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Sample records for eha-mai graf maarja

  1. Max Graf's "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud" revisited: new evidence from the Freud archives.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Recently derestricted Freud Archive interviews with Max and Herbert Graf and Herbert's wife shed new light on Max Graf's article, "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud," published in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly in 1942. To explain discrepancies between the interviews and the earlier article, the author postulates that, in the article, Max Graf purposely distorted or omitted certain details in order not to reveal Herbert's identity as "Little Hans" (Freud 1909). The interviews place incidents reported in the article in a new and more complex light, and also underscore the intensely personal nature of the intellectual development of the psychoanalytic movement.

  2. Vitre-graf Coating on Mullite. Low Cost Silicon Array Project: Large Area Sillicon Sheet Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    The processing parameters of the Vitre-Graf coating for optimal performance and economy when applied to mullite and graphite as substrates were presented. A minor effort was also performed on slip-cast fused silica substractes.

  3. Endocytic membrane turnover at the leading edge is driven by a transient interaction between Cdc42 and GRAF1

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Monika K.; Holst, Mikkel R.; Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Henriksson, Sara; Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel; Sandblad, Linda; Lundmark, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Changes in cell morphology require coordination of plasma membrane turnover and cytoskeleton dynamics, processes that are regulated by Rho GTPases. Here, we describe how a direct interaction between the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) GRAF1 (also known as ARHGAP26), facilitates rapid cell surface turnover at the leading edge. Both Cdc42 and GRAF1 were required for fluid-phase uptake and regulated the generation of transient GRAF1-coated endocytic carriers, which were distinct from clathrin-coated vesicles. GRAF1 was found to transiently assemble at discrete Cdc42-enriched punctae at the plasma membrane, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the microdomain association of Cdc42. However, Cdc42 captured in its active state was, through a GAP-domain-mediated interaction, localised together with GRAF1 on accumulated internal structures derived from the cell surface. Correlative fluorescence and electron tomography microscopy revealed that these structures were clusters of small membrane carriers with defective endosomal processing. We conclude that a transient interaction between Cdc42 and GRAF1 drives endocytic turnover and controls the transition essential for endosomal maturation of plasma membrane internalised by this mechanism. PMID:26446261

  4. The GTPase-Activating Protein GRAF1 Regulates the CLIC/GEEC Endocytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lundmark, Richard; Doherty, Gary J.; Howes, Mark T.; Cortese, Katia; Vallis, Yvonne; Parton, Robert G.; McMahon, Harvey T.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Clathrin-independent endocytosis is an umbrella term for a variety of endocytic pathways that internalize numerous cargoes independently of the canonical coat protein Clathrin [1, 2]. Electron-microscopy studies have defined the pleiomorphic CLathrin-Independent Carriers (CLICs) and GPI-Enriched Endocytic Compartments (GEECs) as related major players in such uptake [3, 4]. This CLIC/GEEC pathway relies upon cellular signaling and activation through small G proteins, but mechanistic insight into the biogenesis of its tubular and tubulovesicular carriers is lacking. Here we show that the Rho-GAP-domain-containing protein GRAF1 marks, and is indispensable for, a major Clathrin-independent endocytic pathway. This pathway is characterized by its ability to internalize bacterial exotoxins, GPI-linked proteins, and extracellular fluid. We show that GRAF1 localizes to PtdIns(4,5)P2-enriched, tubular, and punctate lipid structures via N-terminal BAR and PH domains. These membrane carriers are relatively devoid of caveolin1 and flotillin1 but are associated with activity of the small G protein Cdc42. This study provides the first specific noncargo marker for CLIC/GEEC endocytic membranes and demonstrates how GRAF1 can coordinate small G protein signaling and membrane remodeling to facilitate internalization of CLIC/GEEC pathway cargoes. PMID:19036340

  5. Correlation between inter-vertebral disc morphology and the results in patients undergoing Graf ligament stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Askar, Zahid; Wardlaw, Douglas; Muthukumar, Thillainayagamike; Smith, Frank; Kader, Deiary; Gibson, Suzy

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have shown Graf ligament stabilisation procedure to give mixed results in the short to medium term. The aim of this study was to correlate the pre-operative state of the disc, multifidus muscles, age of the patient, levels operated and the clinical outcome after a mean follow-up of 47 months. Graf ligament stabilisation procedure was carried out in 38 patients between 1996 and 1999. Their post-operative status was assessed using MacNab criteria. The post-operative follow-up was by postal questionnaires and review of the clinical notes. Disc morphology and multifidus muscle wasting was graded blindly and independently. The intra- and interobserver reliability was measured with kappa score and classified using the kappa classification of Landis and Koch. Correlation was measured with the help of Spearman correlation coefficient. Thirty-eight patients (100%) returned the questionnaires. Mean follow-up time was 47.55 months. Fifty-nine levels were operated on. Mean age was 39.68 years. The overall re-operation rate was 15.8%. The intra- and interobserver reliability was graded as good to substantial. Twenty-two patients (57.89%) were satisfied with the procedure. There was no statistically significant correlation between disc morphology, multifidus muscle wasting, sex, age, number of levels operated, the levels operated, and the satisfaction rate. The indications of Graf ligament stabilisation procedure are not clear. Further work is necessary to clearly identify the indication for the procedure.

  6. The smooth muscle-selective RhoGAP GRAF3 is a critical regulator of vascular tone and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Lenhart, Kaitlin C.; Bird, Kim E.; Suen, Alisa A.; Rojas, Mauricio; Kakoki, Masao; Li, Feng; Smithies, Oliver; Mack, Christopher P.; Taylor, Joan M.

    2014-01-01

    Although hypertension is a worldwide health issue, an incomplete understanding of its etiology has hindered our ability to treat this complex disease. Here we identify arhgap42 (also known as GRAF3) as a Rho-specific GAP expressed specifically in smooth muscle cells in mice and humans. We show that GRAF3-deficient mice exhibit significant hypertension and increased pressor responses to angiotensin II and endothelin-1; these effects are prevented by treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. RhoA activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation are elevated in GRAF3-depleted smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and isolated vessel segments from GRAF3-deficient mice show increased contractility. Taken together our data indicate that GRAF3-mediated inhibition of RhoA activity in vascular smooth muscle cells is necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure homeostasis. Moreover, these findings provide a potential mechanism for a hypertensive locus recently identified within arhgap42 and provide a foundation for the future development of innovative hypertension therapies. PMID:24335996

  7. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Sokolov, S. N.; Demina, I. M.; Pellinen, R.; Petrova, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin - Leningrad - Arkhangelsk - Franz Josef Land - Severnaya Zemlya - the Taimyr Peninsula - Novaya Zemlya - Arkhangelsk - Berlin. One of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published. Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic, showing new methods in such surveys.

  8. Skeletal muscle differentiation and fusion are regulated by the BAR-containing Rho-GTPase-activating protein (Rho-GAP), GRAF1.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jason T; Lenhart, Kaitlin C; Cameron, Morgan V; Mack, Christopher P; Conlon, Frank L; Taylor, Joan M

    2011-07-22

    Although RhoA activity is necessary for promoting myogenic mesenchymal stem cell fates, recent studies in cultured cells suggest that down-regulation of RhoA activity in specified myoblasts is required for subsequent differentiation and myotube formation. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in vivo and which Rho modifiers control these later events remain unclear. We found that expression of the Rho-GTPase-activating protein, GRAF1, was transiently up-regulated during myogenesis, and studies in C2C12 cells revealed that GRAF1 is necessary and sufficient for mediating RhoA down-regulation and inducing muscle differentiation. Moreover, forced expression of GRAF1 in pre-differentiated myoblasts drives robust muscle fusion by a process that requires GTPase-activating protein-dependent actin remodeling and BAR-dependent membrane binding or sculpting. Moreover, morpholino-based knockdown studies in Xenopus laevis determined that GRAF1 expression is critical for muscle development. GRAF1-depleted embryos exhibited elevated RhoA activity and defective myofibrillogenesis that resulted in progressive muscle degeneration, defective motility, and embryonic lethality. Our results are the first to identify a GTPase-activating protein that regulates muscle maturation and to highlight the functional importance of BAR domains in myotube formation.

  9. Decreased expression of GRAF1/OPHN-1-L in the X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ATRX is a severe X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, urogenital abnormalities and alpha-thalassemia. The disease is caused by mutations in ATRX gene, which encodes a protein belonging to the SWI/SNF DNA helicase family, a group of proteins involved in the regulation of gene transcription at the chromatin level. In order to identify specific genes involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, we compared, by cDNA microarray, the expression levels of approximately 8500 transcripts between ATRX and normal males of comparable age. Methods cDNA microarray was performed using total RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ATRX and normal males. Microarray results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results cDNA microarray analysis showed that 35 genes had a lower expression (30-35% of controls) while 25 transcripts had a two-fold higher expression in comparison to controls. In the microarray results the probe for oligophrenin-1, a gene known for its involvement in mental retardation, showed a decreased hybridization signal. However, such gene was poorly expressed in blood mononuclear cells and its decrease was not confirmed in the quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. On the other hand, the expression of an homologous gene, the GTPase regulator associated with the focal adhesion kinase 1/Oligophrenin-1-like (GRAF1/OPHN-1-L), was relatively high in blood mononuclear cells and significantly decreased in ATRX patients. The analysis of the expression pattern of the GRAF1/OPHN-1-L gene in human tissues and organs revealed the predominant brain expression of a novel splicing isoform, called variant-3. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis of a primary role for altered gene expression in ATRX syndrome and suggest that the GRAF1/OPHN-1-L gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of the mental retardation. Moreover a novel alternative splicing transcript of such gene, predominantly

  10. The natural and human structuring of rivers and other geomorphological systems: A tribute to William L. Graf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue honors the contributions of William L. Graf to geomorphology and river science. A hallmark of Will's work over the course of his career has been a focus on the natural and human structuring of river systems. More broadly, Will has been an innovator and leader who has shaped the way in which geomorphologists conduct research. Through his work, he has made fundamental contributions to basic fluvial theory, to the understanding of human impacts on river systems, and to policy-relevant science. He has demonstrated by example how to pursue policy-relevant science and to participate in science-based policy formulation. His contributions to river science can be classified into several themes: (1) the hydrology and geomorphology of suburban drainage systems, (2) riparian vegetation and river systems, (3) the spatial structure and dynamics of incised channels, (4) the dynamics of dryland river systems, (5) heavy metals in river systems, (6) dams and dam removal, and (7) water and public policy. The papers in this special issue reflect many aspects of these themes and address topics related to (1) the understanding of rivers and other geomorphic systems in the midst of dynamic physical change, (2) human influences on geomorphic processes, (3) the intersection of geomorphology and public policy, and (4) the fusion of geomorphic analysis and GIScience.

  11. Solid State Physics. Nitrogen Adsorption by Thermoexfoliated Graphite / Slāpekļa Adsorbcija Uz Termoeksfoliētā Grafīta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grehov, V.; Kalnacs, J.; Matzui, L.; Knite, M.; Murashov, A.; Vilken, A.

    2013-02-01

    Adsorption by thermochemically exfoliated graphite (TEG) is studied and compared with that by other carbon structures under the same conditions. In BET determination of the specific surface area (SBET) for the TEG samples it was found that good approximation could be observed in two different pressure ranges. Such ranges of BET approximation are also visible in the isotherms of aquadag and milled graphite. The experimental results are discussed and their interpretation proposed Ar sorbcijas iekārtu Autosorb-1 (Quantochrome Instruments Co, Florida, USA) pētīta termiski eksfoliēta grafīta slāpekļa sorbcijas spēja salīdzinājumā ar citu oglekļa struktūru sorbciju tādos pašos apstākļos. Atrasti divi izotermu rajoni, kas raksturojas ar mazu (SBET1) un palielinātu (SBET2) īpatnējo virsmu.. Šāda veida izotermas raksturīgas slikti adsorbējošiem materiāliem, pie kādiem pieder arī akvadags. Labi adsorbējošās oglekļa struktūrām, tādām kā aktīvā ogle un oglekļa nanocaurules, raksturīgas cita veida izotermas. Apspriesta eksperimentālā rezultāta interpretācija

  12. [Aorto-bifermoral grafs infection due to Candida parapsilosis. An unusual pathogen].

    PubMed

    Guevara-Noriega, Kerbi Alejandro; Velescu, Alina; Zaffalon-Espinal, Diana Teresa; Mateos-Torres, Eduardo; Roig-Santamaría, Luis; Clará-Velasco, Albert

    Aorto-enteric fistula is a rare and potentially lethal entity. Its presentation may be as an enteric-paraprosthetic fistula, due to injury in the gut caused by direct contact with the vascular prosthesis. We report a case of enteric-paraprosthetic fistulae with the unusual finding of Candida parapsilosis as the only isolated pathogen. A 65-year-old male, smoker, with aortobifemoral revascularisation with dacron due to aortoiliac occlusive disease, and re-intervention for thrombosis of left arm at 6 months. Hospitalisation at 22 months was required due to a toxic syndrome, which was diagnosed as enteric-paraprosthetic fistulae after complementary studies. The graft was removed and an extra-anatomic revascularisation was performed. Microbiology specimens taken from the duodenal segment in contact with the prosthesis showed the prosthetic segment and peri-prosthetic fluid were positive to C. parapsilosis. The finding of C. parapsilosis in all cultures taken during surgery, along with negative blood cultures and no other known sources of infection, is of interest. It is an unusual pathogen with low virulence and limited as regards other Candida species. Our patient had no clinical data common to cases of infection with C. parapsilosis, and the mechanism of graft infection is unknown. Graft infection by C. parapsilosis may be anecdotal. However, its consequences can also be severe. Microbiological tests can be useful to adjust antimicrobial therapy in the post-operative period, but their usefulness for determining the aetiology is doubtful, as it may be just an incidental finding. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Tacrolimus (Pan Graf) as de novo therapy in renal transplant recipients in India.

    PubMed

    Guleria, S; Kamboj, M; Singh, P; Sharma, M; Pandey, S; Chatterjee, A; Dinda, A K; Mahajan, S; Gupta, S; Bhowmik, D; Agarwal, S K; Tiwari, S C; Dash, S C

    2006-09-01

    The safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in transplantation is well established. However, tacrolimus has only recently been available in India. We report an initial experience using tacrolimus as de novo therapy in a living related renal transplant program. Fifty-two consecutive recipients of living renal allografts were treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine and steroids. The dose of tacrolimus was adjusted to keep trough levels at 10 to 12 ng/mL in the first 3 months, 8 to 10 ng/mL in the next 3 months, and 5 to 8 ng/mL thereafter. Any evidence of graft dysfunction was evaluated by graft biopsy. The effect of this regimen on the lipid profile as well as the incidence of posttransplant diabetes mellitus was evaluated in an Indian population. All patients were followed for periods ranging from 6 to 72 weeks (mean = 29 weeks). The incidence of acute rejection was 3.84%; 17.3% developed posttransplant diabetes mellitus. Graft and patient survivals at the current follow-up were 100% and 96.26%. In conclusion, tacrolimus is a safe and effective immunosuppressant in a living related renal transplant program.

  14. LO-CO-GRAF (Low Cost Graphics): Generating Maps to Support Command and Control/Crisis Management Using Small Computers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    followed by a mes- sage indicating what file deffinitions are in effect and asking you if you would like to execute the program with those deffinitions or...Beware files for specific systems. 77 SFILWX T. - -z~r Ar The IBM version runs on the entire IBM PC and PS/2 families, clones and compat- ibles (e.g...Compaq, AT&T 6300, DEC VAXmate), and near- clones like the Heath,’Zenith 100 with UCI EZPC board, Olivetti M24, Seequa Chameleon, and Data General,’ 1. The

  15. A rapid algorithm for realistic human reaching and its use in a virtual reality system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Ann; Pandya, Abhilash; Goldsby, Michael; Maida, James

    1994-01-01

    The Graphics Analysis Facility (GRAF) at JSC has developed a rapid algorithm for computing realistic human reaching. The algorithm was applied to GRAF's anthropometrically correct human model and used in a 3D computer graphics system and a virtual reality system. The nature of the algorithm and its uses are discussed.

  16. Investigation of Radiometric Combustion Monitoring Techniques for Coal- Fired Stoker Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Joyce 1952; Carman , Graf, and Corey 1959) have simulated traveling grate combustion using static "pot" type combustors. In these tests, time is used to...temperatures. 19 Researchers from the U.S. Bureau of Mines ( Carman , Graf, and Corey 1957) used a pot combustion chamber similar to that employed by...boiler should be taken using a near-infrared camera. REFERENCES Carman , E.P., E.G. Graf, and R.C. Corey, Combustion of Solid Fuels in Thin Beds, USBM

  17. Research Needs in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Marianne J., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Set of five articles includes "Introduction" (D'Onofrio); "Teaching Higher-Order Thinking Skills" (Maxam); "Research Questions in Teaching Software" (Franz, Waller); "Research in International Business Education" (Blockhus); and "The Knowledge Worker and Computer Technology" (Graf). (JOW)

  18. Endocytic turnover of Rab8 controls cell polarization

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Holst, Mikkel R.; Larsson, Elin; Hachimi, Mariam; Yau, Wai-Lok; Peränen, Johan; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adaptation of cell shape and polarization through the formation and retraction of cellular protrusions requires balancing of endocytosis and exocytosis combined with fine-tuning of the local activity of small GTPases like Rab8. Here, we show that endocytic turnover of the plasma membrane at protrusions is directly coupled to surface removal and inactivation of Rab8. Removal is induced by reduced membrane tension and mediated by the GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1, also known as ARHGAP26), a regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis. GRAF1-depleted cells were deficient in multi-directional spreading and displayed elevated levels of GTP-loaded Rab8, which was accumulated at the tips of static protrusions. Furthermore, GRAF1 depletion impaired lumen formation and spindle orientation in a 3D cell culture system, indicating that GRAF1 activity regulates polarity establishment. Our data suggest that GRAF1-mediated removal of Rab8 from the cell surface restricts its activity during protrusion formation, thereby facilitating dynamic adjustment of the polarity axis. PMID:28137756

  19. [An ultrasonographic study of the correlation between developmental dysplasia of the hip and congenital muscular torticollis in children].

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Yu-le; Guan, Bu-Yun; Zhu, Li-Ling; He, Xue-Hua; Fang, Qian; Liang, Zhi-Cheng

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the significance of early screening of pediatric developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) using ultrasonography and establish a simultaneous screening model for pediatric DDH and CMT. From January, 2013 to January, 2016, a total of 5060 pediatric patients with suspected DDH and CMT underwent ultrasonic examinations. The diagnostic results of the two diseases were classified into different clinical types, and Chi-square test was used to analyze the one-way relationship between different types of DDH and CMT; correspondence analysis was used for multivariate analysis of the variables. Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between the detection rates in suspected CMT patients and the normal population. GrafIIa type DDH was associated with mass-type CMT in the children (χ(2)=331.800, P<0.001). DDH of GrafIIb, GrafIIc, Graf III, and Graf IV types were related with non-tumor type of CMT. The children with a suspected diagnosis of CMT showed a significantly higher detection rate of DDH than the normal subjects (χ(2)=321.889, P<0.001). DDH is closely related with CMT. Early simultaneous screening of DDH and CMT can help to improve the early diagnosis rate of CMT in children.

  20. Endocytic turnover of Rab8 controls cell polarization.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Quadras, Maite; Holst, Mikkel R; Francis, Monika K; Larsson, Elin; Hachimi, Mariam; Yau, Wai-Lok; Peränen, Johan; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando; Lundmark, Richard

    2017-03-15

    Adaptation of cell shape and polarization through the formation and retraction of cellular protrusions requires balancing of endocytosis and exocytosis combined with fine-tuning of the local activity of small GTPases like Rab8. Here, we show that endocytic turnover of the plasma membrane at protrusions is directly coupled to surface removal and inactivation of Rab8. Removal is induced by reduced membrane tension and mediated by the GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1, also known as ARHGAP26), a regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis. GRAF1-depleted cells were deficient in multi-directional spreading and displayed elevated levels of GTP-loaded Rab8, which was accumulated at the tips of static protrusions. Furthermore, GRAF1 depletion impaired lumen formation and spindle orientation in a 3D cell culture system, indicating that GRAF1 activity regulates polarity establishment. Our data suggest that GRAF1-mediated removal of Rab8 from the cell surface restricts its activity during protrusion formation, thereby facilitating dynamic adjustment of the polarity axis.

  1. Studies of Thin Film Chemical Sensors Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Selective Electrode Rev., 1983, 5, 3. 13. Okada, T.; Hiratani, K.; Sugihara, H. Analyst, 1987, 112, 587. 14. Horvai, G.; Horvath, V.; Farkas, A.; Pungor , E... Pungor , E.; Buck, R.P., Anal. Chem., 1986, 50, 2735. 24. Horvai, G.; Graf, E.; Toth, K.; Pungor , E.; Buck, R.P., Anal. Chem., 1986, 52, 2741. 25...Horvai, G.; Graf, E.; Toth, K.; Pungor , E.; Buck, R.P., J. Electroanal. Chem., 1987, 223, 51-66. 26. Pungor , E.; Iglehart, M.L.; Buck, R.P., Anal. Chem

  2. Angels and Demons: The Science Behind the Scenes

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman

    2009-05-12

    Does antimatter really exist? How and why do scientists produce and use it? Does CERN exist and is there an underground complex deep beneath the Swiss/French border? Is truth stranger than fiction? Find out at the coming public lecture. On Tuesday, May 12, SLAC physicist Norman Graf will discuss the real science behind Angels & Demons, Dan Brown's blockbuster novel and the basis of an upcoming Tom Hanks movie. Graf's' talk is one in a series of public lectures across the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico to share the science of antimatter and the Large Hadron Collider, and the excitement of particle physics research.

  3. Gender Differences in Behavior-Related Special Education Supports in Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassett, Kristen Spring

    2009-01-01

    Gender stereotypes abound in materials (AAUW, 1992; Kratovil & Bailey, 1986; Shafer & Shevitz, 2001), perceptions/expectations (AAUW; Stinnett, Bull, Koonce, & Aldridge, 1999), and vocational training (AAUW; Arms, Bickett, & Graf, 2008; Hanson & Smith, 2001). Achievement measures indicate that girls may be doing better than boys (Corbett, Hill, &…

  4. 3D scientific visualization of reservoir simulation post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, M.C.; Miranda-Filho, D.N.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a 3D visualization software designed at PETROBRAS and TecGraf/PUC-RJ in Brazil for the analysis of reservoir engineering post-processing data. It offers an advanced functional environment on graphical workstations with intuitive and ergonomic interface. Applications to real reservoir models show the enriching features of the software.

  5. Responsive starch-based materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch, a low-cost, annually renewable resource, is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starch’s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (e.g. humidity). For example, starch-based graf...

  6. Combinatorial Problems of Applied Discrete Mathematics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Attenuated Spaces, Utilitas Mathematica, 15(1979) , 3—29. 6. Characterization of Projective Incidence Structures, Geometria Dedicata, 5 (1976), 361—376. 7...Pj rtia l geometries, generalized quadrang les and strong/v regular graf t/ us , • Att i dcl Convegno di Geometria Combinatoria e sue app

  7. Workforce Planning in the Intelligence Community: A Retrospective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    segments of this work. We also wish to thank Dwayne M. Butler and Nelson Lim from RAND and Robert B. Murrett of the Syracuse University Department of Public...Taylor, Richard Eisenman, William Fedorochko, Clifford M. Graf II, Mark Hoyer, Paul Bracken, Norman T. O’Meara, Jerry M. Sollinger, Judith Larson

  8. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  9. Has the Dayton Peace Agreement Stopped Progress in Bosnia and Herzegovina?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    represented by former Swedish Prime Minister Nils Daniel Carl Bildt, co-chairman of the Dayton Peace Conference. As a result of the signed...The Brookings Institution, 1995), 25. 9 Richard West, Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia (New York: Carroll & Graf , 1995), 281. 10 Steven

  10. Design under Constraints: The Case of Large-Scale Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," Bejar and Graf (2010) propose extensions to the duplex design for large-scale assessment presented in Bock and Mislevy (1988). Examining the range of people who use assessment results--from students, teachers, administrators, curriculum designers,…

  11. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  12. Quantifying the Impact of Physical Activity on Stress Tolerance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Welle, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Stress experience by millennial college students can be crippling. While stress is a universal and unavoidable phenomenon for college students, the variance in ability to handle stress can be attributed to stress tolerance (Welle & Graf, 2011). Research is needed to identify effective tools that increase college students' ability to…

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Physical Activity on Stress Tolerance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Welle, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Stress experience by millennial college students can be crippling. While stress is a universal and unavoidable phenomenon for college students, the variance in ability to handle stress can be attributed to stress tolerance (Welle & Graf, 2011). Research is needed to identify effective tools that increase college students' ability to…

  14. Gender Differences in Behavior-Related Special Education Supports in Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassett, Kristen Spring

    2009-01-01

    Gender stereotypes abound in materials (AAUW, 1992; Kratovil & Bailey, 1986; Shafer & Shevitz, 2001), perceptions/expectations (AAUW; Stinnett, Bull, Koonce, & Aldridge, 1999), and vocational training (AAUW; Arms, Bickett, & Graf, 2008; Hanson & Smith, 2001). Achievement measures indicate that girls may be doing better than boys (Corbett, Hill, &…

  15. Episodic Priming in Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Worman, Linda J.

    1990-01-01

    A traditional cued recall task and an item recognition priming paradigm were used to assess the locus of associative memory difficulties in learning-disabled children. Results for 24 learning-disabled and 24 nondisabled sixth graders are discussed within the explicit and implicit memory framework of P. Graf and D. L. Schacter (1985). (TJH)

  16. An Experimental Test of a Model for Decision Strategy Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Investigators). The author thanks Ms. Carlyn Christensen-Szalanskl and Dr. Lee Roy Beach for their help and strong support throughout this study. I...Lt. Cal. John Courtright Prof. Dr. Carl Graf Hoyos Dr. Delbert M. NebekerHeadquarters Institute for Psychology Depa rt ot Navy AM/RHeadqua s

  17. Is congenital talipes equinovarus a risk factor for pathological dysplasia of the hip? : a 21-year prospective, longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Paton, R W; Choudry, Q A; Jugdey, R; Hughes, S

    2014-11-01

    There is controversy whether congenital foot abnormalities are true risk factors for pathological dysplasia of the hip. Previous United Kingdom screening guidelines considered congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) to be a risk factor for hip dysplasia, but present guidelines do not. We assessed the potential relationship between pathological dysplasia of the hip and fixed idiopathic CTEV. We present a single-centre 21-year prospective longitudinal observational study. All fixed idiopathic CTEV cases were classified (Harrold and Walker Types 1 to 3) and the hips clinically and sonographically assessed. Sonographic Graf Type III, IV and radiological irreducible hip dislocation were considered to be pathological hip dysplasia. Over 21 years there were 139 children with 199 cases of fixed idiopathic CTEV feet. Sonographically, there were 259 normal hips, 18 Graf Type II hips, 1 Graf Type III hip and 0 Graf Type IV hip. There were no cases of radiological or sonographic irreducible hip dislocation. Fixed idiopathic CTEV should not be considered as a significant risk factor for pathological hip dysplasia. This conclusion is in keeping with the current newborn and infant physical examination guidelines in which the only risk factors routinely screened are family history and breech presentation. Our findings suggest CTEV should not be considered a significant risk factor in pathological dysplasia of the hip. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Identification of Vascular Parameters Based on the Same Pressure Pulses Waves Used to Measure Pulse Wave Velocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    fig. 3) was designed and included to the pre-developed PWV/PWA system. The implemented optimization algorithm was based on a steepest descend gradient ...of transmission of the pulse wave and elasticity of arteries,” Lancet, vol. I, pp. 891-892, 1922. [6] S. Graf et al., “ Desarrollo de um sistema para

  19. Evaluation of Dam Decommissioning in an Ice-Affected River: Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Abdul-Mohsen 2005 and Kuby et al. 2005). Conyngham et al. (2006) provide an overview of the ecological and engi- neering aspects of dam decommissioning...2007) CRREL Ice Jam Database (http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/ierd/ijdb/), accessed March 2007. Kuby , M.J., W.F. Fagan, C.S. ReVelle, W.L. Graf (2005

  20. Framing a Strategic Approach for Joint Officer Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the JDAL... 26 3.5. Marine Corps Starts, Stops, and Cumulative Change to the JD A L ......................................................... 27 3.6...interaction of Major Harvey Johnson, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Armentrout , Brad Loo, and Gwendolyn Rutherford from our sponsoring office and the input...J. Thie, Jennifer Kawata, Margaret C. Harrell, Clifford M. Graf II, and Paul Steinberg, Who Is Joint? Reevaluating the Joint Duty Assignment List

  1. Stimulation of production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in endothelial cells by unmodified and Fenton-modified ultradisperse detonation diamond.

