecule probes into clinically useful drugs is also significant. In this review, we introduce RAS proteins and the signaling pathways they are involved in, and discuss some of the innovative chemical biology approaches to regulate RAS signaling, which include the exploitation of newly identified binding pockets, covalent inhibitors for mutated RAS, and RAS localization impairment.

  17. Women and the RAS: 100 years of Fellowship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Mandy

    2016-02-01

    In January 1916, the RAS elected its first women Fellows. Mandy Bailey looks back at the social and scientific circumstances of this step towards equality, introducing a year of articles celebrating the centenary.

  18. Chaperone-mediated specificity in Ras and Rap signaling.

    PubMed

    Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Strazza, Marianne; Mor, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Ras and Rap proteins are closely related small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPases) that share similar effector-binding domains but operate in a very different signaling networks; Ras has a dominant role in cell proliferation, while Rap mediates cell adhesion. Ras and Rap proteins are regulated by several shared processes such as post-translational modification, phosphorylation, activation by guanine exchange factors and inhibition by GTPase-activating proteins. Sub-cellular localization and trafficking of these proteins to and from the plasma membrane are additional important regulatory features that impact small GTPases function. Despite its importance, the trafficking mechanisms of Ras and Rap proteins are not completely understood. Chaperone proteins play a critical role in trafficking of GTPases and will be the focus of the discussion in this work. We will review several aspects of chaperone biology focusing on specificity toward particular members of the small GTPase family. Understanding this specificity should provide key insights into drug development targeting individual small GTPases.

  19. Interferon-β Signaling Contributes to Ras Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Chen; Pestka, Sidney; Wang, Lu-Hai; Runnels, Loren W.; Wan, Shan; Lyu, Yi Lisa; Liu, Leroy F.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence has pointed to activated type I interferon signaling in tumors. However, the molecular basis for such activation and its role in tumorigenesis remain unclear. In the current studies, we report that activation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling in tumor cells is primarily due to elevated secretion of the type I interferon, IFN-β. Studies in oncogene-transformed cells suggest that oncogenes such as Ras and Src can activate IFN-β signaling. Significantly, elevated IFN-β signaling in Ras-transformed mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells was shown to contribute to Ras transformation as evidenced by morphological changes, anchorage-independent growth, and migratory properties. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the type I IFN, IFN-β, contributes to Ras transformation and support the notion that oncogene-induced cytokines play important roles in oncogene transformation. PMID:21897875

  20. The RASopathies: Developmental syndromes of Ras/MAPK pathway dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tidyman, William E.; Rauen, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    The Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is essential in the regulation of the cell cycle, differentiation, growth and cell senescence, all of which are critical to normal development. It is therefore not surprising that its dysregulation has profound effects on development. A class of developmental disorders, the “RASopathies”, is caused by germline mutations in genes that encode protein components of the Ras/MAPK pathway. The vast majority of these mutations result in increased signal transduction down the Ras/MAPK pathway, but usually to a lesser extent than somatic mutations associated with oncogenesis. Each syndrome exhibits unique phenotypic features, however, since they all cause dysregulation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, there are numerous overlapping phenotypic features between the syndromes, including characteristic facial features, cardiac defects, cutaneous abnormalities, neurocognitive delay and a predisposition to malignancies. Here we review the clinical and underlying molecular basis for each of these syndromes. PMID:19467855

  1. Growth and adaptation of microorganisms on the cheese surface.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Swennen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities living on cheese surfaces are composed of various bacteria, yeasts and molds that interact together, thus generating the typical sensory properties of a cheese. Physiological and genomic investigations have revealed important functions involved in the ability of microorganisms to establish themselves at the cheese surface. These functions include the ability to use the cheese's main energy sources, to acquire iron, to tolerate low pH at the beginning of ripening and to adapt to high salt concentrations and moisture levels. Horizontal gene transfer events involved in the adaptation to the cheese habitat have been described, both for bacteria and fungi. In the future, in situ microbial gene expression profiling and identification of genes that contribute to strain fitness by massive sequencing of transposon libraries will help us to better understand how cheese surface communities function.