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, K; Gajewska, A; Skolimowski, J; Mitura, K; Bartosz, G

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the development of nanotechnology opens up new prospects for biomedical applications of unmodified and chemically modified diamond nanoparticles (DNPs). The problem of biocompatibility of DNPs is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of -OH groups, which can bind other functional groups. One of the basic methods to introduce -OH groups onto DNPs is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified DNPs and nanoparticles modified by the Fenton reaction on human endothelial cells. Ultradisperse diamond (UDD) was modified by the Fenton reaction introducing surface -OH groups. Immortalized human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC-ST) were incubated with 2-100 µg/mL nanopowders in the opti-MEM medium. For comparison, graphite powder (GRAF and GRAF+OH) was also employed. UDD and GRAF augmented generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells after 24 H incubation, estimated by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). Cellular production of nitric oxide, estimated with DAF-FM-DA (3-amino-4-aminomethyl 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate), was also affected by UDD and GRAF after 24 H. Fenton-modified OH, in contrast to unmodified diamond, decreased NO production. Detonation nanoparticles also affected the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase). This article was published online on 5 February 2013. Errors in the byline and affiliation line were subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected 18 April 2013. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. LOVA Propellant Aging: Effect of Residual Solvent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    actual storage conditions) should be performed. 15 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 16 5. REFERENCES Bergin, F. J. Applied Spectroscopy . vol. 43, no. 3...p. 511, 1989. Graf, R. T., J. L. Koenig, and H. Ishida. Applied Spectroscopy , vol. 39, p. 405, 1985. Grahm, J. A., W. M. Grimm III, and W. G...Harthcock (editors). Infrared Microspectroscopy. NY: Marcel Dekker, 1988. Pesce-Rodriguez, R. A., and R. A. Fifer. Applied Spectroscopy , vol. 45, no. 3

  3. Cognitive Processes in Skimming Stories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    the visual system to more complex areas of the brain suggested in models proposed by Gough (1972) and Laberge and Samuels (1974). A more realistic...course, it is also possible that being well informed is a prerequisite of being able to read quickly. In fact, G. Stevens and Oren (1963) have argued that...experiments. In some cases, training has led to improved speed but significantly lower comprehension (Graf, 1973; D. Stevens & Adams, 1968). In a study by

  4. The Relationship Between Repetition Priming and Skill Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    comparing the performance ofI amnesic patients and normal adults on learning and memory performance (see Shimamura, 1986 for a review). Despite severe...Graf, P., Squire, L. R., & Mandler, G. (1984). The information that amnesic patients do not forget. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning ...facilitation as evidence of implicit I memory. Implicit memory refers to retention of prior events that is demonstrated in performance facilitation

  5. [Real-time sonography of the infant hip joint in the early diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Casser, H R; Forst, R

    1985-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination of infant hip joint means a great advantage in early diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia. The sonographic type classification by Graf enables the experienced examiner to make up a differentiated diagnostic-therapeutic concept as early as possible. Therapeutic omissions just as well as exaggerated therapeutic measures can be avoided. Consequently the prognosis of hip joint dysplasia is considerably improved by ultrasonic examination of new-born hip joints.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Trust in Human-Robot Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    mobility pur- poses, rehabilitation , and of course, surgical aids (Tsui & Yanco, 2007). Social robots for domestic use are also being designed to help...necessary presence of a human caregiver (Graf, Hans, & Schraft, 2004). Other robotic devices, such as wheelchairs (Yanco, 2001) and exoskeletons (e.g...body bots [robotic exoskeletons ]. IEEE Spectrum, 42(10), 50–56. Hancock, P. A. (1996). Effects of control order, augmented feed- back, input device and

  7. Processing of Ceramics by Biopolymers. Ultrastructure-Property Relationships in Biocrystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-09

    Nonoxide ceramic powders nanocomposite are calcium zirconium phosphate and Organometallic research continues to find new pre- strontium zirconium...material in which elongated particles of hydroxyapatite (a calcium compound that is the mineral titania (TiC2) are distributed also the main mineral...9 2.2.1 The Use of Biopolymers (Alginates) in the Preparation of Highly Concentrated Suspensions of A120 3 Powder G. L. Graf, I. A

  8. French descriptions of Wundt's laboratory in Leipzig in 1886.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Gyselinck, Valérie; Murray, David J; Bandomir, Christina A

    2002-08-01

    Translations are provided of extracts from reports by the French-speaking scholars Alfred Grafé and Emile Durkheim concerning the instructional procedures in place at Wundt's Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig in the summer of 1886. It is stressed that reports such as theirs were of importance, not only to researchers, but also to teachers and administrators concerned with how the new experimental psychology should be taught, especially with respect to practical classes.

  9. Commercialization of New Carbon Fiber Materials Based on Sustainable Resources for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, Cliff; Webb, Daniel C; Albers, Tracy; Chen, Chong

    2013-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers. This project will potentially lead to the first commercial application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, Chinese-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help recapture jobs that were previously exported to China while resolving a supply chain vulnerability and reducing the production cost for GrafTech s high temperature thermal insulation. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, ORNL and GrafTech demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production. A plan was developed for the commercialization of LBCF thermal insulation, with key milestones including qualification of multiple scalable lignin sources in 2013, tons-scale production and field testing by customers in 2014, and product launch as soon thereafter as production capabilities can be constructed and commissioned.

  10. [Ultrasonography of the neonatal hip: state of the art and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ortore, P; Fodor, G; Silverio, R; Milani, C; Psenner, K

    1996-01-01

    Since the first studies by Graf, medical interest for neonatal hip sonography (US) has grown, till the redefinition of the name itself of the pathologic condition, which has been recently renamed developmental dysplasia of the hip. After briefly reviewing our personal series of patients (18,388 hips studied from March, 1986, through June, 1995, with 2.81% positives according to Graf, 0.65% of them with subluxated hips), several issues are discussed relative to US of the neonatal hip in the study of dysplasia, namely: 1) technique, 2) measurements, 3) unstable hips, 4) screening, 5) protocols, 6) perspectives. Relative to the technique, Graf's method is currently the method of choice because it is easy to perform (single scanning) and repeatable, different from what other authors, particularly Novick and Harcke, suggested; they use a dynamic approach with more scans and different stress tests. Moreover, in Graf's technique, special attention is paid to the need for correct measurements, which phase was criticized by Couture who complained of its claimed complexity. Hip measurements are an important step in the study of this condition thanks to the information they yield the physician who can thus customize the therapy. The problem of the unstable hip and focal ligament laxity is discussed, which is hypothesized to be a possible cause of hip dysplasia misdiagnosis; according to Graf and Tönnis, this condition is related mostly to hormonal factors and has no actual clinical importance in the possible evolution to a pathologic condition. US of the neonatal hip must be set in a general screening program for newborns to be carried out by the 6th week of life to achieve optimal recovery in positive newborns, without limiting it to supposedly at risk groups. Moreover, the cost-benefit ratio of US screening is emphasized, provided that both medical staff and units are used correctly. A working diagnostic-therapeutic protocol is needed to plan standard epidemiologic

  11. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Origin of GPCRs: Identification of Mammalian like Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Glutamate and Frizzled GPCRs in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in humans are classified into the five main families named Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin according to the GRAFS classification. Previous results show that these mammalian GRAFS families are well represented in the Metazoan lineages, but they have not been shown to be present in Fungi. Here, we systematically mined 79 fungal genomes and provide the first evidence that four of the five main mammalian families of GPCRs, namely Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Glutamate and Frizzled, are present in Fungi and found 142 novel sequences between them. Significantly, we provide strong evidence that the Rhodopsin family emerged from the cAMP receptor family in an event close to the split of Opisthokonts and not in Placozoa, as earlier assumed. The Rhodopsin family then expanded greatly in Metazoans while the cAMP receptor family is found in 3 invertebrate species and lost in the vertebrates. We estimate that the Adhesion and Frizzled families evolved before the split of Unikonts from a common ancestor of all major eukaryotic lineages. Also, the study highlights that the fungal Adhesion receptors do not have N-terminal domains whereas the fungal Glutamate receptors have a broad repertoire of mammalian-like N-terminal domains. Further, mining of the close unicellular relatives of the Metazoan lineage, Salpingoeca rosetta and Capsaspora owczarzaki, obtained a rich group of both the Adhesion and Glutamate families, which in particular provided insight to the early emergence of the N-terminal domains of the Adhesion family. We identified 619 Fungi specific GPCRs across 79 genomes and revealed that Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota phylum have Metazoan-like GPCRs rather than the GPCRs specific for Fungi. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of the presence of four of the five main GRAFS families in Fungi and clarifies the early evolutionary history of the GPCR superfamily. PMID:22238661

  13. The Characterization of Grade PCEA Recycle Graphite Pilot Scale Billets

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Here we report the physical properties of a series specimens machined from pilot scale (~ 152 mm diameter x ~305 mm length) grade PCEA recycle billets manufactured by GrafTech. The pilot scale billets were processed with increasing amounts of (unirradiated) graphite (from 20% to 100%) introduced to the formulation with the goal of determining if large fractions of recycle graphite have a deleterious effect on properties. The properties determined include Bulk Density, Electrical Resistivity, Elastic (Young s) Modulus, and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. Although property variations were observed to be correlated with the recycle fraction, the magnitude of the variations was noted to be small.

  14. The larvae of the European species of genus Apataniana Mosely, 1936 (Trichoptera, Apataniidae): descriptions, key and ecology.

    PubMed

    Waringer, Johann; Malicky, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the previously unknown or insufficiently known larvae of Apataniana hellenica, Apataniana stropones and Apataniana vardusia. Species association was enabled by the fact that the three micro-endemic Apataniana larvae are restricted to Greece and the only Apataniidae species recorded in European ecoregion 6 (Hellenic Western Balkan; Graf et al. 2008), and that the endemic status of the three species clearly defined their non-overlapping sampling ranges. Information on the morphology of the larvae is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated.

  15. [Computerized study of perioperative difficulties of stapedectomy].

    PubMed

    Cadavid Zink, R; Ballivian, H; Gamboa, F J; Olaizola, F

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of 1035 stapedectomies was performed to assess the incidence of intraoperative complications between 1972-1990. We found 45.89% of complications. We divided this alterations in 6 groups: 1) hemorrhage (20.67%), 2) stapes, foot plate, oval window (8.40%), 3) alterations in the middle ear (6.85%), 4) alterations in the incus (3.76%), 5) alterations in the external ear canal (3.57%) and 6) problems with protesis or graf (2.60%). We have analyzed these complications. We propose to carry out the solutions.

  16. The Present Status of Airship Construction, Especially of Airship-framing Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, Hans

    1938-01-01

    This work proposes to sketch, in broad outline, the status of airship construction in the various countries, at a time when commerce over great distances might be finally opened up to the airship through the performances of the "Graf Zeppelin." After a short historical review, a survey of the most important rigid and semirigid airships built since 1925, their differences and special problems, is made. In more detailed treatment, the framing construction of the more recent rigid airships and some especially interesting structural questions are investigated.

  17. Historical Snapshot: Dr. Mary E. Walker, Civil War Surgeon, Medal of Honor Recipient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    R E F E R E N C E S 1. Bellafaire J, Graf MH. Women Doctors in War: Texas A&M University Press; 2009. 2. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center...Medal of Honor Recipient 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center,11800 Tech Road, Suite 220,(MCAF-CS

  18. The larvae of the European species of genus Apataniana Mosely, 1936 (Trichoptera, Apataniidae): descriptions, key and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, Johann; Malicky, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the previously unknown or insufficiently known larvae of Apataniana hellenica, Apataniana stropones and Apataniana vardusia. Species association was enabled by the fact that the three micro-endemic Apataniana larvae are restricted to Greece and the only Apataniidae species recorded in European ecoregion 6 (Hellenic Western Balkan; Graf et al. 2008), and that the endemic status of the three species clearly defined their non-overlapping sampling ranges. Information on the morphology of the larvae is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. PMID:27199610

  19. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adrianowycz, Orest; Norley, Julian; Stuart, David J; Flaherty, David; Wayne, Ryan; Williams, Warren; Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan H; Zawodzinski, Tom; Pietrasz, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the

  20. Specificity of perceptual processing in rereading spatially transformed materials.

    PubMed

    Horton, K D; McKenzie, B D

    1995-05-01

    While most studies using the task of reading spatially transformed text do not reveal evidence of specific perceptual transfer, a study by Masson (1986, Experiment 3) provides clear evidence of such effects. Several experiments were designed to identify the basis for this empirical discrepancy. The only substantive evidence of specific perceptual transfer occurred when the words were presented in an unfamiliar typography, although each study suggested a trend toward perceptual specificity effects. The results are discussed in terms of Graf and Ryan's (1990) ideas about the role of distinctive memory representations.

  1. Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental Change and Contamination in the Nuclear Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipnik, Mark

    Plutonium and the Rio Grande begins with an evocative description of the tranquility that prevailed along the Rio Grande in the halcyon days before the Manhattan Project changed the environment of this corner of New Mexico forever. Graf presents a methodology for studying the environmental impacts of the plutonium releases from facilities at Los Alamos. Specifically, he quantifies releases of various isotopes of plutonium and tracks their fate in the sediments and water bodies of the Rio Grande. Despite access to ample reliable data, his task is challenging: it requires regional-scale analysis and applications of techniques from disciplines including geomorphology, hydrology, environmental chemistry, plant physiology, and historical research.

  2. Archive of single beam and swath bathymetry data collected nearshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from West Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama: Methods and data report for USGS Cruises 08CCT01 and 08CCT02, July 2008, and 09CCT03 and 09CCT04, June 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hansen, Mark E.; Reynolds, B.J.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Wiese, Dana S.; Worley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    See the digital FACS equipment log for details about the acquisition equipment used. Raw datasets are stored digitally at the USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center and processed systematically using Novatel's GrafNav version 7.6, SANDS version 3.7, SEA SWATHplus version 3.06.04.03, CARIS HIPS AND SIPS version 3.6, and ESRI ArcGIS version 9.3.1. For more information on processing refer to the Equipment and Processing page. Chirp seismic data were also collected during these surveys and are archived separately.

  3. What Is the Buoyant Force on a Block at the Bottom of a Beaker of Water?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Bierman and E. Kincanon, “Reconsidering Archimedes ’ principle ,” Phys. Teach. 41, 340-344 (2003). [2] B.M. Valiyov and V.D. Yegorenkov, “Do fluids...always push up objects immersed in them?” Phys. Educ. 35, 284-286 (2000). [3] E.H. Graf, “Just what did Archimedes say about buoyancy?” Phys. Teach...elevator accelerating downward, the weight of and buoyant force on a submerged object are decreased. [7] J. Harper, “ Archimedes ’ principle and the FCI

  4. Introduction to LBL graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The Computing Services Department supports a number of graphics software packages on the VAX machines, primarily on the IGM VAX. These packages will drive a large variety of different graphical devices, terminals (including various Tektronix terminals, the AED 512 color raster terminal, the IMLAC Series II vector list processor terminal and others), various styles of plotters and the DICOMED D48 film recorder. We are going to present to you the following graphic software packages: Tell-A-Graf, Cuechart, Tell-A-Plan, Data Connection, DI-3000, Contouring, Grafmaker (including Grafeasy), Grafmaster, Movie.BYU, Grafpac, IDDS, UGS/HPLOT/HBOOK, and SDL/SGL.

  5. Seasonal and decadal-scale channel evolution on the dammed Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Logan, Joshua B.; Mastin, Mark C.; McCoy, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    More than 75,000 dams exist in the continental United States to provide water storage, flood control, and hydropower generation (Graf, 1999). Many of these were built during the early twentieth century and are due for relicensing consideration now and in the near future. The cost of repairing aging dams, together with growing understanding of the ecologic effects of river regulation (Williams and Wolman, 1984; Dynesius and Nilsson, 1994; Graf, 1999, 2003; Yang et al., 2007), in some places have prompted dam removal, facilitating restoration of riparian habitat to a more natural state. In the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., river-restoration efforts are commonly targeted to improve habitat quality for native salmonid fish species, many runs of which have declined precipitiously from their historical conditions (owing, in part, to overfishing and habitat loss and degradation) and are now endangered (e.g., Nehlsen, 1997; Larsen et al., 2004; Pess et al., 2008). Removal of dams that block the upstream migration of anadromous fish is considered an important step toward any potential recovery of Pacific Northwest salmon and steelhead populations.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of a BH domain from the GTPase regulatory protein associated with focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, P J; Derewenda, U; Taylor, J; Parsons, T J; Derewenda, Z S

    1999-01-01

    Signaling by small GTPases is down-regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which enhance the rate of GTP hydrolysis. The activity of GAPs specific for Rho GTPases resides in the BH domain, many homologues of which are found in any mammalian genome. One of them was identified in the GTPase regulator associated with focal-adhesion kinase (GRAF). It shares approximately 20% sequence identity with p50RhoGAP. This GAP activates RhoA and Cdc42Hs, but not Rac. In order to dissect the molecular basis of this specificity, a 231-residue-long fragment corresponding to the BH domain of GRAF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Trigonal crystals, of space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 63.5, c = 90.38 A were grown from solutions of PEG 6000. Data to 2.15 A were collected from a flash-frozen sample on an R-AXIS IV imaging-plate detector mounted on a rotating anode X-ray generator.

  8. Gerhart Panning (1900-1944): a German forensic pathologist and his involvement in Nazi crimes during Second World War.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Johanna; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-03-01

    Twenty years after the Second World War the public were made aware of War Crimes committed by the German forensic pathologist, Gerhart Panning (1900-1944). From 1942 till 1944, Panning was professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Bonn. Panning died of tuberculosis on 22 March 1944. After the Second World War, Panning's widow tried to obtain denazification for her husband. There were no particularly serious doubts. In 1965, Konrad Graf von Moltke, the son of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (1907-1944), presented to the court a private letter from his father to his mother. In this letter, written in 1941, Panning's experiments on Soviet prisoners are described. In the so-called Callsen trial in the court of Darmstadt from 1960 to 1968, the experiments were confirmed by witnesses. In 1941, Panning performed experiments in cooperation with the Sicherheitsstaffel (Nazi special police) in the Ukraine to prove that captured ammunition of the soviet infantry violated international law. For this purpose, different parts of the bodies of living Soviets were used as firing targets. He published the results of these experiments in a scientific journal without any evidence of the origin of these observations. In this article, Panning's life and crimes have been described.

  9. THERMAL INSULATION FROM LIGNIN-DERIVED CARBON FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, Tracy; Chen, Chong; Eberle, Cliff; Webb, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GrafTech) have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). This was the first reported production of LBCF or resulting products at scale > 1 kg. The results will potentially lead to the first commercial application of LBCF. The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, foreign-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help resolve supply chain vulnerability and reduce the production cost for high temperature thermal insulation as well as create US jobs. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, the project team demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production.

  10. [Small diameter porto-caval shunt in patients with bleeding from esophageal varices: a report of twenty cases].

    PubMed

    Orea Martínez, Juan Gerardo; Obregón García, Ana Cristina; Pérez Vergara, Ana María; Márquez Acosta, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    SDPCS (The small diameter portacaval shunt) published originally by Rypins and Sarfeh in Los Angeles in 1983 has recieved little attention in our comunity to control bleeding in patients with portal hypertention. The bleeding of esophageal varices represents the must frequent and dramatic complication caused by cirrhosis, with a 50% of mortality without treatment. Comunicate the indications, thecnique and results with the Small Diameter Portocaval shunt. Prospective trial from April 1992 to November 1998. Twenty patients with bleeding esophageal varices, 6 female, 14 male, ages 31-72 years; Alcoholic Cirrhosis 7 patients; Hepatitis B virus 4 patients, Criptogenic 4 patients, Child A; 13 patients, Child B; 5 patients and Child B-C 2 patients. Direct intraoperatory Inferior Vena Cava and portal pressures was obteined in all cases.14 grafs 10 mm and 6, 8 mm Polytetrafiuoroetehilene (PTFE) grafts were used . Follow up 6 to 68 months; Mortality 5%, morbidity 5%, rebleeding 15%, graft trhombosis 10%, encephalopathy: Mild 5%, Moderated 5%, Severe 10%. Mean surgical time 4.28 h. Mean blood transfussion 1.4 units of red blood cells. The venous pressure pre and post grafting decreased significantly p < 0.01. SDPCS is a easy to apply procedure and results are addecuate; it requires an specialized preoperatory ultrasound. The descensus in portal pressure after grafting and graf permeability was corroborated.

  11. [Congenital dysplasia and dislocation of the hip: proven and new procedures in diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Multerer, C; Döderlein, L

    2014-08-01

    As developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is the most common congenital muskuloskeletal anomaly, it seems necessary to give an update on the normal growth, pathoanatomy, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Which investigations or procedures have withstood the test of time? What are new therapeutic strategies and considerations? What are the problems? Review of the current literature on DDH supplemented by several years experience in the treatment of this condition by the authors. We have still a long way to achieve the goal of agreement on universal standardization of assessment and treatment methods based on age and staging regarding DDH, as in the Ponseti treatment procedure for clubfoot. Our experiences, as well as the literature suggest the use of Graf's nomenclature for classification of DDH in the first year of life. If dynamic ultrasound (US) shows at least a partial relocation of a decentered hip in the first 6 weeks of life, splinting in human position is advocated. The treatment of a Graf type IV hip joint is very difficult and often need surgery. The established surgical procedures in the literature are still up to date. Radiological follow-up of the affected as well as the unaffected side until the end of the growth phase is mandatory due to the risk of residual dysplasia.

  12. The psychoanalytic process in the treatment of Little Hans.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Joseph S

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the psychoanalytic process in the treatment of Little Hans, using Samuel Abrams's 1988 paper in which he defines the psychoanalytic process as the sequence of steps which appears within the mind of the patient as the treatment proceeds. As with the adult, the child can affectively recall or reenact the past in the transference, but the child also tries to promote whatever developmental phase is being clocked in. In January 1908 Max Graf, Hans's father and a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society who was a musicologist, wrote Freud that his son had developed a fear that a horse would bite him in the street. Freud first suggested that the father give his son some enlightenment in the matter of sexual knowledge, such as his mother and other females have no "widdlers." The enlightenments only increased Hans's anxiety, prompting Freud to meet with Hans and his father and interpret the fear of the horse as fear of the father. While Max Graf was able to help Hans understand some dreams and fantasies, he exhibited a punitive attitude toward Hans's masturbation, which was reinforced by Freud's attitude that it was harmful. The father did not promote his son's development when he withheld knowledge of how babies are born, neither did Freud when he withheld any contrary suggestions from the father.

  13. An accurate and efficient empirical approach for calculating the dielectric self-energy and ion-ion pair potential in continuum models of biological ion channels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mary Hongying; Coalson, Rob D

    2005-01-13

    This paper presents empirical formulas for calculating the dielectric self-energy and ion-ion pair interactions in cylindrical ion channels. The proposed approach can be extended to more complex channel structures, for example, (i) a "straight" channel with variable radius and (ii) a "curved" channel with constant radius. For calibration purposes, we compare results obtained based on the approximate effective potentials developed herein to exact electrostatic calculations obtained via the algorithm of Graf et al.: the agreement is satisfactory. A dynamic lattice Monte Carlo (DLMC) technique is used to further assess the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed empirical potentials. The concentration profiles and current-voltage curves produced with our simple empirical energy formulas are in excellent agreement with numerical results obtained using the algorithm of Graf et al., which calculates all relevant electrostatic forces exactly. The use of effective ion-ion potentials greatly reduces the computer memory required to perform DLMC ion permeation simulations in dielectrically inhomogeneous environments, thus enabling treatment of larger systems than can be handled by numerically exact techniques.

  14. [Do German-speaking paediatric orthopaedic surgeons agree on diagnostics and treatment of the neonatal hip?].

    PubMed

    Seidl, T; Placzek, R; Funk, J F

    2012-04-01

    Ultrasound examination of the neonatal hip has been an integral part of the German programme for the "early detection of disease in childhood" since 01.01.1996. The aim of this study is to determine if any consensus exists among German-speaking paediatric orthopaedic specialists concerning diagnosis and treatment of the neonatal hip 15 years after legal implementation of hip ultrasound screening by the Graf technique. A questionnaire was sent to all members of the German speaking Association of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons (Vereinigung für Kinderorthopädie - VKO). The query included questions concerning education and field of activity of the member as well as information on the diagnostics of neonatal hip with regard to examiner, technical equipment, and type of screening. In addition, four cases were presented with clinical history, clinical findings, and rateable Graf sonogram (case 1: 3 days old ♀, type D; case 2: 2 days old ♀, type IV; case 3: 4 weeks old ♀, type II a; case 4: 4 months old ♀, type III a) and a treatment recommendation was requested for each case. 78 of 179 contactable VKO members participated in this survey. 75.6 % of the participants are specialists with additional qualification in paediatric orthopaedic surgery. 68 % of the participants work in a hospital. As stated by 61.5 % of the participants the ultrasound examination of the neonatal hip is primarily done by orthopaedic surgeons. One participant stated that the examination is performed primarily by medical-technical assistants. The majority of participants use a 7.5-MHz linear transducer for ultrasound examination, a positioning device according to Graf and a foot switch as technical equipment. State-of-the-art equipment as recommended by Graf including in addition to the above mentioned an upright image display and a transducer guiding arm system is available to only 21.8 % of the participating VKO members. 23 of 50 participants stated that a general screening is performed

  15. Disparity between Clinical and Ultrasound Examinations in Neonatal Hip Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Bong Soo; Jeong, Woong Kyo; Park, Si Young

    2016-01-01

    Background For early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), neonatal hip screening using clinical examination and/or ultrasound has been recommended. Although there have been many studies on the reliability of both screening techniques, there is still controversy in the screening strategies; clinical vs. selective or universal ultrasound screening. To determine the screening strategy, we assessed the agreement among the methods; clinical examination by an experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeon, sonographic morphology, and sonographic stability. Methods From January 2004 to June 2009, a single experienced pediatric orthopedic surgeon performed clinical hip screenings for 2,686 infants in the neonatal unit and 43 infants who were referred due to impressions of hip dysplasia before 3 months of age. Among them, 156 clinically unstable or high-risk babies selectively received bilateral hip ultrasound examinations performed by the same surgeon using the modified Graf method. The results were analyzed statistically to detect any correlations between the clinical and sonographic findings. Results Although a single experienced orthopedic surgeon conducted all examinations, we detected only a limited relationship between the results of clinical and ultrasound examinations. Ninety-three percent of the clinically subluxatable hips were normal or immature based on static ultrasound examination, and 74% of dislocating hips and 67% of limited abduction hips presented with the morphology below Graf IIa. A total of 80% of clinically subluxatable, 42% of dislocating and 67% of limited abduction hips appeared stable or exhibited minor instability on dynamic ultrasound examination. About 7% of clinically normal hips were abnormal upon ultrasound examination; 5% showed major instability and 3% showed dysplasia above Graf IIc. Clinical stability had small coefficients between ultrasound examinations; 0.39 for sonographic stability and 0.37 for sonographic morphology

  16. The effect of guide-field and boundary conditions on the features and signatures of collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic X-point collapse is investigated using a 2.5D fully relativistic particle-in-cell simulation, with varying strengths of guide-field as well as open and closed boundary conditions. In the zero guide-field case we discover a new signature of Hall-reconnection in the out-of-plane magnetic field, namely an octupolar pattern, as opposed to the well-studied quadrupolar out-of-plane field of reconnection. The emergence of the octupolar components was found to be caused by ion currents and is a general feature of X-point collapse. In a comparative study of tearing-mode reconnection, signatures of octupolar components are found only in the out-flow region. It is argued that space-craft observations of magnetic fields at reconnection sites may be used accordingly to identify the type of reconnection [1][2]. Further, initial oscillatory reconnection is observed, prior to reconnection onset, generating electro-magnetic waves at the upper-hybrid frequency, matching solar flare progenitor emission. When applying a guide-field, in both open and closed boundary conditions, thinner dissipation regions are obtained and the onset of reconnection is increasingly delayed. Investigations with open boundary conditions show that, for guide-fields close to the strength of the in-plane field, shear flows emerge, leading to the formation of electron flow vortices and magnetic islands [3]. Asymmetries in the components of the generalised Ohm's law across the dissipation region are observed. Extended in 3D geometry, it is shown that locations of magnetic islands and vortices are not constant along the height of the current-sheet. Vortices formed on opposite sites of the current-sheet travel in opposite directions along it, leading to a criss-cross vortex pattern. Possible instabilities resulting from this specific structure formation are to be investigated [4].[1] J. Graf von der Pahlen and D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 21, 060705 (2014), [2] J. Graf von der Pahlen and D. Tsiklauri

  17. [White walls for black holes: essay on graffiti psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Catheline-Antipoff, N; Soulayrol, R

    1995-01-01

    Through a clinical case, the authors propose a psychological approach of tagging. The phenomenon that started in Harlem's black ghettos at the end of seventies and appeared in France less than ten years after, does not seem to be a simple sociological one, but seems to take place within the psychic economy of certain adolescents as an attempt to operate the necessary identity work to become an adult. Tagging as well as wandering can be considered adolescents' acting out behaviors and show the externalization of the psychic processes, thus proving a basic insecurity in their psychic space, invaded by anaclitic depression. Graffing, on the other hand, bears a resemblance to strolling in a psychopathologic approach, and already shows an attempt to become a person, and a quest of the Other.