  2. "Confused by Multiple Deities, Ancient Egyptians Embraced Monotheism": Analysing Historical Thinking and Inclusion in Egyptian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2016-01-01

    Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…

  3. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma by Egyptian physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hassany, Sahar M; Moustafa, Ehab F Abdou; Taher, Mohamed El; Abdeltwab, Afaf Adel; Blum, Hubert E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the practice of Egyptian physicians in screening patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The study included 154 physicians from all over Egypt caring for patients at risk for HCC. The study was based on a questionnaire with 20 items. Each questionnaire consisted of two parts: (1) personal information regarding the physician (name, age, specialty and type of health care setting); and (2) professional experience in the care of patients at risk for HCC development (screening, knowledge about the cause and natural course of liver diseases and HCC risk). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of doctors with an MD degree, 48% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma and 40% of doctors with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery certificate considered the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype as risk factor for HCC development (P < 0.05). Ninety percent of physicians specialized in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 67% of physicians in other specialties advise patients to undergo screening for HCV and hepatitis B virus infection as well as liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). Eighty-six percent of doctors in University Hospitals and 69% of Ministry of Health (MOH) doctors consider HCV infection as the leading cause of HCC in Egypt (P < 0.05). Seventy-two percent of doctors with an MD degree, 55% of doctors with a master degree or a diploma, 56% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate, 74% of doctors in University Hospitals and 46% of MOH hospital doctors consider abdominal ultrasonography as the most important investigation in HCC screening (P < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of physicians in tropical medicine, internal medicine or gastroenterology and 37% of physicians in other specialties recommend as HCC screening interval of 3 mo (P < 0.05). Seventy-one percent of doctors with an MD degree, 50% of doctors with a master degree or diploma and 60% of doctors with an MBBCH certificate follow the same recommendation. CONCLUSION: In Egypt

  4. PRG3 induces Ras-dependent oncogenic cooperation in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Eduard; Chen, Daishi; Broggini, Thomas; Sehm, Tina; Majernik, Gökce Hatipoglu; Hock, Stefan W.; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y.; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are one of the most devastating cancers in humans. One characteristic hallmark of malignant gliomas is their cellular heterogeneity with frequent genetic lesions and disturbed gene expression levels conferring selective growth advantage. Here, we report on the neuronal-associated growth promoting gene PRG3 executing oncogenic cooperation in gliomas. We have identified perturbed PRG3 levels in human malignant brain tumors displaying either elevated or down-regulated PRG3 levels compared to non-transformed specimens. Further, imbalanced PRG3 levels in gliomas foster Ras-driven oncogenic amplification with increased proliferation and cell migration although angiogenesis was unaffected. Hence, PRG3 interacts with RasGEF1 (RasGRF1/CDC25), undergoes Ras-induced challenges, whereas deletion of the C-terminal domain of PRG3 (PRG3ΔCT) inhibits Ras. Moreover PRG3 silencing makes gliomas resistant to Ras inhibition. In vivo disequilibrated PRG3 gliomas show aggravated proliferation, invasion, and deteriorate clinical outcome. Thus, our data show that the interference with PRG3 homeostasis amplifies oncogenic properties and foster the malignancy potential in gliomas. PMID:27058420

  5. Calmodulin modulates H-Ras mediated Raf-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Moretó, Jemina; Lladó, Anna; Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Calvo, Maria; Pol, Albert; Enrich, Carlos; Tebar, Francesc

    2008-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that, in COS-1 cells, inhibition of calmodulin increases Ras-GTP levels although it decreases Raf-1 activity and consequently MAPK. The present study analyzes the role of calmodulin in the regulation of Raf-1. First we show, using FRET microscopy, that inhibition of Raf-1 was not a consequence of a decreased interaction between H-Ras and Raf-1. Besides, the analysis of the phosphorylation state of Raf-1 showed that calmodulin, through downstream PI3K, is essential to ensure the Ser338-Raf-1 phosphorylation, critical for Raf-1 activation. We also show that the expression of a dominant negative mutant of PI3K impairs the calmodulin-mediated Raf-1 activation; in addition, both calmodulin and PI3K inhibitors decrease phospho-Ser338 and Raf-1 activity from upstream active H-Ras (H-RasG12V) and this effect is dependent on endocytosis. Importantly, in H-Ras depleted COS-1 cells, calmodulin does not modulate MAPK activation. Altogether, the results suggest that calmodulin regulation of MAPK in COS-1 cells relies upon H-Ras control of Raf-1 activity and involves PI3K.

  6. Plk2 Raps up Ras to subdue synapses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kea Joo; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified the activity-inducible protein kinase Plk2 as a novel overseer of the balance between Ras and Rap small GTPases. Plk2 achieves a profound level of regulatory control by interacting with and phosphorylating at least four Ras and Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). Combined, these actions result in synergistic suppression of Ras and hyperstimulation of Rap signaling. Perturbation of Plk2 function abolished homeostatic adaptation of synapses to enhanced activity and impaired behavioral adaptation in various learning tasks, indicating that this regulation was critical for maintaining appropriate Ras/Rap levels. These studies provide insights into the highly cooperative nature of Ras and Rap regulation in neurons. However, different GEF and GAP substrates of Plk2 also controlled specific aspects of dendritic spine morphology, illustrating the ability of individual GAPs/GEFs to assemble microdomains of Ras and Rap signaling that respond to different stimuli and couple to distinct output pathways. PMID:21776418

  7. Resistance of R-Ras knockout mice to skin tumour induction

    PubMed Central

    May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart; Vähätupa, Maria; Laitinen, Anni M.; Nieminen, Katriina; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Järvinen, Tero A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The R-ras gene encodes a small GTPase that is a member of the Ras family. Despite close sequence similarities, R-Ras is functionally distinct from the prototypic Ras proteins; no transformative activity and no activating mutations of R-Ras in human malignancies have been reported for it. R-Ras activity appears inhibitory towards tumour proliferation and invasion, and to promote cellular quiescence. Contrary to this, using mice with a deletion of the R-ras gene, we found that R-Ras facilitates DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumour induction. The tumours appeared in wild-type (WT) mice on average 6 weeks earlier than in R-Ras knockout (R-Ras KO) mice. WT mice developed almost 6 times more tumours than R-Ras KO mice. Despite strong R-Ras protein expression in the dermal blood vessels, no R-Ras could be detected in the epidermis from where the tumours arose. The DMBA/TPA skin tumourigenesis-model is highly dependent upon inflammation, and we found a greatly attenuated skin inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA-treatment in the R-Ras KO mice in the context of leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data suggest that despite its characterised role in promoting cellular quiescence, R-Ras is pro-tumourigenic in the DMBA/TPA tumour model and important for the inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA treatment. PMID:26133397

  8. When cheese gets the blues: Pseudomonas fluorescens as the causative agent of cheese spoilage.

    PubMed

    Martin, N H; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-06-01

    A bacterial contamination of fresh, low-acid cheese that resulted in production of a blue fluorescent pigment on the surface of the cheese was determined to be caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar IV, a gram-negative bacteria that produces a blue, nondiffusible pigment as well as the soluble pigment pyoverdin, which fluoresces under UV light. Ten isolates collected from contaminated cheese and environmental samples were initially identified as P. fluorescens using 16S rDNA sequencing, but only 8 of the isolates produced blue pigment and fluoresced under UV light when re-inoculated onto fresh, low-acid cheese. The Biolog Metabolic Fingerprint system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) and the Analytical Profile Index (BioMerieux Vitek Inc., Hazelwood, MO) for nonenteric gram-negative species as well as EcoRI ribotyping did not differentiate between the isolates that produced blue color and those that did not. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis with the enzyme XbaI was able to distinguish between the isolates that produced pigment and those that did not and allowed for identification of a specific environmental site (i.e., an overhead cheese vat agitator system) as the likely source of product contamination. PMID:21605787

  9. Relationships among rheological and sensorial properties of young cheeses.

    PubMed

    Brown, J A; Foegeding, E A; Daubert, C R; Drake, M A; Gumpertz, M

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the sensory and rheological properties of young cheeses in order to better understand perceived cheese texture. Mozzarella and Monterey Jacks were tested at 4, 10, 17, and 38 d of age; process cheese was tested at 4 d. Rheological methods were used to determine the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and fracture properties. A trained sensory panel developed a descriptive language and reference scales to evaluate cheese texture. All methods differentiated the cheeses by variety. Principal component analysis of sensory texture revealed that three principal components explained 96.1% of the total variation in the cheeses. The perception of firmness decreased as the cheeses aged, whereas the perception of springiness increased. Principal component analysis of the rheological parameters (three principal components: 87.9% of the variance) showed that the cheeses' solid-like response (storage modulus and fracture modulus) decreased during aging, while phase angle, maximum compliance, and retardation time increased. Analysis of the instrumental and sensory parameters (three principal components: 82.1% of the variance) revealed groupings of parameters according to cheese rigidity, resiliency, and chewdown texture. Rheological properties were highly associated with rigidity and resiliency, but less so with chewdown texture.