  18. Treatment of Lignin Precursors to Improve their Suitability for Carbon Fibers: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Ryan; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Dai, Xuliang; Hausner, Andrew

    2015-04-17

    Lignin has been investigated as a carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although there have been a number of reports of successful lignin-based carbon fiber production at the lab scale, lignin-based carbon fibers are not currently commercially available. This review will highlight some of the known challenges, and also the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Lignin can come from different sources (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction methods (e.g. organosolv, kraft), meaning that lignin can be found with a diversity of purity and structure. The implication of these conditions on lignin as carbon fiber precursor is not comprehensively known, especially as the lignin landscape is evolving. The work presented in this review will help guide the direction of a project between GrafTech and ORNL to develop lignin carbon fiber technology, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office.

  19. [The medical history as a historical source. As an example, the story of a war comrade of the "English patient", Count László Ede Almásy (1895-1951) is presented].

    PubMed

    Sachs, M

    2008-01-17

    The medical history is an important prerequisite for making a diagnosis and for establishing a trust- based doctor-patient relationship. Sometimes they can also serve as a historical source, as this example of an 89-year old patient shows. The patient worked with the Hungarian Count László Ede Almásy (1895-1951) during a German military secret service operation in North Africa during the Second World War. Graf Almásy became internationally famous through the novel "The English Patient" by Michael Ondaatje or rather, through the film of the same name. In the film however, the historical facts were very distorted as the medical history of our patient shows.

  20. [The research on the surfacial modification of organic high-performance Kevlar fiber].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-ying; Fu, Ming-lian; Cai, Wei-long; Wang, Can-yao; Wang, Liang-en

    2004-04-01

    In the paper the authors tried to use chemical disposal to bring the activity mass onto the surface of Kevlar fiber with the purpose of surface graft modification. In the paper the authors used the FTIR spectra to discuss the graft of toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate onto Kevlar fiber. The authors studied and analysed the effect of hydrolytic time on the content of -O-H group of the production, and the effect of hydrolyzation and hexyl-lactam steadily disposing on the graft reaction. The result showed that the content of -O-H group increased after hydrolyzation, it's helpful for the graft reaction, and hexyl-lactam steadily disposing made the graf product more stable. Through the research the authors came to the conclusion that by bringing some activity masses onto the fiber surface the authors can improve the interface of fiber/resin effectively.

  1. Parity nonconservation in nuclear fission: does it depend on fragment mass/energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötzle, A.; Jesinger, P.; Gönnenwein, F.; Petrov, G. A.; Petrova, V. I.; Gagarski, A. M.; Danilyan, G.; Zimmer, O.; Nesvizhevsky, V.

    2000-02-01

    For fission of 233U induced by polarized cold neutrons the dependence of the PNC asymmetry coefficient α nf(m LF, TKE) on light fragment mass mLF and total kinetic energy TKE was studied. Concurrently the angular distribution predicted for PNC reactions was tested. Altogether more than 2×10 10 fission events with high mass/energy resolution have been collected. This corresponds to an increase in the statistics compared to previous experiments (U. Graf, F. Gönnenwein, P. Geltenbort, et al., Z. Phys. A 351 (1995) 281 and V.A. Vesna, V.A. Knyaz'kov, E.A. Kolomenskii et al., JETP. Lett. 31 (1980) 663) by a factor of about 20. The preliminary analysis of the PNC asymmetry shows no significant variation of αnf for different fragment masses/energies, whereas the prediction concerning the angular dependence was confirmed with a precision not obtained up to now.

  2. Cosmogenic nuclides in core samples of the Chico L6 chondrite - Evidence for irradiation under high shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of core samples obtained from different depths of the Chico (New Mexico) L6 chondrite for various cosmogenic nuclides (Be-10, Al-26, and stable isotopes of He, Ne, and Ar). The relationships between the measured abundances of cosmogenic nuclides and cosmogenic Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio were compared with predictions of recent semiempirical models of Graf et al. (1990) and Reedy (1991), and it was found that both models closely reproduce the observed trends and absolute values of the data obtained. Noble gas data indicate that Chico experienced shielding similar to that of Jilin and greater than those of the Knyahinya or the Keyes chondrites. The exposure history for Chico is discussed.

  3. The larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842) (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae).

    PubMed

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram

    2014-09-29

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842). Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of A. genei keys together with A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758), A. commutatus (Rostock 1874), A. leucophaeus (Rambur 1842) and Athripsodes tavaresi (Navás 1916). These species differ in the number of ventral edge setae at the 1st tibia and in the shape and colour of the submentum. With respect to zoogeography, Athripsodes genei is a (micro-)endemic of the collin and planar regions of Sardinia and Corsica (Graf et al. 2008). According to mandible morphology, A. genei is a collector-gatherer, shredder and, to a minor extent, also a predator.

  4. Have Large Dams Altered Extreme Precipitation Patterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal; Jeyachandran, Indumathi; Pielke, Roger

    2009-12-01

    Dams and their impounded waters are among the most common civil infrastructures, with a long heritage of modern design and operations experience. In particular, large dams, defined by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) as having a height greater than 15 meters from the foundation and holding a reservoir volume of more than 3 million cubic meters, have the potential to vastly transform local climate, landscapes, regional economics, and urbanization patterns. In the United States alone, about 75,000 dams are capable of storing a volume of water equaling almost 1 year's mean runoff of the nation [Graf, 1999]. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) reports that at least 45,000 large dams have been built worldwide since the 1930s. These sheer numbers raise the question of the extent to which large dams and their impounded waters alter patterns that would have been pervasive had the dams not been built.

  5. Cosmogenic nuclides in core samples of the Chico L6 chondrite - Evidence for irradiation under high shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of core samples obtained from different depths of the Chico (New Mexico) L6 chondrite for various cosmogenic nuclides (Be-10, Al-26, and stable isotopes of He, Ne, and Ar). The relationships between the measured abundances of cosmogenic nuclides and cosmogenic Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio were compared with predictions of recent semiempirical models of Graf et al. (1990) and Reedy (1991), and it was found that both models closely reproduce the observed trends and absolute values of the data obtained. Noble gas data indicate that Chico experienced shielding similar to that of Jilin and greater than those of the Knyahinya or the Keyes chondrites. The exposure history for Chico is discussed.

  6. NASA Lighting Research, Test, & Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The Habitability and Human Factors Branch, at Johnson Space Center, in Houston, TX, provides technical guidance for the development of spaceflight lighting requirements, verification of light system performance, analysis of integrated environmental lighting systems, and research of lighting-related human performance issues. The Habitability & Human Factors Lighting Team maintains two physical facilities that are integrated to provide support. The Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) provides a controlled darkroom environment for physical verification of lighting systems with photometric and spetrographic measurement systems. The Graphics Research & Analysis Facility (GRAF) maintains the capability for computer-based analysis of operational lighting environments. The combined capabilities of the Lighting Team at Johnson Space Center have been used for a wide range of lighting-related issues.

  7. High Magnetic Field Properties of Ce2Rh3Ge5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartenbe, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The competition between localized and delocalized f electrons in heavy fermion materials produces a wide variety of interesting physical phenomena. Among these compounds is Ce2Rh3Ge5. This heavy-fermion system undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition below 4K and exhibits an angle dependent magnetic phase transition around 25 tesla. In addition, RF conductivity measurements in pulsed field (65T) have revealed quantum oscillations. Temperature dependence at fixed angle indicates relatively heavy effective masses of values ranging from around 3me on up to 10me. This indicates that the narrow f-electron density of states is partially hybridized close to the Fermi energy, but also places strict cryogenic constraints upon the measurement (3Helium temperatures are required). Fermi surface calculations have produced complex figures which lend validation to such rich behavior. Ryan Baumbach, Andrew Gallagher, Eric Bauer, Ross McDonald, Kuan-Wen Chen,David Graf.

  8. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon

    2016-03-03

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.

  9. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351

  10. Myocardial perfusion as an indicator of graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery. [Thallium 201

    SciTech Connect

    Kolibash, A.J.; Call, T.D.; Bush, C.A.; Tetalman, M.R.; Lewis, R.P.

    1980-05-01

    Stress and resting myocardial perfusion were assessed in 38 patients who received 96 grafts. Stress perfusion was evaluated with thallium-201 and resting myocardial blood flow distribution with radiolabeled particles. When both stress and rest perfusion were normal, graft patency was 82% (51 of 62 grafts). Graft patency was also high (81%, 13 of 16) in areas where stress perfusion abnormalities resolved or become less apparent at rest. However, when stress perfusion defects remained unchanged at rest, the graf was likely to be occuluded (73%, 11 of 15). Maintenance of normal rest perfusion or improvement of rest perfusion postoperatively was also associated with a high graft patency rate (80%, 35 of 44), whereas the development of new rest perfusion defects postoperatively implied graft occlusion (86%, six of seven).

  11. Bodensee-Oberschwaben. Eine erfolgreiche Region fernab der Großstädte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielzyk, Rainer; Köhler, Stefan; Friedsmann, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Bodensee-Oberschwaben is representative of a type of region that does not receive much attention in regional research. The region is located peripherally, away from the metropolises and urban agglomeration areas. Despite seemingly poor initial conditions, the region is economically very successful. A polycentric structure of many small and medium-sized towns characterize Bodensee-Oberschwaben as well as other attributes, which do not allow for classification into traditional categories such as rural or urban. Friedrichshafen, the largest city and the industrial core of the region, contributes significantly to its prosperity. The international high technology companies, which are located here, have their origins in the activities of Graf Zeppelin in the early 20th century. Regional universities and the strong network between actors both within the region as well as between Bodensee-Oberschwaben and the neighboring regions have also had a positive impact on region's development.

  12. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  13. Membrane Fission Is Promoted by Insertion of Amphipathic Helices and Is Restricted by Crescent BAR Domains

    PubMed Central

    Boucrot, Emmanuel; Pick, Adi; Çamdere, Gamze; Liska, Nicole; Evergren, Emma; McMahon, Harvey T.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Shallow hydrophobic insertions and crescent-shaped BAR scaffolds promote membrane curvature. Here, we investigate membrane fission by shallow hydrophobic insertions quantitatively and mechanistically. We provide evidence that membrane insertion of the ENTH domain of epsin leads to liposome vesiculation, and that epsin is required for clathrin-coated vesicle budding in cells. We also show that BAR-domain scaffolds from endophilin, amphiphysin, GRAF, and β2-centaurin limit membrane fission driven by hydrophobic insertions. A quantitative assay for vesiculation reveals an antagonistic relationship between amphipathic helices and scaffolds of N-BAR domains in fission. The extent of vesiculation by these proteins and vesicle size depend on the number and length of amphipathic helices per BAR domain, in accord with theoretical considerations. This fission mechanism gives a new framework for understanding membrane scission in the absence of mechanoenzymes such as dynamin and suggests how Arf and Sar proteins work in vesicle scission. PMID:22464325

  14. [Pavlik harness for the treatment of congenital hip dysplasia types D III and IV].

    PubMed

    Zajonz, D; Strobel, S; Wojan, M; von der Höh, N; Brandmaier, P; Josten, C; Schumann, E; Heyde, C-E

    2016-01-01

    Up to 4% of all neonates in Central Europe are born with congenital hip dysplasia (CHD), the most common congenital disease of the musculoskeletal system. However, in this retrospective analysis the outcomes of infants with CHD (type D, III or IV according to Graf) have been considered, with Pavlik therapy starting within the first 12 weeks of life. Connections between the start of therapy or the first finding according to Graf`s classification and the ultrasound result achieved, as well as the X-rays taken after 1 and 2 years, were evaluated. No repositioning under Pavlik treatment or side effects and their relevance have been evaluated, especially with regard to avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. All infants treated using Pavlik treatment for CHD between 2010 and 2012 in our clinic were determined. A total of 62 patients with 79 pathological hips were included. The infants were classified into three groups to evaluate the influence of the start of therapy on the result: group I with the first investigation and start of treatment within the first 10 days of life, group II between the 11th day and the end of week 3, group III within preventive general examinations (U3) after the 4th week. Clinical examinations and the usual ultrasound scans were performed at an average of 1, 3, and 6 months. Furthermore, after 1 and 2 years clinical and radiological investigations were carried out, as well as further examinations depending on the findings. A failure of repositioning of the Pavlik treatment occurred in group I in 1 case (2.2%), in group II in 1 case (7.1%), and in group III in 2 cases (10%). This occurs in hips type D and type III in 1 case each (3.3%) and type IV in 2 cases (10.5%). Maturation disorders of the hips were found in 1 case (2.2%) in group I, 1 case (7.1%) in group II, and 3 cases (15%) in group III. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was proven in 2 cases (4.4%) in group I, 0% in group II, and in 1 case (5%) in group III. All patients

  15. Particle Analysis Pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David; Dazzo, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of particle analysis to assist in preparing for the 4th Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing mission. During this mission the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) will be repaired. The particle analysis consisted of Finite element mesh creation, Black-body viewfactors generated using I-DEAS TMG Thermal Analysis, Grey-body viewfactors calculated using Markov method, Particle distribution modeled using an iterative Monte Carlo process, (time-consuming); in house software called MASTRAM, Differential analysis performed in Excel, and Visualization provided by Tecplot and I-DEAS. Several tests were performed and are reviewed: Conformal Coat Particle Study, Card Extraction Study, Cover Fastener Removal Particle Generation Study, and E-Graf Vibration Particulate Study. The lessons learned during this analysis are also reviewed.

  16. [Squatting cast for biomechanical treatment of decentred hip joints].

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, E; Lick-Schiffer, W; Lojpur, M; Baumgartner, F; Spieß, T; Tschauner, C

    2014-12-01

    The so-called "congenital" luxation of the hip joint is endemic in Central Europe and occurs in about 1% of all newborn infants. By the means of ultrasonographic diagnosis according to the Graf method an early detection instantly after birth has become a good clinical routine in the German-speaking countries. Sonography-based conservative treatment has become the gold standard. The cast in squatting ("human") position is a standard procedure in order to retain the originally decentred or unstable hip joints in the reduced position: 100° flexion and 50° abduction are necessary to fix the hip joint in the reduced position without the risk of avascular necrosis. After the fixation in a squatting-cast, a period of functional bracing in flexed position enhances bony maturation. This two-phase functional conservative treatment can avoid later osteotomies or even early total hip replacement.

  17. Larval morphology and identification of Rhyacophila meyeri McLachlan 1879 (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    WARINGER, JOHANN; VITECEK, SIMON; GRAF, WOLFRAM

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Rhyacophila meyeri McLachlan 1879. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of R. meyeri keys together with R. stigmatica (Kolenati 1859). The species pair can be separated by differences in the setation pattern at the anterior pronotal border and maximum head width. With respect to zoogeography, Rhyacophila meyeri is reported from Switzerland and northern Italy whereas R. stigmatica is restricted to the Austrian, German and Swiss Alps and northern Slovenia (Cianficconi 2002; Graf et al. 2008; Lubini-Ferlin & Vicentini 2005; Malicky 2009; Robert 2004). PMID:27073321

  18. [On natural history museums and their purpose. A lecture given by Leopold von Buch (1774-1853) in April 1838].

    PubMed

    Kröger, Björn

    2011-12-01

    A manuscript of a lecture by the Prussian geologist Leopold von Buch given at the Berlin Society of the Friends of the Humanity was discovered at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. The text is a raw version of a passionate plea for the formation of natural history collections as science places, with a partly biting humor. Based on until now unknown anecdotes about naturalists like Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg (1761-1838) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hoeninghaus (1771-1854) Leopold von Buch argues with von Sternberg for the scientific value of natural history collections. The repeating references to the works of Goethe and an extensive addendum of various Dante translations into German are striking. The lecture manuscript complements our knowledge about the thinking of this important geologist, and provides new insights into the science policy of his time.

  19. Data Report on the Newest Batch of PCEA Graphite for the VHTR Baseline Graphite Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher; Cottle, David Lynn; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This report details a comparison of mechanical and physical properties from the first billet of extruded PCEA nuclear-grade graphite from the newest batch of PCEA procured from GrafTech. Testing has largely been completed on three of the billets from the original batch of PCEA, with data distributions for those billets exhibiting a much wider range of values when compared to the distributions of properties from other grades. A higher propensity for extremely low values or specimens that broke while machining or handling was also characteristic of the billets from the first batch, owing to unusually large fissures or disparate flaws in the billets in an as-manufactured state. Coordination with GrafTech prior to placing the order for a second batch of PCEA included discussions on these large disparate flaws and how to prevent them during the manufacturing process. This report provides a comparison of the observed data distributions from properties measured in the first billet from the new batch of PCEA with those observed in the original batch, in order that an evaluation of tighter control of the manufacturing process and the outcome of these controls on final properties can be ascertained. Additionally, this billet of PCEA is the first billet to formally include measurements from two alternate test techniques that will become part of the Baseline Graphite Characterization database – the three-point bend test on sub-sized cylinders and the Brazilian disc splitting tensile strength test. As the program moves forward, property distributions from these two tests will be based on specimen geometries that match specimen geometries being used in the irradiated Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program. This will allow a more thorough evaluation of both the utility of the test and expected variability in properties when using those approaches on the constrained geometries of specimens irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor as part of the AGC experiment.

  20. Effect of increase in birth weight in a newborn on hip ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Orak, Mehmet M; Karaman, Ozgur; Gursoy, Tugba; Cagirmaz, Talat; Oltulu, Ismail; Muratli, Hasan H

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to the pressure experienced by higher birth weight babies during the intrauterine period might cause hip dysplasia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of birth weight in newborns on hip ultrasonography when the paternal and maternal risk factors are excluded. A total of 701 babies born at 38-42 gestational weeks were included in the study. Hip ultrasonography was performed within 7 days following birth using the Graf technique in the babies without risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Images obtained were controlled with respect to conformity to the Graf method and angular measurements were performed. According to the α and β angle values obtained, type 1A and 1B hips were categorized as mature; type 2A hips were categorized as immature; and type 2C, D, 3A, 3B, and 4 hips were categorized as pathological hips. The results obtained were analyzed for the effect of birth weight on the angular values and hip typing. The birth weight of the babies was 338,488 ± 48,241 g (2030-6124 g). It was determined that the birth weight had no effect on the values of α and β angles in the male babies (P=0.21, 0.76). It was determined that increasing birth weight decreased the α angle value (P=0.001) and caused no difference in the β angle value (P=0.057) in the female babies. It was found that birth weight had no effect on hip typing in both female and male babies (P=0.060, 0.22). Increases in birth weights caused decreases in ultrasonographic α angles only in female babies.

  1. Targeted Screening of Hip Dysplasia in Newborns: Experience at a District General Hospital in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Zgoda, Marcin R.; Short, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    National Health Service Quality Improvement Scotland (NHS QIS) published a health technology scoping report in 2006 acknowledging that there are serious concerns within Scotland in relation to Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) as there is no formal screening program in place and there are significant variations between NHS boards leading to confusion for staff and parents. NHS QIS identified need for audit work to improve hip screening in Scotland. The aim of this study is review of current practice of selective screening for DDH. All newborns who had their first hip scan during one year period (2014) were included in this retrospective study and followed up until June 2015 to include any surgical intervention for dysplastic hip. Out of 428 babies (856 hip scans), abnormality was seen in 119 babies/147 hips (134 Graf 2a/2b, 10 hips were 2c and 3 hips were Graf grade 3). Average age when first scan was performed was 5 weeks (range 3 weeks to 22 weeks). Analysis of risk factors in 119 babies with abnormal scan was consistent with literature (83 breech, 12 family history, 12 HBW, 10 instability and 2 twins of breech). Twelve babies (16 hips) required treatment and were successfully treated in Pavlik harness. There was one case of missed/late dislocation, which lived in outside catchment area for 3 years since birth. During this study period there was no case of avascular necrosis or femoral nerve palsy as a result of treatment. In our experience, selective hip screening by ultrasound scan is useful in avoiding overtreatment and minimizing late presentations. PMID:27761220

  2. Measurement and Validation of Bidirectional Reflectance of Space Shuttle and Space Station Materials for Computerized Lighting Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Lauren E.; Aldridge, Ann M.; Wheelwright, Charles; Maida, James

    1997-01-01

    Task illumination has a major impact on human performance: What a person can perceive in his environment significantly affects his ability to perform tasks, especially in space's harsh environment. Training for lighting conditions in space has long depended on physical models and simulations to emulate the effect of lighting, but such tests are expensive and time-consuming. To evaluate lighting conditions not easily simulated on Earth, personnel at NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Graphics Research and Analysis Facility (GRAF) have been developing computerized simulations of various illumination conditions using the ray-tracing program, Radiance, developed by Greg Ward at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Because these computer simulations are only as accurate as the data used, accurate information about the reflectance properties of materials and light distributions is needed. JSC's Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) personnel gathered material reflectance properties for a large number of paints, metals, and cloths used in the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and processed these data into reflectance parameters needed for the computer simulations. They also gathered lamp distribution data for most of the light sources used, and validated the ability to accurately simulate lighting levels by comparing predictions with measurements for several ground-based tests. The result of this study is a database of material reflectance properties for a wide variety of materials, and lighting information for most of the standard light sources used in the Shuttle/Station programs. The combination of the Radiance program and GRAF's graphics capability form a validated computerized lighting simulation capability for NASA.

  3. Development and maintenance of a telescoping debris flow fan in response to human-induced fan surface channelization, Chalk Creek Valley Natural Debris Flow Laboratory, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasklewicz, T.; Scheinert, C.

    2016-01-01

    Channel change has been a constant theme throughout William L. Graf's research career. Graf's work has examined channel changes in the context of natural environmental fluctuations, but more often has focused on quantifying channel change in the context of anthropogenic modifications. Here, we consider how channelization of a debris flows along a bajada has perpetuated and sustained the development of 'telescoping' alluvial fan. Two-dimensional debris-flow modeling shows the importance of the deeply entrenched channelized flow in the development of a telescoping alluvial fan. GIS analyses of repeat (five different debris flows), high-resolution (5 cm) digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data elucidate sediment and topographic dynamics of the new telescoping portion of the alluvial fan (the embryonic fan). Flow constriction from channelization helps to perpetuate debris-flow runout and to maintain the embryonic fan and telescoping nature of the alluvial fan complex. Embryonic fan development, in response to five debris flows, proceeds with a major portion of the flows depositing on the southern portion of the embryonic fan. The third through the fifth debris flows also begin to shift some deposition to the northern portion of the embryonic. The transfer of sediment from a higher portion of the embryonic fan to a lower portion continues currently on the embryonic fan. While channelized flow has been shown to be critical to the maintenance of the telescoping fan, the flow constriction has led to higher than background levels of sediment deposition in Chalk Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River. A majority of the sediment from each debris flow is incorporated into Chalk Creek as opposed to being stored on the embryonic fan.

  4. Automatizuotas hidrografijos kanalų išskyrimas lietuvos georeferencinio pagrindo duomenų bazėje

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanauskas, Audrius; Motiejauskas, Danas

    2010-01-01

    Vykdant georeferencinių duomenų bazės GDB10LT atnaujinimo darbus, linijiniai hidrografiniai objektai buvo skirstomi į tipus: upė, kanalas, griovys. Upės ir upeliai duomenų rinkinyje yra visi objektai, turintys pavadinimus. Kanalo ir griovio tipai išskiriami remiantis šių objektų apibrėžimu LR aplinkos ministro įsakyme. Duomenų prasme kanalų samparata buvo suformuluota kaip atkarpų, kuriomis galima sujungti du hidrografinius objektus, turinčius pavadinimus (upės, upeliai, ežerai), rinkinys. Tokių atkarpų išskyrimą atliekant rankiniu būdu, visoje Lietuvos teritorijoje reikalingos didelės darbo sąnaudos, be to, galima palikti klaidų dėl neatidumo, kurias sunku patikrinti. Kanalų išskyrimas atliktas automatizuotai, grindžiant grafų analize ir specifiniu tinklo jungumo skaičiavimo algoritmu. Buvo išskiriami potencialūs kanalų įtekėjimo į kitus telkinius ta\\vskai bei skaičiuojamos visos galimos jungtys tarp šių ta\\vskų - tai ir buvo ie\\vskomieji kanalai. Straipsnyje išsamiau aptariami su duomenų specifika ir grafų analize susiję klausimai, taip pat kanalų išskyrimo klausimai, padedantys identifikuoti duomenų kokybės problemas.

  5. Reaction Driven Shear Localization: the Example From Torsion Experiments on Dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Piane, C.; Burlini, L.; Grobety, B.

    2005-12-01

    We performed torsion experiments using a Paterson rig apparatus on cylindrical (diam = 1cm; H = 1cm) samples of natural specimen of pure dolomite (<0.3 wt % of impurities on XRF analysis), drilled on a block of the Dolomia from Mt. Frerone (Adamello, N-Italy). Experiments were run at 800°, 300 MPa confining pressure under vented and non-vented conditions, up to a bulk strain of about γ =1, at different strain rates (3*10-5s-1 up to 1*10-4s-1). Deformation was localized near both porous spacers placed at the extremities of the specimen, corresponding to the zone were dolomite broke down into a fine grained mixture of calcite and periclase according to the reaction: CaMg(CO3)2=CaCO3 + MgO + CO2. At these conditions the nominal equilibrium PCO2 should be around 70 MPa (Graf and Goldsmith 1955), but at the spacer interface the CO2 was free to escape, triggering the reaction. On the other hand, in the central part of the sample, the reaction occurred only along the grain boundaries of the dolomite grains. Due to the low permeability pore fluid could not escape building up CO2 pressure which deactivated the reaction. Here deformation was accommodated by brittle shear bands in synthetic Riedel geometry, consistently oriented with the sense of shear; these bands do not extend up to the sample-spacers. We conclude that the decarbonatation reaction produced a weaker matrix in which deformation could localize. Moreover, the very fine grain size was probably produced during the decarbonatation reaction, and was kept small by the deformation due to pinning between the different phases. Graf, D. L. and J. R. Goldsmith (1955). ``Dolomite-magnesian calcite relations at elevated temperatures and CO2 pressure." Geochimica et cosmochimica acta 7: 109-128.

  6. [Incidence and duration of therapy of pathological hip findings in U2 and U3 examinations (SNiP study)].

    PubMed

    Lange, A; Lange, J; Thyrian, R; Haas, J P; Ekkernkamp, A; Merk, H; Hoffmann, W; Lode, H N

    2014-02-01

    Determination of the efficacy of an early ultrasound examination followed by immediate treatment of hip joint dysplasia as well as measuring the therapeutic success in a population-based cohort study of neonates. The Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP) study included 4,093 neonates which represents 95.1 % of the total neonatal population. Of these children 2,534 (61.9 %) underwent ultrasound examination of the hip joint during the U2 stage (3-10 days after birth). The mean gestational age was 38.9 weeks. The sonographic classification was performed according to Graf. Initially (U2 stage) 42 (1.66 %) children were reported to be in need of therapy (stage IIc or higher according to Graf). The analysis showed a significantly higher incidence in girls (32 girls vs. 10 boys, p < 0.023, χ(2) test) and in children who had a breech birth (116, 4.6 %). A genetic predisposition was ascertained in 180 (7.1 %) children. The children could be subdivided into two groups: 1) children who underwent hip joint ultrasound during both U2 and U3 and 2) children who were first screened at the U3 stage. Of the 49 out of 54 neonates where the ultrasound findings were positive at the U2 examination the hip joint was matured in 32 children at U3 (4-8 weeks), 11 children had to be treated for 8-12 weeks 5 children were treated for over 3 months and1 child needed surgical correction. The early diagnosis of hip maturation disorders and joint dysplasia facilitates early implementation of effective treatment. At our clinic over 60 % of the infants underwent the U2 check up and, given a pathological finding, could undergo early treatment. It was possible to successfully treat 78 % of these children with a Tübingen hip flexion splint in just 4-8 weeks. In contrast, infants who were first examined at the U3 stage needed treatment for 4-12 months. In our opinion, early diagnosis at the age of 3-10 days should be carried out for all newborns.