  10. Structural Quality Control of Swiss-Type Cheese with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2007-03-01

    A study on structural quality control of Swiss-type cheese with ultrasound is presented. We used a longitudinal mode pulse-echo setup using 1-2MHz ultrasonic frequencies to detect cheese-eyes and ripening induced cracks. Results show that the ultrasonic method posses good potential to monitor the cheese structure during the ripening process. Preliminary results indicate that maturation stage could be monitored with ultrasonic velocity measurements. Further studies to verify the method's on-line potential to detect low-structural-quality cheeses are planned.

  11. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses. PMID:26396342

  12. K-Ras4B phosphorylation at Ser181 is inhibited by calmodulin and modulates K-Ras activity and function.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Moya, B; López-Alcalá, C; Drosten, M; Bachs, O; Agell, N

    2010-11-01

    Fine tuning of Ras activity is widely known as a mechanism to induce different cellular responses. Recently, we have shown that calmodulin (CaM) binds to K-Ras and that K-Ras phosphorylation inhibits its interaction with CaM. In this study we report that CaM inhibits K-Ras phosphorylation at Ser181 by protein kinase C (PKC) in vivo, and this is a mechanism to modulate K-Ras activity and signaling. Although CaM inhibition increased the activation of endogenous K-Ras, PKC inhibition decreased its activation status. We demonstrate that K-Ras phosphorylation decreased susceptibility to p120GAP activity. Accordingly, we also observed that non-phosphorylable K-Ras mutant exhibits a less sustained activation profile and do not efficiently activate AKT at low growth factor doses compared with wild-type K-Ras. It is interesting that the physiological responses induced by K-Ras are affected by this phosphorylation; when K-Ras cannot be phosphorylated it exhibits a remarkably decreased ability to stimulate proliferation in non-saturated serum conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that phosphorylation also regulates oncogenic K-Ras functions, as focus formation capacity, mobility and apoptosis resistance upon adriamycin treatment of cells expressing oncogenic K-Ras that cannot be phosphorylated are highly compromised. Moreover, at low serum concentration proliferation and survival is practically inhibited when cells cannot phosphorylate oncogenic K-Ras. In this condition, K-Ras phosphorylation is essential to ensure a proper activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways. In summary, our findings suggest that the interplay between CaM interaction and PKC phosphorylation is essential to regulate non-oncogenic and oncogenic K-Ras activity and functionality.

  13. Striking presence of Egyptian blue identified in a painting by Giovanni Battista Benvenuto from 1524.

    PubMed

    Bredal-Jørgensen, Jørn; Sanyova, Jana; Rask, Vibeke; Sargent, Maria Louise; Therkildsen, Rikke Hoberg

    2011-09-01

    Egyptian blue has been identified in a painting from 1524 by the Italian artist Ortolano Ferrarese (Giovanni Battista Benvenuto). Egyptian blue is the oldest known synthetic pigment, invented by the Egyptians in the fourth dynasty (2613-2494 BC) of the Old Kingdom and extensively used throughout Antiquity. From about 1000 A.D., it disappeared from the historical record and was only reinvented in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The discovery of Egyptian blue in Ortolano Ferrarese's painting from 1524 shows that Egyptian blue was in fact available in the period from which it is normally considered not to exist. The identification of Egyptian blue is based on optical microscopy supported by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and visual light photon-induced spectroscopy, and finally confirmed by Raman microspectroscopy. PMID:21678119

  14. Delineation of the Roles Played by RasG and RasC in cAMP-dependent Signal Transduction during the Early Development of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Bolourani, Parvin; Spiegelman, George B.

    2006-01-01

    On starvation, the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum initiates a program of development leading to formation of multicellular structures. The initial cell aggregation requires chemotaxis to cyclic AMP (cAMP) and relay of the cAMP signal by the activation of adenylyl cyclase (ACA), and it has been shown previously that the Ras protein RasC is involved in both processes. Insertional inactivation of the rasG gene resulted in delayed aggregation and a partial inhibition of early gene expression, suggesting that RasG also has a role in early development. Both chemotaxis and ACA activation were reduced in the rasG− cells, but the effect on chemotaxis was more pronounced. When the responses of rasG− cells to cAMP were compared with the responses of rasC− and rasC−rasG− strains, generated in otherwise isogenic backgrounds, these studies revealed that signal transduction through RasG is more important in chemotaxis and early gene expression, but that signal transduction through RasC is more important in ACA activation. Because the loss of either of the two Ras proteins alone did not result in a total loss of signal output down either of the branches of the cAMP signal-response pathway, there appears to be some overlap of function. PMID:16885420

  15. Toxic and essential elements in Lebanese cheese.

    PubMed

    Bou Khozam, Rola; Pohl, Pawel; Al Ayoubi, Baydaa; Jaber, Farouk; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 minor, trace and ultratrace elements relevant to human health (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, V) were determined in four different varieties of the most consumed cheese in Lebanon (Halloumi, Double Crème, Baladi, Labneh) sampled at five different provinces (Grand Beirut, South of Lebanon, North of Lebanon, Mount of Lebanon and Beka'a) during the wet and dry seasons. The analyses were carried out by double focussing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to avoid errors due to polyatomic interferences. Levels of toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb) were generally below the WHO permissible levels in dairy products. Concentrations of most elements were considerably affected by the type of cheese, the geographical site and the season of sampling. PMID:24779782

  16. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-06-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper.