  7. VAXCMS - VAX CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The VAX Continuous Monitoring System (VAXCMS) was developed at NASA Headquarters to aid system managers in monitoring the performance of VAX systems through the generation of graphic images which summarize trends in performance metrics over time. Since its initial development, VAXCMS has been extensively modified at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Data is produced by utilizing the VMS MONITOR utility to collect the performance data, and then feeding the data through custom-developed linkages to the Computer Associates' TELL-A-GRAF computer graphics software to generate the chart images for analysis by the system manager. The VMS ACCOUNTING utility is also utilized to gather interactive process information. The charts that are generated by VAXCMS are: 1) CPU modes for each node over the most recent four month period 2) CPU modes for the cluster as a whole using a weighted average of all the nodes in the cluster based on processing power 3) Percent of primary memory in use for each node over the most recent four month period 4) Interactive processes for all nodes over the most recent four month period 5) Daily, weekly, and monthly, performance summaries for CPU modes, percent of primary memory in use, and page fault rates for each node 6) Daily disk I/O performance data plotting Average Disk I/O Response Time based on I/O Operation Rate and Queue Length. VAXCMS is written in DCL and VAX FORTRAN for use with DEC VAX series computers running VMS 5.1 or later. This program requires the TELL-A-GRAF graphics package in order to generate plots of system data. A FORTRAN compiler is required. The standard distribution medium for VAXCMS is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. An electronic copy of the documentation in ASCII format is included on the distribution medium. Portions of this code are copyrighted by Mr. David Lavery and are distributed with his permission. These portions

  8. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy

  9. The G protein-coupled receptors in the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Guanine protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a eukaryotic transmembrane protein family and function as “molecular switches” in the second messenger cascades and are found in all organisms between yeast and humans. They form the single, biggest drug-target family due to their versatility of action and their role in several physiological functions, being active players in detecting the presence of light, a variety of smells and tastes, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, chemicals etc. in the environment of the cell. Comparative genomic studies on model organisms provide information on target receptors in humans and their function. The Japanese teleost Fugu has been identified as one of the smallest vertebrate genomes and a compact model to study the human genome, owing to the great similarity in its gene repertoire with that of human and other vertebrates. Thus the characterization of the GPCRs of Fugu would provide insights to the evolution of the vertebrate genome. Results We classified the GPCRs in the Fugu genome and our analysis of its 316 membrane-bound receptors, available on the public databases as well as from literature, detected 298 GPCRs that were grouped into five main families according to the GRAFS classification system (namely, Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin). We also identified 18 other GPCRs that could not be grouped under the GRAFS family and hence were classified as ‘Other 7TM’ receptors. On comparison of the GPCR information from the Fugu genome with those in the human and chicken genomes, we detected 96.83% (306/316) and 96.51% (305/316) orthology in GPCRs among the Fugu-human genomes and Fugu-chicken genomes, respectively. Conclusions This study reveals the position of pisces in vertebrate evolution from the GPCR perspective. Fugu can act as a reference model for the human genome for other protein families as well, going by the high orthology observed for GPCRs between Fugu and human. The

  10. VAXCMS - VAX CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The VAX Continuous Monitoring System (VAXCMS) was developed at NASA Headquarters to aid system managers in monitoring the performance of VAX systems through the generation of graphic images which summarize trends in performance metrics over time. Since its initial development, VAXCMS has been extensively modified at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Data is produced by utilizing the VMS MONITOR utility to collect the performance data, and then feeding the data through custom-developed linkages to the Computer Associates' TELL-A-GRAF computer graphics software to generate the chart images for analysis by the system manager. The VMS ACCOUNTING utility is also utilized to gather interactive process information. The charts that are generated by VAXCMS are: 1) CPU modes for each node over the most recent four month period 2) CPU modes for the cluster as a whole using a weighted average of all the nodes in the cluster based on processing power 3) Percent of primary memory in use for each node over the most recent four month period 4) Interactive processes for all nodes over the most recent four month period 5) Daily, weekly, and monthly, performance summaries for CPU modes, percent of primary memory in use, and page fault rates for each node 6) Daily disk I/O performance data plotting Average Disk I/O Response Time based on I/O Operation Rate and Queue Length. VAXCMS is written in DCL and VAX FORTRAN for use with DEC VAX series computers running VMS 5.1 or later. This program requires the TELL-A-GRAF graphics package in order to generate plots of system data. A FORTRAN compiler is required. The standard distribution medium for VAXCMS is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. An electronic copy of the documentation in ASCII format is included on the distribution medium. Portions of this code are copyrighted by Mr. David Lavery and are distributed with his permission. These portions

  11. Subsurface Explosions in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shuyue; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations of coupled gas-granular flows are used to study properties of shock formation and propagation in media, such as sand or regolith on the moon, asteroids, or comets. The simulations were performed with a multidimensional fully compressible model, GRAF, which solves two sets of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, one for the gas and one for the granular medium. The specific case discussed here is for a subsurface explosion in a granular medium initiated by an equivalent of 200g of TNT in depths ranging from 0.1m to 3m. The background conditions of 100K, 10 Pa and loose initial particle volume fraction of 25% are consistent with an event on a comet. The initial blast creates a cavity as a granular shock expands outwards. Since the gas-phase shock propagates faster than the granular shock in loose, granular material, some gas and particles are ejected before the granular shock arrives. When the granular shock reaches the surface, a cap-like structure forms. This cap breaks and may fall back on the surface and in this process, relatively dense particle clusters form. At lower temperatures, the explosion timescales are increased and entrained particles are more densely packed.

  12. Low incidence of early developmental dysplasia of the hip in universal ultrasonographic screening of newborns: analysis and evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Alexander; Schweiger, Nina; Mailath-Pokorny, Mariella; Kaider, Alexandra; Hobusch, Gerhard; Chiari, Catharina; Windhager, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Different timing and approaches to screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are used in the orthopaedic community. Thus ultrasonographic screening programs and reports based on clinical examinations produced differing incidence rates of DDH. Furthermore different risk factors and a change of incidence of DDH in the last decades were discussed. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of incidence and risk factors of the very early DDH in a modern cohort based on a universal ultrasound screening program. We analysed the results of the screening program performed at our institution: 5,356 consecutive hips of newborns were screened ultrasonographically and clinically according to the system published by R. Graf within the first two postnatal weeks [1]. A set of risk factors was analysed by univariate and multiple linear regression models. Sonographic signs of developmental dysplasia of the hip were found in 0.24 % of the newborns. A significant negative influence of the risk factors birth weight, family history of DDH and female gender on the α-angle was found. Early or pre-term delivery showed a protective potential for DDH. Our data show a very low incidence of DDH in the first two postnatal weeks. Despite the significance of the risk factors analysed, it has to be considered that these factors only showed low impact on the risk of early DDH. In conclusion we favour universal ultrasound screening for DDH at the age of six to eight weeks.

  13. Response of a shallow asymmetric V-shaped canyon to antiplane elastic waves.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kao-Hao; Tsaur, Deng-How; Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2015-02-08

    This study focuses on the theoretical aspect of topographic scattering induced by a shallow asymmetric V-shaped canyon under plane shear horizontal-wave incidence. An analytical approach, based on the region-matching technique, is applied to derive a rigorous series solution, which is more general than that in a previous study. For the wave functions constrained in two angular directions, a novel form of Graf's addition formula is derived to arbitrarily shift the local coordinate system. Barrier geometry, angle of incidence and wave frequency are taken as the most significant parameters in exploring the topographic effects of localized concave free surfaces on ground motions. Both surface and subsurface motions are presented. Comparisons with previously published results and boundary-element solutions show good agreement. Frequency-domain results indicate that, for the high-frequency case at a low grazing angle (corresponding to the potential case in teleseismic propagation), the high levels of amplified motions occur mostly on the illuminated side of the canyon. When the windward slope is steeper, the peak amplitude values, at least 2.4 times larger than those of free-field responses, tend to increase. Time-domain simulations display how a sequence of scattered waves travel and attenuate at regional distances.

  14. Mechanics of hip dysplasia reductions in infants using the Pavlik harness: a physics-based computational model.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Orlando J; Divo, Eduardo A; Moslehy, Faissal A; Rab, George T; Kassab, Alain J; Price, Charles T

    2013-05-31

    Biomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips with the Pavlik harness in patients of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) were studied using a three-dimensional computer model simulating hip reduction dynamics in (1) subluxated and (2) fully dislocated hip joints. Five hip adductor muscles were identified as key mediators of DDH prognosis, and the non-dimensional force contribution of each in the direction necessary to achieve concentric hip reductions was determined. Results point to the adductor muscles as mediators of subluxated hip reductions, as their mechanical action is a function of the degree of hip dislocation. For subluxated hips in abduction and flexion, the Pectineus, Adductor Brevis, Adductor Longus, and proximal Adductor Magnus contribute positively to reduction, while the rest of the Adductor Magnus contributes negatively. In full dislocations all muscles contribute detrimentally to reduction, elucidating the need for traction to reduce Graf IV type dislocations. Reduction of dysplastic hips was found to occur in two distinct phases: (a) release phase and (b) reduction phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying the predictive accuracy of time-to-event models in the presence of competing risks.

    PubMed

    Schoop, Rotraut; Beyersmann, Jan; Schumacher, Martin; Binder, Harald

    2011-02-01

    Prognostic models for time-to-event data play a prominent role in therapy assignment, risk stratification and inter-hospital quality assurance. The assessment of their prognostic value is vital not only for responsible resource allocation, but also for their widespread acceptance. The additional presence of competing risks to the event of interest requires proper handling not only on the model building side, but also during assessment. Research into methods for the evaluation of the prognostic potential of models accounting for competing risks is still needed, as most proposed methods measure either their discrimination or calibration, but do not examine both simultaneously. We adapt the prediction error proposal of Graf et al. (Statistics in Medicine 1999, 18, 2529–2545) and Gerds and Schumacher (Biometrical Journal 2006, 48, 1029–1040) to handle models with competing risks, i.e. more than one possible event type, and introduce a consistent estimator. A simulation study investigating the behaviour of the estimator in small sample size situations and for different levels of censoring together with a real data application follows.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  17. [Evaluation of screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip in the Liberec region in 1984-2005].

    PubMed

    Vencálková, S; Janata, J

    2009-06-01

    To analyze our results of screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in the Liberec region between 1984 and 2005 The study comprised 30,010 infants screened for DDH without any primary selection between 1984 and 2005.The infants were clinically examined on the basis of a three-step screening system (newborn, at 6 weeks and between 3 and 4 months of age) and by an imaging method. In the period from 1984 to 1991, this was plain radiography of the hip at 3 months of age, and a total of 12,944 infants were assessed. Between 1992 to 2005 ultrasonography (USG) was used at 6 weeks (or earlier when clinical signs were present) and again at 3 to 4 months of age, and a total of 17,066 infants were evaluated. In 16,678 of these infants, the sonogram obtained at 6 weeks was evaluated in detail by the Graf method. The presence of the epiphyseal nucleus of the proximal femur was assessed at 3 months, and from 2000 at 4 months of age. Attention was paid to the occurrence of DDH in general and findings of dislocation, both subluxation and luxation, of the hip, the proportion of right-side, left-side and bilateral findings, gender differences, the presence or absence of ossification of the femoral epiphyseal nucleus in infants between 3 and 4 months of age and, in the 1992-2005 period, the stratification of Graf types at 6 weeks. A question of whether the child's months of birth might have any relation to a possibility of DDH occurrence was also raised. Between 1984 and 1991, DDH was recorded in 10.4% of the infants, usually in a light form responding well to conservative treatment; subluxation was found in 1.99% and luxation in 0.6%. Between 1992 and 2005, DDH (mostly light forms) was recorded in 5.2%, subluxation in 0.5% and luxation in 0.2% of the infants. Right-side, left-side and bilateral findings were seen in 29%, 46% and 25% of the infants, respectively, and there were distinct differences between the genders. In an evaluated group of 453 infants with either

  18. New records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna with the description of a new species, Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae).

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Vitecek, Simon; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U

    2015-10-20

    The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previšić, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanović, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation.

  19. Hollow silica spheres: synthesis and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; D'Acunzi, Maria; Kappl, Michael; Auernhammer, Günter K; Vollmer, Doris; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2009-03-03

    Core-shell polystyrene-silica spheres with diameters of 800 nm and 1.9 microm were synthesized by soap-free emulsion and dispersion polymerization of the polystyrene core, respectively. The polystyrene spheres were used as templates for the synthesis of silica shells of tunable thickness employing the Stöber method [Graf et al. Langmuir 2003, 19, 6693]. The polystyrene template was removed by thermal decomposition at 500 degrees C, resulting in smooth silica shells of well-defined thickness (15-70 nm). The elastic response of these hollow spheres was probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A point load was applied to the particle surface through a sharp AFM tip, and successively increased until the shell broke. In agreement with the predictions of shell theory, for small deformations the deformation increased linearly with applied force. The Young's modulus (18 +/- 6 GPa) was about 4 times smaller than that of fused silica [Adachi and Sakka J. Mater. Sci. 1990, 25, 4732] but identical to that of bulk silica spheres (800 nm) synthesized by the Stöber method, indicating that it yields silica of lower density. The minimum force needed to irreversibly deform (buckle) the shell increased quadratically with shell thickness.

  20. The Pathomechanics Of Calcaneal Gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, David H.; Cooper, Les

    1980-07-01

    The data acquisition system employed in our laboratory includes optical, electronic and computer subsystems. Three movie camera freeze the motion for analysis. The film is displayed on a motion analyzer, and the body segment positions are recorded in a three dimensional coordinate system with Graf/pen sonic digitizer. The angular rotations are calculated by computer and automatically plotted. The force plate provides measurements of vertical force, foreaft shear, medial-lateral shear, torque, and center of pressure. Electromyograms are superimposed upon gait movies to permit measurement of muscle phasic activity. The Hycam movie camera si-multaneously films (through separate lens) the subject and oscilloscope. Movement measurements, electromyograms, and floor reaction forces provide the data base for analysis. From a study of the gait changes in five normal subjects following tibial nerve block, and from additional studies of patients with paralysis of the ankle plantar flexors, the pathomechanics of calcaneal gait can be described. Inability to transfer weight to the forward part of the foot produces ankle instability and reduction of contralateral step length. Excessive drop of the center of mass necessitates com-pensatory increased lift energy output through the sound limb to restore the height of the center of mass. Excessive stance phase ankle dorsiflexion produces knee instability requiring prolonged quadriceps muscle phasic activity.

  1. Operant and Pavlovian contributions to the ontogeny of pecking in ring doves.

    PubMed

    Balsam, P D; Graf, J S; Silver, R

    1992-09-01

    This series of experiments analyzes the role of learning in the development of pecking in ring dove squab. Experiment 1 showed that there is a high probability that parents will feed squab after a period of separation (Experiment 1). Such feedings may have been essential for producing the previous observation (Graf, Balsam, & Silver, 1985) that pecking develops normally if squab which have been separated from their parents are given a daily 20-min interaction with seed followed by an immediate return to their parents. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to seed followed by experimenter-provided feedings were sufficient for inducing adult pecking levels. Experiment 3 showed that general experience with conspecifics was not necessary for the development of pecking and that maturation alone could not account for the pecking observed in previous experiments. Experiment 4 showed that Pavlovian contingencies consisting of visual exposure to seed followed by feeding was sufficient to induce high levels of pecking. There did not appear to be an additional contribution of an operant contingency present when squab were allowed to both see and peck at seed prior to feedings in Experiment 5. However, squab must actually be given experience in handling and ingesting seeds before adult levels of pecking can be obtained. These results are discussed in terms of the developmental pathways whereby experience leads to adult behavior.

  2. Effect of handedness on the Stroop Colour Word Task.

    PubMed

    Beratis, Ion N; Rabavilas, Andreas; Papadimitriou, George N; Papageorgiou, Charalabos

    2010-11-01

    Handedness is associated with cerebral organisation, but its relationship with cognition remains unclear. Since the Stroop task is believed to measure aspects of executive control, this study aims to investigate the effect of handedness on Stroop interference. We used the Stroop task with 90 young adults with university education, of whom 47 (23 males) were right-handed and 43 (21 males) were left-handed. Main dependent variables were Stroop baseline (SB), Stroop incongruent (SI), and the proportional derivative Stroop reduction (SR) [SR=(SB - SI)/SB×100%] (Bugg, Delosh, Davalos, & Davis, 2007; Graf, Uttl, &Tuokko, 1995) scores. The analysis revealed that SI is significantly affected by both handedness and the interaction of sex×handedness, whereas SR is only affected by handedness. After controlling for the effect of SB on SI, only the effect of handedness remained statistically significant [F(1, 83) = 6.44, p=.013]. Post-hoc comparisons showed that left-handed females performed significantly better than right-handed females on both SI (p=.003) and SR (p=.007). The data suggest that handedness is associated with cognitive function alterations, which lead to a smaller Stroop interference of left-handers irrespectively of sex, an effect that is more pronounced in the female subpopulation.

  3. [The assessment of changes in radiological parameters of acetabulum of the hip joint according to position of the pelvis].

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Emil; Sibiński, Marcin; Sobala, Wojciech; Synder, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the repeatability of selected radiological parameters in the assessment of mild forms of developmental dysplasia of the hip and to evaluate the changes of the parameters according the position of the pelvis. Retrospective review of radiographs of 98 hips (49 children) was done in antero-posterior and Lauenstein position. Among them 59 hips were treated for type II hip dysplasia according to Graf. At the latest follow-upthe mean age was 9.1 years (range from 4 to 15 years). On radiographs in antero-posterior position of the hips mean rotation index (Tönnis-Brunken index) was 1.0, and on radiographs in Lange position was 0.98 and had no influence on measured parameters. On radiographs in antero-posterior position pelvis was more in forward rotation than in Lange position. With the pelvis in more forward rotation (measured using Ball-Kommend index) the value of Lequesne and Ullmanna-Sharp angles were decreased and Wiberg angle was increased. The angles had good repeatability. The other parameters: acetabular index, decentration distance and Idelberg-Frank angle were not statistically related to Ball-Kommend index. Idelberg-Frank angle had satisfactory repeatability but acetabular index and decentration distance had poor repeatability. Considering above mentioned characteristics of Idelberg-Frank angle, this parameter may be a useful tool for assessment of the hip.

  4. Cosmic-Ray Exposure History of Enstatite Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Th.; Marti, K.

    1992-07-01

    Enstatite achondrites display long exposure ages (T(sub)e) compared to the collisional lifetimes of ordinary chondrites of ~17 Ma (Eberhardt et al., 1965; Graf and Marti, 1992), and therefore suggest special orbits for these meteorites. Recently, Gaffey et al. (1992) suggested a link between aubrites, near- Earth asteroid 3103 and E-type asteroids of the Hungaria family, based on spectral matches and orbital considerations. This would represent the first direct link of a meteorite type and an asteroid family. Moreover, the orbital elements of Apollo object 3103 are consistent with long collisional lifetimes as observed for the Norton County and Mayo Belwa aubrites (T(sub)e = 110-120 Ma). There has been much debate over the genetic relation between E-chondrites and aubrites (Keil, 1989). Crabb and Anders (1981) found that exposure ages show a pronounced trend E4 < E6 < aubrites. We reevaluate the cosmic ray record of enstatite meteorites based on an updated database (Schultz and Kruse, 1989) as well as improved production rates and shielding corrections. We make the following observations: 1) Five out of 11 aubrites cluster at T(sub)e = 55+-5 Ma. All three known solar gas-bearing aubrites belong to this group, lending considerable support to the reality of a discrete event at this time. 2) While Gaffey et al. (1992) suggested that a significant fraction of aubrites may derive from 1-2 meteorite streams, the average ^22Ne/21Ne ratios of ~1.11 and saturated ^26Al activities render a long 2-pi irradiation interval preceding the (short) 4- pi exposure in space unlikely. 3) In a ^38Ar/^21Ne vs ^22Ne/^21Ne diagram, the inferred spallation ratios of EH-chondrites plot systematically below the expected correlation line. However, Cl abundances in EHs are about an order of magnitude larger than those in ordinary chondrites. If significant amounts of ^36Ar produced by the reaction ^35Cl(n,gamma)^36Cl --> ^36Ar are present, the standard procedure overestimates trapped Ar

  5. Response of a shallow asymmetric V-shaped canyon to antiplane elastic waves

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kao-Hao; Tsaur, Deng-How; Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the theoretical aspect of topographic scattering induced by a shallow asymmetric V-shaped canyon under plane shear horizontal-wave incidence. An analytical approach, based on the region-matching technique, is applied to derive a rigorous series solution, which is more general than that in a previous study. For the wave functions constrained in two angular directions, a novel form of Graf's addition formula is derived to arbitrarily shift the local coordinate system. Barrier geometry, angle of incidence and wave frequency are taken as the most significant parameters in exploring the topographic effects of localized concave free surfaces on ground motions. Both surface and subsurface motions are presented. Comparisons with previously published results and boundary-element solutions show good agreement. Frequency-domain results indicate that, for the high-frequency case at a low grazing angle (corresponding to the potential case in teleseismic propagation), the high levels of amplified motions occur mostly on the illuminated side of the canyon. When the windward slope is steeper, the peak amplitude values, at least 2.4 times larger than those of free-field responses, tend to increase. Time-domain simulations display how a sequence of scattered waves travel and attenuate at regional distances. PMID:25663801

  6. Wannier functions and ℤ2 invariants in time-reversal symmetric topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornean, Horia D.; Monaco, Domenico; Teufel, Stefan

    We provide a constructive proof of exponentially localized Wannier functions and related Bloch frames in 1- and 2-dimensional time-reversal symmetric (TRS) topological insulators. The construction is formulated in terms of periodic TRS families of projectors (corresponding, in applications, to the eigenprojectors on an arbitrary number of relevant energy bands), and is thus model-independent. The possibility to enforce also a TRS constraint on the frame is investigated. This leads to a topological obstruction in dimension 2, related to ℤ2 topological phases. We review several proposals for ℤ2 indices that distinguish these topological phases, including the ones by Fu-Kane [16], Prodan [33], Graf-Porta [24] and Fiorenza-Monaco-Panati [27]. We show that all these formulations are equivalent. In particular, this allows to prove a geometric formula for the ℤ2 invariant of 2-dimensional TRS topological insulators, originally indicated in [16], which expresses it in terms of the Berry connection and the Berry curvature.

  7. Far-field sound radiation of a submerged cylindrical shell at finite depth from the free surface.

    PubMed

    Li, T Y; Miao, Y Y; Ye, W B; Zhu, X; Zhu, X M

    2014-09-01

    The far-field sound radiation behavior of a circular cylindrical shell submerged at finite depth from the free surface is studied. Based on the Flügge shell theory and the Helmholtz equation, the structure-acoustic coupling equation is established. An image method is applied so that the sound boundary condition of the free surface can be satisfied. Analytical expression of the far-field sound pressure is obtained using the stationary phase method and the Graf's addition theorem. In order to evaluate the effect of the submerged depth on sound radiation, the results of the submerged cylindrical shell at finite depth from the free surface are compared with those of the submerged cylindrical shell in the infinite fluid. The characteristics of the far-field sound pressure with the change of the depth are investigated. It is found that the submerged depth has a significant influence on the far-field sound pressure radiated from the submerged cylindrical shell due to the free surface effects. The work provides more understanding on the sound radiation properties of the submerged circular cylindrical shell without assuming infinite fluid field, which was commonly used in previous studies.

  8. Psychotic syndrome associated with anti-Ca/ARHGAP26 and voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B; Stöcker, W; Moser, A; Wandinger, K P

    2015-09-15

    Antibodies to the Rho GTPase-activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26, GRAF1) (also termed anti-Ca) were first described in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ARHGAP26 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons. Moreover, some of the previously reported patients showed cognitive and affective symptoms. It is unknown whether those symptoms reflected involvement of the limbic system or were part of the so-called cerebellar cognitive/affective syndrome. Here, we report a newly diagnosed anti-Ca/ARHGAP26-IgG-positive patient who presented with recurrent psychotic symptoms but no cerebellar ataxia. In addition, low-titer acetylcholine receptor antibodies, voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies (but no LGI1 or CASPR2 antibodies) and anti-nuclear antibodies of unknown specificity were detected, suggesting a general autoimmune predisposition. Thymectomy revealed mild thymic nodular hyperplasia. This case indicates that the clinical spectrum of ARHGAP26-related autoimmunity might be broader than expected. Studies on the prevalence of anti-Ca/ARHGAP26 in patients with suspected limbic encephalitis seem warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The effect of functional splinting on mild dysplastic hips after walking onset

    PubMed Central

    Windhagen, Henning; Thorey, Fritz; Kronewid, Heinrich; Pressel, Thomas; Herold, Dieter; Stukenborg-Colsman, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Background For treatment of Graf class IIb dysplastic hips at walking onset a treatment concept with abduction splints allowing patterns as walking and crawling under constant abduction control was investigated. However, as the splint still incapacitates child movements the research question remains whether the physiologically progressing maturation of hips can be significantly altered using such abduction splints for walking children. Methods Of 106 children showing late hip dysplasia, 68 children treated with the Hoffman-Daimler (HD-splint) abduction splint were compared with 38 children with neglect of the abduction treatment in this retrospective study. Radiographic analyses were performed measuring the development of the age dependent acetabular angle. Results The regression analysis for splint treatment showed a significant linear regression for both splint treatment and no splint treatment group (r2 = 0,31 respectively r2 = 0,33). No statistical difference between both treatment groups was apparent. Conclusion Considering the characteristics of this study, there seems to be no strong rationale supporting the use of an abduction device in growing children. As no significant difference between treatment groups is apparent, a future controlled prospective study on splinting effects can be considered ethically allowed. PMID:15958160

  10. A motor similarity effect in object memory.

    PubMed

    Downing-Doucet, Frédéric; Guérard, Katherine

    2014-08-01

    In line with theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Versace et al. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 522-560, 2009), several studies have suggested that the motor system used to interact with objects in our environment is involved in object recognition (e.g., Helbig, Graf, & Kiefer Experimental Brain Research, 174, 221-228, 2006). However, the role of the motor system in immediate memory for objects is more controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of the motor system in object memory by manipulating the similarity between the actions associated to series of objects to be retained in memory. In Experiment 1, we showed that lists of objects associated to dissimilar actions were better recalled than lists associated to similar actions. We then showed that this effect was abolished when participants were required to perform a concurrent motor suppression task (Experiment 2) and when the objects to be memorized were unmanipulable (Experiment 3). The motor similarity effect provides evidence for the role of motor affordances in object memory.

  11. DNA-based association and description of the larval stage of Apatania helvetica Schmid 1954 (Trichoptera, Apataniidae) with notes on ecology and zoogeography

    PubMed Central

    WARINGER, JOHANN; LUBINI, VERENA; HOPPELER, FELICITAS; PAULS, STEFFEN U.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the hitherto unknown larva of Apatania helvetica Schmid 1954. Sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase region were used to associate adult females and larvae. Genetic data confirmed the autochthonous status of this taxon within the parthenogenetic Apatania muliebris complex (‘sous groupe’) sensu Schmid 1954. Information on the morphology of the larva is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. Apatania helvetica is morphologically close to Apatania muliebris McLachlan 1866 and A. fimbriata (Pictet 1834). In the context of Apataniidae, this trio of species can be separated by the presence of long tapering setae with flexuous tips at the anterior border of the pronotum, by a central gap within the transverse setal band on the 1st abdominal dorsum, by biometry of the frontoclypeal setation and by their distribution ranges in Europe. With respect to European ecoregions (Graf et al. 2008), Apatania muliebris has been recorded from the Alps, the central plains and highlands, the Baltic province, Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia; A. fimbriata is known from the Alps, the western and central highlands, the western plains, the Hungarian lowlands and the Carpathians. A. helvetica is restricted to the Alps and has only been recorded in Switzerland. PMID:26624099

  12. Effect of matrix constitutive behavior and inclusions on forming limits of Fe-42 pct Ni alloy sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Yuki, Norio; Foley, R.P.; Krauss, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of matrix constitutive behavior and nonmetallic inclusions on forming limit strains have been examined with five laboratory heats of Fe-42 pct Ni alloy. The inclusion volume fraction was varied between approximately 0.01 and 1.59 pct by proper selection of Mn, S, and O contents. Each ingot was processed into 0.38-mm-thick sheets and heat treated to the recovered or the recrystallized condition. Forming limit strains were obtained from uniaxial tensile, plane-strain tensile, and hydraulic bulge tests by circle grid analysis. In any strain path, the limit strain increased with increasing the strain hardening exponent, n. The forming limit strains on the right-hand side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) decreased with inclusion volume fraction, while no effects of the inclusion volume fraction were observed on the left-hand side. A decrease in the slope of the FLD on the right-hand side due to an increase in the inclusion volume fraction qualitatively agrees with the theoretical calculation by Graf and Hosford, which was conducted on the basis of the Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) theory.