  17. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  18. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    SciTech Connect

    Grenon, Cedric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-15

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  19. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  20. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaître-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons’ trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  1. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  2. The Significance of Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Lu, Weiqin

    2016-01-01

    The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of K-RAS. However, oncogenic K-Rasmt alone is not sufficient to lead to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in either human or in genetically modified adult mouse models. Many stimulants, such as high fat diet, CCK, LPS, PGE2 and others, have physiological effects at low concentrations that are mediated in part through modest increases in K-Ras activity. However, at high concentrations, they induce inflammation that, in the presence of oncogenic K-Ras expression, substantially accelerates PDAC formation. The mechanism involves increased activity of oncogenic K-Rasmt. Unlike what has been proposed in the standard paradigm for the role of Ras in oncogenesis, oncogenic K-Rasmt is now known to not be constitutively active. Rather, it can be activated by standard mechanisms similar to wild-type K-Ras, but its activity is sustained for a prolonged period. Furthermore, if the level of K-Ras activity exceeds a threshold at which it begins to generate its own activators, then a feed-forward loop is formed between K-Ras activity and inflammation and pathological processes including oncogenesis are initiated. Oncogenic K-Rasmt activation, a key event in PDAC initiation and development, is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms. Reagents which inhibit inflammation, such as the Cox2 inhibitor celecoxib, block the feed-forward loop and prevent induction of PDAC in models with endogenous oncogenic K-Rasmt. Increased understanding of the role of activating and inhibitory mechanisms on oncogenic K-Rasmt activity is of paramount importance for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight against this lethal disease. PMID:26929740

  3. The Microbiology of Traditional Hard and Semihard Cooked Mountain Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Eric; Duboz, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Traditional cheeses originate from complex systems that confer on them specific sensory characteristics. These characteristics are linked to various factors of biodiversity such as animal feed, the use of raw milk and its indigenous microflora, the cheese technology, and the ripening conditions, all in conjunction with the knowledge of the cheesemaker and affineur. In Europe, particularly in France, the preservation of traditional cheesemaking processes, some of which have protected designation of origin, is vital for the farming and food industry in certain regions. Among these cheeses, some are made in the Alps or Jura Mountains, including Comté, Beaufort, Abondance, and Emmental, which are made from raw milk. The principle of hard or semihard cooked cheese, produced in the Alps and Jura Mountains, was to make a product during the summer-a period during which the animals feed more and milk production is high-with a shelf life of several months that could be consumed in winter. Today, these traditional cheeses are produced according to a specific approach combining science and tradition in order to better understand and preserve the elements that contribute to the distinctiveness of these cheeses. To address this complex problem, a global approach to the role of the raw milk microflora in the final quality of cheeses was initially chosen. The modifications resulting from the elimination of the raw milk microflora, either by pasteurization or by microfiltration, to the biochemistry of the ripening process and ultimately the sensory quality of the cheeses were evaluated. This approach was achieved mainly with experimental hard cooked cheeses. Other types of traditional cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk are also considered when necessary. Besides the native raw milk microflora, traditional lactic starters (natural or wild starters) also participate in the development of the characteristics of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. After an

  4. H-ras, but not N-ras, induces an invasive phenotype in human breast epithelial cells: a role for MMP-2 in the H-ras-induced invasive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Moon, A; Kim, M S; Kim, T G; Kim, S H; Kim, H E; Chen, Y Q; Kim, H R