  13. SNX9 promotes metastasis by enhancing cancer cell invasion via differential regulation of RhoGTPases

    PubMed Central

    Bendris, Nawal; Williams, Karla C.; Reis, Carlos R.; Welf, Erik S.; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lemmers, Bénédicte; Hahne, Michael; Leong, Hon Sing; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite current advances in cancer research, metastasis remains the leading factor in cancer-related deaths. Here we identify sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) as a new regulator of breast cancer metastasis. We detect an increase in SNX9 expression in human breast cancer metastases compared with primary tumors and demonstrate that SNX9 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is necessary to maintain their ability to metastasize in a chick embryo model. Conversely, SNX9 knockdown impairs this process. In vitro studies using several cancer cell lines derived from a variety of human tumors reveal a role for SNX9 in cell invasion and identify mechanisms responsible for this novel function. We show that SNX9 controls the activation of RhoA and Cdc42 GTPases and also regulates cell motility via the modulation of well-known molecules involved in metastasis, namely RhoA-ROCK and N-WASP. In addition, we find that SNX9 is required for RhoGTPase-dependent, clathrin-independent endocytosis, and in this capacity can functionally substitute to the bona fide Rho GAP, GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase (GRAF1). Taken together, our data establish novel roles for SNX9 as a multifunctional protein scaffold that regulates, and potentially coordinates, several cellular processes that together can enhance cancer cell metastasis. PMID:26960793

  14. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  15. Evaluation of Guided Bone Regeneration around Oral Implants over Different Healing Times Using Two Different Bovine Bone Materials: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical and Histological Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Straub, Lisa Marie; Wolkewitz, Martin; Bächle, Maria; Patzelt, Sebastian Berthold Maximilian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of two bone substitute materials and the influence of different healing periods in guided bone regeneration therapy of osseous defects around implants. Twenty-four edentulous patients received implants in the region of the lost lower incisors. Around two standardized osseous defects were created, treated either with a 50:50 mixture of PepGen P-15® and OsteoGraf®/N-700 (test group) or with BioOss® (control group), and covered with titanium membranes. After healing periods of 2, 4, 6, or 9 months, the implants were removed together with the surrounding bone and subsequently prepared for histological evaluations. Defect depths in both groups showed a clinical reduction after intervention. The histologically measured distance from the implant shoulder to the first point of bone-implant contact (BIC) after treatment did not differ between the two groups. The healing time influenced the level of the first point of BIC, with a longer healing period producing a more coronal first point of BIC. A greater percentage BIC and a higher fraction of mineralized bone were found in the pristine bone area compared with the augmented defect area. It can be concluded that in the treatment of osseous defects around oral implants, both materials were equally effective bone substitute materials when used in combination with guided bone regeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Retroactive interference effects in implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Deborah K; Smith, Robert

    2012-09-01

    One source of evidence for separate explicit and implicit memory systems is that explicit but not implicit memory is impacted by interference (e.g., Graf & Schacter, 1987). The present experiment examined whether retroactive interference (RI) effects could be obtained in implicit memory when a strong test of RI was used. People studied an original list of word pairs (e.g., COTTON-PRIZE) using the typical RI paradigm. During the interpolated phase, participants studied either interference pairs for which the same cue was re-paired with a different target (e.g., COTTON-PRINT) or novel pairs (e.g., HOST-VASE). RI was tested with the modified opposition cued recall test (Eakin, Schreiber, & Sergent-Marshall, 2003). The original-list cue was presented along with the beginning stem of its target (e.g., COTTON-PRI-) and a hint (e.g., not PRINT). RI effects were obtained for explicit and implicit memory. Taken together with prior research finding proactive interference effects in implicit memory, the findings indicate that implicit memory is not immune from retroactive interference. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Recent Progress in Producing Lignin-Based Carbon Fibers for Functional Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Ryan; Burwell, Deanna; Dai, Xuliang; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-10-29

    Lignin, a biopolymer, has been investigated as a renewable and low-cost carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although successful lab-scale production of lignin-based carbon fibers has been reported, there are currently not any commercial producers. This paper will highlight some of the known challenges with converting lignin-based precursors into carbon fiber, and the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Several of the challenges with lignin are related to its diversity in chemical structure and purity, depending on its biomass source (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction method (e.g. organosolv, kraft). In order to make progress in this field, GrafTech and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are collaborating to develop lignin-based carbon fiber technology and to demonstrate it in functional applications, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office. The progress made to date with producing lignin-based carbon fiber for functional applications, as well as developing and qualifying a supply chain and value proposition, are also highlighted.

  18. Cagen:. a Modern, PC Based Computer Modeling Tool for Explosive MCG Generators and Attached Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, J. B.; Chato, D.; Peterson, G.; Pincosy, P.; Kiuttu, G. F.

    2004-11-01

    We will describe the PC based computer program CAGEN. CAGEN models the performance of many varieties of Magneto-Cumulative-Generators (MCG) or Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (FCG) that are energized with High Explosive (HE). CAGEN models helical wound or coaxial types, which have HE on the interior. Any materials and any HE types may be used. The cylindrical radius of the windings (or outer conductor) and the radius of the armature may vary with axial position. Variable winding width, thickness, and pitch can be represented, and divided windings are allowed. The MHD equations are used to advance the diffusion of magnetic field into the conductors in order to compute resistance, melting, and contact effects. Magnetic pressure effects are included. The MCG model is treated as part of a lumped circuit, which includes the priming circuit, an opening fuse switch, an inline storage inductance, a transformer or a voltage dividing fuse, peaking-circuit, and several interesting load models. A typical problem will complete in a few seconds to a few minutes. Graphical input, run control, and analysis of results is provided by MathGraf, which is a CARE'N CO. application.

  19. New records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna with the description of a new species, Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Vitecek, Simon; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula is one of the most important European hotspots of freshwater biodiversity. The region is, however, to a large extent insufficiently investigated. Here we present data on distribution of caddisflies in one particularly understudied area, the Republic of Kosovo. Our data include the first records of Adicella altandroconia Botosaneanu & Novak and Halesus tessellatus (Rambur) for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna, and a new locality for the recently described Ecclisopteryx keroveci Previšić, Graf, & Vitecek. Further, we describe the new caddisfly species Drusus dardanicus sp. nov. from the Kopaonik Mountains. The new species belongs to the D. discophorus Species Group and differs morphologically from its most similar congeners (D. discophorus Radovanović, D. balcanicus Kumanski, and D. bureschi Kumanski) mainly in exhibiting (1) subtrianglar superior appendages; (2) a narrow, dorsal spinate area of tergite VIII; and (3) evenly rounded tips of intermediate appendages in caudal view. In phylogenetic analysis, D. dardanicus sp. nov. is well delineated and recovered as a sister taxon to D. osogovicus Kumanski, a species recorded from Bulgaria. The recent discovery of a new species and other rare or microendemic species presents important contributions to the knowledge on the rich freshwater biodiversity in Kosovo. These species face increasing anthropogenic pressure and threats to their conservation. PMID:26624385

  20. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP).

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  1. Ground motions around a semi-circular valley partially filled with an inclined alluvial layer under SH-polarized excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kao-Hao; Tsaur, Deng-How; Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2014-12-01

    A simplified mathematical model, composed of a semi-circular valley partially filled with an inclined alluvial layer under plane SH-wave incidence, is presented. To evaluate the site response theoretically, a rigorous series solution is derived via the region-matching technique. For angular wavefunctions constrained by an inclined free surface, the original form of Graf's addition formula is recast to arbitrarily shift the local coordinate system. The valley geometry, filling material, angle of incidence, and wave frequency are taken as significant parameters in exploring the site effect on ground motions. Also included are the frequency- and time-domain computations. Two canonical cases, the semi-circular vacant canyon and the fully filled semi-circular alluvial valley, with exact analytical solutions, and the partly horizontally filled case previously studied, are taken to be particular cases of the proposed general model. Steady-state results show that the peak amplitudes of motion may increase at low frequencies when the filling layer inclines to the illuminated region. At low-grazing incidence, the phenomenon of wave focusing becomes evident on the shadow side of the filling layer. Transient-state simulations elucidate how a sequence of surface waves travel on the topmost alluvium along opposite directions and interfere with multiple reflected waves within the filling layer.

  2. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    . Soil water content was significantly reduced during irrigation periods. Irrigation doubled tree stem growth, increased shoot growth and thus increased volume growth and crown dimensions. Annual tree mortality rates were reduced by 50% in irrigated plots. The growing period for stem growth was extended in pines as a result of irrigation. Altogether, increased growth and reduced mortality significantly increased tree stem basal area at breast height per ha. As irrigation also increased needle length, estimated mean foliage amount per tree and stand leaf area index significantly increased. However, the number of needle generations was not altered or even reduced due to irrigation. Root growth, was less affected by irrigation and only resulted in increased fine root length. Species richness and fruit body numbers of mycorrhizal fungi were several times higher on the irrigated plots. Overall, it can be concluded that water availability was the main ecosystem limiting factor and that any changes in water availability will result in changes in ecosystem functioning. References Brunner I, Graf-Pannatier E, Frey B, Rigling A, Landolt W, Dobbertin M (2009) Morphological and physiological responses of Scots pine fine roots to water supply in a climatic dry area in Switzerland. Tree Physiology 29:541-550. Dobbertin M, Eilmann B, Bleuler P, Giuggiola A, Graf Pannatier E, Landolt W, Schleppi P, Rigling A (2010) Effect of irrigation on needle, shoot and stem growth in natural drought-exposed Pinus sylvestris forests, Tree Physiology, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpp123. Eilmann B, Zweifel R, Buchmann N, Fonti P, Rigling A (2009) Drought induced adaptation of the xylem in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pubescens. Tree Physiology 29:1011-1020.

  3. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying and monitoring the contribution of vegetation to the stability of the slopes is a key issue for implementing effective soil bioengineering measures. This topic is being widely investigated both from the hydrological and mechanical point of view. Nevertheless, due to the high variability of the biological components, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the role of plants in slope stabilization, especially if the different succession phases and the temporal development of vegetation is considered. Graf et al., 2014, found within the scope of aggregate stability investigations that the root length per soil volume of alder specimen grown for 20 weeks under laboratory conditions is comparable to the one of 20 years old vegetation in the field. This means that already relatively short time scales can provide meaningful information at least for the first stage of colonization of soil bioengineering measures, which is also the most critical. In the present study we analyzed the effect of root growth on two soil properties critical to evaluate the performance of vegetation in restoring and re-stabilizing slopes: permeability and soil aggregate stability. We set up a laboratory experiment in order to work under controlled conditions and limit as much as possible the natural variability. Alnus incana was selected as the study species as it is widely used in restoration projects in the Alps, also because of its capacity to fix nitrogen and its symbiosis with both ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After the first month of growth in germination pots, we planted one specimen each in big quasi cylindrical pots of 34 cm diameter and 35 cm height. The pots were filled with the soil fraction smaller than 10 mm coming from an oven dried moraine collected in a subalpine landslide area (Hexenrübi catchment, central Switzerland). The targeted dry unit weight was 16 kN/m3. The plants have been maintained at a daily temperature of 25°C and relative

  4. 36Cl-36Ar Exposure Ages of Chondritic Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Th.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Marti, K.; Nishiizumi, K.; Ponganis, K. V.

    1995-09-01

    shielding conditions and, since He, Ne and Ar production rates are essentially based on the ^81Kr (2.1 Ma) radionuclide, can also not be due to a change in the cosmic ray flux. A cross-calibration with the ^36Cl-^36Ar results may provide a means to further refine the exposure age histograms of meteorites. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by IGPP-LLNL and by NASA. References: [1] Graf Th. et al. (1995) LPS XXVI, 487-488. [2] Graf Th. and Marti K. (1995) JGR Planets, submitted. [3] Schultz L. et al. (1990) 17th Intl. Conf. Cosmochron. Isotope Geol. Fig. 1: Distribution of cosmic-ray produced ^3He/^38Ar in metal separates of H4 p.m. falls and H5 a.m. falls. The production rate ratio of ^3He/^38Ar in metal (16 +/- 2) is quite constant over a wide range of shielding conditions. Therefore, the bimodal distribution indicates an almost complete loss of ^3H as opposed to loss of ^3He.

  5. The influence of different El Nino types on the northern hemisphere stratosphere simulated by the MPI-ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Matthias; Timmreck, Claudia; Schmidt, Hauke

    2013-04-01

    It is known that the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), although it is mainly a tropospheric phenomenon, has an impact on the polar winter stratosphere [e.g. van Loon and Labitzke, 1987: Camp and Tung, 2007]. This has also been shown in simulations with general circulation models (GCM) [Sassi,et al. 2004, Manzini et al. 2006]. For a couple of years there are discussions about two different "flavors" of the the El Nino, the central Pacific (or Modoki) El Nino and the east Pacific El Nino [e.g. Wang and Weisberg, 2000; Yu and Kao, 2007; Ashok et al. 2007]. An observational study [Graf and Zanchettin, 2012] indicate that the polar vortex is more disturbed during EP El Ninos. Here we to investigate the influence of the equatorial sea surface temperatures on the stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the northern hemisphere winter season in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-land GCM. We use two versions of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology model MPI-ESM, namely MPI-ESM-LR with lower T63 L47 atmosphere and GR15 ocean resolution and the MPI-ESM-MR with the same horizontal resolution in the atmosphere but a higher resolution in the vertical (L95) and in the ocean (TP04). To exclude effects of natural and anthropogenic forcing, we analyze a 1000 year coupled control simulation with pre-industrial greenhouse gas concentration and constant solar forcing (piControl). For comparison with reananlyis data we also analyze uncoupled atmosphere-only simulations with observed sea surface temperatures from 1979 until 2008 (AMIP). We compare three ways of defining El Nino: the central Pacific (CP), the east Pacific (EP) and the canonical Nino3.4 El Nino. We show to what extent the MPI-ESM is able to simulate these different types of El Nino and how they affect the polar stratosphere. The MPI-ESM model is in both versions capable of producing CP and EP El Ninos. However, the CP El Nino is dominant one in terms of magnitude and the EP El Nino has a relative small impact on global

  6. From Greenhouse to Icehouse: Evidence of Climatic Changes Across the Marine Eocene-Oligocene Transition From the Massignano GSSP Section (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccioni, R.; Marsili, A.; Montanari, A.

    2004-12-01

    ., 2003), oxygen and carbon isotopes (Bodeselitsch et al., 2004), and environmental magnetism (Jovane et al., 2004) provide evidence of a major cooling trend with warm pulses. These pulses seems to be global in extent and may have been triggered by multiple impact events during the Late Eocene comet shower that may have played an important role related to the deterioration of the global climate at the end of the Eocene Epoch. The release of methane hydrate during and after an impact in a continental shelf (like the Chesapeake Bay impact) or seafloor, or impacts of 12C-rich comets may account for the observed negative isotope excursions. References Bice D. and Montanari A., 1988. IUGS Spec. Publ., Graf. Aniballi, 111-117; Bodeselitsch B. et al., 2004. E.P.S.L., 223, 283-302; Brinkhuis H. and Biffi U., 1993. Mar. Mic., 22, 131-183; Coccioni R. et al., 2000. Terra Nova, 12, 258-263; Coccioni R. and Galeotti S., 2003. In: Prothero D.R. et al., (eds.), 2003. Columbia Univ. Press, 438-452; Dall'Antonia B. et al., 2003. Mar. Mic., 48, 91-106; Farley K.A. et al., 1998. Science, 280, 1250-1253; Jovane L. et al., 2004. Geoph. Res. Let., 31, L15601, doi:10.1029/2004GL020554; Lowrie W. and Lanci L., 1994. E.P.S.L., 126, 247-258; Montanari A. et al., 1993. Palaios, 8, 420-437; Montanari A. et al., 1988. IUGS Spec. Publ., Graf. Aniballi, 195-208; Premoli Silva I. and Jenkins D.G., 1993. Episodes, 16, 379-382; Prothero D.R. et al., (eds.), 2003. Columbia Univ. Press, 541 pp.; Spezzaferri S. et al., 2002. J. Foram. Res., 32, 188-199.

  7. The human role in changing river channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, K. J.

    2006-09-01

    Direct consequences of the human role, where human activity affects river channels through engineering works including channelization, dam construction, diversion and culverting, have been long recognised [Marsh, G.P., 1864. Man and Nature or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Charles Scribner, New York; Thomas Jr., W.L., (ed.) 1956. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.]. The less obvious indirect effects of point and reach changes occurring downstream and throughout the basin, however, are much more recently appreciated, dating from key contributions by Strahler [Strahler, A.N., 1956. The nature of induced erosion and aggradation. In W. L. Thomas (Ed.), Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 621-638.], Wolman [Wolman, M.G., 1967. A cycle of sedimentation and erosion in urban river channels. Geografiska Annaler 49A, 385-95.], Schumm [Schumm, S.A., 1969. River metamorphosis. Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal Hydraulics Division 95, 255-73.], and Graf [Graf, W.L., 1977. The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science, 277, 178-191.]. These are complemented by effects of alterations of land use, such as deforestation, intensive agriculture and incidence of fire, with the most extreme effects produced by building activity and urbanisation. Changing river channels are most evident in the channel cross-section where changes of size, shape and composition are now well-established, with up to tenfold increases or decreases illustrated by results from more than 200 world studies. In addition the overall channel planform, the network and the ecology have changed. Specific terms have become associated with changing river channels including enlargement, shrinkage and metamorphosis. Although the scope of adjustment has been established, it has not always been possible to predict what will happen in a particular location

  8. Early diagnosis and treatment of DDH: a sonographic approach.

    PubMed

    De Pellegrin, M; Moharamzadeh, D; Fraschini, G

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the data regarding clinical and ultrasound (US) examinations, collected during an 11-year period, in a DDH dedicated outpatient clinic. The material was analysed in order to verify the importance of US hip examination and Ortolani's test for early DDH diagnosis, to select dysplastic, unstable hips, to identify the role of the labrum in DDH, and to analyse the treatment strategy. Of the 21709 newborns (43418 hips) examined with US and Ortolani's manoeuvre for DDH diagnosis, 431 patients (356 F; 75 M; average age 42+/-33 days) had 574 unstable, dysplastic hips (1.32%). The hips identified according to Graf's classification were: 298 type D, 252 type IIIa, 4 type IIIb, 20 type IV. In 73.09% of the patients, no risk factors were identified; 18.56% had positive family history for DDH, 5.57% had breech presentation, 2.78% had both risk factors. Only 10.63% had a positive Ortolani's test. The diagnosis was made in 21.5% of cases by the 2nd week of life, in 52.9% between the 2nd-8th week, and in 25.5% after the 8th week. Unstable dislocated hips were treated, after reduction with or without sedation, by applying a cast; dysplastic hips were treated using a Gekeler splint. No open reductions or reconstruction surgery were needed. The labrum was always positioned on top of the femoral head, never inverted, and it was not an obstacle to closed reduction. Neither the Ortolani's sign, nor the risk factors are sure signs for the early diagnosis of DDH and its instability. Only US examination permits an early diagnosis of dysplasia and instability of the hip.

  9. Preliminary Inventory in the Early Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmonte, Ursina; Altwegg, Kathrin; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fuselier, Steve A; Combi, Mike

    2014-11-01

    After a 10-year journey, the European Space Agency’s Rosetta mission encountered its target comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta will accompany the comet to perihelion and beyond. On board the Rosetta spacecraft is the ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) experiment. ROSINA consists of a pressure sensor and two complementary mass spectrometers. One is the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer, which has high dynamic range and a mass resolution m/Δm = 3000 at 1% peak height (m/Δm = 9000 at 50% peak height) at mass 28 amu/q. It is therefore well suited to detect minor species in the lower mass range up to mass 140 amu [1].ROSINA has been taking data since May 2014 and first signals of the comet were detected at the beginning of August. We will present a preliminary inventory of species seen by ROSINA in the early coma of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.References[1] Balsiger, H., Altwegg, K., Bochsler, P., Eberhardt, P., Fischer, J., Graf, S., Jäckel, A., Kopp, E., Langer, U., Mildner, M., Müller, J., Riesen, T., Rubin, M., Scherer, S., Wurz, P., Wüthrich, S., Arijs, E., Delanoye, S., de Keyser, J., Neefs, E., Nevejans, D., Rème, H., Aoustin, C., Mazelle, C., Médale, J.-L., Sauvaud, J.A., Berthelier, J.-J., Bertaux, J.-L., Duvet, L., Illiano, J.-M., Fuselier, S.A., Ghielmetti, A.G., Magoncelli, T., Shelley, E.G., Korth, A., Heerlein, K., Lauche, H., Livi, S., Loose, A., Mall, U., Wilken, B., Gliem, F., Fiethe, B., Gombosi, T.I., Block, B., Carignan, G.R., Fisk, L.A., Waite, J.H., Young, D.T. and Wollnik, H.,. Rosina Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Space Science Reviews 128, pp745-801, 2007.

  10. RNAseq analysis of fast skeletal muscle in restriction-fed transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): an experimental model uncoupling the growth hormone and nutritional signals regulating growth.

    PubMed

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Devlin, Robert H; Johnston, Ian A

    2015-07-31

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) transgenic for growth hormone (Gh) express Gh in multiple tissues which results in increased appetite and continuous high growth with satiation feeding. Restricting Gh-transgenics to the same lower ration (TR) as wild-type fish (WT) results in similar growth, but with the recruitment of fewer, larger diameter, muscle skeletal fibres to reach a given body size. In order to better understand the genetic mechanisms behind these different patterns of muscle growth and to investigate how the decoupling of Gh and nutritional signals affects gene regulation we used RNA-seq to compare the fast skeletal muscle transcriptome in TR and WT coho salmon. Illumina sequencing of individually barcoded libraries from 6 WT and 6 TR coho salmon yielded 704,550,985 paired end reads which were used to construct 323,115 contigs containing 19,093 unique genes of which >10,000 contained >90 % of the coding sequence. Transcripts coding for 31 genes required for myoblast fusion were identified with 22 significantly downregulated in TR relative to WT fish, including 10 (vaspa, cdh15, graf1, crk, crkl, dock1, trio, plekho1a, cdc42a and dock5) associated with signaling through the cell surface protein cadherin. Nineteen out of 44 (43 %) translation initiation factors and 14 of 47 (30 %) protein chaperones were upregulated in TR relative to WT fish. TR coho salmon showed increased growth hormone transcripts and gene expression associated with protein synthesis and folding than WT fish even though net rates of protein accretion were similar. The uncoupling of Gh and amino acid signals likely results in additional costs of transcription associated with protein turnover in TR fish. The predicted reduction in the ionic costs of homeostasis in TR fish associated with increased fibre size were shown to involve multiple pathways regulating myotube fusion, particularly cadherin signaling.

  11. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  12. Properties of shallow convection from Large-Eddie simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denby, Leif; Herzog, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing Large-Eddie simulations (LES) of isolated individual convective clouds in an idealised conditionally unstable atmosphere and large-domain LES simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE) from the RICO measuring campaign (Rauber et al. 2007), vertical profiles of individual clouds and statistical properties of the cloud ensemble have been extracted and compared against predictions by an 1D entraining parcel model and against the cloud-ensemble model of the CCFM (Wagner and Graf 2010) convection scheme (which comprises a solution of a Lotka-Volterra population dynamics system). For the simulations of isolated clouds it was possible to achieve agreement with the entraining parcel model when simulations were carried out with 2D axisymmetry and the entrainment rate was prescribed using an entraining profile estimated from LES simulation using a passive tracer (in place of the traditional Morton- Turner entrainment rate parameterisation), this agreement was not achieved when comparing against 3D simulations. Integrating the entraining parcel model using the horizontal mean environment profile of the RCE simulation (and so the vertical profile as would be predicted by a climate model) it was not possible to achieve the variation in cloud-top height seen in the RCE simulation, even when greatly increasing the entrainment rate. However, if the near-environment of a convective cloud was used as the environmental profile the variation in cloud-top height was achieved (by varying the cloud-base state variables within values extracted from RCE simulation). This indicates that the near-cloud environment is significantly different that the horizontal mean environment and must be taken into account if the effect of entrainment is to be correctly captured in parameterisations for convection. Finally, size-distribution of convective clouds extracted from RCE simulation showed qualitative agreement with predictions of CCFM's spectrum model.

  13. An Illumination Modeling System for Human Factors Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Thong; Maida, James C.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Seeing is critical to human performance. Lighting is critical for seeing. Therefore, lighting is critical to human performance. This is common sense, and here on earth, it is easily taken for granted. However, on orbit, because the sun will rise or set every 45 minutes on average, humans working in space must cope with extremely dynamic lighting conditions. Contrast conditions of harsh shadowing and glare is also severe. The prediction of lighting conditions for critical operations is essential. Crew training can factor lighting into the lesson plans when necessary. Mission planners can determine whether low-light video cameras are required or whether additional luminaires need to be flown. The optimization of the quantity and quality of light is needed because of the effects on crew safety, on electrical power and on equipment maintainability. To address all of these issues, an illumination modeling system has been developed by the Graphics Research and Analyses Facility (GRAF) and Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) in the Space Human Factors Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The system uses physically based ray tracing software (Radiance) developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, a human factors oriented geometric modeling system (PLAID) and an extensive database of humans and environments. Material reflectivity properties of major surfaces and critical surfaces are measured using a gonio-reflectometer. Luminaires (lights) are measured for beam spread distribution, color and intensity. Video camera performances are measured for color and light sensitivity. 3D geometric models of humans and the environment are combined with the material and light models to form a system capable of predicting lighting conditions and visibility conditions in space.

  14. Ultrasound in developmental dysplasia of the hip: A screening study in Sardinian newborns.

    PubMed

    Dessì, A; Crisafulli, M; Vannelli, E; Fanos, V

    2009-06-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: La displasia evolutiva dell'anca (DDH) costituisce la deformità più frequente dell'apparato locomotore. Lo screening ecografico è la metodica più utilizzata nell'identificazione della DDH, considerando la brevità del periodo in cui la diagnosi è possibile prima della comparsa dei sintomi clinici. Un intervento terapeutico appropriato precoce può avere un effetto positivo in relazione all'evoluzione di tale patologia. METODI: L'esame ecografico, la sua valutazione, la classificazione e la tipizzazione delle anche sono stati effettuati secondo il metodo descritto dal Graf. I pazienti sono stati valutati per mezzo di un'analisi retrospettiva volta a identificare i casi di DDH. Tutti i casi sono stati classificati e in base a ciò si è deciso il tipo di trattamento da attuare. RISULTATI: Complessivamente sono state osservate 145 anche in 122 bambini che presentavano un certo grado di displasia. L'età alla diagnosi variava da 14 a 90 giorni con una media di 52 giorni di vita. Un mese dopo la diagnosi ecografica le anche di tipo 2a, sia bilaterali che unilaterali, sono risultate normali nel 94%. Il restante 6% così come i tipi 2b, 2c, D e 3 sono stati trattati con un divaricatore e la guarigione completa è stata ottenuta dopo due mesi di trattamento. Il tipo 4 è stato monitorato esclusivamente da un chirurgo ortopedico per un trattamento specialistico. CONCLUSIONI: Una volta effettuata l'indagine ecografica da operatori esperti si può decidere il tipo di trattamento più adeguato. L'ottima prognosi osservata a seguito del trattamento iniziale della DDH sottolinea la necessità di eseguire uno screening dell'anca allo scopo di effettuare una diagnosi e un trattamento precoce in questa patologia.

  15. Life style and risk of development of breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pięta, Beata; Chmaj-Wierzchowska, Karolina; Opala, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Many risk factors may be monitored, and individual decisions concerning life style exert an effect on most factors associated with the development of cancer. It is estimated that the majority of malignant cancers, as much as 70%, are the result of the harmful effect of factors related with diet, life style, or those present in the surrounding environment. The objective of the study was analysis of selected factors related with life style and their effect on the risk of development of breast and ovarian cancer. The study covered healthy women, without the diagnosis of focal lesions in the breast and ovaries, and women with the diagnosis of breast or ovarian cancer. The study was conducted during the period September 2007-November 2011, and covered a total of 1,484 women aged 18-80. Odds ratio was calculated for individual risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the statistical packages STATISTICA v8, GrafPad Instat v 3.00, Analyse-it v. 2.2, and Cytel Studio StatXact-8. Statistical hypothesis were verified on the level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Health-promoting life style related with physical activity and other health promoting behaviours, such as mode of nutrition, reduction or elimination of alcohol consumption and discontinuation of smoking considerably decrease the risk of development of malignant breast and ovarian cancer. The number and variety of factors which affect the risk of occurrence of cancerous diseases indicate that there is a need for monitoring of the hazard. It is necessary to carry out preventive actions which would cover the health education of women, concerning life style-related risk factors and methods of their modification.

  16. Population-based study of the incidence of congenital hip dysplasia in preterm infants from the Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP).

    PubMed

    Lange, A E; Lange, J; Ittermann, Till; Napp, M; Krueger, Paul-Christian; Bahlmann, H; Kasch, R; Heckmann, M

    2017-03-16

    Some etiological factors involved in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) occur in the last trimester of pregnancy, which could result in a decreased incidence of DDH in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of DDH between preterm and term infants. Ultrasound of the hip joint was performed in 2,534 term infants and 376 preterm infants within the population-based Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP) study. A total of 42 (1.66%) term infants had DDH (Graf type II c, 0.8%; type D, 0.3% left and 0.4% right; type III a, 0.2% left). Eighteen infants had bilateral findings. Hip dysplasia occurred more frequently in female neonates (32/1,182 vs. 10/1,302, p < 0.023; 95% CI 0.012-0.022, χ (2) test). A familial disposition for DDH was found in 169 (6.7%) term infants and 181 (7.1%) infants in the overall population. In preterm infants, dysplasia of the hip was found in only three late preterm infants with gestational age between 36 and 37 weeks (n = 97) and not in preterm infants <36 weeks gestational age (n = 279). Regression analysis revealed a narrowly significant association between gestational week of birth and DDH (relative risk = 1.17; 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.37; p = 0.065). Our study suggests that preterm infants <36 weeks gestational age have a decreased risk of DDH.