    2000-01-15

    Elevated p21ras expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer including the extent of invasion into fat tissues, infiltration into lymphatic vessels and tumor recurrence. In the present study, we have examined the roles of H-ras and N-ras, members of the human ras gene family, in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. We show that H-ras, but not N-ras, induces an invasive phenotype in human breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) as determined by the Matrigel invasion assay, whereas both H-ras and N-ras induce anchorage-independent growth, as shown by soft agar assay. We examined the effects of H-ras and N-ras activation on the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which can degrade type IV collagen, the major structural collagen of the basement membrane. We show that MMP-2 is efficiently induced by H-ras, whereas MMP-9 induction is more prominent in N-ras-activated MCF10A cells. We also show that H-ras-mediated invasiveness is significantly inhibited when the expression of MMP-2 is down-regulated, using an oligodeoxyribonucleotide complementary to the MMP-2 mRNA, or when MMP-2 activity is blocked by its inhibitor TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2). Our results show that the H-ras-induced invasive phenotype is associated more closely with the expression of MMP-2 in human breast epithelial cells, rather than the induction of MMP-9 expression, as shown previously for rat embryonic fibroblasts.

  5. [Research advances of K-ras mutation in the prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Wei, J; Liu, B R

    2016-02-01

    K-ras mutations have been described in 30% of human cancers with significantly different mutation frequencies. High K-ras mutation frequency is found in many cancers such as pancreas and lung cancers, whereas, gastric cancer has a relatively low K-ras mutation frequency. In recent years, numerous researches have focused on the K-ras mutation in gastric cancer. This review summarizes the K-ras mutation frequency in gastric cancer, the relationship of K-ras mutation with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of gastric cancer patients, targeted therapy for K-ras mutated gastric cancer, some small-molecular inhibitors of K-ras, and development of targeted therapy drugs for K-ras signaling pathway in gastric cancer.

  6. Geomorphological & Geoarchaeological Indicators of the Holocene Sea-Level Changes on Ras El Hekma Area, NW Coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy

    2016-02-01

    Ras El Hekma area is a part of the NW coast of Egypt. It is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast, approximately 220 km West of Alexandria City. It is shaped as a triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean sea for about 15 km, and is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras. Its western coastline consists of Pleistocene Oolitic limestone ridges with separated steep scarps, while the eastern coastline consists of sandy beaches, coastal spits, coastal bars, tombolos and bays. The objective of this paper is to define some geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of The Holocene sea-level changes in the study area, especially the geomorphic landforms such as: marine notches, cliffs, sea caves and benches. This is to add to some archaeological remains that have been discovered by the paper's author under the current sea level. These remains include: submerged ruins of Greek and Roman harbors, wells and fish tanks near the coastline (Leuke Akte, Hermaea, Phoinikous and Zygris), in addition to an ancient Roman harbor used during the World War II in Tell El Zaytun area (Site #6). Evaluations of the discovered archaeological remains help our understanding of the evolution of the sea level during the Holocene. This study is based on observation of the relative sea-level curves drawn of the Holocene, detailed geomorphological and Geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  7. Hydro/Engineering Geophysical Parameters and Design Response Spectrum for Sustainable Development in Ras Muhammed National Park, Sinai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2016-06-01

    The Egyptian government is preparing a sustainable development master plan for the Ras Muhammed National Park (RMNP), south Sinai. Noteworthy, the scarcity of the freshwater resources and close proximity to the active seismic zones of the Gulf of Aqaba implicate geophysical investigations for the fresh groundwater aquifers and construct a design response spectrum, respectively. Accordingly, 14 VESs, hydro/engineering geophysical analysis, pumping tests, downhole seismic test, a design response spectrum for buildings, and borehole data were carried out in the study area. The unconfined freshwater aquifer was effectively depicted with true resistivities, thickness, and EC ranged from 56 to 135 Ω m, 11 to 112 m, and 1.4 to 7.1 mS/m, respectively. The Northeastern part was characterized by higher aquifer potentiality, where coarser grains size, highest thickness (112 m), high true resistivity (135 Ω m), groundwater flow (0.074 m3/day), tortuosity (1.293-1.312), formation resistivity factor (4.1-4.6), and storativity (0.281-0.276). An increase in pumping rate was accompanied by an increase in well loss, increase in aquifer losses, decrease in well specific capacity, and decrease in well efficiency. Design response spectrum prognosticated the short buildings (<7 floors) in RMNP to be suffering from a high peak horizontal acceleration and shear forces for acceleration between 0.25 and 0.35 g. Therefore, appropriate detailing of shear reinforcement is indispensable to reduce the risk of structural damages at RMNP.