  17. Clinical evaluation of ultrasound screening in follow-up visits of infants with cerebral palsy at high risk for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Aizhen; Yang, Zhongxiu; Wang, Jiping; Wang, Taotao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical value of ultrasound screenings for the developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and explore its etiology in high-risk infants with cerebral palsy in follow-up visits. A group of 98 cases of infants at high-risk of cerebral palsy who received rehabilitation treatment between July, 2009 and July, 2010 were selected. Infants included 58 men and 40 women, aged <6 months and not lost to follow-up visits. Ultrasound (using Graf static inspection) screening of hips was performed and the infants with abnormalities were given clinical intervention, and 1- to 2-year-old infants were given outpatient follow-ups. The results were analyzed and there were 40 abnormal cases among the 98 cases of infants at high risk of cerebral palsy, including 18 cases of unstable hip joint, and 22 cases of DDH (12 cases of hip dysplasia, 3 cases of hip subluxation and 7 cases of hip dislocation). Early clinical intervention for infants with hip dysplasia and outpatient follow up for infants aged 1–2 years was carried out and had ischemic necrosis of femoral head, with the exception of 1 case of femoral detorsion that was poorly restored. In conclusion, the probability of DDH was higher in infants at high-risk of cerebral palsy compared to the normal infants. Hip ultrasound is a safe, simple, and effective screening method for these infants, which is of great clinical significance for an earlier diagnosis and treatment of DDH in infants with cerebral palsy. PMID:27698744

  18. Sustained stimulation of soil respiration and CO2 release from an agricultural soil after 10 years of experimental warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Graf, Wolfgang; Reichenstein, Markus; Reth, Sascha

    2010-05-01

    A number of forest and grassland studies indicated that stimulation of the soil respiration by soil warming ceases after a couple of years (Luo et al 2001). A long-term soil warming lysimeter experiment (soil monolythes from an agricultural field, 1m2 x 2 Meter depth, temperature = ambient + 3°C; with a regionally usual crop rotation with 5 crops) was conducted in southern Germany. It results in a sustained stimulation of soil respiration after 10 years. Moreover, both warmed and control treatments exhibited a similar temperature response of soil respiration indicating that adaptation in terms of temperature sensitivity was absent. Carbon dioxide concentration measurements within the profiles are supporting these findings. The increased soil respiration occurred although vegetation productivity in the warmed treatment was not higher than in the control plots. These findings strongly contrast current soil carbon modeling concepts, where carbon pools decay according to first-order kinetics, and thus a depletion of labile soil carbon pools leads to an apparent down-regulation of microbial respiration (Knorr et al 2005). Consequently, the potential for positive carbon-climate cycle feedback may be larger than represented in current models of soil carbon turnover and in general assessments. Literatur Knorr W, Prentice I C, House J I and Holland A 2005 Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming Nature 433 298-301 Luo Y, Wan S, Hui D and Wallace L L 2001 Acclimatization of soil respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie Nature 413 622 - 5 Reth S. Graf W, Reichenstein M, Munch J.C. 2009 Sustained stimulation of soil respiration after 10 years of experimental warming Environmental Research Letters 4(2) 024005

  19. The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

    2013-08-01

    The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (p<0.05). The results of the research revealed a decrease in the concentrations of antinutritional factors in the sprouts of yellow and blue lupins compared to raw seeds; however, no positive effect was observed on the coefficients of the standardized ileal apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. [About Cryptophthalmos (2nd Czech Study)].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Čakrtová, M; Kletenský, J; Novák, V; Šach, J

    To get acquainted with the 2nd Czech study about cryptophthamos and with self-surgical methods. The boy with unilateral complete cryptophthalmos of left eye was treated from 2 to 20 years. The girls was treated from 4 month to 5 year yet for right abortive cryptophthalmos with microblepharon and left complete type still waiting for solutions.Surgical methods and results: Authors present a surgical procedures for correction of the upper and lower eyelids and ocular anomalies both patients studied. Successful reconstruction of palpebral fissure took place in several stages at the boy. The surgical procedure gradually contained: the insertion of gradually increased convex concave circular-shaped implant (silicone ruber) due a modeling of palpebral fissure, an enucleation of rudimentary eye, a reconstruction of bottom palpebral fissure by retro-auricular skin graf and a releasing of the lower transitory fold by the cul-de-sac method. An adequate depth of palpebral fissure to allow perfect position of an aesthetic protesis. Enucleated eye was atypically shaped, remiding partly sand-glass clock. The cornea was replaced by thick fibrous membrane, the iris and the lens were not revealed. Gliomatic retina was detached nearly totaly and the optic nerv was rudimental. The repairing the upper lid coloboma of girl by a lid rotation flap reconstruction using the inferior eyelid was performed at the age 17 month. Corneal dermoid simultaneously removed (histologically verified). Upper conjunctival fornix was formed using the spherical covering foil (silicone rubber) before and after the reconstruction of the lid. Plastic reconstructions required the need for patient access without trying immediate effect. An important role played silicone rubber implants (elastomer medical grade) which used temporarily. cryptophthalmos, microblepharon, relief surgery, silicon ruber implants.

  1. Automatic Evaluation of Scan Adequacy and Dysplasia Metrics in 2-D Ultrasound Images of the Neonatal Hip.

    PubMed

    Quader, Niamul; Hodgson, Antony J; Mulpuri, Kishore; Schaeffer, Emily; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2017-03-21

    Ultrasound (US) imaging of an infant's hip joint is widely used for early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip. In current US-based diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip, trained clinicians acquire US images and, if they judge them to be adequate (i.e., to contain relevant hip joint structures), analyze them manually to extract clinically useful dysplasia metrics. However, both the scan adequacy classification and dysplasia metrics extraction steps exhibit significant variability within and between both clinicians and institutions, which can result in significant over- and undertreatment rates. To reduce the subjectivity resulting from this variability, we propose a computational image analysis technique that automatically identifies adequate images and subsequently extracts dysplasia metrics from these 2-D US images. Our automatic method uses local phase symmetry-based image measures to robustly identify intensity-invariant geometric features of bone/cartilage boundaries from the US images. Using the extracted geometric features, we trained a random forest classifier to classify images as adequate or inadequate, and in the adequate images we used a subset of the geometric features to calculate key dysplasia metrics. We validated our method on a data set of 693 US scans collected from 35 infants. Our approach produces excellent agreement with clinician adequacy classifications (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.985) and in reducing variability in the measured developmental dysplasia of the hip metrics (p < 0.05). The automatically computed dysplasia metrics appear to be slightly biased toward higher Graf categories than the manually estimated metrics, which could potentially reduce missed early diagnoses.

  2. Statistical Comparison of the Baseline Mechanical Properties of NBG-18 and PCEA Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Mark C. Carroll; David T. Rohrbaugh

    2013-08-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled design that is capable of producing process heat for power generation and for industrial process that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a comprehensive comparison between these values in different nuclear grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons and variations between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between the two grades of graphite that were initially favored in the two main VHTR designs. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration, while PCEA, a smaller grain, petroleum coke, extruded graphite from GrafTech was favored for the prismatic configuration. An analysis of the comparison between these two grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  3. Soil aggregates in a collapsed chestnut grove and in an instable vineyard in Tuscany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Enrico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Just like in agriculture the presence of stable macroaggregates is simptom of soil fecundity, in forestry the presence of stabe aggregates is index of stability for both the soil and the living communities settling there. Such formations, ascribable to organic matter and humic compound degree, can be present in better measure in a collapsed and recolonized soil than in non fallen area grown with the same species for long time. The mean stability in aggregates comes out to be very lower in farmed soil, yet foreseen by Tisdall and Oades (2006) wich wrote that farming generates a decline in the organic content of soil. The higher instability shown in the deepest soil, where the biotic contribution is lesser, and the higher infiltration found in superficial layers are in line with the empiric verification that the slip plane in shallow landslides doesn't intersect rhizosphere, but lays under it; the fragility zone is located where the organic matter degree is lower, both in humus and root and fungi exudates, or organism parts or remains. In other words, not only deep roots could sometimes anchor the shallow soil to the bedrock, but they can also improve the strenght characteristics of soil in presence of water. In soil with aggregates, moreover, seems to recognise an improvement in the shear strenght angle, accordingly with the results obtained by Graf et al. (2009) with triaxial tests on rooted soil samples. Roughly, the angle increase by 1 degree for every 5-7% in stable aggregates on the sample weigth, validating the better stability of a slope with a stable and mature community.

  4. Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods

    SciTech Connect

    Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

    2013-12-31

    The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

  5. The 100 classic papers of pediatric orthopaedic surgery: a bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, R G; Kelly, J C; Kelly, P M; Moore, D P

    2013-09-18

    Pediatric orthopaedic surgery owes its development to many pioneering individuals, and the studies that these individuals have undertaken form the basis for the clinical decisions made on the modern pediatric orthopaedic service. The aim of our study was to use citation analysis to identify the top 100 papers in pediatric orthopaedic surgery. Using the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge, we searched for citations of all papers relevant to pediatric orthopaedics. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, and country and institution of origin were recorded for each paper. The most cited paper was found to be the classic paper from 1963 by Salter and Harris that introduced the now-eponymous classification system for physeal injuries in the skeletally immature patient. The second most cited was Salter's paper describing the widely used osteotomy for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, and the third most cited was Catterall's description of the natural history of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Most papers originated in the U.S., and most were published in this journal. A number of authors including Salter, Ponseti, Graf, and Loder had more than one paper in the top-100 list. This paper's identification of the classic papers of pediatric orthopaedic surgery gives us a unique insight into the development of pediatric orthopaedic surgery in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and identifies those individuals who have contributed the most to the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision-making in pediatric orthopaedics today.

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of different abduction splints for the treatment of congenital hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Peter C; Fröhlich, Susanne; Lindner, Tobias; Olbertz, Dirk; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Abduction splints for the treatment of hip dysplasia normally operate on curbing the legs at the hip flexion and abduction. The forces are absorbed in different designs of shoulder straps and thus diverted to the shoulder and the spine. The present study is the first comparing these undesired forces of two spread orthoses and subsequently the transmitted forces to the infant's spine. Between March 2009 and October 2009 the hips of 290 infants were investigated by ultrasound within the first 3 days after birth. Thereof 20 infants with a hip dysplasia Graf type IIc, D or IIIa met our inclusion criteria and were investigated with a Tübinger and a Superior abduction splint. Biomechanical evaluation was performed by using a high-sensitive strain gauge sensor applied to the infant's orthoses between pelvic harness and shoulder straps. The transmitted forces to the infant's shoulders correlated significantly with their body mass (P<0.05). Maximal forces on the shoulder of the infants and subsequently transmitted forces on the spine were significantly higher (P<0.05) with the Tübinger splint (range 7.6N to 32.3N; arithmetic mean M: 13.7N) in comparison to the Superior orthosis (range 0.0N to 3.5N; M: 0.7N). The Superior orthosis works with primary load transmission to the pelvic bone. Using the Tübinger splint the shoulders of the newborn infants are loaded with a maximum of 93.9% of their body mass. This may influence the development of the growing infant's spine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wheat Transpiration Response to Soil Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langensiepen, M.; Kupisch, M.; Cai, G.; Vanderborght, J.; Stadler, A.; Hüging, H.; Ewert, F.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring sap-flow in thin wheat tillers has been difficult so far due to technical difficulties associated with the application of the heat-balance method for this purpose. We developed a new method which solved this problem (Langensiepen et al. 2014) and applied it during four consecutive vegetation seasons for determining tiller transpiration rates in a wheat field with strong soil heterogeneity. The transpiration rates differed insignificantly between different field sections characterized by strong differences in physical soil conditions, regardless whether the crop was irrigated or supplied with variable rainwater. Tiller transpiration in a sheltered section was slightly reduced. Maximum leaf vapor conductance didn't differ among these different conditions, except under severe water stress conditions. Leaf water potential varied considerably during daily cycles under all circumstances. These responses are typical for plants with anisohydric behaviors which are characterized by small sensitivities of guard cells to critical leaf water potential thresholds and high photosynthetic productivity under absent or mild water stress. Recent studies conducted in Eucalyptus, tomato, and Arabidopsis plants have shown that the transition from mild to severe stress in anisohydric plants is marked by an increasing sensitivity of stomatal control to the transpiration rate. The results of this study demonstrate that this also seems to be the case for wheat. This practically implies that the parameterization of models calculating wheat canopy flux responses to soil heterogeneity patterns must not only account for the crop-type specific soil-vegetation pattern interaction under absent or mild stress, but also for additional mechanisms which kick in when water stress becomes severe. Langensiepen, M., Kupisch, M., Graf, A., Schmidt, M., Ewert, F. (2014) Improving the stem heat balance method for determining sap-flow in wheat. Agric. For. Met. 186: 34-42

  8. [Impact of an |A|B|S|-training initiative on |A|B|S|-structural quality of participating hospitals].

    PubMed

    Christoph, Anna; Ehm, Christine; de With, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The "ABS-training initiative" was funded by the German Ministry of Health as part of the German Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy (Deutsche Antibiotika-Resistenz-Strategie, DART) from 2009 until early 2014. The initiative was designed for clinicians and clinical pharmacists and contains several training units covering antiinfectives, infectious diseases and ABS strategies including the conduction of a research project at the participants' hospital. Participants who complete the four-weeks training initiative will become a certified "ABS Expert". 281 ABS Experts were asked to take part in a survey (staff for ABS, surveillance data about agents and consumption, ABS activity) to estimate the influence of the ABS-training initiative on the ABS-structural quality. The evaluation was performed using GrafStat (V 4.255), statistical software package for the evaluation of surveys. Ninety-two ABS Experts representing 92 hospitals participated in a questionnaire-based survey before and after completing the training initiative. Forty (44 %) hospitals appointed an ABS representative (+22 %) after completing the training initiative. Antibiotic surveillance data available as a report increased from 34 (40 %) to 54 (60 %) and correct data presentation (DDD or RDD/100 days) from 7 (8 %) to 40 (43 %). Proactive auditing of antiinfective prescribing improved from 54 (60 %) to 71 (78 %) in intensive care units, and from 28 (31 %) to 53 (58 %) on normal wards. Availability of local guidelines increased from 36 (39 %) to 52 (57 %). The "ABS Training Initiative" had a positive impact on ABS-structural quality regarding nomination of ABS-teams, surveillance data of antibiotic consumption, implementation of proactive auditing of antiinfective prescribing and availability of local guidelines. However, there is optimization potential in many sectors. The short time period between pre- and post-assessment and the ongoing personnel or time constraints need to be taken into account.

  9. Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS): Are skills-based games at a disadvantage?

    PubMed

    Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) was developed to evaluate gambling-related cognitive distortions for all types of gamblers, regardless of their gambling activities (poker, slot machine, etc.). It is therefore imperative to ascertain the validity of its interpretation across different types of gamblers; however, some skills-related items endorsed by players could be interpreted as a cognitive distortion despite the fact that they play skills-related games. Using an intergroup (168 poker players and 73 video lottery terminal [VLT] players) differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, this study examined the possible manifestation of item biases associated with the GRCS. DIF was analyzed with ordinal logistic regressions (OLRs) and Ramsay's (1991) nonparametric kernel smoothing approach with TestGraf. Results show that half of the items display at least moderate DIF between groups and, depending on the type of analysis used, 3 to 7 items displayed large DIF. The 5 items with the most DIF were more significantly endorsed by poker players (uniform DIF) and were all related to skills, knowledge, learning, or probabilities. Poker players' interpretations of some skills-related items may lead to an overestimation of their cognitive distortions due to their total score increased by measurement artifact. Findings indicate that the current structure of the GRCS contains potential biases to be considered when poker players are surveyed. The present study conveys new and important information on bias issues to ponder carefully before using and interpreting the GRCS and other similar wide-range instruments with poker players. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Avascular necrosis and the Aberdeen splint in developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Williams, P R; Jones, D A; Bishay, M

    1999-11-01

    Between January 1987 and December 1988 there were 7575 births in the Swansea maternity unit. Of these 823 (10.9%) were considered to be at 'high risk' for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Static ultrasound examination was performed in each case and the results classified on the basis of the method of Graf. A total of 117 type III-IV hips in 83 infants was splinted using the Aberdeen splint. Radiographs of these hips were taken at six and 12 months. Hilgenreiner's measurements of the acetabular angle were made in all cases and the development of the femoral capital epiphysis was assessed by measuring the epiphyseal area. The effect of splintage on the acetabular angle and the epiphyseal area between the normal and abnormal splinted hips was compared. Radiographs of 16 normal infants (32 normal unsplinted hips) were used as a control group. This cohort has now been followed up for a minimum of nine years. There have been no complications as a result of splintage. The failure rate was 1.7% or 0.25 per 1000 live births. No statistical difference was found when comparing the effect of splintage on the acetabular angle and epiphyseal area between normal and abnormal splinted hips and normal unsplinted hips. Our study has shown that while the Aberdeen splint had a definite but small failure rate, it was safe in that it did not produce avascular necrosis. The current conventional view that a low rate of splintage is always best is therefore brought into question if the Aberdeen splint is chosen for the management of neonatal DDH.

  11. Simian sarcoma virus-encoded gag-related protein: in vitro cleavage by Friend leukemia virus-associated proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Hafenrichter, R; Thiel, H J

    1985-05-01

    The simian sarcoma virus (SSV) encodes a gag-related 65,000-Da protein (SSV p65) which is not processed in SSV nonproducer cells (SSV-NP cells) (H.-J. Thiel, T. J. Matthews, E. M. Broughton, K. J. Weinhold, D. P. Bolognesi, T. Graf, and H. Beug (1981a), Virology 114, 124-131). In order to cleave SSV p65, retroviral particles containing this antigen were incubated with extracts from the heterologous helper virus Friend leukemia virus (FLV). Superinfection of SSV-NP cells by FLV has been previously shown to result in processing of SSV p65 in vivo (H.-J. Thiel, F. Weiland, R. Hafenrichter, T. J. Matthews, and K. J. Weinhold (1982), Virology 123, 229-234). In vitro cleavage was most efficient in the presence of a nonionic detergent (greater than 0.1% Nonidet-P40) and a reducing agent (greater than 5 mM dithiothreitol) at a pH of 7.0. The products, termed SSV p55 (p15, p12, p30), SSV p30, SSV p25 (p15, p12), and SSV p10, were characterized by (1) molecular weight, (2) kinetics experiments, (3) incorporation of different radiolabeled amino acids, and (4) comparison with SSAV structural proteins. Kinetics experiments with two amino acids ([3H]leucine, [35S]cysteine) revealed that initial processing of SSV p65 produced SSV p55 and SSV p10, with subsequent processing of SSV p55 occurring thereafter. In contrast to the Moloney system, the major intermediate p40 (p30, p10) could not be clearly demonstrated. A direct comparison of SSAV p10 and the cleavage product SSV p10 by SDS-PAGE suggests that SSAV pr65gag and SSV p65 differ slightly by molecular weight.

  12. Characterization of Porosity Development in Oxidized Graphite using Automated Image Analysis Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Burchell, Timothy D

    2009-09-01

    This document reports on initial activities at ORNL aimed at quantitative characterization of porosity development in oxidized graphite specimens using automated image analysis (AIA) techniques. A series of cylindrical shape specimens were machined from nuclear-grade graphite (type PCEA, from GrafTech International). The specimens were oxidized in air to various levels of weight loss (between 5 and 20 %) and at three oxidation temperatures (between 600 and 750 oC). The procedure used for specimen preparation and oxidation was based on ASTM D-7542-09. Oxidized specimens were sectioned, resin-mounted and polished for optical microscopy examination. Mosaic pictures of rectangular stripes (25 mm x 0.4 mm) along a diameter of sectioned specimens were recorded. A commercial software (ImagePro) was evaluated for automated analysis of images. Because oxidized zones in graphite are less reflective in visible light than the pristine, unoxidized material, the microstructural changes induced by oxidation can easily be identified and analyzed. Oxidation at low temperatures contributes to development of numerous fine pores (< 100 m2) distributed more or less uniformly over a certain depth (5-6 mm) from the surface of graphite specimens, while causing no apparent external damage to the specimens. In contrast, oxidation at high temperatures causes dimensional changes and substantial surface damage within a narrow band (< 1 mm) near the exposed graphite surface, but leaves the interior of specimens with little or no changes in the pore structure. Based on these results it appears that weakening and degradation of mechanical properties of graphite materials produced by uniform oxidation at low temperatures is related to the massive development of fine pores in the oxidized zone. It was demonstrated that optical microscopy enhanced by AIA techniques allows accurate determination of oxidant penetration depth and of distribution of porosity in oxidized graphite materials.

  13. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  14. Vibration and acoustic radiation of a finite cylindrical shell submerged at finite depth from the free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenjie; Li, Tianyun; Zhu, Xiang; Miao, Yuyue; Zhang, Guanjun

    2017-04-01

    The far-field acoustic radiation of a cylindrical shell with finite length submerged at finite depth from the water surface is studied. Two steps are utilized to solve the problem. The first step is to determine the vibration response of the submerged cylindrical shell by using an analytical method and the second one is to determine the far field sound radiation with the boundary element method. To address the vibration responses of the shell analytically, the cylindrical shell and surrounding fluid are described by the Flügge shell equations and Laplace equation in the cylindrical coordinate system respectively. The free surface effect is taken into consideration by using the image method and the Graf's addition theorem. The reliability and efficiency of the present method are validated by comparison with the finite element method. Then, based on the vibration responses of the shell obtained from the first step, the far-field sound pressure is computed by using the boundary element method. It is found that the vibration of the cylindrical shell submerged at finite depth from the free surface tends to be the same as that in infinite fluid when the submerged depth exceeds a certain value. The frequency and the submerged depth have crucial effects on the fluctuation of the far-field sound pressure, while for the curve of sound pressure level versus immersion depth, the ratio of the distance between the adjacent peak points of sound pressure to the wavelength is independent of the frequency. Moreover, the petal number of the directivity of the far-field sound pressure increases with the increase of the frequency and the submerged depth. The work provides more understanding on the vibration and acoustic radiation behavior of a finite cylindrical shell submerged at finite depth.

  15. CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes are prognostic markers of glioblastoma and cooperate with EGFR to drive tumor cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Erfani, Sonia; Liu, Zeyi; Jia, Changhe; Chen, Yecang; Xu, Bingwei; Deng, Xinyu; Alfáro, Jose E; Chen, Li; Napier, Dana; Lu, Michael; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Chunming; Thibault, Olivier; Segal, Rosalind; Zhou, Binhua P; Kyprianou, Natasha; Horbinski, Craig; Yang, Xiuwei H

    2015-10-06

    Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive forms of brain cancer, is featured by high tumor cell motility and invasiveness, which not only fuel tumor infiltration, but also enable escape from surgical or other clinical interventions. Thus, better understanding of how these malignant traits are controlled will be key to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapies against this deadly disease. Tetraspanin CD151 and its associated α3β1 integrin have been implicated in facilitating tumor progression across multiple cancer types. How these adhesion molecules are involved in the progression of glioblastoma, however, remains largely unclear. Here, we examined an in-house tissue microarray-based cohort of 96 patient biopsies and TCGA dataset to evaluate the clinical significance of CD151 and α3β1 integrin. Functional and signaling analyses were also conducted to understand how these molecules promote the aggressiveness of glioblastoma at molecular and cellular levels. Results from our analyses showed that CD151 and α3 integrin were significantly elevated in glioblastomas at both protein and mRNA levels, and exhibited strong inverse correlation with patient survival (p < 0.006). These adhesion molecules also formed tight protein complexes and synergized with EGF/EGFR to accelerate tumor cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, disruption of such complexes enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenograft model, and impaired activation of FAK and small GTPases. Also, knockdown- or pharmacological agent-based attenuation of EGFR, FAK or Graf (ARHGAP26)/small GTPase-mediated pathways markedly mitigated the aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. Collectively, our findings provide clinical, molecular and cellular evidence of CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes as promising prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for glioblastoma.

  16. Aesthetic Pleasure versus Aesthetic Interest: The Two Routes to Aesthetic Liking

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Laura K. M.; Landwehr, Jan R.

    2017-01-01

    Although existing research has established that aesthetic pleasure and aesthetic interest are two distinct positive aesthetic responses, empirical research on aesthetic preferences usually considers only aesthetic liking to capture participants’ aesthetic response. This causes some fundamental contradictions in the literature; some studies find a positive relationship between easy-to-process stimulus characteristics and aesthetic liking, while others suggest a negative relationship. The present research addresses these empirical contradictions by investigating the dual character of aesthetic liking as manifested in both the pleasure and interest components. Based on the Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking (PIA Model; Graf and Landwehr, 2015), two studies investigated the formation of pleasure and interest and their relationship with aesthetic liking responses. Using abstract art as the stimuli, Study 1 employed a 3 (stimulus fluency: low, medium, high) × 2 (processing style: automatic, controlled) × 2 (aesthetic response: pleasure, interest) experimental design to examine the processing dynamics responsible for experiencing aesthetic pleasure versus aesthetic interest. We find that the effect of stimulus fluency on pleasure is mediated by a gut-level fluency experience. Stimulus fluency and interest, by contrast, are related through a process of disfluency reduction, such that disfluent stimuli that grow more fluent due to processing efforts become interesting. The second study employed product designs (bikes, chairs, and lamps) as stimuli and a 2 (fluency: low, high) × 2 (processing style: automatic, controlled) × 3 (product type: bike, chair, lamp) experimental design to examine pleasure and interest as mediators of the relationship between stimulus fluency and design attractiveness. With respect to lamps and chairs, the results suggest that the effect of stimulus fluency on attractiveness is fully mediated by aesthetic pleasure, especially in the

  17. Evaluation of Brace Treatment for Infant Hip Dislocation in a Prospective Cohort: Defining the Success Rate and Variables Associated with Failure.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Bomar, James D; Matheney, Travis H; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Mulpuri, Kishore; Price, Charles T; Moseley, Colin F; Kelley, Simon P; Narayanan, Unni; Clarke, Nicholas M P; Wedge, John H; Castañeda, Pablo; Kasser, James R; Foster, Bruce K; Herrera-Soto, Jose A; Cundy, Peter J; Williams, Nicole; Mubarak, Scott J

    2016-07-20

    The use of a brace has been shown to be an effective treatment for hip dislocation in infants; however, previous studies of such treatment have been single-center or retrospective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the success rate for brace use in the treatment of infant hip dislocation in an international, multicenter, prospective cohort, and to identify the variables associated with brace failure. All dislocations were verified with use of ultrasound or radiography prior to the initiation of treatment, and patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of 18 months. Successful treatment was defined as the use of a brace that resulted in a clinically and radiographically reduced hip, without surgical intervention. The Mann-Whitney test, chi-square analysis, and Fisher exact test were used to identify risk factors for brace failure. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the probability of brace failure according to the risk factors identified. Brace treatment was successful in 162 (79%) of the 204 dislocated hips in this series. Six variables were found to be significant risk factors for failure: developing femoral nerve palsy during brace treatment (p = 0.001), treatment with a static brace (p < 0.001), an initially irreducible hip (p < 0.001), treatment initiated after the age of 7 weeks (p = 0.005), a right hip dislocation (p = 0.006), and a Graf-IV hip (p = 0.02). Hips with no risk factors had a 3% probability of failure, whereas hips with 4 or 5 risk factors had a 100% probability of failure. These data provide valuable information for patient families and their providers regarding the important variables that influence successful brace treatment for dislocated hips in infants. Prognostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes are prognostic markers of glioblastoma and cooperate with EGFR to drive tumor cell motility and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingwei; Deng, Xinyu; Alfáro, Jose E.; Chen, Li; Napier, Dana; Lu, Michael; Huang, Jian-An; Liu, Chunming; Thibault, Olivier; Segal, Rosalind; Zhou, Binhua P.; Kyprianou, Natasha; Horbinski, Craig; Yang, Xiuwei H.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive forms of brain cancer, is featured by high tumor cell motility and invasiveness, which not only fuel tumor infiltration, but also enable escape from surgical or other clinical interventions. Thus, better understanding of how these malignant traits are controlled will be key to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapies against this deadly disease. Tetraspanin CD151 and its associated α3β1 integrin have been implicated in facilitating tumor progression across multiple cancer types. How these adhesion molecules are involved in the progression of glioblastoma, however, remains largely unclear. Here, we examined an in-house tissue microarray-based cohort of 96 patient biopsies and TCGA dataset to evaluate the clinical significance of CD151 and α3β1 integrin. Functional and signaling analyses were also conducted to understand how these molecules promote the aggressiveness of glioblastoma at molecular and cellular levels. Results from our analyses showed that CD151 and α3 integrin were significantly elevated in glioblastomas at both protein and mRNA levels, and exhibited strong inverse correlation with patient survival (p < 0.006). These adhesion molecules also formed tight protein complexes and synergized with EGF/EGFR to accelerate tumor cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, disruption of such complexes enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenograft model, and impaired activation of FAK and small GTPases. Also, knockdown- or pharmacological agent-based attenuation of EGFR, FAK or Graf (ARHGAP26)/small GTPase-mediated pathways markedly mitigated the aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. Collectively, our findings provide clinical, molecular and cellular evidence of CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes as promising prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for glioblastoma. PMID:26377974

  19. 1d Numerical Simulation of A Swiss Debris Flow: Comparison of Flow Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdell, B. W.; Graf, Ch.; Naef, D.; Rickenmann, D.

    Efforts to numerically model debris flows have been limited by a lack of appropriate numerical tools. Here we report on our efforts to systematically evaluate different flow laws using a numerical tool under development at our institute. The model, DFEM, is a finite element solution of the shallow water equations in one or two dimensions and is based on the FEMTOOL libraries from Rutschmann (1993). Debris flow constitu- tive relations or flow laws include turbulent (e.g. Manning, Chézy, Voellmy), laminar (Bingham, Newtonian laminar), and inertial formulations (dilatant/grain shearing) as well as combinations of flow laws when appropriate. The model is applied to a recent debris flow event from the Schipfenbach torrent, Switzerland (Hürlimann, submitted), where we maintain an automated debris flow observation station. Observations include flow depth measurements from ultrasonic depth measurement devices, reach-averaged velocities estimated from the travel time between ultrasonic gages and geophones, velocity and flow behavior from video cam- eras situated near the flow retention basin on the fan, and post-event field surveys. Preliminary results suggest that the flow of debris in the steep reaches of the torrent channel can be reasonably described by a simple turbulent flow law (e.g. Manning- Strickler or Chézy) with a large overall flow resistance, and that both the flow in the channel and the deposition on the fan can be satisfactorily simulated using the Voellmy fluid approach. The results using the Voellmy fluid approach are in agree- ment with results calculated from the AVAL-1D snow avalanche simulation code and input parameters for debris instead of snow, corroborating the implementation in the DFEM model. The AVAL-1D code is commercially available, providing another tool that may be used by workers in the natural hazards field for debris flow routing in torrent channels and on alluvial fans. References: Hürlimann, M., Rickenmann, D. and Graf, Ch., Field

  20. Toward automated classification of acetabular shape in ultrasound for diagnosis of DDH: Contour alpha angle and the rounding index.

    PubMed

    Hareendranathan, Abhilash Rakkunedeth; Mabee, Myles; Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Noga, Michelle; Jaremko, Jacob L

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) in infants is currently made primarily by ultrasound. However, two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) images capture only an incomplete portion of the acetabular shape, and the alpha and beta angles measured on 2DUS for the Graf classification technique show high inter-scan and inter-observer variability. This variability relates partly to the manual determination of the apex point separating the acetabular roof from the ilium during index measurement. This study proposes a new 2DUS image processing technique for semi-automated tracing of the bony surface followed by automatic calculation of two indices: a contour-based alpha angle (αA), and a new modality-independent quantitative rounding index (M). The new index M is independent of the apex point, and can be directly extended to 3D surface models. We tested the proposed indices on a dataset of 114 2DUS scans of infant hips aged between 4 and 183 days scanned using a 12MHz linear transducer. We calculated the manual alpha angle (αM), coverage, contour-based alpha angle and rounding index for each of the recordings and statistically evaluated these indices based on regression analysis, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Processing time for calculating αA and M was similar to manual alpha angle measurement, ∼30s per image. Reliability of the new indices was high, with inter-observer intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) 0.90 for αA and 0.89 for M. For a diagnostic test classifying hips as normal or dysplastic, AUC was 93.0% for αA vs. 92.7% for αM, 91.6% for M alone, and up to 95.7% for combination of M with αM, αA or coverage. The rounding index provides complimentary information to conventional indices such as alpha angle and coverage. Calculation of the contour-based alpha angle and rounding index is rapid, shows potential to improve the reliability and accuracy of DDH diagnosis from 2DUS

  1. Developmental dysplasia of the hip in twins: the importance of mechanical factors in the etiology of DDH.

    PubMed

    De Pellegrin, Maurizio; Moharamzadeh, Desiree

    2010-12-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a disease of multifactorial etiology. Genetic and intrauterine mechanical factors influence the development of the hip joint and the incidence of DDH. Breech position is a risk factor for DDH. The aim of this study is to analyze whether in twins, the intrauterine mechanical factors, such as a breech position, limitation of fetal mobility, limitation of hip abduction, and increase the incidence of DDH may, therefore, be considered as risk factors. A pair of twins with either breech or cephalic presentation, and no family history of DDH or any other sicknesses were included in this study. During a 6-year period between 2002 and 2007, data were collected on 105 consecutively born twins (210 children with 420 hips) of whom 48 were a cephalic breech, 35 were a cephalic-cephalic, and 22 were a breech-breech presentation. The presentation was defined by regular prenatal ultrasounds and the obstetric records at birth. The average gestational age was 36.7 weeks and average weight at birth was 2290 g. Control group 1 consisted of 274 single gestation children, with a cephalic presentation at birth. The average gestational age was 39.1 weeks and average weight at birth was 3200 g. Control group 2 consisted of 48 single gestation children, with a breech presentation at birth. The average gestational age was 36.8 weeks and average weight at birth was 2870 g. Ultrasonography of the hips was done according to the Graf technique. Statistical analysis was done using a χ² test. The χ² test was used and it showed no significant association between the presence or absence of pathologic hip types in the twins group and in the 2 control groups. A higher incidence of DDH (3.4%) was present in groups 1 and 2. This comparison of a large series of twins with matched controls shows that there is no increased incidence of DDH in twins when compared with single birth infants with no family history of DDH. This study supports the idea that breech

  2. Post-retention Development of Curve of Spee in Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance Cases, Its Correlation to Dentoskeletal Parameters: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahammed, A R Yusuf; Ganiger, Channamallappa C; Shetty, Vikranth; Sunny, Sunil; Shetty, Sadashiva; Pawar, Renuka; Suresh, K V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Curve of Spee was first described by Ferdin and Graf Von Spee in 1890. The curve of Spee is an important characteristic of the mandibular dental arch. One of the most frequently encountered problems in the treatment of orthodontic patients is an excessive overbite. Deep bite has been found to be associated with abnormal mandibular function. Temporomandibular joint disorders also have potentially detrimental effects on mandibular development. Andrews advocated leveling the curve of Spee to aflat curve, in order to facilitate construction of an optimal occlusion and that a flat plane should be given as a form of over treatment. There is no reliable information currently available from the literature about the long-term stability of the curve of Spee and the factors influencing the same. The objective of this study was to assess the post-retention development of the curve of Spee and to evaluate the dental and skeletal parameters as predictors of its post-retention stability. Materials and Methods: Pre-treatment (Tl), post-treatment (T2) and post-retention (T3) dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 24 orthodontically treated patients having a mean age of 14.5 years were evaluated. The mean period of the study group after retention was up to 2.6 years (range = 1-5 years). Pre-treatment T1, post-treatment T2, and post-retention T3 casts and radiographs were measured. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: A highly significant positive correlation was observed between the changes in the curve of Spee during treatment (T2-T1) and the net result after retention (T3-T2). This means that much of the treatment results remained stable at T3. However, slight change was noticed in curve of Spee’s depth during the time interval T3-T2. This finding was very negligible and was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The leveling of the curve of Spee during the treatment is a stable treatment objective on long term basis. There was a mild

  3. Evolution of a Directional Wave Spectrum in a 3D Marginal Ice Zone with Random Floe Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive

  4. [Diagnostic and prognostic values of standard and dynamic ultrasound in early detection and treatment of developmental hip deformity].

    PubMed

    Pajić, Milos; Vukasinović, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    A clinical examination of a newborn infant is indispensable, but certainly insufficient for a diagnosis of developmental deformity of the hip (DDH) to be made. The use of the ultrasound in the diagnostics of DDH, beside the visualization and making the respective clinical findings objective, made possible verification (still without a distinction of the tissues) of the two basic categories of the primary condition of a newborn baby hips. The purpose of this study was to find out the optimal methodological procedure for the early detection of DDH in newborn infants and sucklings. During 2002 and 2003, at the Neonatal Department of the Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Novi Sad, as well as at the Institute for Orthopaedic Surgery "Banjica" Belgrade, there were 4016 newborn infants examined, i.e. 8032 hips clinically and by ultrasound. The standard Graf's methodological procedure was applied completely, supplemented by the dynamic examination by pushing back and streching femora along, that is by the techniques of Couture and Harcke. In order to categorize the condition of the hip of a newborn infant, the sonographic classification of R. Graaf, Th. Harcke and D. Pajidćwas used. The ultrasound analysis demonstrated a frequency of the sonotype lI in 552 (13.08%) of the newborn infants, the sonotype lI in 2934 (73.00%), the sonotype iII+ in 481 (11.97%) and the pathological cases with sonotypes IlIg+42 (1.04%), lIl 17 (0.42%), IlII 15 (0.37%) and IV5 (0.12%). The total number of unstable critical, discentering and discentered cases of DDH was 79 (1.95%). The incidence of DDH was three times more frequent in girls, mostly bilateral; when unilateral, it was more frequent in the left one.T he results of the early treatment were uniformly excellent, but in two cases there was established osteochondritis of the first degree (Pavlik's harness 1, Von Rosen's splint 1). iIt as been proven that the clinical examination was inevitable, but insufficient for diagnosis of DDH

  5. Analytic Simulation of the Elastic Waves Propagation in the Neighborhood of Fluid Filled Wells with Monopole Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila-Carrera, R.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Spurlin, James H.; Valle-Molina, C.; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.

    2014-09-01

    An analytic formulation to understand the scattering, diffraction and attenuation of elastic waves at the neighborhood of fluid filled wells is presented. An important, and not widely exploited, technique to carefully investigate the wave propagation in exploration wells is the logging of sonic waveforms. Fundamental decisions and production planning in petroleum reservoirs are made by interpretation of such recordings. Nowadays, geophysicists and engineers face problems related to the acquisition and interpretation under complex conditions associated with conducting open-hole measurements. A crucial problem that directly affects the response of sonic logs is the eccentricity of the measuring tool with respect to the center of the borehole. Even with the employment of centralizers, this simple variation, dramatically changes the physical conditions on the wave propagation around the well. Recent works in the numerical field reported advanced studies in modeling and simulation of acoustic wave propagation around wells, including complex heterogeneities and anisotropy. However, no analytical efforts have been made to formally understand the wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered tools. In this paper, the Graf's addition theorem was used to describe monopole sources in terms of solutions of the wave equation. The formulation was developed from the three-dimensional discrete wave-number method in the frequency domain. The cylindrical Bessel functions of the third kind and order zero were re-derived to obtain a simplified set of equations projected into a bi-dimensional plane-space for displacements and stresses. This new and condensed analytic formulation allows the straightforward calculation of all converted modes and their visualization in the time domain via Fourier synthesis. The main aim was to obtain spectral surfaces of transfer functions and synthetic seismograms that might be useful to understand the wave motion produced by the

  6. Rheological properties of suspensions of interacting rodlike FD-virus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Christian; Kramer, Hansgerd; Deggelmann, Martin; Hagenbüchle, Martin; Johner, Christian; Martin, Christoph; Weber, Reinhart

    1993-03-01

    Low shear (γ˙=1 s-1) and shear rate dependent (1 s-1<γ˙<100 s-1) viscosity measurements on aqueous suspensions of rodlike FD-virus particles (length=880 nm, diameter=9 nm) below and above the overlap concentration c* =1 particle/length3 are presented. Properties like intrinsic viscosity [η], the virus concentration and shear rate dependence of η are studied in deionized (``saltfree'') suspensions and in the presence of NaCl, where the Coulomb interaction between the particles is totally screened. In the latter case, [η] is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions [A. R. Altenberger and J. S. Dahler, Macromolecules 18, 1700 (1985); R. M. Davis and W. B. Russel, Macromolecules 20, 518 (1987)]. As a function of the virus concentration, η follows certain power laws in c. The observed exponents depend here on the applied shear rate. In the low shear region, η(c) can be described by the well known Huggins behavior. An attempt to fit the data by the popular stretched exponential form failed. The variation of η with shear rate is compared with available theories [M. Doi and S. F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1986); A. R. Altenberger and J. S. Dahler, Macromolecules 18, 1700 (1985); J. S. Dahler, S. Fesciyan, and N. Xystris, Macromolecules 16, 1673 (1983)]. A theory of Hess [Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 35, 915 (1980)] allows us to evaluate the concentration dependent values of the rotational diffusion constant Drot from the η(γ˙) data which are found to be in very good agreement with the values of Drot, obtained by electric or magnetic birefringence [H. Kramer, M. Deggelmann, C. Graf, M. Hagenbüchle, C. Johner, and R. Weber, Macromolecules 25, 4325 (1992); J. F. Maguire and J. P. McTague, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1891 (1980); H. Nakamura and K. Okano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 186 (1983)]. For strong Coulomb interaction among the suspended viruses no adequate theory is available. Therefore, the data achieved under these conditions

  7. Past obstetric history and risk of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pięta, Beata; Chmaj-Wierzchowska, Karolina; Opala, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Early age at menarche and late age at last menstrual period, as well as other reproductive factors, may be the cause of development of some types of cancer concerning the female reproductive organs. It has been estimated that late menopause may be responsible for the occurrence of even 16% of cases of ovarian cancer in the population. The incidence of ovarian cancer is also higher among nulliparous women, and among those who rarely become pregnant. The objective of the study was analysis of the effect of reproductive factors on the risk of ovarian cancer. The study covered healthy women, without the diagnosis of focal lesions in the ovaries, and women with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The study was conducted during the period from September 2007-November 2011, and covered a total number of 1,346 women. Odds ratio was calculated for individual risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the statistical packages STATISTICA v8, GrafPad Instat v 3.00, Analyse-it v. 2.2, and Cytel Studio StatXact-8. Statistical hypothesis were verified on the level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Among females who began menstruating by the age of 11, the risk of ovarian cancer was 1.6 higher than among those in whom the first period occurred at the age of over 13. Similarly, among women who menstruated at the age of over 55 the risk of development of ovarian cancer was 1.4 times higher. The age at which a woman delivered her first live baby is also of importance. In the group of women who gave birth at the age of over 35, the risk was elevated and remained on the level of OR=1.7; 95%CI 0.66-4.5, compared to those who bore the first baby under the age of 25. If the pregnancy was terminated with miscarriage, the risk of contracting ovarian cancer decreases, and was on the level of OR=0.8; 95%CI 0.53-1.28, compared to the women who have never been pregnant. Among patients who did not breastfeed their babies, ovarian cancer risk was 1.7 times higher, compared to those

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the labrum to predict acetabular development in developmental dysplasia of the hip: A STROBE compliant study.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Wada, Ikuo; Tsuboi, Yoshiaki; Ha, Myongsu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-05-01

    Recently, more attention has been paid to the role of the acetabular labrum. Therefore, we designed a retrospective cohort study of patients with residual hip dysplasia (RHD) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this study was to investigate an association between the MRI appearance of the labrum before school age and the natural history of RHD.We retrospectively investigated 45 hips of 40 patients who underwent MRI at about 3 and 4 years of age for RHD and were conservatively followed up with until 6 years of age or older. We evaluated the extent of eversion with a new method that measures the β angle (MRI β angle) using landmarks of the Graf method on MRI T2*-weighted images. The outcome measure was the Severin classification at the final follow-up. We compared the radiographic and MRI parameters at approximately 3 and 4 years of age between the good and poor outcome groups. The Student t test or one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the quantitative variables between groups. The Chi-square test was used to perform a ratio comparison.Although there was a significant difference in the center-edge (CE) angle, there was no significant difference in the acetabular index and the ratio of the presence of femoral head necrosis and the break in Shenton line between the good and poor groups. The MRI β angle was significantly greater in the poor outcome group than in the normal and good outcome groups. The cut-off value of the MRI β angle to differentiate the good and poor outcome groups was 65°, and its specificity and sensitivity were 92% and 53%, respectively.There was labral eversion on MRI scans in patients with RHD. Acetabular development before adolescence was poorer with greater labral eversion on MRI scans. The specificity for poor acetabular development was high when the MRI β angle was 65° or more. The MRI β angle has the potential to predict acetabular development.

  9. Synthesis, Molecular Structure Optimization, and Cytotoxicity Assay of a Novel 2-Acetyl-3-amino-5-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfanyl]-4-cyanothiophene.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia N; Aldawsari, Fahad D; Al-Showiman, Salim S; Barakat, Assem; Soliman, Saied M; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Yousuf, Sammer; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2016-02-15

    A novel thiophene-containing compound, 2-acetyl-3-amino-5-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfanyl]-4-cyanothiophene (4) was synthesized by reaction of malononitrile with CS₂ in the presence of K₂CO₃ under reflux in DMF and the subsequent reaction with chloroacetone followed by cyclization. This compound has been characterized by means of FT-IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectrometry as well as elemental analysis. In addition, the molecular structures of compound 4 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The geometry of the molecule is stabilized by an intramolecular interaction between N1-H1···O1 to form S6 graf set ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N1-H2···O1 and C7-H7A···N2 interactions to form a three-dimensional network. Molecular structure and other spectroscopic properties of compound 4 were calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method. Results revealed a good agreement between the optimized geometric parameters and the observed X-ray structure. Furthermore, and by employing the natural bond orbital (NBO) method, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions along with natural atomic charges at different sites, were calculated; results indicated strong n→π* ICT from LP(1)N5→BD*(2)C15-C16 (63.23 kcal/mol). In addition, the stabilization energy E(2) of the LP(2)O3→ BD*(1)N5-H6 ICT (6.63 kcal/mol) indicated the presence of intramolecular N-H···OH bonding. Similarly, calculations of the electronic spectra of compound 4 using, TD-DFT revealed a good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, compound 4 was evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxic effect against PC-3 and HeLa cell lines, as an anticancer agent, and found to be nontoxic.

  10. Comparison of proteolytic activities produced by entomopathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria: strain- and phase-dependent heterogeneity in composition and activity of four enzymes.

    PubMed

    Marokházi, Judit; Lengyel, Katalin; Pekár, Szilvia; Felföldi, Gabriella; Patthy, András; Gráf, László; Fodor, András; Venekei, István

    2004-12-01

    Twenty strains (including eight phase variant pairs) of nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria were examined for the production of proteolytic enzymes by using a combination of several methods, including gelatin liquefaction, zymography coupled to native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and activity measurement with two chromogen substrate types. Four protease activities (approximately 74, approximately 55, approximately 54, and approximately 37 kDa) could be separated. The N-terminal sequences of three of the proteases were determined, and a comparison with sequences in databases allowed identification of these proteases as HEXXH metallopeptidases. Thus, the 74-kDa protease (described formerly as Php-B [J. Marokhazi, G. Koczan, F. Hudecz, L. Graf, A. Fodor, and I. Venekei, Biochem. J. 379:633-640, 2004) is an ortholog of OpdA, a member the thimet oligopeptidase family, and the 55-kDa protease is an ortholog of PrtA, a HEXXH+H peptidase in clan MB (metzincins), while the 37-kDa protease (Php-C) belongs to the HEXXH+E peptidases in clan MA. The 54-kDa protease (Php-D) is a nonmetalloenzyme. PrtA and Php-C were zymographically detected, and they occurred in several smaller forms as well. OpdA could not be detected by zymography. PrtA, Php-C, and Php-D were secreted proteases; OpdA, in contrast, was an intracellular enzyme. OpdA activity was found in every strain tested, while Php-D was detected only in the Brecon/1 strain. There was significant strain variation in the secretion of PrtA and Php-C activities, but reduced activity or a lack of activity was not specific to secondary-phase variants. The presence of PrtA, OpdA, and Php-C activities could be detected in the hemolymph of Galleria melonella larvae 20 to 40 h postinfection. These proteases appear not to be directly involved in the pathogenicity of Photorhabdus, since strains or phase variants lacking any of these proteases do not show reduced virulence when

  11. ESA Science Media Day: Rosetta and Integral getting ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Media representatives are invited to ESTEC on Tuesday 18 June to learn about these two missions. Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, ESA project managers and project scientists, together with industry representatives, will be giving presentations and be on hand for interviews. Visits to the spacecraft in their test environment will also be included. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at ESA/ESTEC on 18 June are kindly requested to complete the attached accreditation form and fax it to: Heidi Graf, Head of Corporate Communication Office - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands - (Tel. +31(0) 71.565.3006 - Fax. +31(0)71.565.5728). Note for editors: The mission goal for the Rosetta spacecraft is a rendezvous with Comet Wirtanen in 2011. Rosetta will be launched in January 2003 by an Ariane-5 from Kourou, French Guiana. On its eight-year journey to the Comet, the spacecraft will pass close to two asteroids, before studying the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen and its environment in great detail for a period of nearly two years (2011-2013). The spacecraft will also carry a lander to the nucleus and deploy it on the comet's surface. The lander science will focus on in situ study of the composition and structure of the nucleus material. The mission will make an unparalleled study of cometary material and reveal much about how the solar system formed. Integral will have the task of tracking gamma radiation across the entire sky. ESA's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Integral, will gather gamma rays, the most energetic radiation that comes from space. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on 17 October this year, from Baikonur, on board a Russian Proton launcher and will help solve some of the biggest mysteries in astronomy. Integral will be the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and yet at the same time give evidence of the processes that

  12. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Thoms, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density

  13. Initial Comparison of Baseline Physical and Mechanical Properties for the VHTR Candidate Graphite Grades

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark C.

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is establishing accurate as-manufactured mechanical and physical property distributions in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding

  14. Archive of single-beam bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 07CCT01 nearshore of Fort Massachusetts and within Camille Cut, West and East Ship Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, B.J.; Hansen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 07CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2007 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first (01) field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. Data were collected using a 26-foot (ft) Glacier Bay catamaran. The single-beam transducers were sled mounted on a rail attached between the catamaran hulls. Navigation was acquired using HYPACK, Inc., Hypack version 4.3a.7.1 and differentially corrected using land-based GPS stations. See the digital FACS equipment log for details about the acquisition equipment used. Raw datasets were stored digitally and processed systematically using NovAtel's Waypoint GrafNav version 7.6, SANDS version 3.7, and ESRI ArcGIS version 9.3.1. For more information on processing refer to the Equipment and Processing page.

  15. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  16. Sedimentary connection between rock glaciers and torrential channels: definition, inventory and quantification from a test area in the south-western Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummert, Mario; Barboux, Chloé; Delaloye, Reynald

    2017-04-01

    order to validate these estimations, the resulting sediment transfer rates are compared to transfer rates calculated from repeated terrestrial LiDAR surveys on selected study cases. This contribution presents results from the application of this methodology in a test study area in the south-western Swiss Alps. The methodology reveals itself suitable to identify rock glaciers connected to the torrential network. For each of the detected rock glaciers, an estimation of the sediment yield is proposed. The transfer rates range from tens of cubic meters per year for some slow moving and/or partially connected landforms, to several thousands of cubic meters per year. References: Delaloye R. (2004). Contribution à l'étude du pergélisol de montagne en zone marginale. GeoFocus vol. 10, Thèse, Département de Géosciences/Géographie, Université de Fribourg. Delaloye, R., Lambiel, C., Gärtner-Roer, I. (2010). Overview of rock glacier kinematics research in the Swiss Alps. Seasonal rhythm, interannual variations and trends over several decades. Geogr. Helv., 65: 2, 135-145. Delaloye, R., Morard, S., Barboux, C., Abbet, D., Gruber, V., Riedo, M. & Gachet, S. (2013). Rapidly moving rock glaciers in Mattertal. In: Graf, C. (Eds). Mattertal - ein Tal in Bewegung. Publikation zur Jahrestagung der Schweizerischen Geomorphologischen Gesellschaft 29. Juni - 1. Juli 2011, St. Niklaus, Birmensdorf, Eidg. Forschungsanstalt WSL, 113 - 124. Gärtner-Roer, I. (2012). Sediment transfer rates of two active rockglaciers in the Swiss Alps. Geomorphology, 167-168, 45-50. Lugon, R. & Stoffel, M. (2010). Rock glacier dynamics and magnitude-frequency relations of debris flows in a high-elevation watershed : Ritigraben, Swiss Alps. Global and Planetary Change, 73, 202-210.

  17. Mesospheric electron detachment and LORE recovery times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, Francisco J.; Haldoupis, Christos; Luque, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    early VLF events associated to sprites [4], [5]. [1] Haldoupis, C., M. Cohen, E. Arnone, B. Cotts, and S. Dietrich (2013), Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by EM pulses radiated by powerful ± CG lightning discharges, J. Geophys. Res., 118, doi: 10.1002/jgra-50489. [2] Salut, M.M., M. B. Cohen, M. A. M. Ali, K. L. Graf, B. R. T. Cotts and S. Kumar (2013), On the relationship between lightning peak current and early VLF perturbations, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, doi: 10.1002/2013JA019087 [3] Inan, U. S., and W. A. Sampson (1996), Space-time structure of optical flashes and ionization changes produced by lighting-EMP, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2, 133-136. [4] Mika, A., and C. Haldoupis (2008), VLF studies during TLE observations in Europe: A summary of new findings, Space Sci. Rev., 137, 489-510, doi: 10.1007/s11214008-9382-8. [5] Inan, U. S., S. A. Cummer, and R. A. Marshall (2010), A survey of ELF/VLF research of lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00E36, doi: 10.1029/2009JA014775.

  18. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  19. A multi-approach to the optical depth of a contrail cirrus cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Navarro, Margarita; Bugliaro, Luca; Schumann, Ulrich; Strandgren, Johan; Wirth, Martin; Voigt, Christiane

    2017-04-01

    ., Curtius, J., Dollner, M., Dörnbrack, A., Dreiling, V., Ebert, V., Ehrlich, A., Fix, A., Forster, L., Frank, F., Fütterer, D., Giez, A., Graf, K., Grooß, J.-U., Groß, S., Heimerl, K., Heinold, B., Hüneke, T., Järvinen, E., Jurkat, T., Kaufmann, S., Kenntner, M., Klingebiel, M., Klimach, T., Kohl, R., Krämer, M., Krisna, T. C., Luebke, A., Mayer, B., Mertes, S., Molleker, S., Petzold, A., Pfeilsticker, K., Port, M., Rapp, M., Reutter, P., Rolf, C., Rose, D., Sauer, D., Schäfler, A., Schlage, R., Schnaiter, M., Schneider, J., Spelten, N., Spichtinger, P., Stock, P., Walser, A., Weigel, R., Weinzierl, B., Wendisch, M., Werner, F., Wernli, H., Wirth, M., Zahn, A., Ziereis, H., and Zöger, M.: ML-CIRRUS - The airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft HALO, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., in press, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00213.1, 2017.

  20. Simulations of Potential Runout and Deposition of the Ferguson Rockslide, Merced River Canyon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, Roger P.

    2007-01-01

    of the rockslide moving five to ten times faster than the middle portion or headwall part of the slide. Downslope of the main rockslide mass, a talus slope consist in of angular blocks ranging in size from 0.1 to greater than 10 meters (Gallegos and DeGraff, 2006), buries Highway 140. Both the main rockslide and the talus consist of angular blocks ranging in size from 0.1 to more than 10 meters and are composed of highly fractured phyllite, slate, and chert from the Phyllite and Chert of Hite Cove (Bateman and Krauskopf, 1987). The purpose of this report is to assess the hazard posed by the Ferguson rockslide by simulating the runout and deposition of a portion of the slide if rapid failure occurs. As discussed by Gallegos and DeGraf (2006), a runout analysis is needed to delineate slide hazards. The report is restricted to calculations of potential runout and does not address the likelihood of rapid failure. Based on discussions with Allan Gallegos (USFS), two end-member initial slide volumes were chosen: (1) the toe of the slide along boundaries defined by Tim Beck (CALTRANS) in (Beck, 2006), and (2) the entire sliding rock mass, again along boundaries defined by Tim Beck. The simulated runout of these volumes during rapid failure uses granular flow mechanics developed by Iverson (1997) and the model developed by Denliner and Iverson, (2004). This model has been thoroughly tested against experimental data and provides plausible, defensible results.

  1. The impact of mixing lithologies in clast shape measurements on its discriminatory power - a case study from a temperate Alpine glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, S.; Coray, S.; Graf, A.; Schlüchter, C.