  8. A role for RalGDS and a novel Ras effector in the Ras-mediated inhibition of skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramocki, M B; White, M A; Konieczny, S F; Taparowsky, E J

    1998-07-10

    Oncogenic Ras inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of multiple downstream signaling pathways, including a Raf-dependent, mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK/MAPK)-independent pathway. Here we report that a non-Raf binding Ras effector-loop variant (H-Ras G12V,E37G), which retains interaction with the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (RalGDS), inhibits the conversion of MyoD-expressing C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts to skeletal muscle. We show that H-Ras G12V,E37G, RalGDS, and the membrane-localized RalGDS CAAX protein inhibit the activity of alpha-actin-Luc, a muscle-specific reporter gene containing a necessary E-box and serum response factor (SRF) binding site, while a RalGDS protein defective for Ras interaction has no effect on alpha-actin-Luc transcription. H-Ras G12V,E37G does not activate endogenous MAPK, but does increase SRF-dependent transcription. Interestingly, RalGDS, RalGDS CAAX, and RalA G23V inhibit H-Ras G12V, E37G-induced expression of an SRF-regulated reporter gene, demonstrating that signaling through RalGDS does not duplicate the action of H-Ras G12V,E37G in this system. As additional evidence for this, we show that H-Ras G12V,E37G inhibits the expression of troponin I-Luc, an SRF-independent muscle-specific reporter gene, whereas RalGDS and RalGDS CAAX do not. Although our studies show that signaling through RalGDS can interfere with the expression of reporter genes dependent on SRF activity (including alpha-actin-Luc), our studies also provide strong evidence that an additional signaling molecule(s) activated by H-Ras G12V,E37G is required to achieve the complete inhibition of the myogenic differentiation program.

  9. Cellular and subcellular localization of Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Mechawar, N; Dower, N A; Stone, J C; Richardson, P M; Dunn, R J

    2001-01-01

    Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) is a recently discovered Ras guanyl nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed in selected regions of the rodent CNS, with high levels of expression in the hippocampus. Biochemical studies suggest that RasGRP can activate the Ras signal pathway in response to changes in diacylglycerol and possibly calcium. To investigate potential sites for RasGRP signaling, we have determined the cellular and subcellular localization of RasGRP protein in adult rat hippocampus, and have also examined the appearance of RasGRP mRNA and protein during hippocampal development. RasGRP immunoreactivity is predominately localized to those neurons participating in the direct cortico-hippocampo-cortical loop. In both hippocampal and entorhinal neurons, RasGRP protein appeared to be localized to both dendrites and somata, but not to axons. Electron microscopy of hippocampal pyramidal cells confirmed RasGRP immunoreactivity in neuronal cell bodies and dendrites, where it appeared to be associated with microtubules. The localization of RasGRP to dendrites suggests a role for this pathway in the regulation of dendritic function. Examination of developing hippocampal structures indicated that RasGRP mRNA and protein appear synchronously during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development as these neurons become fully mature. This result indicates that the RasGRP signal transduction pathway is not required during early hippocampal development, but is a feature of mature neurons during the later stages of development.

  10. Signal integration by lipid-mediated spatial cross talk between Ras nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Rodkey, Travis; Ariotti, Nicholas; Parton, Robert G; Hancock, John F

    2014-03-01

    Lipid-anchored Ras GTPases form transient, spatially segregated nanoclusters on the plasma membrane that are essential for high-fidelity signal transmission. The lipid composition of Ras nanoclusters, however, has not previously been investigated. High-resolution spatial mapping shows that different Ras nanoclusters have distinct lipid compositions, indicating that Ras proteins engage in isoform-selective lipid sorting and accounting for different signal outputs from different Ras isoforms. Phosphatidylserine is a common constituent of all Ras nanoclusters but is only an obligate structural component of K-Ras nanoclusters. Segregation of K-Ras and H-Ras into spatially and compositionally distinct lipid assemblies is exquisitely sensitive to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine levels. Phosphatidylserine spatial organization is also modified by Ras nanocluster formation. In consequence, Ras nanoclusters engage in remote lipid-mediated communication, whereby activated H-Ras disrupts the assembly and operation of spatially segregated K-Ras nanoclusters. Computational modeling and experimentation reveal that complex effects of caveolin and cortical actin on Ras nanoclustering are similarly mediated through regulation of phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics. We conclude that phosphatidylserine maintains the lateral segregation of diverse lipid-based assemblies on the plasma membrane and that lateral connectivity between spatially remote lipid assemblies offers important previously unexplored opportunities for signal integration and signal processing.