    2009-04-01

    power. Therefore, at each locality 50 clasts of the same lithology should be measured to allow a clear distinction of different transport paths. References Benn DI, Ballantyne CK. 1994. Reconstructing the transport history of glacigenic sediments: a new approach based on the co-variance of clast shape indices. Sedimentary Geology 91: 215-227. Bennett MR, Hambrey MJ, Huddart D. 1997. Modification of clast shape in high-arctic glacial environments. Journal of Sedimentary Research 67(3): 550-559. Demir T, Lukas S, Warburton J, Bridgland DR. 2009. A review of clast shape analysis. In: Bridgland DR. (ed). Clast lithological analysis. Technical Guide. Quaternary Research Association: London, in press. Lukas S, Coray S, Graf A, Schlüchter S. 2009. The influence of clast lithology and fluvial reworking on the reliability of clast shape measurements in glacial environments - a case study from a temperate Alpine glacier. In: Bridgland DR. (ed). Clast lithological analysis. Technical Guide. Quaternary Research Association: London, in press.

  2. Femoropopliteal bypass vs percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting in treatment of peripheral artery diseases of infrainquinal segment - short-term results.

    PubMed

    Cvetanovski, M V; Jovev, S; Cvetanovska, M; Blazevski, B; Colanceski, R; Andreevska, T; Gramatnikovski, N; Kartalov, A

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Critical limb ischaemia is a result of occlusive arterial disease in the infrainquinal segment and is a major indication for arterial revascularization, which implies a femoropopliteal bypass procedure or an interventional procedure - stent graf notting of the occluded segment. Although indications for both techniques are clearly defined, there are still controversies. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine short-term results in patients treated with these two treatment modalities. In the period between 2002 and 2008 a total of 70 patients with occlusive arte notrial diseases of the low extremity were analysed. In 50 out of 70 patients a femo notro notpopliteal bypass was made. Of these, in 30 (60%) patients PTFE material was used and in 20 (40%) patients an autologous saphenous vein graft was used. The other group comprised 20 patients who underwent stenting. In patients treated with surgical revas notcularization, the major indication for surgery was occlusive arterial disease in: stage II - in 10 patients (20%), stage III - in 5 patients (10%), stage IV - in 25 patients (50%) and the remaining 10 patients (20%) had subacute ischaemia. Arteriography showed three crural patent tributaries in 18% of the patients, two patent crural tributaries in 40% of the patients and one crural patent tributary in 32% of the patients. There were no significant differences concerning indications and arteriographic findings between the two subgroups. The follow-up period lasted for 6 months and the patency rate was 85% (17) for venous bypass, 11 (64.6%) - short-segment lesions (< 4 cm) and 6 (35.3%) lon notger segment lesions (> 4 cm) versus 76.5% (23) for PTFE graft (p < 0.05), of which 13 (56.5%) were short-segment (<4 cm) and 10 (43.5%) longer segment lesions (> 4 cm). The following results were obtained for the second group of patients: initially successful stents in 85%; failure in 15% or 2 patients; technical

  3. Projects of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmanis, J.; Tomsons, E.; Zeltiņš, N.

    2013-04-01

    Part 2 of the overview gives emphasis to the projects of high-temperature NRs, whose development is an area of active engagement for the specialists from the USA, France, Japan, Russia, China, the Netherlands, and Germany. Projects of several powerful NRs of the HTGR type for commercial use had been worked out in the USA and Germany already by 1970 but not yet implemented. Augstas temperatūras ar gāzes dzesēšanu HTGR (High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor) tipa kodolreaktoru (KR) izstrādes koncepcija bija piedāvāta 1956. gadā Lielbritānijā. Apmēram tanī pašā laikā minētā tipa KR izstrādi uzsāka Vācijā un ASV. HTGR tipa KR kodoldegviela un kodoldegvielas atražošanas materiāla sīkās daļiņas ar diametru apmēram 0.5 mm pārklātas ar vairākām aizsargkārtām un atrodas grafīta neitronu palēninātājā, kas aizsargā daļiņas no neitronu palēninātāja un dzesētāja iedarbes. Augstas temperatūras KR bez hēlija gāzes siltumnesēja var izmantot šķidrus metālus (nātriju, svinu vai svina-bismuta sakausējumu) un izkausētu sāli. Pašlaik darbojās divi augstas temperatūras ar hēlija gāzi dzesēti eksperimentālie HTGR tipa KR. Viens Japānā "HTTR" no 1998. gada oktobra (sākts būvēt 1991. gada 15. martā) ar 30 MWth siltuma jaudu. Otrs Ķīnā "HTR-10" no 2000.gada decembra (sākts būvēt 1995. gada14. jūnijā) ar 10 MWth siltuma jaudu. Ķīnā Shandong provincē 2011.gada aprīlī uzsāka augstas temperatūras "HTR-PM" (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor - Pebble bed Module) tipa kodolreaktora celtniecību ar 250 MWth siltuma jaudu. Augstas temperatūras kodolreaktoru izstrādē pašlaik aktīvi iesaistīti ASV, Francijas, Japānas, Krievijas, Ķīnas, Nīderlandes un Vācijas speciālisti.

  4. Climatic versus topographic forcing on the extend of major Alpine ice-caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Sternai, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    .e. after the mid-Pleistocene transition) show similar extensions. These new observations conflict with older stratigraphic models and no profound explanations have been found yet. Our aim is to explore these first-order feedback mechanisms impacting the growth and extend of Alpine ice shields through time and evolving topography by taking advantage of the comprehensive records and time constraints of glacial history available from the European Alps. Akçar, N., Ivy-Ochs, S., Alfimov, V., Claude, A., Graf, H.R., Dehnert, A., Kubik, P.W., Rahn, M., Kuhlemann, J., Schlüchter, C. (2014): The first major incision of the Swiss Deckenschotter landscape. Swiss J Geosci. DOI 10.1007/s00015-014-0176-6. Pedersen, V., Egholm, D.L. (2013): Glaciations in response to climate variations preconditioned by evolving topography. Nature, 493, 207-210. Preusser, F. (2004): Towards a chronology of the Late Pleistocene in the northern Alpine Foreland. Boreas 33, 195-210.

  5. Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramel, C; Cederberg, H; Magnusson, J; Vogel, E; Natarajan, A T; Mullender, L H; Nivard, J M; Parry, J M; Leyson, A; Comendador, M A; Sierra, L M; Ferreiro, J A; Consuegra, S

    1996-06-12

    The principle objective of this research programme, to analyse chemical induction of somatic recombination and related endpoints, i.e., mobilization of transposing elements and gene amplification, has been approached by means of several assay systems. These have included Drosophila, Saccharomyces and mammalian cell cultures. 6.1. Screening assays for mitotic recombination. A large number of chemicals have been investigated in the three Drosophila assay systems employed--the multiple wing hair/flare wing spot system developed by Graf et al., 1984, the white-ivory system developed by Green et al., 1986 and the white/white+ eye spot assay developed by Vogel (Vogel and Nivard, 1993). Particularly the screening of 181 chemicals, covering a wide array of chemical classes, by the last mentioned assay has shown that measurement of somatic recombination in Drosophila constitutes a sensitive and efficient short-term test which shows a remarkably good correlation with the agent score of 83 short-term tests analysed by ICPEMC (Mendelsohn et al., 1992; Table 2) as well as the assay performance in international collaborative programmes measuring carcinogen/non-carcinogens (de Serres and Ashby, 1981; Ashby et al., 1985, 1988). Also the wing spot assay has gained wide international recognition as a similarly sensitive test. These two assay systems in Drosophila measure both intrachromosomal events and interchromosomal recombination. The white-ivory system on the other hand is based on the loss of a tandem duplication in the white locus, the mechanism of which is less known, but probably involves intrachromosomal recombination. The difference in the mechanism between this assay and the former two was indicated by the lack of response to methotrexate in the white-ivory assay, while this compound was strongly recombinogenic in both the wing spot and white/white+ assays. The use of different strains of Drosophila with the white/white+ assay demonstrated the importance of the

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Iori, K Sakamoto, H Narita, A Kimura, M Taniguchi, S Qiao, K Hasegawa, K Shimada, H Namatame and S Blügel Activated associative desorption of C + O → CO from Ru(001) induced by femtosecond laser pulses S Wagner, H Öström, A Kaebe, M Krenz, M Wolf, A C Luntz and C Frischkorn Surface structure of Sn-doped In2O3 (111) thin films by STM Erie H Morales, Yunbin He, Mykola Vinnichenko, Bernard Delley and Ulrike Diebold Coulomb oscillations in three-layer graphene nanostructures J Güttinger, C Stampfer, F Molitor, D Graf, T Ihn and K Ensslin Adsorption processes of hydrogen molecules on SiC(001), Si(001) and C(001) surfaces Xiangyang Peng, Peter Krüger and Johannes Pollmann Fermi surface nesting in several transition metal dichalcogenides D S Inosov, V B Zabolotnyy, D V Evtushinsky, A A Kordyuk, B Büchner, R Follath, H Berger and S V Borisenko Probing molecule-surface interactions through ultra-fast adsorbate dynamics: propane/Pt(111) A P Jardine, H Hedgeland, D Ward, Y Xiaoqing, W Allison, J Ellis and G Alexandrowicz A novel method achieving ultra-high geometrical resolution in scanning tunnelling microscopy R Temirov, S Soubatch, O Neucheva, A C Lassise and F S Tautz

  7. Development of the curve of Spee.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Steven D; Caspersen, Matthew; Hardinger, Rachel R; Franciscus, Robert G; Aquilino, Steven A; Southard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    Ferdinand Graf von Spee is credited with characterizing human occlusal curvature viewed in the sagittal plane. This naturally occurring phenomenon has clinical importance in orthodontics and restorative dentistry, yet we have little understanding of when, how, or why it develops. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding by examining the development of the curve of Spee longitudinally in a sample of untreated subjects with normal occlusion from the deciduous dentition to adulthood. Records of 16 male and 17 female subjects from the Iowa Facial Growth Study were selected and examined. The depth of the curve of Spee was measured on their study models at 7 time points from ages 4 (deciduous dentition) to 26 (adult dentition) years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the curve of Spee depth between time points. For each subject, the relative eruption of the mandibular teeth was measured from corresponding cephalometric radiographs, and its contribution to the developing curve of Spee was ascertained. In the deciduous dentition, the curve of Spee is minimal. At mean ages of 4.05 and 5.27 years, the average curve of Spee depths are 0.24 and 0.25 mm, respectively. With change to the transitional dentition, corresponding to the eruption of the mandibular permanent first molars and central incisors (mean age, 6.91 years), the curve of Spee depth increases significantly (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 1.32 mm. The curve of Spee then remains essentially unchanged until eruption of the second molars (mean age, 12.38 years), when the depth increases (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 2.17 mm. In the adolescent dentition (mean age, 16.21 years), the depth decreases slightly (P = 0.0009) to a mean maximum depth of 1.98 mm, and, in the adult dentition (mean age 26.98 years), the curve remains unchanged (P = 0.66), with a mean maximum depth of 2.02 mm. No significant differences in curve of Spee development were found between

  8. Dynamical Contributions to Midlatitude Ozone Trends: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Soukharev, B. E.

    2002-05-01

    transport low PV, ozone-poor air from the subtropical upper troposphere to the midlatitude lower stratosphere on isentropic surfaces. The most extreme such breaking events result in the formation of so-called ozone mini-holes, the wintertime occurrence of which has increased, on average, during the last few decades (McCormack and Hood, GRL, v. 24, p. 2647, 1997; Reid et al., JGR, v. 105, p. 12169, 2000; Orsolini and Limpasuvan, GRL, v. 28, p. 4099, 2001). The source of the transport-induced ozone trends may be either a temporary internal climate deviation or an anthropogenic circulation change stimulated by greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., Graf et al., J. Geophys. Res., v. 103, p. 11251, 1998).

  9. Long-term monitoring of sandbars on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Grams, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 dramatically changed discharge and sediment supply to the downstream Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons. Magnitudes of seasonal flow variation have been suppressed, while daily fluctuations have increased because of hydropower generation. Lake Powell, the upstream reservoir, traps all sediment, leaving the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers as the main suppliers of fine sediment to the system below Glen Canyon Dam. The reduction in sediment supply, along with changes in discharge, have resulted in finesediment deficit (Topping et al., 2000), leading to a decrease in the size and number of alluvial sandbars (Schmidt and Graf, 1990; Schmidt et al., 2004). However, the understanding of these important spatial and temporal changes in sandbars located along the banks of the river have been limited to infrequent measurements mostly made by direct visitation and topographic surveying (Hazel et al., 2010). Aerial photographs are the only data available from which it is possible to evaluate changes in alluvial deposits at a large number of sites and compare recent conditions with those that existed prior to the initiation of ground-based monitoring in the early 1990s. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of Glen Canyon Dam on sandbars by analysis of comprehensive maps of surficial geology that are based on seven sets of aerial imagery taken between 1935 and 1996 for selected reaches in the first 120 km downstream from Lees Ferry, Arizona (Figure 1). These studies showed that the area of exposed sand in eddy-deposition zones was less in the post-dam period than in the pre-dam period (Leschin and Schmidt, 1995; Schmidt et al., 1999b; Sondossi, 2001, Sondossi and Schmidt, 2001, Schmidt et al., 2004). In this study, we extend these analyses to encompass a 74-year period by including maps of sand deposits visible in aerial imagery taken in 2002, 2005, and 2009 for the same reaches that were mapped in the earlier studies. Results

  10. 26Al and 10Be Activities of Lodranites and Winona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Juenemann, D.; Middleton, R.

    1993-07-01

    ] found a ^21Ne content of 25.2 x 10^-8 cm^3 STP/g and a low ^22Ne/^21Ne ratio of 1.071 for Winona, a find of uncertain age with heavily weathered metal. The measured ^10Be activities are also low, about half the estimated production rates. A ^21Ne production rate of about 0.314 x 10^-8 cm^3 STP/g- My would be expected under normal shielding in a body with the bulk composition of Winona [5,6]. If we assume a short terrestrial age and a constant ratio of ^10Be to ^21Ne production [7], then an exposure age on the order of 150 My is implied. Use of the measured ^26Al activity in the same way gives a shorter but more uncertain exposure age of ~110 My. The high ^26Al activity in Winona "metal" may indicate the presence of sulfide [5]. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows ^10Be and ^26Al (dpm/kg) in silicate- and metal-rich samples from lodranites and Winona. References: [1] Eugster O. and Weigel A. (1993) LPS XXIV, 453- 454. [2] Middleton R. and Klein J. (1986) Proc. Workshop Tech. Accel. Mass Spectrom., England, 76-81; Middleton R. and Klein J. (1987) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, A323, 121-143. [3] Feigenson and Carr (1985) Chem. Geol., 51, 19-27. [4] Schultz L. and Kruse H. (1989) Meteoritics, 24, 155-172. [5] Mason B. and Jarosewich E. (1967) GCA, 31, 1097-1099. [6] Eugster O. (1988) GCA, 52, 1649-1659. [7] Graf Th. et al. (1992) GCA, 54, 2521-2534.

  11. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    , StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L. Thompson, SheffieldF. Vannucci, Paris

    Local Organizing Committee

    S. Danaher, NorthumbriaC. Rhodes, Imperial College London
    J. Perkin, SheffieldT. Sloan, Lancaster
    L. Thompson, SheffieldD. Waters, University College London

    Participants

    Joseph Allen, Northumbria University, UK Miguel Ardid, Univ. Polit. de Valencia, Spain
    Thomas Asch, IPE, FZKa, Germany Karl-Heinz Becker, BU Wuppertal, Germany
    Dave Besson, U. of Kansas, USA Simon Bevan, University College London, UK
    Manuel Bou Cabo, Politecnic University Valencia, Spain Sebastian Böser, DESY Zeuthen, Germany
    Antonio Capone, University La Sapienza and INFN, Italy Paula Chadwick, University of Durham, UK
    Masami Chiba, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan Amy Connolly, UCLA, USA
    Sean Danaher, Northumbria University, UK Giulia De Bonis, Univ. Rome `La Sapienza', Italy
    Freija Descamps, University of Gent, BelgiumKay Graf, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Andreas Haungs, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany Kara Hoffman, University of Maryland, USA
    Stephen Hoover, UCLA, USA Tim Huege, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany
    Paula Gina Isar, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany Timo Karg, BU Wuppertal, Germany
    Johannes Knapp, University of Leeds, UK Robert Lahmann, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Mark Lancaster

  12. Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2007-09-03

    Any attempt to reconcile observed surface temperature changes within the last 150 years to changes simulated by climate models that include various atmospheric forcings is sensitive to the changes attributed to aerosols and aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, which are the main contributors that may well balance the positive forcings associated with greenhouse gases, absorbing aerosols, ozone related changes, etc. These aerosol effects on climate, from various modeling studies discussed in Menon (2004), range from +0.8 to -2.4 W m{sup -2}, with an implied value of -1.0 W m{sup -2} (range from -0.5 to -4.5 W m{sup -2}) for the aerosol indirect effects. Quantifying the contribution of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions remain complicated for several reasons some of which are related to aerosol distributions and some to the processes used to represent their effects on clouds. Aerosol effects on low lying marine stratocumulus clouds that cover much of the Earth's surface (about 70%) have been the focus of most of prior aerosol-cloud interaction effect simulations. Since cumulus clouds (shallow and deep convective) are short lived and cover about 15 to 20% of the Earth's surface, they are not usually considered as radiatively important. However, the large amount of latent heat released from convective towers, and corresponding changes in precipitation, especially in biomass regions due to convective heating effects (Graf et al. 2004), suggest that these cloud systems and aerosol effects on them, must be examined more closely. The radiative heating effects for mature deep convective systems can account for 10-30% of maximum latent heating effects and thus cannot be ignored (Jensen and Del Genio 2003). The first study that isolated the sensitivity of cumulus clouds to aerosols was from Nober et al. (2003) who found a reduction in precipitation in biomass burning regions and shifts in circulation patterns. Aerosol effects on convection have been included in other

  13. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    and numerous studies have been undertaken to investigate past so-called dew collectors and to research the possibilities of using new ones. Most of the historical dew collectors have been disputed as dew collection devices. (Beysens et al 2006, Beysens et al in Kogan and Trahtman 2006, Graf et al 2008.) However, contemporary dew collection has proven possible in those areas that have dew fall. It is generally agreed by researchers, such as Sharan and Beysens in 2007 and Jacobs et al in 2008 after Monteith (1957) that the theoretical maximum dew yield is in the order of 0.8 l/m2/day. Although the exact maximum has never been defined the amounts can yet be significant. However, In most cases the investigations of dew supply in areas where dew is known to precipitate has been undertaken with inclined roof like planar surfaces. However, erecting these planes in remote areas and within difficult terrain makes this kind of collector impractical. Additionally such planar surfaces demand space on the ground which then diminishes the areas of restoration and large collectors require additional plumbing to distribute water to the plants themselves. Thus in order to better supply dew to plants other forms are required. This paper discusses the various ideas and concepts that have been developed for dew collection that have emerged on the market and the novel ideas that have been initiated by the author. The research undertaken investigates biomimetic forms which emulate plant forms such as various cacti and succulents investigating their ability to increase surface area as well as releasing heat like a radiator. Additionally other spiky, needle like forms are investigated as well as animal forms, such as the surface of the Stenocara gracilipes Namibian beetle which collects fog. The research initiated a new strategy for dew collection dividing dew collectors into two types: 1) Passive dew collectors, where nightly collection and delivery is achieved without people, and 2) Semi

  14. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    . Most precipitation is monsoonal, convective storms that bring moisture from the Gulf of Mexico beginning in early July and ending by October. Large frontal storms during December and January are responsible for most winter precipitation (Figure 2). The record from U.S. Geological Survey gauging station number 09379000 operated by the BLM from 1959 through 1968 indicates that Comb Wash flows in direct response to precipitation events. Most daily discharge and peak events occur in late July through September, coinciding with high intensity monsoon thunderstorms. Comb Wash supports a variety of vegetation typical of the Great Basin Desert and the northern desert shrub zone as described by Fowler and Koch (1982). On the lower alluvial terraces, bushes and shrubs dominate the vegetation, including: sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), winterfat (Eurotia lanata), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and shadscale (Atriplex concertifolia). Juniper trees (Juniperus osteosperma) can be found on the rocky colluvial slopes near Comb Ridge and on the higher terrace near Cedar Mesa. The floodplain contains an abundance of riparian vegetation including cottonwood (Populus fremontii), willow (Salix exigua), and tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). Tamarisk is one of 7 non-native species present in the lower Comb Wash watershed. At least seven known species of noxious weeds have invaded the watershed, including Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), field bindweed (Convolvulus avensis), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens), tamarisk and camel thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi). Of these, tamarisk or salt-cedar has most aggressively colonized the southwestern United States, including the San Juan watershed. Graf (1978) estimates that since the late 19th century, tamarisk has spread at a rate of 20 km per year. Tamarisk first appeared in Comb Wash during the mid to early 20th century based on

  15. Chemical composition of the semi-volatile grains of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, Peter; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Bieler, André; Calmonte, Ursina; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fuselier, Stefan; Gasc, Sébastien; Gombosi, Tamas; Jäckel, Annette; Korth, Axel; Le Roy, Lena; Mall, Urs; Rème, Henri; Rubin, Martin; Tzou, Chia-Yu

    2017-04-01

    grain is completely evaporated in such an ion source after a few 100 seconds, the RTOF instrument is best suited for the investigation of its chemical composition since several complete mass spectra are recorded during this time. The rate of dust grains recorded in RTOF is small, and we report on the collection and analysis of 9 dust grains during the October 2014 to July 2016 time period. It is estimated that these grains contain about 1E-15 g of volatiles, which would correspond to a grain of the order of 100 nm in size if made up of volatiles alone. We fitted the recorded mass spectra of RTOF with a set of 61 molecules, and their molecular fragments resulting from the ionisation. The major groups of chemical species are hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, nitrogen-bearing molecules, sulphur-bearing molecules, halogenated molecules and others (including water and CO2). About 70% of these grains are depleted in water compared to the comet coma, thus, can be considered as semi-volatile dust grains, and the other about 30% are water grains. The mineral phase of these grains, if there is any, cannot be investigated in these measurements. However, in an earlier investigation the bulk composition of mineral grains on the surface of the comet was inferred from solar wind sputtering of these grains (Wurz et al., 2015). H. Balsiger, K. Altwegg, P. Bochsler, P. Eberhardt, J. Fischer, S. Graf, A. Jäckel, E. Kopp, U. Langer, M. Mildner, J. Müller, T. Riesen, M. Rubin, S. Scherer, P. Wurz, S. Wüthrich, E. Arijs, S. Delanoye, J. De Keyser, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, H. Rème, C. Aoustin, C. Mazelle, J.-L. Médale, J.A. Sauvaud, J.-J. Berthelier, J.-L. Ber-taux, L. Duvet, J.-M. Illiano, S.A. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, T. Magoncelli, E.G. Shelley, A. Korth, K. Heerlein, H. Lauche, S. Livi, A. Loose, U. Mall, B. Wilken, F. Gliem, B. Fiethe, T.I. Gombosi, B. Block, G.R. Carignan, L.A. Fisk, J.H. Waite, D.T. Young, and H. Wollnik, ROSINA - Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and

  16. Obituary: Michael John Klein, 1940-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulkis, Samuel

    2006-12-01

    Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National

  17. The Orbital Distribution of Earth-crossing Asteroids and Meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-07-01

    are a problem for orbits calculated from the radiants of observed falls). Potential applications of these data include investigation of possible meteorite "streams" [2] and exploring questions such as whether different types and classes of meteorites have different orbital distributions [8]. References: [1] Steel D. I. et al. (1991) Mon. R. Astron. Soc., 251, 632-648. [2] Wolf S. F. and Lipschutz M. E. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 308. [3] Benoit P. H. et al. (1991) Icarus, 94, 311-325. [4] Benoit P. H. and Sears D. W. G. (1993) LPS XXIV, 95- 96. [5] Wetherill G. W. and ReVelle D. O. (1981) Icarus, 48, 308- 328. [6] Williams J. G. (1975) JGR, 80, 2914-2916. [7] Galibina I. V. and Terent'eva A. K. (1987) Solar Sys. Res., 21, 160-166. [8] Graf Th. and Marti K. (1991) LPS XXII, 473-474.

  18. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    al. (1982) Mem. NIPR Spec. Issue 25, 178-187; 2. Evans J.C. and Reeves J.H. (1987) EPSL 82, 223-230; 3. Vogt S. (1990) LPI Tech. Rpt. 90-05, 112-118; 4. Nishizumi K. et al. (1991) Meteoritics 26 (abs.), 380; 5. Graf Th. and Marti K. (1990) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXI, 431-432; 6. Schultz L., Weber H.W. and Begemann F. (1991) GCA 55, 59-66; 7. Benoit P.H. et al. (1990) Ant. J. of the U.S. 25 (Rev.), 47-49.

  19. Noble Gases in the LEW 88663 L7 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y. N.; Sugiura, N.; Nagao, K.

    1995-09-01

    likely terrestrial contamination in origin) rather than chondritic ones seem to be dominant in LEW88663. A K-Ar age of 4.3 +/- 0.2 b.y. is obtained assuming K content of 660 ppm by [9], implying radiogenic ^40Ar is almost retained. Because of low abundance of trapped Xe in the meteorite compared with the abundances in other chondrites, ^244Pu-derived fission Xe could be evaluated more precisely. According to the measured Xe data (for this, three isotope plots such as ^134Xe/^130Xe versus ^136Xe/^130Xe are useful), we conclude that Xe in LEW88663 is the mixture of ^244Pu-derived fission Xe and the terrestrial atmospheric Xe with possibility that a small amount of chondritic Xe is contained. Using the same procedure described in [10], we obtained excess ^136Xe concentration, 1.4 x 10^-12 cm^3STP/g with about 20% uncertainty, of which about 3% is from contribution of ^238U-derived ^136Xe if average U content for L chondrite (14 ppb) is assumed. The calculated Pu abundance of 0.21 ppb is slightly higher than those reported for L chondrites Barwell (0.11 +/- 0.05 ppb [11]) and Marion (0.10+/-0.40 ppb [11]). Acknowledgments: We thank Meteorite Working Group for providing the sample. We are also grateful to Dr. D. Mittlefehldt for showing us his chemical composition data. This work is supported by Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists. References: [1] Mason B. et al. (1992) Antarc. Meteorite Newsletter, 15(2), 30. [2] Mason B. and Marlow R. (1992) Antarc. Meteorite Newsletter, 15(1), 16. [3] Davis A. M. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 375-376. [4] Mittlefehldt D. W. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 401-402. [5] Hervey R. P. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 360. [6] Eugster O. (1988) GCA, 52, 1649-1662. [7] Marti K. and Graf T.(1992) Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 20, 221-243. [8] E.g. Marti K. (1967) EPSL, 2, 193-196. [9] Mittlefehldt D. W., personal communication. [10] Miura Y. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 1857-1866. [11] Hagee B. et al. (1990) GCA, 54

  20. Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    and Graf (2001), and Eugster (2003) have published general reviews of CRE ages.

    1. Countdown for the Cluster quartet

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      2000-07-01

      then become the official designations of the satellites. Where to witness the first launch in Europe. On 15 July media representatives are invited to cover the launch from various sites in Europe. ESA will broadcast the launch live, with images from Baikonur and ESA's Operations Centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany. ESA programme officials and spokespersons will be on hand at each site for interviews. European Press Centre, Germany: Location: ESA/ ESOC Address: Robert-Bosch Strasse 5, Darmstadt, Germany Opening hours: 13:30 -17:30 Contact point: Jocelyne Landeau-Constantin Tel. + 49 6151 90 2696/ 2459 Fax. + 49 6151 90 2961 France Location: ESA Headquarters Address: 8-10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris, France Opening hours: 13:30- 17:30 Contact point: Anne-Marie Rémondin Tel. + 33 1 5369 7155 Fax. + 33 1 5369 7690 The Netherlands Location: Noordwijk Space Expo Address: Keplerlaan 3, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Opening hours: 13:30 - 17:30 Contact point: Heidi Graf Tel. (till 14/07): + 31 71 565 3006 on launch date at Noordwijk Space Expo, tel.: + 31 71 364 6446 Fax.: + 31 71 565 5728 Italy Location: ESA/ESRIN Address: Via G. Galilei, Frascati (Rome), Italy Opening hours: 13:30- 17:30 Contact point: Franca Morgia Tel. + 39 06 9418 0951 Fax. +39 06 9418 0952 Spain: Location ESA/VILSPA Satellite Station Address: Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid Opening hours: 13:30-17:30 Contact point: Fany Peña Tel + 34 91 813 1211 Fax. +34 91 813 1212 Media representatives wishing to attend the launch event from any of the sites, are kindly requested to fill out the attached reply form and fax it back to the contact point at the site they have chosen. The live launch video transmission will be available in analogue (PAL) and digital (MPEG-2) format, via satellite. There will be different language versions plus clean, international audio. The exact times of the transmission and the satellite parameters will be posted as from 10 July on the Internet at http://television.esa.int. The launch of

    2. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Akchurin, Nural

      2012-12-01

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