  11. Ras-mutant cancer cells display B-Raf binding to Ras that activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase and is inhibited by protein kinase A phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Takahashi, Maho; Stork, Philip J S

    2013-09-20

    The small G protein Ras regulates proliferation through activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (ERK) cascade. The first step of Ras-dependent activation of ERK signaling is Ras binding to members of the Raf family of MAP kinase kinase kinases, C-Raf and B-Raf. Recently, it has been reported that in melanoma cells harboring oncogenic Ras mutations, B-Raf does not bind to Ras and does not contribute to basal ERK activation. For other types of Ras-mutant tumors, the relative contributions of C-Raf and B-Raf are not known. We examined non-melanoma cancer cell lines containing oncogenic Ras mutations and express both C-Raf and B-Raf isoforms, including the lung cancer cell line H1299 cells. Both B-Raf and C-Raf were constitutively bound to oncogenic Ras and contributed to Ras-dependent ERK activation. Ras binding to B-Raf and C-Raf were both subject to inhibition by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase PKA. cAMP inhibited the growth of H1299 cells and Ras-dependent ERK activation via PKA. PKA inhibited the binding of Ras to both C-Raf and B-Raf through phosphorylations of C-Raf at Ser-259 and B-Raf at Ser-365, respectively. These studies demonstrate that in non-melanocytic Ras-mutant cancer cells, Ras signaling to B-Raf is a significant contributor to ERK activation and that the B-Raf pathway, like that of C-Raf, is a target for inhibition by PKA. We suggest that cAMP and hormones coupled to cAMP may prove useful in dampening the effects of oncogenic Ras in non-melanocytic cancer cells through PKA-dependent actions on B-Raf as well as C-Raf.

  12. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids.

    PubMed

    Spence, K

    2000-11-16

    The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated, although we know that they were built approximately around the middle of the third millennium BC. The chronologies of this period have been reconstructed from surviving lists of kings and the lengths of their reigns, but the lists are rare, seldom complete and contain known inconsistencies and errors. As a result, the existing chronologies for that period (the Old Kingdom) can be considered accurate only to about +/-100 years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. Here I use trends in the orientation of Old Kingdom pyramids to demonstrate that the Egyptians aligned them to north by using the simultaneous transit of two circumpolar stars. Modelling the precession of these stars yields a date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid that is accurate to +/-5 yr, thereby providing an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronologies.

  13. Egyptian imprints on Geto-Dacian magical medicine.

    PubMed

    Baran, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Several characteristics of Egyptian culture and civilization could be identified in prehistoric and ancient historic Geto-Dacian territories, belonging to modern Romania (Fig. 1). From early times, magic, religion and philosophy have been part of pre-scientific medicine. Therefore these aspects are to be tackled when speaking of medicine in mythological or legendary ages. Progress of ancient Geto-Dacian medicine was principally ascribed to the interface of local civilizations with ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Such connections were well documented and understood in historic times and were mainly based on texts of renowned Greek and Roman historians. Egyptian impact upon Dacia, -the ancient name of today's Romania-, was often explained in terms of indirect Greek- or Roman-mediated influences.The Greek and then the Roman colonies on the Black sea shore, together with later Roman colonies in Dacia Felix, founded in the heart of Transylvania, enabled access for Romania to Mediterranean cultures, including that of Egypt.

  14. Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  15. Associations between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elbheiry, Abd-Elraqeep; Emam, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among a sample of 817 Egyptian adolescents (408 males and 409 females). Using 15 subscales from the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS-long form) we assessed prevalence rates of a number of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial disorders. Additionally, we investigated whether there are gender differences in psychopathology among Egyptian adolescents and to what extent can psychosocial problems predict specific personality disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the participants experienced higher levels of PD, AV, and BD. Gender differences were found in certain personality disorders as well as in externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems. A number of externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems were highly predictive of specific personality disorders.

  16. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  17. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  18. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome type 1 in an Egyptian child

    PubMed Central

    Metwalley, Kotb Abbass; Farghaly, Hekma Saad

    2014-01-01

    Berardinelli-Seip syndrome type 1 or Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 1 (BSCL1) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by lipoatrophy, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatomegaly and acromegaloid features. Its prevalence in Egypt is not known. Here, we report case of a 12-year-old Egyptian boy with the clinical, metabolic and molecular genetics manifestations of BSCL1 including overt diabetes mellitus. PMID:24959019

  19. 7 CFR 58.711 - Cheddar, colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stirred curd cheese. 58.711 Section 58.711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese. Cheese, used in the manufacture of pasteurized process cheese products should possess a pleasing and desirable taste and odor consistent with the age of...

  20. 21 CFR 133.158 - Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cheese. 133.158 Section 133.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.158 Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella...