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Sample records for ei ole perpetuum

  1. About Perpetuum Mobile without Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulov, Alexey

    2002-11-01

    It is noted that old belief in impossibility of any perpetuum mobile is the basis of the great confidence in the second law of thermodynamics. The Carnot's principle, «called with the time of Rudolf Clausius as the second law of thermodynamics», was based on this belief and this belief saved the second law in the beginning of 20 century when absolute randomness of any Brownian motion, perpetual motion experimentally observed, was postulated. It is shown that this postulate is not correct according to quantum mechanics. Moreover experimental evidence of its violation is known. Violation of this postulate means violation of the second law and a possibility of useful perpetuum mobile.

  2. Pastors and the "Perpetuum Mobile": The Dynamics of Professional Learning in Times of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reite, Ingrid Chr.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing knowledge society, many workplaces experience a great number of reforms, implying improvement, new ways of working and professional learning. When a reform is introduced, however, does a professional act as an ever-moving machine--a "perpetuum mobile"--always learning with full energy? In this article, I ask the following:…

  3. OLED area illumination source

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  4. OLED devices

    DOEpatents

    Sapochak, Linda Susan [Arlington, VA; Burrows, Paul Edward [Kennewick, WA; Bimalchandra, Asanga [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    An OLED device having an emission layer formed of an ambipolar phosphine oxide host material and a dopant, a hole transport layer in electrical communication with an anode, an electron transport layer in communication with a cathode, wherein the HOMO energy of the hole transport layer is substantially the same as the HOMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer, and the LUMO energy of the electron transport layer is substantially the same as the LUMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer.

  5. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  6. OLED panel with fuses

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  7. OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

    2004-02-29

    The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device tolerant to the most

  8. A look inside white OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbert, Peter; Coehoorn, Reinder

    2013-09-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for lighting are finding their way to the market. These OLEDs have organic layers only a few nanometres thick. Improving their efficiency and stability requires nanometre-precision information about where the light is emitted. Reconstruction of the emission profile from the measured emission and molecular-scale modelling provide a unique nanoscale look inside white OLEDs.

  9. OLED study for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

    2005-07-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

  10. Series connected OLED structure and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Balch, Ernest Wayne; Duggal, Anil Raj; Heller, Christian Maria; Guida, Renato; Nealon, William Francis; Faircloth, Tami Janene

    2006-05-23

    A light emitting device comprises a plurality of organic light emitting diode (OLED) modules. The OLED modules are arranged into a series group where the individual OLED modules are electrically connected in series. The device is configured to be coupled to a power supply. A display is also provided. The display includes a plurality of OLED modules arranged to depict a shape selected from the group consisting of at least one letter, at least one number, at least one image, and a combination thereof.

  11. Solid State Lighting OLED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of OLED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  12. Rigid and flexible OLEDs: prototypes to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monz, Stefan; Wolf, Konrad; Möbius, Hildegard; Blankenbach, Karlheinz

    2011-03-01

    Major achievements of this research project on rigid and flexible OLEDs are: lifetime enhancement by advanced constant luminance (L) operation, integration into textiles and furthermore, the prototype production on flexible PET/ITO substrates of polymer OLEDs. Our OLEDs were manufactured with spin-coating assisted by ink-jet printing. We introduced constant luminance operation (instead of the usual constant current) which was implemented in order to extend the overall lifetime of OLEDs. A threefold lifetime improvement was achieved by maintaining 50% luminance using an advanced microcontroller-based lifetime(LT) model. Various approaches to textile integration and evaluation of environmental issues in clothes (e.g. moisture) were investigated.

  13. Recent progress in flexible OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Michael G.; Weaver, Michael S.; Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.

    2001-09-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology has recently been shown to demonstrate excellent performance and cost characteristics for use in numerous flat panel display (FPD) applications. OLED displays emit bright, colorful light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates. OLEDs are also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of applications. OLED technology is also the first FPD technology with the potential to be highly functional and durable in a flexible format. The use of plastic and other flexible substrate materials offers numerous advantages over commonly used glass substrates, including impact resistance, light weight, thinness and conformability. Currently, OLED displays are being fabricated on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon wafers. At Universal Display Corporation (UDC), we are developing a new class of flexible OLED displays (FOLEDs). These displays also have extremely low power consumption through the use of electrophosphorescent doped OLEDs. To commercialize FOLED technology, a number of technical issues related to packaging and display processing on flexible substrates need to be addressed. In this paper, we report on our recent results to demonstrate the key technologies that enable the manufacture of power efficient, long-life flexible OLED displays for commercial and military applications.

  14. Using prismatic microstructured films for image blending in OLEDS

    DOEpatents

    Haenichen, Lukas; Pschenitzka, Florian

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a microstructured film disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The microstructured film contains features which diffuse light emitted by said OLED device and increase the luminance of the device.

  15. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  16. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  17. OLED microdisplay design and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Ghosh, Amalkumar

    2010-04-01

    AMOLED microdisplays from eMagin Corporation are finding growing acceptance within the military display market as a result of their excellent power efficiency, wide operating temperature range, small size and weight, good system flexibility, and ease of use. The latest designs have also demonstrated improved optical performance including better uniformity, contrast, MTF, and color gamut. eMagin's largest format display is currently the SXGA design, which includes features such as a 30-bit wide RGB digital interface, automatic luminance regulation from -45 to +70°C, variable gamma control, and a dynamic range exceeding 50:000 to 1. This paper will highlight the benefits of eMagin's latest microdisplay designs and review the roadmap for next generation devices. The ongoing development of reduced size pixels and larger format displays (up to WUXGA) as well as new OLED device architecture (e.g. high-brightness yellow) will be discussed. Approaches being explored for improved performance in next generation designs such as lowpower serial interfaces, high frame rate operation, and new operational modes for reduction of motion artifacts will also be described. These developments should continue to enhance the appeal of AMOLED microdisplays for a broad spectrum of near-to-the-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming.

  18. Platinum and Gold Complexes for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Chung; Chan, Alan Kwun-Wa; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-08-01

    Encouraging efforts on the design of high-performance organic materials and smart architecture during the past two decades have made organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology an important competitor for the existing liquid crystal displays. Particularly, the development of phosphorescent materials based on transition metals plays a crucial role for this success. Apart from the extensively studied iridium(III) complexes with d(6) electronic configuration and octahedral geometry, the coordination-unsaturated nature of d(8) transition metal complexes with square-planar structures has been found to provide intriguing spectroscopic and luminescence properties. This article briefly summarizes the development of d(8) platinum(II) and gold(III) complexes and their application studies in the fabrication of phosphorescent OLEDs. An in-depth understanding of the nature of the excited states has offered a great opportunity to fine-tune the emission colors covering the entire visible spectrum as well as to improve their photophysical properties. With good device engineering, high performance vacuum-deposited OLEDs with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 30 % and solution-processable OLEDs with EQEs of up to 10 % have been realized by modifying the cyclometalated or pincer ligands of these metal complexes. These impressive demonstrations reveal that d(8) metal complexes are promising candidates as phosphorescent materials for OLED applications in displays as well as in solid-state lighting in the future. PMID:27573398

  19. White tandem OLED with carbon nanotube interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitratos, Alexios; Ovalle Robles, Raquel; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2009-03-01

    White organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have become well recognized as an important candidate for future lighting and display applications. An existing idea to generate white color places R, G, B pixels in a side-by-side geometry. Also, white tandem OLEDs have been developed by vertically stacking in series multiple electroluminescent layers. However, such structures require a complex interfacial layer which is usually fabricated by strong dopants to form a p+/n+ interface. We have shown earlier that transparent carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be used as effective three dimensional charge injectors in polymer light emitting diodes[1] and OLEDs[2]. Now, we show that CNT can be used as an interlayer in two cell OLEDs with complimentary colors. We show that tandem devices with CNT interlayers, together with selective barriers and PEDOT:PSS coating can control the device color. In addition, the emission intensity can be controlled by independently tuning the driving voltage and current. In the case of overdoped p+/n+ interlayers we do not have this opportunity which is a great advantage of CNT injectors. We also compare the performance of multiwall CNTs vs. that of single wall CNTs in the tandem OLEDS. [1]R.H.Baughman et al.Science, 297,787-792(2002).[2]C.D.Williams et al.Appl. Phys. Lett. 93,183506(2008).

  20. Active Matrix OLED Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  1. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  2. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In

  3. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  4. OLES : Online Laboratory for Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquetin, Sandrine; Beaufil, Xavier; Chaffard, Véronique; Juen, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    One of the major scientific challenges in the 21st century is to improve our understanding on the evolution of the water cycle associated with the climate variability. Main issues concern the prediction of i) the water resource and the access to drinkable water and ii) the extreme events, both droughts and floods. Observation strategies covering a wide range of space and time scales must therefore be set up, while continuing advanced research on the involved mechanisms and developing integrated modeling approaches. Within this general context, the present work relies on three natural observatories, located in West Africa, Worldwide Glaciers, and in Mediterranean region, managed at LTHE (Laboratoire d'étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement; Grenoble, France) and gathered at OSUG (Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers; Grenoble, France). Their scientific objectives aim at improving the understanding of the water cycle functioning, providing water and mass balances for multi-scale basin sizes, and evaluating the hydrological impacts of the evolving climate. Water cycle variables (precipitation; soil moisture; snow cover; discharge; air and river temperatures; suspended material; etc …) are observed and recorded in 3 different databases built under specific technical constraints linked to the respective partnerships of the natural observatories. Each of the observatories has its own database, and modeling tools were developed separately leading to important efforts often duplicated. Therefore, there was a need to build an integrated cyber-infrastructure to provide access to data, and to shared tools and models that enable the understanding of the water cycle. This is the project called OLES, for Online Laboratory for Environmental Sciences. Focused on the understanding of the water cycle under contrasted climates, OLES facilitates the work of the scientific community and then, help interactions between the research community and water agencies or

  5. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  6. Extracting and shaping the light of OLED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Daniel; Dlugosch, Julian; Wehlus, Thomas; Brabec, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Before the market entry of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) into the field of general illumination can occur, limitations in lifetime, luminous efficacy and cost must be overcome. Additional requirements for OLEDs used for general illumination may be imposed by workplace glare reduction requirements, which demand limited luminance for high viewing angles. These requirements contrast with the typical lambertian emission characteristics of OLEDs, which result in the same luminance levels for all emission angles. As a consequence, without additional measures glare reduction could limit the maximum possible luminance of lambertian OLEDs to relatively low levels. However, high luminance levels are still desirable in order to obtain high light output. We are presenting solutions to overcome this dilemma. Therefore this work is focused on light-shaping structures for OLEDs with an internal light extraction layer. Simulations of beam-shaping structures and shapes are presented, followed by experimental measurements to verify the simulations of the most promising structures. An investigation of the loss channels has been carried out and the overall optical system efficiency was evaluated for all structures. The most promising light shaping structures achieve system efficiencies up to 80%. Finally, a general illumination application scenario has been simulated. The number of OLEDs needed to illuminate an office room has been deduced from this scenario. By using light-shaping structures for OLEDs, the number of OLEDs needed to reach the mandatory illuminance level for a workplace environment can be reduced to one third compared to lambertian OLEDs.

  7. Streamlining the EIS Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1977-01-01

    A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

  8. OLE RNA protects extremophilic bacteria from alcohol toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jason G.; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    OLE (Ornate, Large, Extremophilic) RNAs represent a recently discovered non-coding RNA class found in extremophilic anaerobic bacteria, including certain human pathogens. OLE RNAs exhibit several unusual characteristics that indicate a potentially novel function, including exceptionally high expression and localization to cell membranes via interaction with a protein partner called OLE-associated protein (OAP). In the current study, new genetic and phenotypic characteristics of OLE RNA from Bacillus halodurans C-125 were established. OLE RNA is transcribed at high levels from its own promoter under normal growth conditions and the transcript is exceptionally stable compared to most other RNAs. Expression is increased by ∼7-fold when cells are exposed to near lethal concentrations of short-chain alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Strains wherein the genes for OLE and/or OAP are deleted are more susceptible to growth inhibition by alcohol and also become more sensitive to cold. Normal growth characteristics can be restored by expressing the genes for OLE and OAP from plasmids or from elsewhere on the chromosome. Our findings confirm a functional link between OLE and OAP and reveal the importance of a large non-coding RNA in the response to alcohol-induced stress. PMID:22561371

  9. OLE RNA protects extremophilic bacteria from alcohol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jason G; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-08-01

    OLE (Ornate, Large, Extremophilic) RNAs represent a recently discovered non-coding RNA class found in extremophilic anaerobic bacteria, including certain human pathogens. OLE RNAs exhibit several unusual characteristics that indicate a potentially novel function, including exceptionally high expression and localization to cell membranes via interaction with a protein partner called OLE-associated protein (OAP). In the current study, new genetic and phenotypic characteristics of OLE RNA from Bacillus halodurans C-125 were established. OLE RNA is transcribed at high levels from its own promoter under normal growth conditions and the transcript is exceptionally stable compared to most other RNAs. Expression is increased by ∼ 7-fold when cells are exposed to near lethal concentrations of short-chain alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Strains wherein the genes for OLE and/or OAP are deleted are more susceptible to growth inhibition by alcohol and also become more sensitive to cold. Normal growth characteristics can be restored by expressing the genes for OLE and OAP from plasmids or from elsewhere on the chromosome. Our findings confirm a functional link between OLE and OAP and reveal the importance of a large non-coding RNA in the response to alcohol-induced stress.

  10. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-01-01

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O2-based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point (~9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time (~1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O2 or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O2 concentration, which indicates that O2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O2:dye collisional quenching

  11. Luminance uniformity study of OLED lighting panels depending on OLED device structures.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyeong Woo; Son, Young Hoon; Kang, Byoung Yeop; Lee, Jung Min; Nam, Hyoungsik; Kwon, Jang Hyuk

    2015-11-30

    This paper describes the luminance uniformity of OLED lighting panels depending on OLED device structures of single emission layer (single-EML), 2-tandem, and 3-tandem. The luminance distribution is evaluated through the circuit simulation and the fabricated panel measurement. In the simulation results with yellow-green color panels of 30 × 80 mm2 emission area, a 3-tandem structure shows the lowest non-uniformity (1.34% at 7.5V), compared to single-EML (5.67% at 2.8V) and 2-tandem (2.78% at 5.3 V) structures at 1,000 cd/m2. The luminance non-uniformity is germane to the OLED conductance showing that the high luminance-current efficiency is of the most importance to achieve the uniform voltage and luminance distribution. In measurement, a 3-tandem structure also achieves the most uniform luminance distribution with non-uniformity of 4.1% while single EML and 2-tandem structures accomplish 9.6%, and 6.4%, respectively, at ~1,000 cd/m2. In addition, the simulation results ensure that a 3-tandem structure panel is allowed to be enlarged the panel size up to about 5,000 mm2 for lower luminance non-uniformity than 10% without any auxiliary metal electrodes.

  12. EDITORIAL: Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang-Joo; Han, Min-Koo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2011-03-01

    Following the great discovery of the electrically conducting polymer, doped polyacetylene, which was honorably recognized in 2000 with the Nobel Prize in chemistry, conjugated molecules, i.e. organic semiconductors, have become an attractive class of active elements for various electronic or opto-electronic applications. Significant effort has been made in both academia and industry to investigate π-conjugated molecules for their unique electrical or opto-electrical properties over the last three decades. The discovery of electroluminescence in conjugated small molecules in 1982 and in polymers in 1989 was a major breakthrough, bringing those molecules to commercial applications within reach for the first time in (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), and field-effect transistors (OFETs). Nowadays, we use OLED displays in everyday life in mobile devices. The potential of these devices, which have been fabricated with conjugated molecules, lies in the possibility to combine the advantages of solution processability, chemical tunability and material strength of polymers with the typical properties of plastics, to realize low-cost, large-area electronic devices on flexible substrates by solution deposition and direct-write graphic art printing techniques. The articles in the flexible OLEDs and organic electronics special issue in Semiconductor Science and Technology deal with a diversity of topics and effectively reflect the current status of research from all over the world on various organic electronic devices, including OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs. Firstly, S Park et al describe the recent progress in thin-film encapsulation techniques for flexible AM-OLED and large-area OLED lightings, and their applications are discussed by J-W Park et al. Flexible active-matrix OLEDs on plastics require stable and flexible thin-film transistors processed at low temperature. Metal oxide thin-film transistors are proposed

  13. Polymer OLED White Light Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Homer Antoniadis; Vi-En Choong; Stelios Choulis; Brian Cumpston; Rahul Gupta; Mathew Mathai; Michael Moyer; Franky So

    2005-12-19

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (OSRAM) successfully completed development, fabrication and characterization of the large area, polymer based white light OLED prototype at their OLED Research and Development (R&D) facility in San Jose, CA. The program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consisted of three key objectives: (1) Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters. (2) Develop processing techniques--in order to demonstrate and enable the manufacturing of large area, white light and color tunable, solid state light sources. (3) Develop new electronics and driving schemes for organic light sources, including color-tunable light sources. The key performance goals are listed. A world record efficiency of 25 lm/W was established for the solution processed white organic device from the significant improvements made during the project. However, the challenges to transfer this technology from an R&D level to a large tile format such as, the robustness of the device and the coating uniformity of large area panels, remain. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. During the first year, OSRAM's Materials and Device group (M&D) worked closely with the major polymer material suppliers to develop the polymer emissive technology. M&D was successful in demonstrating a 7-8 lm/W white light source which was based on fluorescent materials. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) and device architectures. The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone.

  14. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G. A.

    1993-12-01

    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis.

  15. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G.A. )

    1993-12-25

    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis.

  16. An examination of OLED display application to military equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J.; Lorimer, S.

    2010-04-01

    OLED display technology has developed sufficiently to support small format commercial applications such as cell-phone main display functions. Revenues seem sufficient to finance both performance improvements and to develop new applications. The situation signifies the possibility that OLED technology is on the threshold of credibility for military applications. This paper will examine both performance and some possible applications for the military ground mobile environment, identifying the advantages and disadvantages of this promising new technology.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLED-based chemical and biological sensors: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2008-07-01

    The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED-based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly. The dramatic advances in OLED performance have resulted in devices with projected continuous operating lifetimes of ~2 × 105 h (~23 yr) at ~150 Cd m-2 (the typical brightness of a computer monitor or TV). Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs, e.g., cell phones, MP3 players, and, most recently, OLED TVs, are rapidly proliferating. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs, has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons (to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection), and of singlet and triplet excitons. It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. Despite the aforementioned progress, there are outstanding challenges in OLED science and technology, notably in improving the efficiency of the devices and their stability at high brightness (>1000 Cd m-2). One of the most recent emerging OLED-based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors. This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor (micro)arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor.

  18. Assessing the regioselectivity of OleD-catalyzed glycosylation with a diverse set of acceptors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Maoquan; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-02-22

    To explore the acceptor regioselectivity of OleD-catalyzed glucosylation, the products of OleD-catalyzed reactions with six structurally diverse acceptors flavones- (daidzein), isoflavones (flavopiridol), stilbenes (resveratrol), indole alkaloids (10-hydroxycamptothecin), and steroids (2-methoxyestradiol)-were determined. This study highlights the first synthesis of flavopiridol and 2-methoxyestradiol glucosides and confirms the ability of OleD to glucosylate both aromatic and aliphatic nucleophiles. In all cases, molecular dynamics simulations were consistent with the determined product distribution and suggest the potential to develop a virtual screening model to identify additional OleD substrates.

  19. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shiang, Joseph

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  20. Fabrication of OLED Devices on Engineered Plastic Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Hall, Michael G.; Mast, Eric S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Martin, Peter M.; Shi, Ming-Kun; Brown, J.; Mahon, J.; Burrows, P.; Sullivan, M.

    2000-04-15

    Protective ultrabarrier coatings for displays on flexible polymeric film substrates were deposited. The ultrabarrier coatings met a number of tight performance specifications including low gas permeation, high conductivity transparent electrodes, chemical resistance, thermal stability and scratch resistance must be met. Transmission of oxygen and water vapors by native polymeric materials was sufficiently high to prohibit their use in LCD and OLED applications. A multilayer film structure with alternate layers of organic polymer and metal oxide, demonstrated oxygen and moisture permeation rates below the measurement limit of commercial instrumentation (<0.005 O2 cc/m2/day, H2O g/m2/day). This highly transparent, multilayer ultra-barrier coating, with and without ITO overocats, was deposited by roll-to-roll compatible, vacuum deposition processes. The process for vacuum evaporation of organic monomers and in-situ polymerization, was used to deposit the organic layers. This process was also used to encapsulate OLED structures on plastic, glass, and silicon. Flexible OLED devices have been successfully fabricated using these ultrabarrier substrates. Lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours were achieved for encapsulated OLED devices. Performance of the OLED devices on plastic substrates was similar to those on glass substrates.

  1. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  2. On the lighting design aspect of OLED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, Peter Y.

    2010-02-01

    One of the most promising market segments to mainstream OLED lighting is the Commercial and Institutional Segment. It account for 40% of the entire lighting market. 75% of all the fluorescent luminaires are sold into this market segment. In order to meet the future lighting energy allowances, it is recommended that OLED efficacy be designed to around 70+ lumens/watt initially and gradually increases to 100 lumens per watt and perhaps ultimately to 140 lumens per watt. Luminous Exitance of an OLED can be designed to 6400 - 8000 lumens per square meter (approximately 2000 - 2500 candelas per square meter). This level of performance will enable OLED to participate in most of the lighting applications found in commercial and institutional market segment. As for lifetime of an OLED, an initial lifetime of around 20,000 hours at L70 is reasonable. The performance will move toward the target of around 50,000 hours of effective operating life at L85. Proper lighting design with daylight harvesting and other means can be very helpful in accomplishing this target.

  3. Materials and architectures for efficient harvesting of singlet and triplet excitons for white light emitting OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen

    2015-02-03

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  4. OLEDs as prospective light sources for microstructured photoreactors.

    PubMed

    Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Kreisel, Günter; Weiß, Dieter; Kralisch, Dana

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the use of OLEDs as light sources to initiate photochemical reactions is presented for the first time. A newly developed modular photoreactor system utilising microstructured reactors was equipped with commercially available OLED panels. The technical feature of being a surface emitter, the low thickness and the potentially high luminescent efficiency give reason to expect this kind of light source to be well suited for photochemical reactions. The reactor system was investigated by using photooxygenations as benchmark reactions. In detail, photosensitised [4 + 2]-cycloadditions and [2 + 2]-cycloadditions of (1)O2 were examined as well as Schenck-ene-reactions. It was demonstrated that OLEDs can be successfully used for conducting photochemical reactions. Moreover the equilibrium concentration of (1)O2 can be increased by varying the process conditions. Based on the experimental investigations, a reactor comparison showed that, with respect to productivity and efficiency, the investigated microstructured photoreactor is currently not outperforming conventional batch reactors.

  5. HL7 with CORBA and OLE: software components for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rishel, W

    1996-01-01

    Componentized software promises easier, more fine-grained integration of disparate software systems. Variations of the technology can help to achieve tight coupling among disparate programs on the clinical workstation or across wide area networks. HL7 members have been designing extensions to the protocol for the exchange of healthcare information using Microsoft OLE and CORBA technologies. Extensive prototyping has been performed, including the simultaneous interconnection of sixteen different vendor systems exchanging demographic data and lab results. The first release of this standard will be notable in that the specifications for OLE and CORBA will be entirely isomorphic, they will be based directly, on HL7 version 2.3, and they may easily be implemented in systems that are not written using object-oriented programming tools. As HL7 version 3 is developed on an object-oriented model of healthcare information, the same approach will be used so information about the objects may be shared using CORBA and OLE.

  6. OLED integrated silicon membranes for light-modulation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheneler, David; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; Lambertini, Vito G.; Brignone, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are most frequently used for display purposes and while they have also been utilized in sensing applications, their innate compliance has not previously been exploited for these applications. However, in this manuscript it is shown that OLEDs are compatible with microfabrication methods used in the production of micro mechanical devices. In particular it is shown that the compliance of OLEDs can be utilized in, and not limited to, a new generation of opto-mechanical pressure sensors. A fabrication process for a light-modulating pressure sensor is described. Prototypes were fabricated and tested and the response compared to an analytical theory developed by the authors. It is shown with simple circuitry, a resolution of 11.4 Pa up to 350 kPa is attainable using this technology.

  7. OpenEIS Algorithms

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  8. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  9. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Rui

    2012-01-01

    After a general introduction to OLEDs and OLED-based PL sensors, the transient emission mechanism of guest-host OLEDs is described both experimentally and theoretically. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs (that improve the sensor platform). The outcoupling issues of OLEDs at the substrate/air interface are addressed by using a microstructured polymer film resulting from a PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture. Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O2 and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized

  10. Development of High Efficacy, Low Cost Phosphorescent Oled Lightning Luminaire

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2010-07-09

    In this two year program, UDC together with Armstrong World Industries, Professor Stephen Forrest (University of Michigan) and Professor Mark Thompson (University of Southern California) planned to develop and deliver high efficiency OLED lighting luminaires as part of an integrated ceiling illumination system that exceed the Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 performance projections. Specifically the UDC team in 2010 delivered two prototype OLED ceiling illumination systems, each consisting of four individual OLED lighting panels on glass integrated into Armstrong's novel TechZone open architecture ceiling systems, at an overall system efficacy of 51 lm/W, a CRI = 85 and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 10,000 hours. This accomplishment represents a 50% increase in luminaire efficacy and a factor of two in lifetime over that outlined in the solicitation. In addition, the team has also delivered one 15cm x 15cm lighting panel fabricated on a flexible metal foil substrate, demonstrating the possibility using OLEDs in a range of form factors. During this program, our Team has pursued the commercialization of these OLED based ceiling luminaires, with a goal to launch commercial products within the next three years. We have proven that our team is ideally suited to develop these highly novel and efficient solid state lighting luminaires, having both the technical experience and commercial strategy to leverage work performed under this contract. Our calculations show that the success of our program could lead to energy savings of more than 0.5 quads or 8 MMTC (million metric tons of carbon) per year by 2016.

  11. Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processible Small-Molecule OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie Jerry

    2012-07-31

    The objective of this program is to develop key knowledge and make critical connections between technologies needed to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED lighting products. In particular, the program was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of making high performance Small-Molecule OLEDs (SM-OLED) using a roll-to-roll (R2R) wet-coating technique by addressing the following technical risks (1) Whether the wet-coating technique can provide high performance OLEDs, (2) Whether SM-OLED can be made in a R2R manner, (3) What are the requirements for coating equipment, and (4) Whether R2R OLEDs can have the same performance as the lab controls. The program has been managed and executed according to the Program Management Plan (PMP) that was first developed at the beginning of the program and further revised accordingly as the program progressed. Significant progress and risk reductions have been accomplished by the end of the program. Specific achievements include: (1) Demonstrated that wet-coating can provide OLEDs with high LPW and long lifetime; (2) Demonstrated R2R OLEDs can be as efficient as batch controls (Figure 1) (3) Developed & validated basic designs for key equipment necessary for R2R SM-OLEDs; (4) Developed know-hows & specifications on materials & ink formulations critical to wetcoating; (5) Developed key R2R processes for each OLED layer (6) Identified key materials and components such as flexible barrier substrates necessary for R2R OLEDs.

  12. Dielectric impedance and optical performance of quantum dots doped OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobin, Marc; Pellodi, Cédric; Emmenegger, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effect of the incorporation of CdSe quantum dots (QD) in the standard ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al organic light emitting diodes (OLED's). The OLED's structures have been prepared in a double glove box coupled to a vacuum chamber containing both low and high temperature evaporators. For the standard (undoped) OLED's, the hole transport layer (HTL) consisting of 50nm of TPD is deposited by spin coating (8000rpm during 60 sec) and the 40nm of Alq3 were deposited at 2A/sec (organic crucible Radak-I). 150nm of Al were finally evaporated at 5A/s. For the CdSe-doped OLED's, the procedure was the same expect that the QD's were mixed with TPD in toluene before spin coating. During the thermal processing if the film, the QD's are expected to segregate to the surface, and then will be located at the TPD/Alq3 interface. The various layers were imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at each phase of the structure deposition, and we could indeed visualize the segregated QD's above the TPD film. AFM was systematically used to monitor the homogeneity and the thickness of the various films. The impedance of the non-encapsulated films structures were measured in air in the 40-40MHz frequency range, with bias at 0V (non-emitting), 2V (low emission) and 8V (strong emission). The corresponding dielectric spectra were analyzed with the standard Havriliak-Negami (HV) formula, where the conductive term has been subtracted from the data in case of light emission. We have measured a relaxation ranging from 100kHZ for the unbiased structure to 1MHz for 8V (strong emission). Apart from this expected relaxation, we found a second relaxation mechanism around 10 MHz. The origin of this second peak will be discussed. To monitor the optical emission of the OLED's, we have built a specific bench which allows for the quantitative measurement of the emission spectra and the dynamics behavior of the OLED's (raising and falling time). We found that the incorporation of the QD's unfortunately

  13. Luminance uniformity compensation for OLED panels based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Peng; Yang, Gang; Jiang, Quan; Yu, Jun-Sheng; Wu, Qi-Peng; Shang, Fu-Hai; Yin, Wei; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Jian; Luo, Kai-Jun

    2009-09-01

    Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for organic lighting-emitting diode (OLED) panels, a new brightness calculating method based on bilinear interpolation is proposed. The irradiance time of each pixel reaching the same luminance is figured out by Matlab. Adopting the 64×32-pixel, single color and passive matrix OLED panel as adjusting luminance uniformity panel, a new circuit compensating scheme based on FPGA is designed. VHDL is used to make each pixel’s irradiance time in one frame period written in program. The irradiance brightness is controlled by changing its irradiance time, and finally, luminance compensation of the panel is realized. The simulation result indicates that the design is reasonable.

  14. INK-JET PRINTING OF PF6 FOR OLED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Burrasca, G.; Fasolino, T.; Miscioscia, R.; Nenna, G.; Vacca, P.; Villani, F.; Minarini, C.; Della Sala, D.

    2008-08-28

    In the last years there has been much interest in applying ink-jet printing (IJP) technology to the deposition of several materials for organic electronics applications, including metals, polymers and nanoparticles dispersions on flexible substrates. The aim of this work is to study the effect of ink-jet deposition of polymer films in the manufacturing of OLED devices comparing their performances to standard technologies. The ink-jet printed polymer is introduced in an hybrid structure in which other layers are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation. The electrical and optical properties of the obtained devices are investigated.OLEDs with the same structure were fabricated by spin-coating a polymer film by the same solution used as ink. Results have been compared to the above ones to determine how the deposition method affects the device optoelectronic properties.

  15. Position Effect Based on Anthracene Core for OLED Emitters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeonmi; Shin, Hwangyu; Kim, Beomjin; Park, Jongwook

    2016-03-01

    Green-orange emitters based on anthracene core have been successfully synthesized by substitution with triphenylamine side group in the 9, 10 or 2, 6 positions. There are larger blue shifts in the UV-visible absorption and PL spectra of the synthesized 2,6-substituted derivative compared to the 9,10-substituted derivative. When the synthesized compounds were used as emitting layers in non-doped OLED devices, a related trend was observed in their optical properties. In particular, the OLED device containing the 2,6-substituted derivative was found to exhibit excellent characteristics, with maximum EL emission at 518 nm, pure green emission with CIE coordinates of (0.334, 0.604), and external quantum efficiency of 2.83%.

  16. HL7 with CORBA and OLE: software components for healthcare.

    PubMed Central

    Rishel, W.

    1996-01-01

    Componentized software promises easier, more fine-grained integration of disparate software systems. Variations of the technology can help to achieve tight coupling among disparate programs on the clinical workstation or across wide area networks. HL7 members have been designing extensions to the protocol for the exchange of healthcare information using Microsoft OLE and CORBA technologies. Extensive prototyping has been performed, including the simultaneous interconnection of sixteen different vendor systems exchanging demographic data and lab results. The first release of this standard will be notable in that the specifications for OLE and CORBA will be entirely isomorphic, they will be based directly, on HL7 version 2.3, and they may easily be implemented in systems that are not written using object-oriented programming tools. As HL7 version 3 is developed on an object-oriented model of healthcare information, the same approach will be used so information about the objects may be shared using CORBA and OLE. PMID:8947635

  17. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  18. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  19. Flexible OLED fabrication with ITO thin film on polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Kyo Woong; Bhusan Sahu, Bibhuti; Geon Han, Jeon

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) films in a dual pulse magnetron sputtering (DPMS) system at low temperature (<100 °C) deposition condition. This study also presents experimental demonstration of the ITO films for their possible use in the fabrication of organic light emitting diode (OLED) device, and the device performance on the super polycarbonate substrates. The presented data reveals the feasibility of ITO films, with a very low sheet resistance of ∼30 Ω/□ and high transmittance of ∼88% at 550 nm, simply by the magnetron pulse mode operations with increasing pulse frequency from 0 to 50 kHz.

  20. Integrating Existing Applications in Hypermedia Learning Material (General Issues & Experiences with OLE Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst Pauwels, H. W. J.; And Others

    The integration of existing applications in hypermedia environments is a promising approach towards more flexible and user-friendly hypermedia learning materials. A hypermedia courseware editor, called HyDE (Hypermedia Document Editor) was developed using Microsoft Windows TM OLE technology. OLE (object Linking and Embedding) stands for an…

  1. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2016-06-28

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  2. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2015-06-23

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  3. Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDS) and Their Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR)

    SciTech Connect

    Gang Li

    2003-12-12

    Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs), both small molecular and polymeric have been studied extensively since the first efficient small molecule OLED was reported by Tang and VanSlyke in 1987. Burroughes' report on conjugated polymer-based OLEDs led to another track in OLED development. These developments have resulted in full color, highly efficient (up to {approx} 20% external efficiency 60 lm/W power efficiency for green emitters), and highly bright (> 140,000 Cd/m{sup 2} DC, {approx}2,000,000 Cd/m{sup 2} AC), stable (>40,000 hr at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}) devices. OLEDs are Lambertian emitters, which intrinsically eliminates the view angle problem of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Thus OLEDs are beginning to compete with the current dominant LCDs in information display. Numerous companies are now active in this field, including large companies such as Pioneer, Toyota, Estman Kodak, Philipps, DuPont, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and Osram, and small companies like Cambridge Display Technology (CDT), Universal Display Corporation (UDC), and eMagin. The first small molecular display for vehicular stereos was introduced in 1998, and polymer OLED displays have begun to appear in commercial products. Although displays are the major application for OLEDs at present, they are also candidates for nest generation solid-state lighting. In this case the light source needs to be white in most cases. Organic transistors, organic solar cells, etc. are also being developed vigorously.

  4. Light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on OLED with microcavity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Doo-Hee; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Lee, Jonghee; Park, Seung Koo; Moon, Jaehyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-10-20

    We examined the light diffusing effects of nano and micro-structures on microcavity designed OLEDs. The results of FDTD simulations and experiments showed that the pillar shaped nano-structure was more effective than the concave micro-structure for light diffusing of microcavity OLEDs. The sharp luminance distribution of the microcavity OLED was changed to near Lambertian luminance distribution by the nano-structure, and light diffusing effects increased with the height of the nano-structure. Furthermore, the nano-structure has advantages including light extraction of the substrate mode, reproducibility of manufacturing process, and minimizing pixel blur problems in an OLED display panel. The nano-structure is a promising candidate for a light diffuser, resolving the viewing angle problems in microcavity OLEDs.

  5. Improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing super-multiview display based on planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yueli; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jiahui; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-08-24

    Through gating spectrum plane of multiple planar aligned OLED microdisplays by a timely sequential manner, a super-multiview (SMV) three-dimensional (3D) display based on spatiotemporal-multiplexing was developed in our previous paper. But an upper limit of the allowable sub-viewing-zones (SVZs) for an OLED microdisplay did exist in the previous system, even if microdisplays with very high frame rates could be commercially available. In this manuscript, an improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing SMV displays system is developed, which removes the above limitation through controllable fusing of light beams from adjacent OLED microdisplays. The employment of a liquid-crystal panel as the gating-aperture array allows the improved system to accommodate multiple rows of OLED microdisplays for denser SVZs. Experimentally, a prototype system is demonstrated by 24 OLED microdisplays, resulting in 120 SVZs with an interval small to 1.07mm.

  6. Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2013-01-01

    We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N'-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (α-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

  7. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is at... summary to the public with an attached list of locations (such as public libraries) where the entire draft... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of...

  8. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  9. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  10. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  11. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proponent in preparation of a preliminary draft EIS (PDEIS) (40 CFR 1502.9) based on the scope of issues... recommended in the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1502.10 and 1502.11). The CEQ regulations indicate that EISs... review of draft EIS (40 CFR 1502.19 and 1506.6): (1) The public comment period for the draft EIS is...

  12. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  13. Small molecules with ambipolar transporting properties for efficient OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lian; Wei, Peng; Qiu, Yong

    2007-11-01

    For stable and efficienct organic light-emitting diodes, it is essential to find molecules with high photoluminescent efficiency, little self-quenching and balanced charge transporting properties. Recently, we've designed and synthesized some highly emissive naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (NTD) derivatives and naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]selenadiazole (NSeD) derivatives with unusual ambipolar transporting properties. The ambipolar transporting properties of the NTDs were explained by Marcus theory with carrier reorganization energies and charge-transfer integrals. We obtained high quality single crystals of 4,9-di(biphenyl-4-yl)-naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (NTD02) and 4,9-bis(4-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)phenyl)-naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (NTD05). They have disordered NTD rings' orientation with the opposite directions in the center of the molecule because of NTD's planar configuration and the single-bond connection with the phenyl substituents. The packing structure of NTD02 shows the planar arrangement of NTD rings, forming a "charge transporting channel". Quantum calculation also confirms that the π-π stacking interaction in NTD derivatives benefits the charge transporting via intermolecular hopping on NTD rings. The hole and electron mobilities of NTD05 are 7.16×10 -4 cm2/VÂ.s and 6.19×10 -4 cm2/V•s at an electronic field E = 2.0×10 5 V/cm, respectively. The hole mobility of NTD05 is close to that of N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and the electron mobility of NTD05 is two orders-of-magnitude higher than that of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3). For the NTD derivatives, NTD05 also shows the best performance in non-doped OLEDs. CIE coordinates of (0.65, 0.35) and a peak efficiency of 2.4% are achieved for a double layer OLED with NPB as the hole transporting layer and NTD05 as the emitting layer. Moreover, we get ultimate red emission with CIE coordinates of (0.71, 0.29) for some of the NSeD based non

  14. Quantum Dot Light Enhancement Substrate for OLED Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    James Perkins; Matthew Stevenson; Gagan Mahan; Seth Coe-Sullivan; Peter Kazlas

    2011-01-21

    With DOE Award No. DE-EE00000628, QD Vision developed and demonstrated a cost-competitive solution for increasing the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with efficient and stable color rendering index (CRI) for solid state lighting (SSL). Solution processable quantum dot (QD) films were integrated into OLED ITO-glass substrates to generate tunable white emission from blue emitting OLED) devices as well as outcouple light from the ITO film. This QD light-enhancement substrate (QD-LED) technology demonstrated a 60% increase in OLED forward light out-coupling, a value which increases to 76% when considering total increase in multi-directional light output. The objective for the first year was an 80% increase in light output. This project seeks to develop and demonstrate a cost-competitive solution for realizing increased extraction efficiency organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with efficient and stable color rendering index (CRI) for SSL. Solution processible quantum dot (QD) films will be utilized to generate tunable white emission from blue emitting phosphorescent OLED (Ph-OLED) devices.

  15. Evidence that the Yeast Desaturase Ole1p Exists as a Dimer In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2010-06-18

    Desaturase enzymes are composed of two classes, the structurally well characterized soluble class found predominantly in the plastids of higher plants and the more widely distributed but poorly structurally defined integral membrane class. Despite their distinct evolutionary origins, the two classes both require an iron cofactor and molecular oxygen for activity and are inhibited by azide and cyanide, suggesting strong mechanistic similarities. The fact that the soluble desaturase is active as a homodimer prompted us test the hypothesis that an archetypal integral membrane desaturase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the {Delta}{sup o}-acyl-Co-A desaturase Ole1p, also exhibits a dimeric organization. Ole1p was chosen because it is one of the best characterized integral membrane desaturase and because it retains activity when fused with epitope tags. FLAG-Ole1p was detected by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates in which anti-Myc antibodies were used for capture from yeast extracts co-expressing Ole1p-Myc and Ole1p-FLAG. Interaction was confirmed by two independent bimolecular complementation assays (i.e. the split ubiquitin system and the split luciferase system). Co-expression of active and inactive Ole1p subunits resulted in an {approx}75% suppression of the accumulation of palmitoleic acid, demonstrating that the physiologically active form of Ole1p in vivo is the dimer in which both protomers must be functional.

  16. Recent progress in OLED and flexible displays and their potential for application to aerospace and military display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2015-05-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) display technology has advanced significantly in recent years and it is increasingly being adapted in consumer electronics products with premium performance, such as high resolution smart phones, Tablet PCs and TVs. Even flexible OLED displays are beginning to be commercialized in consumer electronic devices such as smart phones and smart watches. In addition to the advances in OLED emitters, successful development and adoption of OLED displays for premium performance applications relies on the advances in several enabling technologies including TFT backplanes, pixel drive electronics, pixel patterning technologies, encapsulation technologies and system level engineering. In this paper we will discuss the impact of the recent advances in LTPS and AOS TFTs, R, G, B and White OLED with color filter pixel architectures, and encapsulation, on the success of the OLEDs in consumer electronic devices. We will then discuss potential of these advances in addressing the requirements of OLED and flexible displays for the military and avionics applications.

  17. Effect of ITO surface modification on the OLED device lifetime.

    PubMed

    Yu, Szu-Yen; Chang, Jung-Hung; Wang, Po-Sheng; Wu, Chi-I; Tao, Yu-Tai

    2014-07-01

    Pretreatment of the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface is generally adopted to improve the charge injection and device performance in the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). For the common approaches of surface treatment, such as oxygen plasma treatment, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) adsorption, and the PEDOT:PSS coating, different effects on the device lifetime were observed. A distinctly different driving voltage change with device operation time was obtained and was correlated with the device lifetime. The fast increase in driving voltage for devices based on oxygen-plasma-treated ITO is attributed to the work function change as a result of the change in the composition of the interface with device operation, whereas a rather stable work function for SAM-modified ITO is suggested due to the permanent dipoles associated with the monolayer and the protecting effect of the covalently bound monolayer on the surface composition.

  18. Electroluminescence property of organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    SciTech Connect

    Özdemir, Orhan; Kavak, Pelin; Saatci, A. Evrim; Gökdemir, F. Pınar; Menda, U. Deneb; Can, Nursel; Kutlu, Kubilay; Tekin, Emine; Pravadalı, Selin

    2013-12-16

    Transport properties of electrons and holes were investigated not only in a anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)- alt - poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes (OLED) but also in an ITO/Ag/polymer/Ag electron and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/Au hole only devices. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer.

  19. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  20. Outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Sergei; Bogdanova, Maria; Teslyuk, Anton

    2016-03-01

    We study theoretically the optical performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode. We show how emergence of radiative surface plasmon resonances at the 2D corrugated cathode leads to the enhancement of the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED, which is primarily due to the outcoupling of emission generated by vertically oriented emitting excitons in the emission layer. We analyze the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED as a function of geometrical parameters of the corrugation and establish design rules for optimal outcoupling enhancement with the 2D corrugation at the cathode.

  1. Dipole emission in stratified media with multiple spherical scatterers: Enhanced outcoupling from OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egel, Amos; Lemmer, Uli

    2014-11-01

    Scattering particles find application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for an enhanced outcoupling of the generated light. This paper presents a computational scheme to exactly model the electromagnetic fields and the power outcoupling efficiency of a typical OLED geometry, comprising a thin film system with spherical scattering particles inside. The model is based on the expansion of the fields in plane and spherical vector wave functions, as well as the scattering matrix formalism for the layer system reflections. In a numerical application example, the effect of 1000 spherical high index scattering particles on the internal outcoupling from a realistic OLED structure is discussed.

  2. OLED devices for signage applications: a review of recent advances and remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprengard, Ruediger; Bonrad, Klaus; Daeubler, Thomas K.; Frank, T.; Hagemann, V.; Koehler, I.; Pommerehne, J.; Ottermann, Clemens R.; Voges, Frank; Vingerling, B.

    2004-11-01

    Reported efficiency records of >70 lm/W and the community's performance roadmaps indicate the potential of OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) for use in general lighting applications. Within a shorter timeframe, OLED technology may be exploited for signage applications. Key differences of OLED signage devices to display and lighting devices are discussed. Recent results are presented on large area device design, polymer deposition technology, device and material performance, and encapsulation technology. Finally we discuss performance and cost targets for potential applications indicating the main challenges for future developments.

  3. Development of functional nano-particle layer for highly efficient OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Choi, Haechul; Choi, Yoonseuk

    2015-12-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are now widely commercialized in market due to many advantages such as possibility of making thin or flexible devices. Nevertheless there are still several things to obtain the high quality flexible OLEDs, one of the most important issues is the light extraction of the device. It is known that OLEDs have the typical light loss such as the waveguide loss, plasmon absorption loss and internal total reflection. In this paper, we demonstrate the one-step processed light scattering films with aluminum oxide nano-particles and polystyrene matrix composite to achieve highly efficient OLEDs. Optical characteristics and surface roughness of light scattering film was optimized by changing the mixing concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles and investigated with the atomic force microscopy and hazemeter, respectively.

  4. Materials design concepts for efficient blue OLEDs: A joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Polikarpov, Evgueni; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2012-04-01

    Since their discovery, organic light emitting devices have evolved from a scientific curiosity into a technology with applications in flat panel displays and the potential to revolutionize the lighting market. During their relatively short history, the technology incorporated into OLEDs has rapidly advanced. Device quantum efficiencies have increased more than 20-fold since the first OLEDs, approaching the theoretical limit for internal quantum efficiencies. , , At this point, OLED research moves towards optimization of manufacturing processes, drive circuitry, light extraction, and overall cost reduction. However, finding the organic materials that provide both operational stability and high efficiency for the devices still remains one of the biggest challenges, particularly for blue emission. In this presentation, we will describe our approach to design functional OLED materials to meet the complex criteria set forth by device efficiency and stability goals.

  5. Soft lithography microlens fabrication and array for enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Wai Y.; Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Constant, Kristen P.; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-03

    Provided are microlens arrays for use on the substrate of OLEDs to extract more light that is trapped in waveguided modes inside the devices and methods of manufacturing same. Light extraction with microlens arrays is not limited to the light emitting area, but is also efficient in extracting light from the whole microlens patterned area where waveguiding occurs. Large microlens array, compared to the size of the light emitting area, extract more light and result in over 100% enhancement. Such a microlens array is not limited to (O)LEDs of specific emission, configuration, pixel size, or pixel shape. It is suitable for all colors, including white, for microcavity OLEDs, and OLEDs fabricated directly on the (modified) microlens array.

  6. AcOLeDMAP and BnOLeDMAP: Conformationally Restricted Nucleophilic Catalysts for Enantioselective Rearrangement of Indolyl Acetates and Carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Trisha A.; Shaw, Scott A.; Vedejs, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    The rate of indolyl O- to C-acetyl or carboxyl rearrangement is accelerated by the electron withdrawing N-diphenylacetyl group (DPA) using the conformationally restricted chiral catalysts AcOLeDMAP (12b) and BnOLeDMAP (13b). Highly enantioselective conversion to quaternary C-acetylated and C-carboxylated oxindoles is observed, even for substrates containing branched substituents. The rearrangement of the carboxylate substrates 19 occurs with complementary enantiofacial selectivity using catalyst 13b compared to the acetyl migrations of 16 catalyzed by 12b. Access to N-unsubstituted oxindoles is demonstrated by DPA cleavage with Et2NH. PMID:19093886

  7. Phosphorescent OLEDs: Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    J.-J. Kim and co-workers achieve highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a low-refractive-index layer. As described on page 4920, an external quantum efficiency over 34% is achieved, owing to the low refractive index of the materials. A milepost and a shining entrance of the castle are the metaphor indicating the way to highly efficient blue OLEDs. On the way to the castle, the depicted chemical structures serve as the light-emitting layer.

  8. Phosphorescent OLEDs: Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    J.-J. Kim and co-workers achieve highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a low-refractive-index layer. As described on page 4920, an external quantum efficiency over 34% is achieved, owing to the low refractive index of the materials. A milepost and a shining entrance of the castle are the metaphor indicating the way to highly efficient blue OLEDs. On the way to the castle, the depicted chemical structures serve as the light-emitting layer. PMID:27311092

  9. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  10. White OLED in Hybrid Structure for Enhancing Color Purity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Min-Jae; Park, Gwang-Ryeol; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    We synthesized the red emission material, bis(1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)phenyl) iridium(picolate) [Ir-complexes] and the blue emission material, bis (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(HPB)2]. White Organic Light Emitting Diodes were fabricated by using Zn(HPB)2 for a blue emitting layer, Ir-complexes for a red emitting layer and a tris (8-hydroxy quinoline)aluminum [Alq3] for a green emitting layer. The important experimental results obtained, white OLED was fabricated by using double emitting layers of Zn(HPB)2 and Alq3:Ir-complexes, and hole blocking layer of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline[BCP]. We also varied the thickness of BCP. When the thickness of BCP layer was 5 nm, white emission was achieved. We obtained a maximum luminance of 5400 cd/m2 at a current density of 650 mA/cm2. The CIE coordinates was (0.339, 0.323) at voltage of 10 V.

  11. The spin-Dicke effect in OLED magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, D. P.; Joshi, G.; Kavand, M.; Limes, M. E.; Malissa, H.; Burn, P. L.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2015-11-01

    Pairs of charge-carrier spins in organic semiconductors constitute four-level systems that can be driven electromagnetically. Given appropriate conditions for ultrastrong coupling--weak local hyperfine fields Bhyp, large magnetic resonant driving fields B1 and low static fields B0 that define Zeeman splitting--the spin-Dicke effect, a collective transition of spin states, has been predicted. This parameter range is challenging to probe by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy because thermal magnetic polarization is negligible. It is accessed through spin-dependent conductivity that is controlled by electron-hole pairs of singlet and triplet spin-permutation symmetry without the need of thermal spin polarization. Signatures of collective behaviour of carrier spins are revealed in the steady-state magnetoresistance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), rather than through radiative transitions. For intermediate B1, the a.c.-Zeeman effect appears. For large B1, a collective spin-ensemble state arises, inverting the current change under resonance and removing power broadening, thereby offering a unique window to ambient macroscopic quantum coherence.

  12. Surface treatment on polyethylenimine interlayer to improve inverted OLED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chang-Ting; Zhuang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ya-Li; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Su, Wen-Ming; Cui, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) interlayer rinsing with different solvents for inverted organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is systematically studied in this paper. In comparison with the pristine one, the maximum current efficiency (CE max) and power efficiency (PE max) are enhanced by 21% and 22% for the device rinsing by ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EEA). Little effect is found on the work function of the PEI interlayer rinsed by deionized water (DI), ethanol (EtOH), and EEA. On the other hand, the surface morphologies of PEI through different solvent treatments are quite different. Our results indicates that the surface morphology is the key to improving the device performance for IOLED as the work function of PEI keeps stable. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Project of China (Grant No. 2015CB351901), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09020201), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2013206), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21402233), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK2012631 and BK20140387).

  13. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics.

  14. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics. PMID:26134292

  15. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  16. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  17. FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Whee; Jang, Ji-Hyang; Oh, Min-Cheol; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-01-13

    The light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a nano-sized random scattering layer (RSL-OLEDs) was analyzed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to periodic diffraction patterns, the presence of an RSL suppresses the spectral shift with respect to the viewing angle. For FDTD simulation of RSL-OLEDs, a planar light source with a certain spatial and temporal coherence was incorporated, and the light extraction efficiency with respect to the fill factor of the RSL and the absorption coefficient of the material was investigated. The design results were compared to the experimental results of the RSL-OLEDs in order to confirm the usefulness of FDTD in predicting experimental results. According to our FDTD simulations, the light confined within the ITO-organic waveguide was quickly absorbed, and the absorption coefficients of ITO and RSL materials should be reduced in order to obtain significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency (EQE). When the extinction coefficient of ITO was 0.01, the EQE in the RSL-OLED was simulated to be enhanced by a factor of 1.8.

  18. Efficient, inkjet-printed TADF-OLEDs with an ultra-soluble NHetPHOS complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Anand; Zink, Daniel M.; Fléchon, Charlotte; Leganés Carballo, Jaime; Flügge, Harald; Navarro, José M.; Baumann, Thomas; Volz, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Using printed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for lighting, smart-packaging and other mass-market applications has remained a dream since the first working OLED devices were demonstrated in the late 1980s. The realization of this long-term goal is hindered by the very low abundance of iridium and problems when using low-cost wet chemical production processes. Abundant, solution-processable Cu(I) complexes promise to lower the cost of OLEDs. A new copper iodide NHetPHOS emitter was prepared and characterized in solid state with photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV photoelectron spectroscopy under ambient conditions. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency was determined as 92 ± 5 % in a thin film with yellowish-green emission centered around 550 nm. This puts the material on par with the most efficient copper complexes known so far. The new compound showed superior solubility in non-polar solvents, which allowed for the fabrication of an inkjet-printed OLED device from a decalin-based ink formulation. The emission layer could be processed under ambient conditions and was annealed under air. In a very simple stack architecture, efficiency values up to 45 cd A-1 corresponding to 13.9 ± 1.9 % EQE were achieved. These promising results open the door to printed, large-scale OLED devices with abundant copper emitters.

  19. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Min

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs' performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  20. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  1. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  2. Computational insights into the photodeactivation dynamics of phosphors for OLEDs: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Daniel; Jacquemin, Denis

    2015-05-14

    A detailed molecular-level understanding of both the photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of transition-metal (TM) complexes used as emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is vital to pave the way to the next generation of OLEDs materials. In this Perspective, we present recent ab initio and density-functional theory (DFT) results, including or not spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), focused on disentangling competing photodeactivation mechanisms of radiative and non-radiative nature in target Pt(ii) and Ir(iii) complexes. These complexes are the most widespread organo-transition metal compounds for OLEDs applications. We address their photodeactivation dynamics, their temperature-dependent photoluminescence kinetics and some unusual photophysical properties (such as, e.g., dual photoluminescence or non-Kasha emissive behaviour). In addition, we discuss the pending questions regarding the photophysics of these systems, which will require the interplay between theoretical and experimental efforts.

  3. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Neubauer, Casey C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Sharma, Poorva; Akyol, Bora A.

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  4. Advances in OLED/OPD-based spectrometer on-a-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Eeshita; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    We describe ongoing advances toward achieving an integrated all-organic spectrometer on a chip. To this end, 2-dimensional combinatorial arrays of microcavity (μc) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with systematically varying optical cavity lengths were fabricated on a single chip by changing the thickness of different organic and/or spacer layers sandwiched between the two metal electrodes. The latter, one of which is semitransparent, form the cavity. The tunable and narrower emissions from the μcOLEDs serve as excitation sources of varying wavelength for monitoring light absorption or emission. For each wavelength, the light from the μcOLED is partially absorbed by the sample under study and the transmitted light (or the light emitted by an electronically excited sample) is detected by a photodetector (PD). To obtain a compact monitor, an organic PD (OPD) is fabricated and integrated with the μcOLED array. We show the potential of encompassing a broader wavelength range by using μcOLEDs based on different emitting layers. The OPD used to realize the first all-organic integrated spectrometer described here is based on P3HT:PCBM, though more sensitive OPDs we utilized in sensing applications are expected to improve the spectrometers' performance. The utility of this all-organic μcOLED/OPD spectrometer is shown for monitoring the absorption spectra of P3HT and Alexa Fluor 405 films. The results show excellent agreement with the absorption spectra obtained with a commercial Ocean Optics spectrometer.

  5. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Min

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  6. Formylated chloro-bridged iridium(III) dimers as OLED materials: opening up new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael Y; Xie, Guohua; Tourbillon, Clarisse; Sandroni, Martina; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-05-14

    In this study, a series of four formyl-substituted chloro-bridged iridium(iii) dimers were prepared. Their absorption, photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied in dichloromethane solution. It was found that as the formyl content increased on the cyclometalating ligands, emission unexpectedly became brighter. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated using each of these iridium dimers as the emitter. The OLED fabricated using the brightest of the series, 2b, as the dopant afforded a decent external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.6%. This suggests that chloro-bridged iridium dimers are potential candidates as solid-state emitters.

  7. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with quasiperiodic diffraction grating layer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Bin; Cho, Kwan Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Yong-Cheol

    2016-08-01

    We presented enhanced light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) cells with a nano-sized diffraction grating layer. Various diffraction gratings of different morphologies including linear, cubic, hexagonal and quasiperiodic patterns were fabricated by multiplexing light interference exposure on an azobenzene thin film. The effect of diffraction grating layer on device performances including luminous properties and quantum efficiency was investigated. In contrast to periodic grating patterns, the quasiperiodic structures leading broadband light extraction resulted in improved external quantum efficiency and power efficiency by 73% and 63%, respectively, compared to conventional OLED with flat surface of glass substrate.

  8. Experimental test and life estimation of the OLED at normal working stress based on the luminance degradation model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J P; Wang, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Qiu, Y J; Shen, M-H H

    2015-06-01

    In order to accurately acquire the life time information for the organic light emitting diode (OLED), an experiment based on the normal stress life test was carried out to gain the data for the luminance degradation tests. The luminance degradation model of OLED was established based on the Weibull function and the least square method. Combined with luminance degradation data, Weibull parameters were estimated, the qualitative and the quantitative relationship between the initial luminance and the OLED life was obtained, and the life estimation of the product was achieved. Numerical results show that the test scheme is feasible, the luminance degradation model proves to be reliable for the OLED life estimation, and the fitting accuracy is very high by comparison with the test data fluctuation. Moreover, the real life time of the OLED is measured, which can verify the validity of the assumptions used in accelerated life test methods and provide manufacturers and customers with significant guidelines.

  9. Investigation of cross-linking characteristics of novel hole-transporting materials for solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemin; Ameen, Shahid; Lee, Changjin

    2016-04-01

    After the success of commercialization of the vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solutionprocessing or printing of OLEDs are currently attracting much research interests. However, contrary to various kinds of readily available vacuum-evaporable OLED materials, the solution-processable OLED materials are still relatively rare. Hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials for solution-processed OLEDs are especially limited, because they need additional characteristics such as cross-linking to realize multilayer structures in solution-processed OLEDs, as well as their own electrically hole-transporting characteristics. The presence of such cross-linking characteristics of solutionprocessable HTL materials therefore makes them more challenging in the development stage, and also makes them essence of solution-processable OLED materials. In this work, the structure-property relationships of thermally crosslinkable HTL materials were systematically investigated by changing styrene-based cross-linking functionalities and modifying the carbazole-based hole-transporting core structures. The temperature dependency of the cross-linking characteristics of the HTL materials was systematically investigated by the UV-vis. absorption spectroscopy. The new HTL materials were also applied to green phosphorescent OLEDs, and their device characteristics were also investigated based on the chemical structures of the HTL materials. The device configuration was [ITO / PEDOT:PSS / HTL / EML / ETL / CsF / Al]. We found out that the chemical structures of the cross-linking functionalities greatly affect not only the cross-linking characteristics of the resultant HTL materials, but also the resultant OLED device characteristics. The increase of the maximum luminance and efficiency of OLEDs was evident as the cross-linking temperature decreases from higher than 200°C to at around 150°C.

  10. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J.

    2014-03-21

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4′-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  11. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  12. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEI, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  13. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  14. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  15. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that it is a final EIS (40 CFR 1503.4(c)), to HQ USAF/A7CI for filing with the EPA (40 CFR 1506.9). If... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same... approval of HQ USAF/A7CI and SAF/IEE, prepare a document containing only comments on the Draft EIS,...

  16. Materials and device structures for high-performance poly OLEDs on flexible plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yongtaek; Hong, Zhiyong; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2001-02-01

    Organic polymer light-emitting devices (Poly OLEDs) with the bi-layer thin film structures have been fabricated on both glass and flexible plastic substrates. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of each organic polymer layer have been optimized for the Poly OLED optimum electrical performances. The spin coating technique was used to fabricate our devices. An alternating co-polymer of poly (9, 9'-dihexyl fluorene-2, 7-diyl) and poly (benzothiadiazole 2, 5-diyl) (PHF-BTD), and poly (9-hexyl carbazole-3, 6-diyl) (PC6) have been used as light emitting and hole transporting polymer, respectively. The combination of the optical and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and analysis has been used to develop the band diagram for our Poly OLEDs. For our polymers, the oxidation/reduction processes are well defined and clearly observed in the CV spectra. This allows a direct comparison of the polymers band gaps determined by both the optical and electrical methods. The photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission peaks are both located around 570 nm, and maximum brightness up to 2000 cd/m2 was obtained. Turn-on voltages of approximately 16 and approximately 20 V, acceptable emission efficiencies of approximately 5.5 and approximately 4.2 cd/A, good power efficiencies of approximately 0.9 and 0.6 lm/W, and acceptable external quantum efficiencies of 1.8 and 1.6% have been obtained for OLEDs fabricated on both glass and plastic substrates, respectively.

  17. Optical sensors based on monolithic integrated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckziegel, S.; Kreye, D.; Puegner, T.; Grillberger, C.; Toerker, M.; Vogel, U.; Amelung, J.

    2008-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) permit the monolithic integration of microelectronic circuits and light-emitting devices on the same silicon chip. By the use of integrated photodetectors, low-cost CMOS processes and simple packaging; economically produced optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) with combined sensors and actuating elements can be realized. The OLEDs are deposited directly on the top metal layer. The metal layer serves as electrode and defines the bright area. Furthermore, the area below the electrodes can be used for integrated circuits. Due to efficient emitter with low operating voltage it is possible to renounce high-voltage devices depending on selected CMOS process. Thus manufacturing cost can be further reduced. Different CMOS metallizations were examined and their effects on organic light-emitting diodes were analyzed. Red (628nm) and orange (597nm) emitting p-i-n OLEDs with a radiance of 5W/m2sr at 2.8V and 3.0V and a half angle of +/-45° were realized on metal layer with low roughness. Near infra-red emitters are in development. We will present an optical microsystem. The functionality of combined sensors and actuating elements as well as advantages and difficulties of the monolithic integration of OLEDs and CMOS will be discussed. The chip was manufactured in a commercial 1μm CMOS technology. The fabricated microsystem combines three different types of sensors: a reflective sensor, a colour sensor and a particle flow sensor.

  18. Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Taro; Nakanotani, Hajime; Inoue, Munetomo; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Recently, triplet harvesting via a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process has been established as a realistic route for obtaining ultimate internal electroluminescence (EL) quantum efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, the possibility that the rather long transient lifetime of the triplet excited states would reduce operational stability due to an increased chance for unwarranted chemical reactions has been a concern. Herein, we demonstrate dual enhancement of EL efficiency and operational stability in OLEDs by employing a TADF molecule as an assistant dopant and a fluorescent molecule as an end emitter. The proper combination of assistant dopant and emitter molecules realized a “one-way” rapid Förster energy transfer of singlet excitons from TADF molecules to fluorescent emitters, reducing the number of cycles of intersystem crossing (ISC) and reverse ISC in the TADF molecules and resulting in a significant enhancement of operational stability compared to OLEDs with a TADF molecule as the end emitter. In addition, we found that the presence of this rapid energy transfer significantly suppresses singlet-triplet annihilation. Using this finely-tuned rapid triplet-exciton upconversion scheme, OLED performance and lifetime was greatly improved. PMID:25673259

  19. Rearrangement of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) diketone: 9,10-diarylanthracenes with OLED applications.

    PubMed

    Sarsah, Samuel R S; Lutz, Marlon R; Zeller, Matthias; Crumrine, David S; Becker, Daniel P

    2013-03-01

    Electroluminescent 9,10-diaryl anthracenes have been shown to be promising host and hole-transporting materials in organic electroluminescence due to their high thermal stability, electrochemical reversibility, and wide band gap useful for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), especially blue OLEDs. Oxidation of cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) to the corresponding diketone and subsequent bromination resulted in an unexpected rearrangement to a highly functionalized 9-aryl-10-bromoanthracene derivative, which was employed in Suzuki couplings to synthesize a series of 9,10-diaryl compounds that are structural analogues of anthracene derivatives used in the preparation of OLEDs but are more highly functionalized, including electron-donating methoxy groups in addition to substitution by a carboxylic acid moiety. The UV/fluorescence solution spectra show strong emissions at 446, 438, and 479 nm, respectively, for the anthracene 10-phenyl, 10-naphthyl, and 10-pyrenyl adducts containing a benzoic acid functional group, whereas the analogues bearing the hydroxymethylene moiety from reduction of the benzoic acid to the corresponding alcohols gave much shorter emission wavelengths of 408, 417, and 476 nm, respectively, and had somewhat higher quantum yields, suggesting they are better candidates for OLED applications. PMID:23190432

  20. Catalytic strategy for carbon-carbon bond scission by the cytochrome P450 OleT.

    PubMed

    Grant, Job L; Mitchell, Megan E; Makris, Thomas Michael

    2016-09-01

    OleT is a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide-dependent metabolism of Cn chain-length fatty acids to synthesize Cn-1 1-alkenes. The decarboxylation reaction provides a route for the production of drop-in hydrocarbon fuels from a renewable and abundant natural resource. This transformation is highly unusual for a P450, which typically uses an Fe(4+)-oxo intermediate known as compound I for the insertion of oxygen into organic substrates. OleT, previously shown to form compound I, catalyzes a different reaction. A large substrate kinetic isotope effect (≥8) for OleT compound I decay confirms that, like monooxygenation, alkene formation is initiated by substrate C-H bond abstraction. Rather than finalizing the reaction through rapid oxygen rebound, alkene synthesis proceeds through the formation of a reaction cycle intermediate with kinetics, optical properties, and reactivity indicative of an Fe(4+)-OH species, compound II. The direct observation of this intermediate, normally fleeting in hydroxylases, provides a rationale for the carbon-carbon scission reaction catalyzed by OleT. PMID:27555591

  1. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Gary S.; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu, Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianaca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred; Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  2. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqing, Gan

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides a

  3. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of OLEDs using Si₃N₄-based optical scattering layer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Yang Doo; Lee, Ho Won; Yang, Hyung Jin; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Young Kwan; Lee, Heon

    2014-05-19

    An optical scattering layer, consisting of a Si3N4 nano-pillar array and a spin-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) planarization layer, was introduced to an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) substrate to increase the out-coupling efficiency. After plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of the Si3N4 layer, the nano-pillar array was created using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching. As the Si3N4 pillar array has a refractive index of 2.0, photons generated in the organic layer are scattered by the Si3N4 structures and thus have a higher chance of being emitted from the device. The spin-coated HSQ planarization layer produces a flat substrate, which is essential for depositing a uniform organic material layer and assuring the electric conductivity of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. In this study, Si3N4 nano-structures with a height of 100 or 300 nm were used to enhance the out-coupling efficiency of the OLED devices. Although the electrical conductivity of the TCO layer deposited on the light scattering layer was slightly degraded, the OLED devices formed with the light scattering layer exhibited a higher luminous power at given electrical power. Consequently, the use of a planarized 300-nm-thick Si3N4 layer increased the external quantum efficiency of the OLED device by 50% at 10,000 cd/m2 compared to the reference OLED device fabricated on a flat glass substrate.

  4. OLED-based physiologically-friendly very low-color temperature illumination for night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Shen, Shih-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chun; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, Chin-Chiao; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medical research studies reveal intense white or blue light to drastically suppress at night the secretion of melatonin (MLT), a protective oncostatic hormone. Lighting devices with lower color-temperature (CT) possess lesser MLT suppression effect based on the same luminance, explaining why physicians have long been calling for the development of lighting sources with low CT or free from blue emission for use at night to safeguard human health. We will demonstrate in the presentation the fabrication of OLED devices with very-low CT, especially those with CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2500K) or even candles (2000K). Without any light extraction method, OLEDs with an around 1800K CT are easily obtainable with an efficacy of 30 lm/W at 1,000 nits. To also ensure high color-rendering to provide visual comfort, low CT OLEDs composing long wavelength dominant 5-spectrum emission have been fabricated. While keeping the color-rendering index as high as 85 and CT as low as 2100K, the resulting efficacy can also be much greater than that of incandescent bulbs (15 lm/W), proving these low CT OLED devices to be also capable of being energy-saving and high quality. The color-temperature can be further decreased to 1700K or lower upon removing the undesired short wavelength emission but on the cost of losing some color rendering index. It is hoped that the devised energy-saving, high quality low CT OLED could properly echo the call for a physiologically-friendly illumination for night, and more attention could be drawn to the development of MLT suppression-less non-white light.

  5. Maskless RGB color patterning of vacuum-deposited small molecule OLED displays by diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Kajiyama, Koichi; Aziz, Hany

    2015-06-29

    A maskless RGB color patterning technique based on diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules is proposed here for vacuum-deposited small molecule OLED displays. The proposed maskless color patterning technique enables us to overcome challenging issues in OLED display manufacturing arising from shadow mask limitations. This approach utilizes selective diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate. Results show that sufficiently high doping levels can be achieved through this technique and that devices with performance similar to those produced by standard co-deposition can be easily produced. Red, green and blue OLEDs are successfully fabricated side by side on one substrate using this technique.

  6. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  7. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    SciTech Connect

    Pschenitzka, Florian; Mathai, Mathew; Torke, Terri

    2012-07-15

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaled's HIL material instead of Plextronics. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are

  8. Correction: Theoretical study and design of multifunctional phosphorescent platinum(ii) complexes containing triarylboron moieties for efficient OLED emitters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Shan, Guo-Gang; Li, Hai-Bin; Wu, Shui-Xing; Ren, Xin-Yao; Geng, Yun; Su, Zhong-Min

    2015-02-14

    Correction for 'Theoretical study and design of multifunctional phosphorescent platinum(ii) complexes containing triarylboron moieties for efficient OLED emitters' by Yong Wu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: .

  9. Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Blue-phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 34.1% external quantum efficiency (EQE) and 79.6 lm W(-1) are demonstrated using a hole-transporting layer and electron-transporting layer with low refractive index values. Using optical simulations, it is predicted that outcoupling efficiencies with EQEs > 60% can be achieved if organic layers with a refractive index of 1.5 are used for OLEDs.

  10. Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Blue-phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 34.1% external quantum efficiency (EQE) and 79.6 lm W(-1) are demonstrated using a hole-transporting layer and electron-transporting layer with low refractive index values. Using optical simulations, it is predicted that outcoupling efficiencies with EQEs > 60% can be achieved if organic layers with a refractive index of 1.5 are used for OLEDs. PMID:27060851

  11. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  12. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  13. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  14. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  15. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... combined with or integrated into the report in accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(o) and 1506.4. An EIS...

  16. 12 CFR 1815.109 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prepared, it shall publish a notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7 and... or have prepared the EIS. Procedures for preparing the EIS are set forth in 40 CFR part 1502 of the CEQ regulations. (b) The Fund may supplement a draft or final EIS at any time. The Fund shall...

  17. Localized Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Electroluminescence in OLEDs by Self-Assembly Ag Nanoparticle Film.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Zheng, Wanquan; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated Ag nanoparticle (NP) film in organic light emission diodes (OLEDs), and a 23 times increase in electroluminescence (EL) at 518 nm was probed by time-resolved EL measurement. The luminance and relative external quantum efficiency (REQE) were increased by 5.4 and 3.7 times, respectively. There comes a new energy transport way that localized surface plasmons (LSPs) would absorb energy that corresponds to the electron-hole pair before recombination, promoting the formation of electron-hole pair and exciting local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The extended lifetime of Alq3 indicates the existence of strong interaction between LSPR and exciton, which decreases the nonradiative decay rate of OLEDs. PMID:26631223

  18. Localized Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Electroluminescence in OLEDs by Self-Assembly Ag Nanoparticle Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Zheng, Wanquan; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated Ag nanoparticle (NP) film in organic light emission diodes (OLEDs), and a 23 times increase in electroluminescence (EL) at 518 nm was probed by time-resolved EL measurement. The luminance and relative external quantum efficiency (REQE) were increased by 5.4 and 3.7 times, respectively. There comes a new energy transport way that localized surface plasmons (LSPs) would absorb energy that corresponds to the electron-hole pair before recombination, promoting the formation of electron-hole pair and exciting local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The extended lifetime of Alq3 indicates the existence of strong interaction between LSPR and exciton, which decreases the nonradiative decay rate of OLEDs.

  19. An inconvenient influence of iridium(III) isomer on OLED efficiency.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Bolink, Henk J; De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Di Censo, Davide; Djellab, Karim; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja

    2010-10-14

    The recently reported heteroleptic cyclometallated iridium(III) complex [Ir(2-phenylpyridine)(2)(2-carboxy-4-dimethylaminopyridine)] N984 and its isomer N984b have been studied more in detail. While photo- and electrochemical properties are very similar, DFT/TDDFT calculations show that the two isomers have different HOMO orbital characteristics. As a consequence, solution processed OLEDs made using a mixture of N984 and isomer N984b similar to vacuum processed devices show that the isomer has a dramatic detrimental effect on the performances of the device. In addition, commonly used thermogravimetric analysis is not suitable for showing the isomerization process. The isomer could impact performances of vacuum processed OLEDs using heteroleptic cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes as dopant.

  20. Spontaneous Fluctuations of Transition Dipole Moment Orientation in OLED Triplet Emitters.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Florian; Bange, Sebastian; Vogelsang, Jan; Lupton, John M

    2015-03-19

    The efficiency of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) depends on the microscopic orientation of transition dipole moments of the molecular emitters. The most effective materials used for light generation have 3-fold symmetry, which prohibits a priori determination of dipole orientation due to the degeneracy of the fundamental transition. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals that the model triplet emitter tris(1-phenylisoquinoline)iridium(III) (Ir(piq)3) does not behave as a linear dipole, radiating with lower polarization anisotropy than expected. Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in the excited state, leading to a random selection of one of the three ligands to form a charge-transfer state with the metal. This nondeterministic localization is revealed in switching of the degree of linear polarization of phosphorescence. Polarization scrambling likely raises out-coupling efficiency and should be taken into account when deriving molecular orientation of the guest emitter within the OLED host from ensemble angular emission profiles.

  1. High-throughput quantum chemistry and virtual screening for OLED material components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang

    2013-09-01

    Computational structure enumeration, analysis using an automated simulation workflow and filtering of large chemical structure libraries to identify lead systems, has become a central paradigm in drug discovery research. Transferring this paradigm to challenges in materials science is now possible due to advances in the speed of computational resources and the efficiency and stability of chemical simulation packages. State-of-the-art software tools that have been developed for drug discovery can be applied to efficiently explore the chemical design space to identify solutions for problems such as organic light-emitting diode material components. In this work, virtual screening for OLED materials based on intrinsic quantum mechanical properties is illustrated. Also, a new approach to more reliably identify candidate systems is introduced that is based on the chemical reaction energetics of defect pathways for OLED materials.

  2. Solution-Procesed Small-Molecule OLED Luminaire for Interior Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Ian

    2012-02-29

    Prototype lighting panels and luminaires were fabricated using DuPont Displays solution-processed small-molecule OLED technology. These lighting panels were based on a spatially-patterned, 3-color design, similar in concept to an OLED display panel, with materials chosen to maximize device efficacy. The majority of the processing steps take place in air (rather than high vacuum). Optimization of device architecture, processing and construction was undertaken, with a final prototype design of 50 cm{sup 2} being fabricated and tested. Performance of these panels reached 35 lm/W at illuminant-A. A unique feature of this technology is the ability to color tune the emission, and color temperatures ranging from 2700 to > 6,500K were attained in the final build. Significant attention was paid to low-cost fabrication techniques.

  3. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  4. Templateless electrodeposition ZnO nanowires for charge transport optimization in OLED structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosan, S.; Matei, E.; Ciobotaru, I. C.; Ciobotaru, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    Passivated zinc oxide nanowires (NW) were used to improve the charge injection in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structures. Conducting polymers, deposited on the well-dispersed ZnO NW, were used to modify the electrical conductivity across the OLED structure because the charge transport is influenced by the interface interactions. Passivation with polymers improves the transport characteristics of the device due to the interaction between ZnO NW and PEDOT:PSS polymer. The hole current density increases with the ZnO NW concentration, which made the current injection more balanced and therefore enhanced the electroluminescence efficiency. A templateless electrochemical deposition method was used to grow zinc oxide nanowires on an ITO/glass substrate because parameters such as the densities and dimensions of the nanowires can be controlled to produce thin and well dispersed structures.

  5. Fabrication of a three-dimensional nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser for microcavity OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Beom; Cho, Ye Ram; Suh, Min Chul

    2015-09-01

    We used a nanoporous polymer film prepared by cellulose acetate butyrate with ~40% of optical haze value as a diffuser. It was fabricated by a simple spin-coating process during continuous water mist supply by a humidifier. The pores were created by the elastic bouncing mechanism (rather than the thermocapillary convection mechanism) of the supplied water droplets. The shapes and sizes of the caves formed near the polymer surface are randomly distributed, with a relatively narrow pore size distribution (300-500 nm). Specifically, we focused on controlling the surface morphology to give a three-dimensional (3D) multi-stacked nanocave structure because we had already learnt that two-dimensional nanoporous structures showed serious loss of luminance in the forward direction. Using this approach, we found that the 3D nanoporous polymer film can effectively reduce the viewing angle dependency of strong microcavity OLEDs without any considerable decrease in the total intensity of the out-coupled light. We applied this nanoporous polymer film to microcavity OLEDs to investigate the possibility of using it as a diffuser layer. The resulting nanoporous polymer film effectively reduced the viewing angle dependency of the microcavity OLEDs, although a pixel blurring phenomenon occurred. Despite its negative effects, such as the drop in efficiency in the forward direction and the pixel blurring, the introduction of a nanoporous polymer film as a scattering medium on the back side of the glass substrate eliminated the viewing angle dependency. Thus, this approach is a promising method to overcome the serious drawbacks of microcavity OLEDs.

  6. Thin silicon shadow masks for organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-Chang; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhung, Kai-Xiang; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report thin silicon shadow masks used for vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) for manufacturing compact-size OLED (organic light emitting diodes) displays. Currently, the OLED displays attract many research attentions because of novel organic materials for emitting the light at relative low cost. The fabrication processes of OLED make use of shadow masks for thermal deposition of organic materials due to etching difficulties. The metal shadow masks are widely used because of easy access. However, the openings of the metal shadow masks are limited to vertical sidewall, which cause the rounded profile at the top surface of deposited organic layers. This may cause potential step coverage problem and non-uniform device efficiency. In order to overcome the deposition profile of organic materials, we propose to use thin silicon shadow masks. Due to the crystal orientation of (100) silicon wafers, the etched aperture slope of the silicon shadow mask has approximately 54 degree sidewalls. This slope increases the accepting angle of the openings around the edge that results in a better profile of deposited organic materials. The simulation model for deposition profile is based on basic physical equation. The simulation results show flat profile at the top surface by using silicon shadow masks with the wedged openings; which could overcome the potential problem listed above. The silicon shadow masks are fabricated by micromachining techniques and are used in the vacuum deposition of aluminum and organic polymers. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of organic films and side profiles measured by alpha stepper will be applied to verify the simulation models and to optimize the deposition factor. We demonstrate that the thin silicon shadow masks can provide deposition advantages over traditional metal shadow masks in terms of deposition profiles of aluminum and organic layers for making OLED displays.

  7. Roll-To-Roll Process for Transparent Metal Electrodes in OLED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Slafer, W. Dennis

    2010-06-02

    This program will develop and demonstrate a new manufacturing technology that can help to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of producing the next generation solid-state lighting (OLEDs)for a broad range of commercial applications. This will not only improve US competitiveness in the manufacturing sector but will also result in a positive impact in meeting the Department of Energy’s goal of developing high efficiency lighting while reducing the environmental impact.

  8. Electrical investigations of hybrid OLED microcavity structures with novel encapsulation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    An electrical driven organic solid state laser is a very challenging goal which is so far well beyond reach. As a step towards realization, we monolithically implemented an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) into a dielectric, high quality microcavity (MC) consisting of two Distributed Bragg Reectors (DBR). In order to account for an optimal optical operation, the OLED structure has to be adapted. Furthermore, we aim to excite the device not only electrically but optically as well. Different OLED structures with an emission layer consisting of Alq3:DCM (2 wt%) were investigated. The External Quantum Efficiencies (EQE) of this hybrid structures are in the range of 1-2 %, as expected for this material combination. Including metal layers into a MC is complicated and has a huge impact on the device performance. Using Transfer-Matrix-Algorithm (TMA) simulations, the best positions for the metal electrodes are determined. First, the electroluminescence (EL) of the adjusted OLED structure on top of a DBR is measured under nitrogen atmosphere. The modes showed quality factors of Q = 60. After the deposition of the top DBR, the EL is measured again and the quality factors increased up to Q = 600. Considering the two 25-nm-thick-silver contacts a Q-factor of 600 is very high. The realization of a suitable encapsulation method is important. Two approaches were successfully tested. The first method is based on the substitution of a DBR layer with a layer produced via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The second method uses a 0.15-mm-thick cover glass glued on top of the DBR with a 0.23-μm-thick single-component glue layer. Due to the working encapsulation, it is possible to investigate the sample under ambient conditions.

  9. Simple Bipolar Host Materials for High-Efficiency Blue, Green, and White Phosphorescence OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Liu, Di; Jin, Qian

    2016-08-31

    3-(1H-Pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine is used as electron-transporting unit to construct bipolar host materials o-CzPyPz, m-CzPyPz, and p-CzPyPz for application in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). By varying the ortho-, meta-, or para-linking mode between the n-type 3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine and the p-type carbazole on phenylene bridge, the optoelectronic parameters are tuned to large extent. The highly twisted o-CzPyPz has high triplet energy of 2.95 eV, while the isomer p-CzPyPz with more coplanar conformation has smaller triplet energy of 2.67 eV. The m-CzPyPz-hosted blue PhOLED exhibits a peak current efficiency of 49.1 cd A(-1) (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 24.5%) and low-efficiency roll-off, while the p-CzPyPz-hosted green PhOLEDs turns on at 2.8 V and exhibits high efficiencies of 91.8 cd A(-1) (96.1 lm W(-1) and 27.3%). Furthermore, two-emitting-layer white OLEDs are fabricated with m-CzPyPz or p-CzPyPz as common hosts for both blue and orange phosphors, which realize high efficiencies of 57.8 cd A(-1) (45.4 lm W(-1) and 23.6%) and 60.7 cd A(-1) (38.1 lm W(-1) and 23.1%). The optimization of host structure for good matching of host and dopant and finally for the ideal performance is discussed. PMID:27517473

  10. Candle light-style OLED: a plausibly human-friendly safe night light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chen, Po-Wei; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tung, F.-C.; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Candles emit sensationally-warm light with a very-low color-temperature, comparatively most suitable for use at night. In response to the need for such a human-friendly night light, we demonstrate the employment of a high number of candle light complementary organic emitters to generate mimic candle light based on organic light emitting diode (OLED). One resultant candle light-style OLED shows a very-high color rendering index, with an efficacy at least 300 times that of candles or twice that of an incandescent bulb. The device can be fabricated, for example, by using four candle light complementary emitters, namely: red, yellow, green, and sky-blue phosphorescent dyes, vacuum-deposited into two emission layers, separated by a nano-layer of carrier modulation material to maximize both the desirable very-high color rendering index and energy efficiency, while keeping the blue emission very low and red emission high to obtain the desirable low color temperature. With different layer structures, the OLEDs can also show color tunable between that of candle light and dusk-hue. Importantly, a romantic sensation giving and supposedly physiologically-friendly candle light-style emission can hence be driven by electricity in lieu of the hydrocarbon-burning and greenhouse gas releasing candles that were invented 5,000 years ago.

  11. Security Implications of OPC, OLE, DCOM, and RPC in Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    OPC is a collection of software programming standards and interfaces used in the process control industry. It is intended to provide open connectivity and vendor equipment interoperability. The use of OPC technology simplifies the development of control systems that integrate components from multiple vendors and support multiple control protocols. OPC-compliant products are available from most control system vendors, and are widely used in the process control industry. OPC was originally known as OLE for Process Control; the first standards for OPC were based on underlying services in the Microsoft Windows computing environment. These underlying services (OLE [Object Linking and Embedding], DCOM [Distributed Component Object Model], and RPC [Remote Procedure Call]) have been the source of many severe security vulnerabilities. It is not feasible to automatically apply vendor patches and service packs to mitigate these vulnerabilities in a control systems environment. Control systems using the original OPC data access technology can thus inherit the vulnerabilities associated with these services. Current OPC standardization efforts are moving away from the original focus on Microsoft protocols, with a distinct trend toward web-based protocols that are independent of any particular operating system. However, the installed base of OPC equipment consists mainly of legacy implementations of the OLE for Process Control protocols.

  12. Cost-Effective Force Field Tailored for Solid-Phase Simulations of OLED Materials.

    PubMed

    Moral, M; Son, W-J; Sancho-García, J C; Olivier, Y; Muccioli, L

    2015-07-14

    A united atom force field is empirically derived by minimizing the difference between experimental and simulated crystal cells and melting temperatures for eight compounds representative of organic electronic materials used in OLEDs and other devices: biphenyl, carbazole, fluorene, 9,9'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole)-1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (pCBP), phenazine, phenylcarbazole, and triphenylamine. The force field is verified against dispersion-corrected DFT calculations and shown to also successfully reproduce the crystal structure for two larger compounds employed as hosts in phosphorescent and thermally activated delayed fluorescence OLEDs: N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPD), and 1,3,5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI). The good performances of the force field coupled to the large computational savings granted by the united atom approximation make it an ideal choice for the simulation of the morphology of emissive layers for OLED materials in crystalline or glassy phases.

  13. Generation of 360° three-dimensional display using circular-aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-02-01

    A 360° all-around multiview three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed by using coarse-pitch circular-aligned OLED microdisplays. The magnified virtual color images projected from microdisplays serve as stereo images, which can create separate eyeboxes for the viewer. Through inserting baffles, a transitional stereo image assembled by two spatially complementary segments from adjacent stereo images is presented to a complementary fusing zone (CFZ) which locates between adjacent eyeboxes. For a moving observation point, the spatial ratio of the two complementary segments evolves gradually, resulting in continuously changing transitional stereo images and thus overcoming the problem of discontinuous moving parallax. Such a controllable light-ray fusing technology, assured by the inherent large divergent angle of OLED pixels, decreases the required number of display panels for 360° multiview 3D display greatly. A prototype display system with only 67 full-color OLED microdisplays is set up to demonstrate the 360° 3D color display. The develop system is freed from the dependence on mechanical moving elements, high-speed components and diffusion screens.

  14. Multiview three-dimensional display with continuous motion parallax through planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Xiong, Yi; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Existing multiview three-dimensional (3D) display technologies encounter discontinuous motion parallax problem, due to a limited number of stereo-images which are presented to corresponding sub-viewing zones (SVZs). This paper proposes a novel multiview 3D display system to obtain continuous motion parallax by using a group of planar aligned OLED microdisplays. Through blocking partial light-rays by baffles inserted between adjacent OLED microdisplays, transitional stereo-image assembled by two spatially complementary segments from adjacent stereo-images is presented to a complementary fusing zone (CFZ) which locates between two adjacent SVZs. For a moving observation point, the spatial ratio of the two complementary segments evolves gradually, resulting in continuously changing transitional stereo-images and thus overcoming the problem of discontinuous motion parallax. The proposed display system employs projection-type architecture, taking the merit of full display resolution, but at the same time having a thin optical structure, offering great potentials for portable or mobile 3D display applications. Experimentally, a prototype display system is demonstrated by 9 OLED microdisplays.

  15. Investigation on slot-die coating of hybrid material structure for OLED lightings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Dong-Kyun; Park, Jongwoon

    2016-08-01

    With an attempt to fabricate large-area OLED lighting panels, we investigate slot-die coating of a small molecule (SM) hole transport layer (HTL). It is observed that SM HTL films formed by spin coating exhibit pinhole-like surface, whereas the films by slot-die coating show micro-sized hillocks due to agglomeration. As the plate temperature of the slot coater is increased, smaller hillocks appear more densely. To tackle it, a small amount of a polymer HTL is added into the SM HTL (Hybrid HTL). By the aid of entangled polymer chains, small molecules are prohibited from migrating and thus agglomerations disappear. The peak-to-peak roughness of the slot-coated hybrid HTL films is measured to be about 11.5 nm, which is slightly higher than that (~7 nm) of the polymer HTL film, but much lower than that (~1071 nm) of the SM HTL film. Similar results are also observed in spin-coated films. It is also addressed that OLED with the hybrid HTL shows higher luminous efficacy, compared to OLED with the SM HTL or the polymer HTL. We have further demonstrated that the dissolution problem occurring between two stacked layers with different solvents during slot-die coating can be suppressed to a great extent using such a combination of materials in hybrid structure.

  16. Stratéole 2: a long-duration balloon campaign at the Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, Albert; Cocquerez, Philippe; Plougonven, Riwie; Venel, Stephanie

    The tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the low-latitude atmospheric region located between 14 and 20 km altitude, with intermediate tropospheric and stratospheric characteristics. Air parcels that have been rapidly lofted by the underlying deep convection to the bottom of the TTL are radiatively heated in the TTL and slowly ascends to the stratosphere. In particular, the water vapour mixing ratio of air entering the stratosphere is set in the TTL under the influence of a number of dynamical (e.g., planetary and gravity waves) and microphysical (e.g., nucleation) processes that cover a wide range of scales. Despite recent improvements of spaceborne sensors, providing accurate observations at global scale of these processes has proved rather challenging. At the same time, observed inter-annual variations of the stratospheric water content, which have profound consequences on the Earth radiative budget and on ozone chemistry, are poorly simulated in climate models. Stratéole 2 is hence a superpressure balloon campaign aimed at improving our knowledge of small and mesoscale processes in the TTL. Superpressure balloons, which have been successfully used in previous campaigns in Antarctica (Vorcore 2005, Concordiasi 2010), can fly for several months in the lower stratosphere (18-20 km). Advected by the winds on constant-density surfaces, they behave as quasi-Lagrangian tracers of air-parcel motions, and can circle around the equatorial belt to provide observations at global scale. During Stratéole 2, many in-situ and remote-sensing instruments aimed at characterizing the TTL dynamics and composition will be hosted on the balloon and make high-resolution measurements along the flight. Stratéole 2 observations will be used to document the occurrence of subvisible cirrus clouds in the TTL, as well as the mechanisms responsible for their formation. They will also serve to quantify the momentum flux associated with gravity waves generated by deep convection, and their

  17. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) < μe (iL) < μe (LEP) < μh (iL). A method to measure the photon generation zone profile and dipole orientation is presented and shown to follow the expected behavior. The efficiency drop of P-OLEDs during device operation is a known issue, the understanding and prevention of which is key for the commercial success of P-OLED technology. We present a detailed degradation study of devices containing model materials, and highlight the generation of fluorescence quenching sites as the key factor limiting the operational stability. A striking feature of this degradation is its partial (~50%) reversibility upon baking above the LEP glass transition temperature. Some reversibility is also observed in the conductivity, suggesting a common origin to the optical and electrical degradation. We also show that the species responsible for the generation of the reversible PL quenching sites are the excitons themselves, and that optically excited excitons can also generate many of the features characteristic of electrical stressing. Finally we demonstrate that materials with a dramatically improved lifetime also suffer from a similar, although slowed down, degradation

  18. Hydrogen peroxide-independent production of α-alkenes by OleTJE P450 fatty acid decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456, a new member of the CYP152 peroxygenase family, was recently found to catalyze the unusual decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids to form α-alkenes using H2O2 as the sole electron and oxygen donor. Because aliphatic α-alkenes are important chemicals that can be used as biofuels to replace fossil fuels, or for making lubricants, polymers and detergents, studies on OleTJE fatty acid decarboxylase are significant and may lead to commercial production of biogenic α-alkenes in the future, which are renewable and more environmentally friendly than petroleum-derived equivalents. Results We report the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE for the first time. In the presence of NADPH and O2, this P450 enzyme efficiently decarboxylates long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C20) in vitro when partnering with either the fused P450 reductase domain RhFRED from Rhodococcus sp. or the separate flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. In vivo, expression of OleTJE or OleTJE-RhFRED in different E. coli strains overproducing free fatty acids resulted in production of variant levels of multiple α-alkenes, with a highest total hydrocarbon titer of 97.6 mg·l-1. Conclusions The discovery of the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE not only raises a number of fundamental questions on the monooxygenase-like mechanism of this peroxygenase, but also will direct the future metabolic engineering work toward improvement of O2/redox partner(s)/NADPH for overproduction of α-alkenes by OleTJE. PMID:24565055

  19. A non-allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from birch pollen as a tool to design hypoallergenic vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Marazuela, Eva G; Hajek, Roswitha; Villalba, Mayte; Barber, Domingo; Breiteneder, Heimo; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Recombinant DNA technology offers several approaches to convert allergens into hypoallergenic derivatives that can represent the basis of novel, safer and more effective forms of allergy vaccines. In this context, we used a new strategy for the design of a hypoallergenic derivative of Ole e 1, the main allergen of olive pollen. By screening a cDNA library from birch pollen, the clone BB18, encoding the birch counterpart of Ole e 1, was identified. In this study, BB18 has been produce in Pichia pastoris as a recombinant protein and immunologically characterized. The well-established non-allergenic properties of BB18 were used to generate a genetic variant of Ole e 1, named OB(55-58), by site-direct mutagenesis of four residues (E(55)V(56)G(57)Y(58)) in an IgE/IgG epitope of Ole e 1 by the corresponding ones in BB18 (SDSE). OB(55-58) was expressed in P. pastoris, purified to homogeneity and analyzed for IgE-reactivity by means of ELISA using sera from olive pollen allergic patients and rat basophil activation assay. T cell reactivity was assayed in a mouse model of Ole e 1 sensitization. The mutant OB(55-58) exhibited an impaired IgE reactivity, but not affected T cell reactivity, compared to wild type rOle e 1. This study emphasizes the usefulness of BB18 as a tool for epitope mapping and for engineering hypoallergenic derivatives of Ole e 1 as vaccine candidates for allergy prevention and treatment.

  20. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  1. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  2. Device reflectivity as a simple rule for predicting the suitability of scattering foils for improved OLED light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levell, Jack W.; Harkema, Stephan; Pendyala, Raghu K.; Rensing, Peter A.; Senes, Alessia; Bollen, Dirk; MacKerron, Duncan; Wilson, Joanne S.

    2013-09-01

    A general challenge in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is to extract the light efficiently from waveguided modes within the device structure. This can be accomplished by applying an additional scattering layer to the substrate which results in outcoupling increases between 0% to <100% in external quantum efficiency. In this work, we aim to address this large variation and show that the reflectivity of the OLED is a simple and useful predictor of the efficiency of substrate scattering techniques without the need for detailed modeling. We show that by optimizing the cathode and anode structure of glass based OLEDs by using silver and an ITO free high conductive Agfa Orgacon™ PEDOT:PSS we are able to increase the external quantum efficiency of OLEDs with the same outcoupling substrates from 2.4% to 5.6%, an increase of 130%. In addition, Holst Centre and partners are developing flexible substrates with integrated light extraction features and roll to roll compatible processing techniques to enable this next step in OLED development both for lighting and display applications. These devices show promise as they are shatterproof substrates and facilitate low cost manufacture.

  3. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped

  4. Photo- and electroluminescence from semiconductor colloidal quantum dots in organic matrices: QD-OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Vitukhnovskii, A. G. Vaschenko, A. A.; Bychkovskii, D. N.; Dirin, D. N.; Tananaev, P. N.; Vakshtein, M. S.; Korzhonov, D. A.

    2013-12-15

    The results are reported of an experimental study of samples of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with luminescent layers fabricated on the basis of two types of CdSe/CdS/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with average CdSe core diameters of 3.2 and 4.1 nm and the same overall diameters of 6.5 nm. The dependences of the LED efficiency on the applied voltage are determined. Assumptions are made about ways of optimizing the design of high-efficiency LEDs.

  5. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, Physical Properties, and OLED Application of Single BN-Fused Perylene Diimide.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Yongbiao; Li, Junbo; Cao, Jun; Zhu, Jia; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-01-01

    It is very challenging to introduce azaborine into an electron-deficient arene system because of unfavorable intramolecular electrophilic borylation reaction. In this report, we adopted a straightforward methodology to construct a large BN-embedded π-system based on perylene diimide (PDI), which is the first BN-annulation example with highly electron-withdrawing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The physical properties of the as-prepared N,N-dicyclohexyl-1-aza-12-bora-benzoperylene diimide (PDI-1BN) have been fully studied, and its sensing behavior to fluoride ion as well as its OLED performance was also investigated.

  7. LABONFOIL: investigations regarding microfluidic skin patches for drug detection using flexible OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholles, M.; Kroker, L.; Vogel, U.; Krüger, J.; Walczak, R.; Ruano-Lopez, J.

    2010-02-01

    This contribution describes first results concerning the overall and especially optical system design of microfluidic skin patches for drug detection based on fluorescence analysis of sweat samples. This work has been carried out within the European project LABONFOIL which aims to develop low-cost lab-on-chip systems for four different applications, one of them for the detection of cocaine abuse by professional drivers. To date work has focused on the integrated design of the skin patch itself including methods for sweat collection as well as studies concerning the feasibility of OLEDs for optical excitation of the fluorescence signal.

  8. Blue fluorescent OLED materials and their application for high-performance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuma, Hitoshi; Hosokawa, Chishio

    2014-06-01

    The authors applied two technologies to improve the efficiency of fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). First, an efficiency-enhancement layer (EEL) was introduced to boost triplet-triplet fusion (TTF). Second, new blue dopants with a higher orientation factor in the emitting layer were developed. Consequently, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) was increased up to 11.5% with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) 1931 color coordinates of (0.138, 0.092). The reported results may lead to EQEs that exceed 14% with fluorescent blue emitters.

  9. Theoretical studies on the photophysical properties of some Iridium (III) complexes used for OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urinda, Sharmistha; Das, Goutam; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab

    2016-09-01

    The structural and photophysical properties of four heteroleptic Iridium (III) complexes, based on 1-phenylpyrazole ligand, have been investigated theoretically. The effect of chemical substitution on the absorption and the emission spectra of the complexes has been studied and compared with the experimental data. We observe a significant structural change in the lowest triplet excited state as compared to the ground singlet state. We compute the emission wavelength of the complexes by considering the spin-orbit coupling. Using these understandings, we predict two new complexes having deeper blue emission which are supposed to be better efficient OLED materials.

  10. RCWA and FDTD modeling of light emission from internally structured OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Callens, Michiel Koen; Marsman, Herman; Penninck, Lieven; Peeters, Patrick; de Groot, Harry; ter Meulen, Jan Matthijs; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2014-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and simulation of a green OLED with an Internal Light Extraction (ILE) layer. The optical behavior of these devices is simulated using both Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) methods. Results obtained using these two different techniques show excellent agreement and predict the experimental results with good precision. By verifying the validity of both simulation methods on the internal light extraction structure we pave the way to optimization of ILE layers using either of these methods.

  11. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. PMID:25469476

  12. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  13. Modulation of Exciton Generation in Organic Active Planar pn Heterojunction: Toward Low Driving Voltage and High-Efficiency OLEDs Employing Conventional and Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Emitters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongcheng; Liu, Kunkun; Gan, Lin; Liu, Ming; Gao, Kuo; Xie, Gaozhan; Ma, Yuguang; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian

    2016-08-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) combining low driving voltage and high efficiency are designed by employing conventional and thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters through modulation of excitons generated at the planar p-n heterojunction region. To date, this approach enables the highest power efficiency for yellow-green emitting fluorescent OLEDs with a simplified structure.

  14. Thermally evaporated SiO thin films as a versatile interlayer for plasma-based OLED passivation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Won Min; Jang, Jaeyoung; Nam, Sooji; Kim, Lae Ho; Seo, Sang Joon; Park, Chan Eon

    2012-06-27

    Silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films were introduced as an efficient interlayer for achieving plasma-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) surface passivation. The SiO thin films could be consecutively formed via thermal evaporation, without breaking the vacuum, after deposition of the OLED cathode. The plasma resistivity and UV-blocking characteristics of the SiO interlayer protected the OLED devices against electrical and optical degradation during the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) passivation processes. In addition, the nonconformal deposition and hydroxyl group-rich surface characteristics of the SiO thin films yielded enhanced surface pinhole coverage and a higher initial film density in the subsequently deposited PEALD-based Al2O3 barrier film. As a result, the OLEDs with a SiO/Al2O3 bilayer passivation layer displayed a remarkably increased device shelf life compared to devices prepared using Al2O3-only passivation. A MOCON test showed that the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the SiO/Al2O3 bilayer film was 0.0033 g/(m(2) day), 2.3 times lower than the rate of a single Al2O3 barrier film. The results of our study demonstrated the multipurpose role of a SiO interlayer in plasma-based OLED passivation. The layer acted as a damage-free protective layer for the underlying OLED devices and an assistant layer to improve the upper barrier film performance.

  15. Novel fabrication method of microlens arrays with High OLED outcoupling efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Moon, Seong Il; Hwang, Dong Eui; Jeong, Ki Won; Kim, Chang Kyo; Moon, Dae-Gyu; Hong, Chinsoo

    2016-03-01

    We presented a novel fabrication method of pyramidal and hemispherical polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microlens arrays to improve the outcoupling efficiency. Pyramidal microlens arrays were fabricated by replica molding processes using concave-pyramidal silicon molds prepared by the wet etching method. Concave-hemispherical PMMA thin film was used as a template for fabrication of the hemispherical microlens array. The concave-hemispherical PMMA template was prepared by blowing a N2 gas stream onto the thin PMMA film suspended on a silicon pedestal. A PMMA microlens arrays with hemispherical structure were fabricated by a replica molding process. The outcoupling efficiency of the hemispherical microlens array was greater than that of the pyramidal microlens array. The outcoupling efficiency of hemispherical microlens arrays with a higher contact angle was larger than that of those with lower contact angle. This indicates that, for the hemispherical microlens with larger contact angle, more light can be extracted from the OLEDs due to the decrease in the incident angle of the light at the interface between an air and a hemispherical microlens arrays. After attaching a hemispherical microlens array with contact angle of 50.4° onto the OLEDs, the luminance was enhanced by approximately 117%.

  16. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Property of New Hexaphenyl Benzene Derivatives Including Emitting Core for OLED.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwangyu; Kang, Hyeonmi; Kim, Jong-Hyung; Wang, Yun-Fan; Kim, Seungho; Kay, Kwang-Yol; Park, Jongwook

    2015-10-01

    Three new emitting compounds of 5P-2TPA, 5P-2An and 5P-2Py for OLED based on hexaphenyl benzene moiety were synthesized. Physical properties were systematically examined by the change of the substitution groups of the synthesized materials. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the synthesized materials showed maximum emitting wavelengths of about 437~488 nm in solution state and 457~516 nm in film state, indicating blue emission color. OLED devices were fabricated by the synthesized compounds using vacuum deposition process as an emitting layer. Device structure was ITO/2-TNATA 60 nm/NPB 15 nm/EML 35 nm/TPBi 20 nm/LiF 1 nm/Al 200 nm. External quantum efficiencies and CIE values of 5P-2TPA, 5P-2An and 5P-2Py were 3.34, 1.06 and 2.06% and (0.14, 0.12), (0.23, 0.45) and (0.24, 0.45), respectively. The three compounds exhibited thermal stablility with high Td of 426 °C, 449 °C and 467 °C.

  17. Polymers Containing Diphenylvinyl-Substituted Indole Rings as Charge-Transporting Materials for OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigalevicius, S.; Zostautiene, R.; Sipaviciute, D.; Stulpinaite, B.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Liu, L.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.

    2016-02-01

    Monomers and polymers containing electronically isolated diphenylvinyl-substituted indole rings were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopies as well as by gel permeation chromatography. The polymers represent amorphous materials with glass transition temperatures of 91-109°C and thermal decomposition starting above 307°C. Electron photoemission spectra of thin films of the synthesized polymers revealed ionization potentials of 5.54-5.58 eV. The synthesized polymers were tested as hole-transporting materials in simple electroluminescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium (Alq3) as an emitter as well as an electron-transporting layer. A green OLED device containing a hole-transporting layer of poly[1-(2,3-epithiopropyl)-2-methyl-3-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)índole] exhibited the best overall performance with a driving voltage of 4.0 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 2.8 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 4200 cd/m2.

  18. Fast responsive and highly efficient optical upconverter based on phosphorescent OLED.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xinbo; Guan, Min; Niu, Litao; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Yiyang; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Zhanping; Wang, Baoqiang

    2014-11-12

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid optical upconverter that can convert irradiated 980 nm IR light to 510 nm green phosphorescence sensitively was fabricated and studied. fac-Tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3) doped 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) was used as emitting layer in the phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) unit. The upconverter using a phosphorescent OLED as display unit can achieve a higher upconversion efficiency and a low power consumption when compared with the one using fluorescent. An upconversion efficiency of 4.8% can be achieved for phosphorescent device at 15 V, much higher than that of fluorescent one (2.0%). The upconverter's transient optical and electric response to IR pulse were also investigated for the first time. The response time was found to be influenced by IR intensity and applied voltage. It has a response time as short as 60 μs. The rapid response property of the upconverter makes it feasible to be applied to high-speed IR imaging systems.

  19. Multi-Faceted Scientific Strategies Toward Better Solid-State Lighting of Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad Omary; Bruce Gnade; Qi Wang; Oussama Elbjeirami; Chi Yang; Nigel Shepherd; Huiping Jia; Manuel Quevedo; Husam Alshareef; Minghang Li; Ming-Te Lin; Wei-Hsuan Chen; Iain Oswald; Pankaj Sinha; Ravi Arvapally; Usha Kaipa; John Determan; Sreekar Marpu; Roy McDougald; Gustavo Garza; Jason Halbert; Unnat Bhansali; Michael Perez

    2010-08-31

    This project has advanced solid-state lighting (SSL) by utilizing new phosphorescent systems for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The technical approach was two-fold: a) Targeted synthesis and screening of emitters designed to exhibit phosphorescence with maximized brightness in the solid state; and b) Construction and optimizing the performance of monochromatic and white OLEDs from the best new emitters to improve performance metrics versus the state of the art. The phosphorescent systems were screened candidates among a large variety of recentlysynthesized and newly-designed molecular and macromolecular metal-organic phosphors. The emitters and devices have been optimized to maximize light emission and color metrics, improve the long-term durability of emitters and devices, and reduce the manufacturing cost both by simplifying the process flow and by seeking less expensive device components than common ones. The project succeeded in all these goals upon comparison of the best materials and devices investigated vs. the state of the art of the technology.

  20. Benzobisoxazole cruciforms: A tunable, cross-conjugated platform for the generation of deep blue OLED materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chavez, III, Ramiro; Cai, Min; Tlach, Brian; Wheeler, David L.; Kaudal, Rajiv; Tsyrenova, Ayuna; Tomlinson, Aimee L.; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph; Jeffries-EL, Malika

    2016-01-20

    Four new cross-conjugated small molecules based on a central benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisoxazole moiety possessing semi-independently tunable HOMO and LUMO levels were synthesized and the properties of these materials were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The molecules were thermally stable with 5% weight loss occurring well above 350 °C. The cruciforms all exhibited blue emission in solution ranging from 433–450 nm. Host–guest OLEDs fabricated from various concentrations of these materials using the small molecule host 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)-biphenyl (CBP) exhibited deep blue-emission with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.17, 0.05 ≤ y ≤ 0.11), and maximum luminance efficiencies as highmore » as ~2 cd A–1. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of benzobisoxazole cruciforms as emitters for developing high-performance deep blue OLEDs.« less

  1. Design and fabrication of double-sided optical film for OLED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Pan, C. T.; Chen, Y. C.; Liu, Z. H.; Wu, C. J.

    2013-03-01

    Design and fabrication of optical films to increase visual brightness of OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) lighting units are presented in this paper. This study explores a new fabrication process combining precision machining, photolithography, and micro forming techniques to make a double-sided optical film. One side of the optical film is made of micro triangular-pyramidal array (MTPA), and the other side is micro gapless hexagonal microlens array (GHMA). First, Taguchi Method is applied to determine the optimal microstructure configuration by the assistance of the commercial optical software, FRED. Second, tungsten (W) mold of MTPA as the first mold is manufactured by precision machining including optical projection grinding, lapping, and polishing processes. Nickel-cobalt (NiCo) mold of GHMA as the first mold of the other side is fabricated by using LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung)-like process. To obtain inverse molds, poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used to replicate W and Ni-Co molds, which are served as the secondary molds for two sides, respectively. With these molds, UV (ultraviolet) curable resin was used to make double-sided optical film. Then the optical film was packaged on OLED unit to measure its optical properties by PR 650 equipment. The result shows that both brightness and uniformity can be improved by using this film.

  2. 36 CFR 907.7 - Determination of requirement for EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for EIS. 907.7 Section 907.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.7 Determination of requirement for EIS. Determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement is the first step in applying the NEPA process. In deciding...

  3. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... published informing the public of its action and will circulate copies of the EIS in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.19 and 40 CFR 1506.3. ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section...

  8. 36 CFR 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... human environment. ... notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7 and 1508.22. Where there is a... direct the preparation of the EIS. The EIS shall be formatted in accordance with 40 CFR 1502.10....

  9. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.6 Actions normally requiring an EIS....

  10. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.6 Actions normally requiring an EIS....

  11. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  12. 36 CFR 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Supplemental environmental impact statements. The Trust may supplement a draft or final EIS at any time. The... notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7 and 1508.22. Where there is a lengthy period between the Trust's decision to prepare an EIS and the time of actual preparation, then...

  13. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS....

  14. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS....

  15. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS....

  16. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS....

  17. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS....

  18. Solution structure of the C-terminal domain of Ole e 9, a major allergen of olive pollen

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Miguel Á.; Palomares, Oscar; Castrillo, Inés; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Rico, Manuel; Santoro, Jorge; Bruix, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Ole e 9 is an olive pollen allergen belonging to group 2 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The protein is composed of two immunological independent domains: an N-terminal domain (NtD) with 1,3-β-glucanase activity, and a C-terminal domain (CtD) that binds 1,3-β-glucans. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 (101 amino acids), which consists of two parallel α-helices forming an angle of ∼55°, a small antiparallel β-sheet with two short strands, and a 3–10 helix turn, all connected by long coil segments, resembling a novel type of folding among allergens. Two regions surrounded by aromatic residues (F49, Y60, F96, Y91 and Y31, H68, Y65, F78) have been localized on the protein surface, and a role for sugar binding is suggested. The epitope mapping of CtD-Ole e 9 shows that B-cell epitopes are mainly located on loops, although some of them are contained in secondary structural elements. Interestingly, the IgG and IgE epitopes are contiguous or overlapped, rather than coincident. The three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 might help to understand the underlying mechanism of its biochemical function and to determine possible structure–allergenicity relationships. PMID:18096638

  19. Super multi-view three-dimensional display through spatial-spectrum time-multiplexing of planar aligned OLED microdisplays.

    PubMed

    Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao

    2014-12-15

    Existing super multi-view (SMV) technologies depend on ultra-high resolution two-dimensional (2D) display panel or large number of 2D display panels to obtain dense sub-viewing-zones for constructing more natural three-dimensional (3D) display by pure spatial-multiplexing. Through gating the spatial-spectrum of each OLED microdisplay, the present work proposes a new SMV technology combining time- and spatial-multiplexing based on planar-aligned OLED microdisplays. The inherent light emission characteristics of OLED, i.e. large divergence angle, guarantees a homogeneous light intensity distribution on the spectrum plane, which is a necessary condition for successful time multiplexing. The developed system bears with low requirements on the number of 2D display panels. The factors influencing the lateral display resolution limit are discussed and the optimum value is deduced. Experimentally, a prototype system with 60 sub-viewing-zones is demonstrated by 12 OLED microdisplays. The horizontal interval between adjacent sub-viewing-zones is 1.6mm.

  20. ["The Society for letters and natural science" The young Ole H. Mynster and the chemical revolution around 1800].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    Ole H. Mynster (1772-1818) was a stepson of the leading physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital in Copenhagen. At an early age he became fond of zoology and mineralogy. He created "societies" in Enlightenment-style for boys and young people with lectures and collections. Later on a circle of talented young students, scientists and poets met in his small room at the hospital. Some of them with Ole Mynster as the head set up a modern scientific journal, Physicalsk, oeconomisk og medicochirurgisk Bibliotek for Danmark og Norge which encouraged the introduction of antiphlogistic chemistry. Ole Mynster became physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital and lecturer in clinical pharmacology. He wrote the first book in Danish on pharmacology based upon chemistry. In their memoirs, prominent members of his circle have told about him, and his son F.L. Mynster has written a draft for a biography. An overview of the activities within natural science and medicine of the young Ole Hieronymus Mynster is presented.

  1. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  2. A hybrid simulated method for analyzing the optical efficiency of a head-mounted display with a quasi-crystal OLED panel.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kao-Der; Li, Chang-Yi; Pan, Jui-Wen; Cheng, Kuei-Yuan

    2014-03-10

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a quasi-crystal (QC) structure are analyzed and applied in a head-mounted display (HMD) system in this study. We adopt a hybrid simulated method to evaluate the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and far-field pattern in the air, and study the relationship between them. The simulation results show that OLEDs implanted with the QC structure can provide a collimated far-field pattern to increase the brightness. Using this 10-fold QC arrangement the maxima LEE of the OLEDs can be increased by 1.20 times. Compared with conventional OLEDs, the viewing angle of the OLED panel decreases from 120 degrees to 26 degrees with an improvement in the optical efficiency of the HMD system by 2.66 times. Moreover, the normalized on-axis intensity in the pupil of the eyepiece can be enlarged up to 3.95 times which suggests that the OLED panel can save 74.68% energy while achieving the same on-axis intensity as conventional OLEDs.

  3. Long-lived and highly efficient green and blue phosphorescent emitters and device architectures for OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Christian; Murer, Peter; Geßner, Thomas; Birnstock, Jan; Kröger, Michael; Choi, Zungsun; Watanabe, Soichi; May, Falk; Lennartz, Christian; Stengel, Ilona; Münster, Ingo; Kahle, Klaus; Wagenblast, Gerhard; Mangold, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, two OLED device concepts are introduced. First, classical phosphorescent green carbene emitters with unsurpassed lifetime, combined with low voltage and high efficiency are presented and the associated optimized OLED stacks are explained. Second, a path towards highly efficient, long-lived deep blue systems is shown. The high efficiencies can be reached by having the charge-recombination on the phosphorescent carbene emitter while at the same time short emissive lifetimes are realized by fast energy transfer to the fluorescent emitter, which eventually allows for higher OLED stability in the deep blue. Device architectures, materials and performance data are presented showing that carbene type emitters have the potential to outperform established phosphorescent green emitters both in terms of lifetime and efficiency. The specific class of green emitters under investigation shows distinctly larger electron affinities (2.1 to 2.5 eV) and ionization potentials (5.6 to 5.8 eV) as compared to the "standard" emitter Ir(ppy)3 (5.0/1.6 eV). This difference in energy levels requires an adopted OLED design, in particular with respect to emitter hosts and blocking layers. Consequently, in the diode setup presented here, the emitter species is electron transporting or electron trapping. For said green carbene emitters, the typical peak wavelength is 525 nm yielding CIE color coordinates of (x = 0.33, y = 0.62). Device data of green OLEDs are shown with EQEs of 26 %. Driving voltage at 1000 cd/m2 is below 3 V. In an optimized stack, a device lifetime of LT95 > 15,000 h (1000 cd/m2) has been reached, thus fulfilling AMOLED display requirements.

  4. 3,6,9,12-Tetrasubstituted chrysenes: synthesis, photophysical properties, and application as blue fluorescent OLED.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tien-Lin; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Huang, Pei-Yun; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    A short synthesis of unsubstituted chrysene is described to provide a cheap source of this compound. This chrysene was used to prepare 3,6,9,12-tetrabromochrysene, which was subsequently transformed into various 3,6,9,12-tetrasubstituted chrysenes bearing four aryl, alkynyl, or amino groups by means of the Suzuki, Sonogashira, or Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reaction, respectively. These substituents result in large bathochromic shifts in the chrysene absorption and emission spectra. These new chrysene derivatives show blue fluorescent emission (401-471 nm) with high quantum yields (0.44-0.87). DFT calculations on these chrysenes rationalize well the substituent effects on their HOMO and LUMO energy levels. One representative chrysene (6g) was used as a blue fluorescent emitter in an OLED device that showed an outstanding external quantum efficiency (η = 6.31%) with blue emission [CIE (x, y) = (0.13, 0.20)] and a low turn-on voltage (3.0 V).

  5. High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guanjun; Zhu, Ruidong; Tsai, Yi-Shou; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Luo, Zhenyue; Lee, Yuh-Zheng; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-08-01

    A high ambient contrast ratio display device using a transparent organic light emitting diode (OLED) or transparent quantum-dot light-emitting diode (QLED) with embedded multilayered structure and absorber is proposed and its performance is simulated. With the help of multilayered structure, the device structure allows almost all ambient light to get through the display device and be absorbed by the absorber. Because the reflected ambient light is greatly reduced, the ambient contrast ratio of the display system is improved significantly. Meanwhile, the multilayered structure helps to lower the effective refractive index, which in turn improves the out-coupling efficiency of the display system. Potential applications for sunlight readable flexible and rollable displays are emphasized.

  6. A solution processed top emission OLED with transparent carbon nanotube electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Mo; Lefevre, Florent; Shih, Ishiang; Izquierdo, Ricardo

    2010-04-01

    Top emission organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as top electrodes were fabricated and characterized. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates with evaporated bottom Al/LiF cathodes, a spin coated organic emissive layer and a PEDOT-PSS hole injection layer. Transparent thin CNT films were deposited on top of the emission layer to form the anode by micro-contact printing with a polydimethylsiloxane stamp. A very good device performance was obtained, with a peak luminance of 3588 cd m - 2 and a maximum current efficiency of 1.24 cd A - 1. This work shows the possibility of using CNTs as transparent electrodes to replace ITO in organic semiconductor devices. Furthermore, the top emission nature of such devices offers a broader range of applications of CNTs on any type of substrate. By combining with solution processed organic materials, it is anticipated that lower cost fabrication will be possible through roll-to-roll manufacture.

  7. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  8. Highly efficient red OLEDs using DCJTB as the dopant and delayed fluorescent exciplex as the host

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Wu, Hairuo; Yan, Xingwu; Jin, Fangming; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chengyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrated a highly efficient DCJTB emission with delayed fluorescent exciplex TCTA:3P-T2T as the host. For the 1.0% DCJTB doped concentration, a maximum luminance, current efficiency, power efficiency and EQE of 22,767 cd m−2, 22.7 cd A−1, 21.5 lm W−1 and 10.15% were achieved, respectively. The device performance is the best compared to either red OLEDs with traditional fluorescent emitter or traditional red phosphor of Ir(piq)3 doped into CBP host. The extraction of so high efficiency can be explained as the efficient triplet excitons up-conversion of TCTA:3P-T2T and the energy transfer from exciplex host singlet state to DCJTB singlet state. PMID:26023882

  9. Bright coppertunities: efficient OLED devices with copper(I)iodide-NHetPHOS-emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallesch, Manuela; Volz, Daniel; Fléchon, Charlotte; Zink, Daniel M.; Bräse, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The mass market application of OLEDs is currently hindered because i) the materials are too expensive and contain rare metals such as iridium and ii) current processing techniques are elaborate and cannot easily be up-scaled. Solution processable Cu(I)-complexes promise to solve both problems with one blow: Copper is an abundant metal, which offers new opportunities to develop materials for OLEDs. Due to their structural diversity, Cu(I) emitters allow for the design of materials with tunable properties. Beside this, it is also possible to adjust solution properties and introduce functionalities for cross-linking. The new materials feature exciting photophysical properties such as PLQY values close to unity and a tunable emission. The emission decay times are in the range of common emitters or lower, which is expected to reduce efficiency roll-off at high driving voltages. Cu(I)-complexes often feature thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). As a consequence, they can make use of triplet and singlet excitons in a process called Singlet Harvesting, which paves the way for high efficiencies. Unlike Ir(III)-complexes such as Irppy3, triplet-triplet annihilation does not occur when using Cu(I), even in very high doping concentrations. The feasibility of NHetPHOS-type Cu(I)-complexes is demonstrated as well as strategies that enable a smart crosslinking process, where the Cu(I) emitters themselves play an important role. In addition, high-brightness devices, which were operated at medium voltages, yielding 50.000 cd m-2 are shown. In a showcase example, we recently presented a device with an external quantum efficiency greater than 20% with a solution processed Cu(I)-PyrPHOS-device without using outcoupling techniques.

  10. White emission from a single-component single-layer solution processed OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coya, Carmen; Ramos, Maria M.; Luna, Xenia; Álvarez, Angel Luis; de Andrés, Alicia; Blanco, Raúl; Juárez, Rafael; Gómez, Rafael; Segura, Jose Luis

    2009-08-01

    We report white electroluminescence from a single component-single layer solution processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we have fabricated and characterized OLEDs based on a single polymer synthesized by incorporating a small amount of the orange-light emitting chromophore 1,8-Naphtalimide derivative as side chain to poly(fluorene-alt-phenylene) (PFP). The structure of the devices is ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active layer/Al. The dopant unit was convalenttly attached to the side chain of polyfluorene by alkyl spacers. We have fabricated devices with different amounts of the orange chromophore (0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.02 and 0.08 in weight) as well as a device based on a physical blend in the same proportion of 0.08 for comparison purposes. Absorption and Photoluminescence (PL) studies in thin films show no significant interaction can be observed between both moieties in the ground state, but after photoexcitation an efficient energy transfer takes place from PFP to the orange chromophore. We have observed a more efficient energy transfer in these compounds than for physical mixtures of the two chromophores due to a phase separation effect in the blend confirmed by the optical measurements and ESEM analysis, obtaining energy transfer even in diluted solutions from the intramolecular interaction in the copolymers. With this very simple device structure, white light with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordenates (0.34;0.43) is obtained for the electroluminescence (EL) emission and turn on voltage of 6 V for the device based on the copolymer with x = 0.02, together with a good match in the EL and PL spectra indicative that two emissions are produced by the same species, making this material very suitable for large area solution processed devices in solid state illumination.

  11. EIS issued for Unocal Phase II expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The draft Environmental Impact Statement discusses the impacts of construction and operation of an 80,000 barrels per day expansion of Union's completed Phase I oil shale project at Parachute Creek, Colorado. With the demise of the United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation, there is, of course, no chance that the project will proceed under current economic conditions. If and when the project is able to proceed, the EIS indicates that it would be possible without exceeding the allowable PSD increments for air quality. This paper describes the proposed Phase II, which includes a new room and pillar mine, new surface retorting facilities, water supply system, synthetic crude pipelines, retorted shale disposal systems, and associated housing, roads, and power supplies. Summaries of the environmental impacts are given.

  12. Biochemical and structural analysis of an Eis family aminoglycoside acetyltransferase from bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance. PMID:25928210

  13. 24 CFR 50.24 - HUD review of another agency's EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false HUD review of another agency's EIS... Review Procedures § 50.24 HUD review of another agency's EIS. Where another agency's EIS is referred to... EIS received from another Federal agency requesting comment on legislative proposals, regulations,...

  14. 24 CFR 50.24 - HUD review of another agency's EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HUD review of another agency's EIS... Review Procedures § 50.24 HUD review of another agency's EIS. Where another agency's EIS is referred to... EIS received from another Federal agency requesting comment on legislative proposals, regulations,...

  15. 24 CFR 50.24 - HUD review of another agency's EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false HUD review of another agency's EIS... Review Procedures § 50.24 HUD review of another agency's EIS. Where another agency's EIS is referred to... EIS received from another Federal agency requesting comment on legislative proposals, regulations,...

  16. 24 CFR 50.24 - HUD review of another agency's EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HUD review of another agency's EIS... Review Procedures § 50.24 HUD review of another agency's EIS. Where another agency's EIS is referred to... EIS received from another Federal agency requesting comment on legislative proposals, regulations,...

  17. 24 CFR 50.24 - HUD review of another agency's EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD review of another agency's EIS... Review Procedures § 50.24 HUD review of another agency's EIS. Where another agency's EIS is referred to... EIS received from another Federal agency requesting comment on legislative proposals, regulations,...

  18. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... affecting the quality of the human environment. In the experience of ARS, an environmental impact...

  19. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... affecting the quality of the human environment. In the experience of ARS, an environmental impact...

  20. Sorting of large-diameter semiconducting carbon nanotube and printed flexible driving circuit for organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenya; Zhao, Jianwen; Qian, Long; Han, Xianying; Wu, Liangzhuan; Wu, Weichen; Song, Minshun; Zhou, Lu; Su, Wenming; Wang, Chao; Nie, Shuhong; Cui, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10-3 A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 104 and output current up to 3.5 × 10-4 A at Vscan = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving circuit, showing the potential as backplanes for active matrix OLED applications.A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10-3 A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 104 and output current up to 3.5 × 10-4 A at Vscan = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving

  1. Spirobifluorene-2,7-dicarbazole-4'-phosphine Oxide as Host for High-Performance Single-Layer Green Phosphorescent OLED Devices.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Sébastien; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jacques, Emmanuel; Robin, Malo; Métivier, Rémi; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-10-01

    A new host material based on the 2,7,4'-substituted spirobifluorene platform has been designed and used in single-layer phosphorescent OLED with very high efficiency (EQE = 13.2%) and low turn-on voltage (2.4 V). This performance is among the best reported for green single-layer PhOLEDs and may open new avenues in the design of host materials for single-layer devices.

  2. Structure and biochemical properties of the alkene producing cytochrome P450 OleTJE (CYP152L1) from the Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456 bacterium.

    PubMed

    Belcher, James; McLean, Kirsty J; Matthews, Sarah; Woodward, Laura S; Fisher, Karl; Rigby, Stephen E J; Nelson, David R; Potts, Donna; Baynham, Michael T; Parker, David A; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W

    2014-03-01

    The production of hydrocarbons in nature has been documented for only a limited set of organisms, with many of the molecular components underpinning these processes only recently identified. There is an obvious scope for application of these catalysts and engineered variants thereof in the future production of biofuels. Here we present biochemical characterization and crystal structures of a cytochrome P450 fatty acid peroxygenase: the terminal alkene forming OleTJE (CYP152L1) from Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456. OleTJE is stabilized at high ionic strength, but aggregation and precipitation of OleTJE in low salt buffer can be turned to advantage for purification, because resolubilized OleTJE is fully active and extensively dissociated from lipids. OleTJE binds avidly to a range of long chain fatty acids, and structures of both ligand-free and arachidic acid-bound OleTJE reveal that the P450 active site is preformed for fatty acid binding. OleTJE heme iron has an unusually positive redox potential (-103 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode), which is not significantly affected by substrate binding, despite extensive conversion of the heme iron to a high spin ferric state. Terminal alkenes are produced from a range of saturated fatty acids (C12-C20), and stopped-flow spectroscopy indicates a rapid reaction between peroxide and fatty acid-bound OleTJE (167 s(-1) at 200 μm H2O2). Surprisingly, the active site is highly similar in structure to the related P450BSβ, which catalyzes hydroxylation of fatty acids as opposed to decarboxylation. Our data provide new insights into structural and mechanistic properties of a robust P450 with potential industrial applications. PMID:24443585

  3. RCWA-EIS method for interlayer grating coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Congshan; Gaylord, Thomas K; Bakir, Muhannad S

    2016-08-01

    The grating coupling efficiencies for interlayer connection (overlaid chips) were previously calculated using the new rigorous coupled-wave analysis equivalent-index-slab (RCWA-EIS) method. The chip-to-chip coupling efficiencies were determined for rectangular-groove (binary) gratings. In the present work, the search algorithms used in the RCWA-EIS method are optimized giving rise to improved definition of equivalent indices. Further, the versatility of the RCWA-EIS method is demonstrated by extending it to (nonbinary) parallelogramic gratings, sawtooth gratings, and volume gratings. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to verify the results. This demonstrates the flexibility of the RCWA-EIS method in analyzing arbitrary 1D gratings.

  4. RCWA-EIS method for interlayer grating coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Congshan; Gaylord, Thomas K; Bakir, Muhannad S

    2016-08-01

    The grating coupling efficiencies for interlayer connection (overlaid chips) were previously calculated using the new rigorous coupled-wave analysis equivalent-index-slab (RCWA-EIS) method. The chip-to-chip coupling efficiencies were determined for rectangular-groove (binary) gratings. In the present work, the search algorithms used in the RCWA-EIS method are optimized giving rise to improved definition of equivalent indices. Further, the versatility of the RCWA-EIS method is demonstrated by extending it to (nonbinary) parallelogramic gratings, sawtooth gratings, and volume gratings. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to verify the results. This demonstrates the flexibility of the RCWA-EIS method in analyzing arbitrary 1D gratings. PMID:27505369

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of New Hybrid Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED): Europium-picrate-triethylene oxide Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjidan, M. A. Mohd; Abu Zakaria, N. Z. A.; Abd. Majid, W. H.; Kusrini, Eny; Saleh, M. I.

    2009-07-07

    Thin-film light emitting devices based on organic materials have attracted vast interest in applications such as light emitting diode (LED) and flat-panel display. The organic material can be attached with inorganic material to enhance the performance of the light emitting device. A hybrid OLED based on a new complex of europium picrate (Eu-pic) with triethylene oxide (EO3) ligand is fabricated. The OLED is fabricated by using spin coating technique with acetone as the solvent and aluminum as the top electrode. The optical, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical properties of the sample are carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy (Jasco V-750), luminescence spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer LS-500) and source measure unit (SMU)(Keithly), respectively.

  6. Structurally integrated organic light-emitting device (OLED)-based multianalyte sensing through analyte-oxidase interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Ruth; Qian, Chengliang; Cai, Yuankun; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Shinar, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The development of a compact structurally integrated platform for detection of multianalytes that consume oxygen in the presence of specific oxidase enzymes is described. The detection is based on monitoring the photoluminescence (PL) intensity or lifetime of a sensing element based on the oxygen sensitive dye Pt octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP). The excitation source for the PL is an array of individually addressable green OLED pixels. The analytes are gas- phase and dissolved oxygen, glucose, lactate, and alcohol. The sensing element for each analyte includes a layer of PtOEP-doped polystyrene, whose PL lifetime decreases with increasing O II level, and a film or solution containing the oxidase enzyme specific to the analyte. Each sensing element is associated with two addressable ~2x2 mm2 OLED pixels. The operation and performance metrics of the sensor under various conditions are described and discussed.

  7. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  8. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  9. Sorting of large-diameter semiconducting carbon nanotube and printed flexible driving circuit for organic light emitting diode (OLED).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenya; Zhao, Jianwen; Qian, Long; Han, Xianying; Wu, Liangzhuan; Wu, Weichen; Song, Minshun; Zhou, Lu; Su, Wenming; Wang, Chao; Nie, Shuhong; Cui, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to sort a large-diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWCNT) based on copolyfluorene derivative with high yield. High purity sc-SWCNTs inks were obtained by wrapping arc-discharge SWCNTs with poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) aided by sonication and centrifugation in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The sorted sc-SWCNT inks and nanosilver inks were used to print top-gated thin-film transistors (TFTs) on flexible substrates with an aerosol jet printer. The printed TFTs demonstrated low operating voltage, small hysteresis, high on-state current (up to 10(-3) A), high mobility and on-off ratio. An organic light emitting diode (OLED) driving circuit was constructed based on the printed TFTs, which exhibited high on-off ratio up to 10(4) and output current up to 3.5 × 10(-4) A at V(scan) = -4.5 V and Vdd = 0.8 V. A single OLED was switched on with the driving circuit, showing the potential as backplanes for active matrix OLED applications.

  10. Luminescent Re(I) terpyridine complexes for OLEDs: what does the DFT/TD-DFT probe reveal?

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Gunasekaran; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam

    2015-05-14

    The electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of a series of rhenium(I) terpyridine complexes were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. The influence of different substituent groups on the optical and electronic properties of Re(I) terpyridine complexes has also been explored. The reorganization energy calculations show that the substituted Re(I) terpyridine complexes are better electron transport materials with high quantum efficiency in OLED devices due to their high electron transport mobility and low λ(electron) values, whereas the unsubstituted complex shows relatively balanceable charge transfer abilities with the higher efficiency in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). An NBO analysis reveals that n→σ* interactions are mainly responsible for the ground state stabilization of all the complexes. QTAIM results show that in all cases, Re-CO bonds are shared type transient interactions as reported in the other metal ligand complexes. The absorption is associated with (1)MLCT/(1)LLCT/(1)ILCT character while the emission transition has (3)MLCT/(3)LLCT/(3)ILCT character as revealed by a natural transition orbital (NTO) analysis. The higher quantum yields reported for the complexes 4-6 are found to be closely related to both its smaller ΔE(S1-T1), higher μ(S1), E(T1) and moderate (3)MLCT character. The calculated results show that Re(I) terpyridine complexes, particularly complexes 4-6, are suitable candidates for OLED materials.

  11. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Chengliang

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ~32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  12. Thermal Evaporation versus Spin-Coating: Electrical Performance in Columnar Liquid Crystal OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Juliana; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Faria, Gregório C; Bock, Harald; von Seggern, Heinz; Pisula, Wojciech; Bechtold, Ivan H

    2015-08-01

    The electrical responses of a columnar liquid crystal (a diimidodiester derivative of benzo[ghi]perylene) deposited either by spin-coating or by thermal evaporation into a typical OLED device are compared. For the spin-coated film, homeotropic alignment was induced by thermal annealing, which enhanced the charge carrier mobility significantly. For the evaporated films, homeotropic alignment could not be obtained by annealing. However, a degree of rectification higher than 3 orders of magnitude was achieved, even without annealing, with an electrical response similar to the response of the aligned spin-coated film. A trap-limited space-charge-limited current model was used to extract the charge carrier mobility directly from the current-voltage curves. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering confirmed the homeotropic alignment of the annealed spin-coated film, whereas the columns are mostly oriented parallel to the surface in the evaporated case. In a field-effect transistor with bottom-gate bottom-contact geometry, the evaporated film exhibited a typical behavior of an n-type transistor. The degree of intermolecular order is thereby strongly dependent on the deposition method where vacuum deposition leads to a higher order. This higher order, however, impedes reorientation by annealing of the evaporated film but leads to improved charge transport between the electrodes even without homeotropic alignment of columnar liquid crystal.

  13. A 5.4 MDOT OLED microdisplay for digital night vision and image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Gunther; Espuno, Laurent; Marcellin-Dibon, Eric; Prat, Christophe; Gohri, Vipul

    2012-06-01

    We developed a 0.61'' diagonal OLED microdisplay dedicated to electronic viewfinders for digital vision systems, e.g. for security or other professional applications. The microdisplay has a very high resolution of 5.4 million subpixels and combines excellent image quality with low power consumption and a 10bit per color digital input. Subpixel pitch is 4.7x4.7μm². Thanks to the versatile architecture of the underlying ASIC circuit, the device can be easily adapted to different applications and image formats: In the standard full color version, the resulting resolution is 1300 by 1044 pixels (SXGA). In a monochrome version, the resolution is 2600 by 2088 independent pixels, enabling e.g. digital night vision at full 2K by 2K resolution. In addition to this, we developed two- and three color versions of the display that allow to merge high resolution monochrome images e.g.in 2K by 2K resolution with lower resolution images e.g., from an infrared sensor for image fusion or for adding colored graphical overlays.

  14. Supramolecular assembly of metal-ligand chromophores for sensing and phosphorescent OLED applications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Chan, Maggie Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-08-20

    The exploration of phosphorescent materials based on transition metal-ligand chromophoric complexes represents an important area of research in molecular materials. The knowledge and fundamental understanding of their photophysical properties offer a possible fine-tuning of their electronic absorption and luminescence properties. The strong propensity of d(8) transition metal compounds to form non-covalent metal···metal interactions facilitates supramolecular assembly and the formation of supramolecular nanostructures with interesting photophysical properties. The introduction of supramolecular assembly with hierarchical complexity involving non-covalent interactions could lead to research dimensions of unlimited possibilities and opportunities. This article briefly summarizes the latest progress on the use of d(8) metal-ligand chromophores as chemosensors, as exemplified by alkynylplatinum(II) complexes with emphasis on supramolecular assembly involving non-covalent interactions, and the recent advances in the utilization of d(8) metal-ligand phosphors, as exemplified by alkynylgold(III) system, for the exploration and development of phosphorescent OLEDs.

  15. Fluorine effects in new indenofluorenedione derivatives for electron transporting layer in OLED devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyun; Kim, Beomjin; Park, Youngil; Kim, Seungho; Park, Jongwook

    2014-08-01

    New three indenofluorenedione derivatives were synthesized and proposed for electron transporting layer (ETL). Three compounds are indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-dione (IF-dione), 2,8-Difluoro-indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-dione (Mono-F-lF-dione), and 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexafluoro-indeno[1,2- b]fluorene-6,12-dione (Tri-F-IF-dione). UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption of three compounds in THF solution state showed different absorption maximum values as follows: 292, 318 and 334 nm (IF-dione), 289, 314 and 329 nm (Mono-F-IF-dione), 285, 319 and 334 nm (Tri-F-IF-dione). Three compounds were inserted between emitting layer (EML) and cathode electrode as an ETL in OLED device: ITO/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/Alq3 (30 nm)/synthesized compounds (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm). I-V characteristics of three devices were investigated at 20 mA/cm2. Operating voltages of three compounds were 7.06 V (IF-dione), 6.42 V (MonoF-IF-dione), 5.36 V (TriF-IF-dione), respectively.

  16. OLED-based DNA biochip for Campylobacter spp. detection in poultry meat samples.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Marisa; Cecchini, Francesca; Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Melpignano, Patrizia

    2015-04-15

    Integrated biochips are the ideal solution for producing portable diagnostic systems that uncouple diagnosis from centralized laboratories. These portable devices exploit a multi-disciplinary approach, are cost effective and have several advantages including broader accessibility, high sensitivity, quick test results and ease of use. The application of such a device in food safety is considered in this paper. Fluorescence detection of a specific biological probe excited by an optical source is one of the most commonly used methods for quantitative analysis on biochips. In this study, we designed and characterized a miniaturized, highly-sensitive DNA biochip based on a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode. The molecular design of the diode was optimized to excite a fluorophore-conjugated DNA probe and tested using real meat samples to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity against one of the most common poultry meat contaminants: Campylobacter spp. Real samples were analyzed also by classical plate methods and molecular methods to validate the results obtained by the new DNA-biochip. The high sensitivity obtained by the OLED based biochip (0.37ng/μl) and the short time required for the results (about 24h) indicate the usefulness of the system.

  17. [Improved color purity of green OLED device based on Au thin film].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Au was used as anode in some kind of organic electroluminescent devices. Sometimes transparent Au electrodes are required, which means that the thickness of Au electrode should be as thin as possible. Therefore, two metals together forming an electrode become a choice. In the present paper, translucent Au/Al layer was inserted to anode side, and OLED device with the structure of ITO/Al (16 nm)/Au (10 nm)/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al was prepared. There is a spectral narrowing phenomenon on the device ITO/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al, and through analysis and experiment it was found that this phenomenon comes from selective permeability to light of Au thin film rather than the microcavity effect. The device maintains wide viewing angle, without the angular dependence. And the color purity of device with Au thin film is improved.

  18. Thermal Evaporation versus Spin-Coating: Electrical Performance in Columnar Liquid Crystal OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Juliana; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Faria, Gregório C; Bock, Harald; von Seggern, Heinz; Pisula, Wojciech; Bechtold, Ivan H

    2015-08-01

    The electrical responses of a columnar liquid crystal (a diimidodiester derivative of benzo[ghi]perylene) deposited either by spin-coating or by thermal evaporation into a typical OLED device are compared. For the spin-coated film, homeotropic alignment was induced by thermal annealing, which enhanced the charge carrier mobility significantly. For the evaporated films, homeotropic alignment could not be obtained by annealing. However, a degree of rectification higher than 3 orders of magnitude was achieved, even without annealing, with an electrical response similar to the response of the aligned spin-coated film. A trap-limited space-charge-limited current model was used to extract the charge carrier mobility directly from the current-voltage curves. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering confirmed the homeotropic alignment of the annealed spin-coated film, whereas the columns are mostly oriented parallel to the surface in the evaporated case. In a field-effect transistor with bottom-gate bottom-contact geometry, the evaporated film exhibited a typical behavior of an n-type transistor. The degree of intermolecular order is thereby strongly dependent on the deposition method where vacuum deposition leads to a higher order. This higher order, however, impedes reorientation by annealing of the evaporated film but leads to improved charge transport between the electrodes even without homeotropic alignment of columnar liquid crystal. PMID:26168313

  19. Tunable white light emission in Parallel Tandem OLEDs made with silver metal as interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Jorge; Papadimitratos, Alexios; Zakhidov, Anvar; UT Dallas Team

    Parallel tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) which consisted in a top and bottom subunits, and joined with a thin layer of silver (interlayer) were fabricated. In this parallel tandem architecture the Ag metal is an active common anode, which permitted to inject holes into top and bottom subunits. Both subunits of the tandem can thus be connected functionally in a new geometry and addressed separately. Those Tandems had a yellow emitter (a mixture of MEH-PPV and TFB polymers) in the bottom subunit and a blue emitting molecule in the top subunit. The simultaneous combination of the emitted yellow and blue light when both subunits are operating produced white light. We could tune the white light from cool (CIE: 0.33, 0.25) to warm (CIE: 0.38, 0.39) by changing the intensity of the yellow light, that in turn depends on the ratio of MEH-PPV/TFB mixture used to make the emitting layer in the bottom subunit. We also compared the performance of the parallel tandem with these in series and we found additional advantages of the parallel architecture over the configuration for the series tandems such as: tunable chromaticity, lower turn on voltage (4V compared to 7V in the in-series tandem) and higher brightness. The best CIE coordinate we obtained for white light was (0.35, 0.35) which is near the ideal coordinate of (0.33,0.33).

  20. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  1. MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL

    SciTech Connect

    DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

    2011-12-13

    Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost

  2. An olive pollen protein with allergenic activity, Ole e 10, defines a novel family of carbohydrate-binding modules and is potentially implicated in pollen germination

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. They have been frequently identified by amino acid sequence alignments, but only a few have been experimentally established to have a carbohydrate-binding activity. A small olive pollen protein, Ole e 10 (10 kDa), has been described as a major inducer of type I allergy in humans. In the present study, the ability of Ole e 10 to bind several polysaccharides has been analysed by affinity gel electrophoresis, which demonstrated that the protein bound 1,3-β-glucans preferentially. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed binding to laminarin, at a protein/ligand ratio of 1:1. The interaction of Ole e 10 with laminarin induced a conformational change in the protein, as detected by CD and fluorescence analyses, and an increase of 3.6 °C in the thermal denaturation temperature of Ole e 10 in the presence of the glycan. These results, and the absence of alignment of the sequence of Ole e 10 with that of any classified CBM, indicate that this pollen protein defines a novel family of CBMs, which we propose to name CBM43. Immunolocalization of Ole e 10 in mature and germinating pollen by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the co-localization of Ole e 10 and callose (1,3-β-glucan) in the growing pollen tube, suggesting a role for this protein in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in pollen tube wall re-formation during germination. PMID:15882149

  3. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    SciTech Connect

    Jefri,; Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-30

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl{sub 3}) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  4. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefri, Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-01

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  5. The decision - identification tree: A new EIS scoping tool

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1997-04-02

    No single methodology has been developed or universally accepted for determining the scope of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Most typically, the scope is determined by first identifying actions and facilities to be analyzed. Yet, agencies sometimes complete an EIS, only to discover that the scope does not adequately address decisions that need to be made. Such discrepancies can often be traced to disconnects between the scoping process and the actual decision making that follows. A new tool, for use in a value engineering setting, provides an effective methodology for improving the EIS scoping process. Application of this tool is not limited to National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) scoping efforts. This tool, could in fact, be used to map potential decision points for a range of diverse planning applications and exercises.

  6. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  7. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest... Service will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to implement restoration.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest...

  8. [Highly Efficient Bilayer-Structure Yellow-Green OLED with MADN Hole-Transport Layer and the Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-wen; Mo, Bing-jie; Liu, Li-ming; Wang, Hong-hang; Chen, Er-wei; Xu, Ji-wen; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Highly efficient bilayer-structure yellow-green organic light-emitting device (OLED) has been demonstrated based on MADN as hole-transport layer (HTL) and host-guest coped system of [Alq₃: 0.7 Wt% rubrene] as emitting and electron-trans- port layer. The device gives yellow-green emission through incomplete energy transfer from the host of Alq₃ to the guest of ru- brene. An electroluminescent peak of 560 nm, 1931 CIE color coordinates of (0.46, 0.52) and a maximum current efficiency of 7.63 cd · A⁻¹ (which has been enhanced by 30% in comparison with the counterpart having conventional NPB HTL) are ob- served. The hole-transporting characteristics of MADN and NPB have been systematically investigated by constructing hole-only devices and employing impedance spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicate that MADN can be served as an effective hole-trans- port material and its hole-transporting ability is slightly inferior to NPB. This overcomes the shortcoming of hole transporting more quickly than electron in OLED and improves carrier balance in the emitting layer. Consequently, the device current efficien- cy is promoted. In addition, the current efficiency of bilayer-structure OLED with MADN as HTL is comparable to that of conv- entinol trilayer-structure device with MADN as HTL and Alq₃ as electron-transport layer. This indicates that the simplified bi- layer-structure device can be achieved without sacrificing current efficiency. The emitting layer of [Alq: 0.7 Wt% rubrene possesses superior elecron-transporting ability.

  9. [Highly Efficient Bilayer-Structure Yellow-Green OLED with MADN Hole-Transport Layer and the Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-wen; Mo, Bing-jie; Liu, Li-ming; Wang, Hong-hang; Chen, Er-wei; Xu, Ji-wen; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Highly efficient bilayer-structure yellow-green organic light-emitting device (OLED) has been demonstrated based on MADN as hole-transport layer (HTL) and host-guest coped system of [Alq₃: 0.7 Wt% rubrene] as emitting and electron-trans- port layer. The device gives yellow-green emission through incomplete energy transfer from the host of Alq₃ to the guest of ru- brene. An electroluminescent peak of 560 nm, 1931 CIE color coordinates of (0.46, 0.52) and a maximum current efficiency of 7.63 cd · A⁻¹ (which has been enhanced by 30% in comparison with the counterpart having conventional NPB HTL) are ob- served. The hole-transporting characteristics of MADN and NPB have been systematically investigated by constructing hole-only devices and employing impedance spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicate that MADN can be served as an effective hole-trans- port material and its hole-transporting ability is slightly inferior to NPB. This overcomes the shortcoming of hole transporting more quickly than electron in OLED and improves carrier balance in the emitting layer. Consequently, the device current efficien- cy is promoted. In addition, the current efficiency of bilayer-structure OLED with MADN as HTL is comparable to that of conv- entinol trilayer-structure device with MADN as HTL and Alq₃ as electron-transport layer. This indicates that the simplified bi- layer-structure device can be achieved without sacrificing current efficiency. The emitting layer of [Alq: 0.7 Wt% rubrene possesses superior elecron-transporting ability. PMID:26964197

  10. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M. A.; Liu, B.; Donoghue, E. P.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Kim, D. Y.; So, Franky; Rinzler, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  11. 75 FR 60102 - South Dakota PrairieWinds Project (DOE/EIS-0418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... prepare an EIS on April 7, 2009, (74 FR 15718). A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS was published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on January 15, 2010 (75 FR 2540), and a Notice of Availability of the Final EIS was published by the EPA on July 30, 2010 (75 FR 44951)....

  12. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  13. What Can OpenEI Do For You?

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Open Energy Information (OpenEI) is an open source web platform—similar to the one used by Wikipedia—developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to make the large amounts of energy-related data and information more easily searched, accessed, and used both by people and automated machine processes. Built utilizing the standards and practices of the Linked Open Data community, the OpenEI platform is much more robust and powerful than typical web sites and databases. As an open platform, all users can search, edit, add, and access data in OpenEI for free. The user community contributes the content and ensures its accuracy and relevance; as the community expands, so does the content's comprehensiveness and quality. The data are structured and tagged with descriptors to enable cross-linking among related data sets, advanced search functionality, and consistent, usable formatting. Data input protocols and quality standards help ensure the content is structured and described properly and derived from a credible source. Although DOE/NREL is developing OpenEI and seeding it with initial data, it is designed to become a true community model with millions of users, a large core of active contributors, and numerous sponsors.

  14. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles.

  15. What Can OpenEI Do For You?

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Open Energy Information (OpenEI) is an open source web platform—similar to the one used by Wikipedia—developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to make the large amounts of energy-related data and information more easily searched, accessed, and used both by people and automated machine processes. Built utilizing the standards and practices of the Linked Open Data community, the OpenEI platform is much more robust and powerful than typical web sites and databases. As an open platform, all users can search, edit, add, and access data in OpenEI for free. The user community contributes the content and ensures its accuracy and relevance; as the community expands, so does the content's comprehensiveness and quality. The data are structured and tagged with descriptors to enable cross-linking among related data sets, advanced search functionality, and consistent, usable formatting. Data input protocols and quality standards help ensure the content is structured and described properly and derived from a credible source. Although DOE/NREL is developing OpenEI and seeding it with initial data, it is designed to become a true community model with millions of users, a large core of active contributors, and numerous sponsors.

  16. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. PMID:25714956

  17. 7 CFR 650.7 - When to prepare an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environment (40 CFR 1508.14)? For example, will it significantly alter or destroy valuable wetlands, important... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When to prepare an EIS. 650.7 Section 650.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION...

  18. 7 CFR 650.7 - When to prepare an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environment (40 CFR 1508.14)? For example, will it significantly alter or destroy valuable wetlands, important... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When to prepare an EIS. 650.7 Section 650.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION...

  19. 7 CFR 1794.25 - Proposals normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposals normally requiring an EIS. 1794.25 Section 1794.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Classification of...

  20. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  1. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  2. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  3. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  4. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  5. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  6. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  7. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  8. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  9. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  10. 7 CFR 650.7 - When to prepare an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... preparation of an EIS. In analyzing and evaluating environmental concerns, the RFO will answer the following... the environmental evaluation indicates there may be significant cumulative impacts on the human environment (§ 650.7(e)); and (4) Other major Federal actions that are determined after...

  11. Efficient Layers of Emitting Ternary Lanthanide Complexes for Fabricating Red, Green, and Yellow OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Iftikhar, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    A series of novel nona- and octacoordinate highly volatile and luminescent complexes, [Eu(hfaa)3(indazole)3] and [Ln(hfaa)3(indazole)2] (Ln = Tb, Dy, and Lu), were synthesized using a monoanionic bidentate hexafluoroacetylacetone (hfaa(-)) and a neutral monodentate indazole ligand. The X-ray diffraction analyses of their single-crystals indicate that the complexes are mononuclear. The Eu complex is nonacoordinate and has a distorted monocapped square antiprismatic structure whereas the terbium and dysprosium complexes are octacoordinate and possess a trigonal bicapped prism geometry. The indazole units are involved in π-π stacking interaction and N-H···F hydrogen bonding with the fluorine atoms of hfaa(-). The photophysical studies of indazole and the complexes show that the triplet states are at the appropriate positions and make ligand-to-metal energy transfer process efficient. A strong protective shield is provided by the coordination of three hfaa(-) moieties (which have low frequency C-F vibrational oscillators), and two/three ancillary indazole ligands around these metal ions ascribe higher quantum yields and longer radiative life times (ΦEu = 69% ± 10, 989 ± 1 μs, ΦTb = 33% ± 10, 546 ± 1 μs, and ΦDy = 2.5% ± 10, 13.6 ± 1 μs) to these novel compounds. The emission from europium, terbium, and dysprosium are, respectively, red, green, and yellow. Finally, these compounds were used, as emitting layers, to fabricate electroluminescent devices of their respective colors. The best devices are found with the following structure: ITO/CuPc (15 nm)/[Eu complex]:CBP or [Tb complex]:CBP or [Dy complex]:CBP (80 nm)/BCP (25 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), which indicates an improved EL performance for the Eu device over the Eu devices reported in the literature. The ligand, indazole, is a good sensitizer for trivalent europium, terbium, and dysprosium ions. It together with hfaa(-) plays an important role in fabricating OLEDs, especially

  12. A flexible insulator of a hollow SiO2 sphere and polyimide hybrid for flexible OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Shin, Dong Wook; Seo, Sang Joon; Chung, Ho Kyoon; Yoo, Ji Beom

    2015-01-28

    The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) not only requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant, but also ones that possess the electrical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties required for optimal device performance. Porous polymer-silica hybrid materials were prepared to satisfy these requirements. Hollow SiO2 spheres were synthesized using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a thermal calcination process. The hybrid film, which consists of hollow SiO2 spheres and polyimide, shows a low dielectric constant of 1.98 and excellent thermal stability up to 500 °C. After the bending test for 50 000 cycles, the porous hybrid film exhibits no degradation in its dielectric constant or leakage current. These results indicate that the hybrid film made up of hollow SiO2 spheres and polyimide (PI) is useful as a flexible insulator with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLEDs.

  13. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  14. Theoretical rationalization of the singlet-triplet gap in OLEDs materials: impact of charge-transfer character.

    PubMed

    Moral, M; Muccioli, L; Son, W-J; Olivier, Y; Sancho-García, J C

    2015-01-13

    New materials for OLED applications with low singlet-triplet energy splitting have been recently synthesized in order to allow for the conversion of triplet into singlet excitons (emitting light) via a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) process, which involves excited-states with a non-negligible amount of Charge-Transfer (CT). The accurate modeling of these states with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), the most used method so far because of the favorable trade-off between accuracy and computational cost, is however particularly challenging. We carefully address this issue here by considering materials with small (high) singlet-triplet gap acting as emitter (host) in OLEDs and by comparing the accuracy of TD-DFT and the corresponding Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA), which is found to greatly reduce error bars with respect to experiments thanks to better estimates for the lowest singlet-triplet transition. Finally, we quantitatively correlate the singlet-triplet splitting values with the extent of CT, using for it a simple metric extracted from calculations with double-hybrid functionals, that might be applied in further molecular engineering studies. PMID:26574215

  15. Design and Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Iridium(III) Complexes with Horizontal Orientation for Orange and White Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin-Song; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Two phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) were synthesized and characterized with emission ranged at 584/600 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 0.90/0.92, respectively. The angle-dependent PL spectra analysis reveals that the two orange iridium(III) complexes embodied horizontal orientation property. The high photoluminescence quantum yield and high horizontal dipoles ratio determine their excellent device performance. The devices based on Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) achieved efficiencies of 26.8% and 28.2%, respectively, which can be comparable to the best orange phosphorescent devices reported in the literature. Furthermore, with the introduction of FIrpic as sky-blue emitter, phosphorescent two-element white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been realized with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) as high as 25%, which are the highest values among the reported two-element white OLEDs. PMID:25943159

  16. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-36)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-10

    The compliance checklist for this project was originally completed by the Burns Paiute Tribe in 2000, and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD), as well as the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Logan Valley Wildlife Mitigation Plan, now being implemented, continues to be consistent with the above mentioned EISs and RODs. Pursuant to its obligations under the Endangered Species Act, BPA has made a determination of whether its proposed project will have any effects on any listed species under the jurisdiction of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). A species list was obtained from USFWS on June 12, 2003, identifying bald eagles, Canada lynx, and bull trout as potentially occurring in the project area. A site assessment was conducted on July 15, 2003 to determine if these species were present and the potential effects of project activities. A ''No Effect'' determination was made for all ESA-listed species. There were no listed species under the jurisdiction of NOAA Fisheries present in the project area. As management activities proceed in the future, BPA will annually re-assess potential effects of planned activities on listed species. The Burns-Paiute Tribe conducted a literature search for historic and archaeological sites on the property on January 11, 1999. No known sites were identified. Further site-specific surveys will be conducted for individual ground disturbing activities. The results of these surveys will be sent to the Oregon State Historic Preservation Office and BPA. BPA will annually summarize and submit a report to the State Historic Preservation Office. On December 29, 1999, Fred Walasavage of BPA completed a Phase I Site Assessment and concluded that the site did not reveal any environmental factors that would pose a significant liability for remedial action or cleanup

  17. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the OleC protein from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia involved in head-to-head hydrocarbon biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Goblirsch, BR; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2010-08-28

    OleC, a biosynthetic enzyme involved in microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, has been crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.4 A resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.8, c = 141.0 A.

  18. Pure white OLED based on an organic small molecule: 2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (DBIP) was synthesized. The single-crystal structure of DBIP was resolved. DBIP-based OLED was fabricated. The electroluminescence for the device corresponds to a pure white emission. In addition, thermal stability, UV-vis, photoluminescence and electrochemical behaviors of DBIP were investigated as well.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-18)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-10-17

    BPA proposes to fund the acquisition and preservation of approximately 99 acres of native wet prairie and oak woodland habitat in Lane County, Oregon. Title to the land will be held by The Nature Conservancy, who will convey permanent mitigation rights to BPA in the form of a conservation easement. These newly acquired parcels will become part of the existing 330-acre Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Area. Passive management practices may take place on the land until a wildlife mitigation and management plan is developed and approved for the property. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Cathy MacDonald with The Nature Conservancy and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive wildlife mitigation and management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the proposed acquisition of the subject property. Through contact with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Oregon Natural Heritage Program, staff from The Nature Conservancy identified a number of federal and state listed species that have the potential to occur at the project site. ESA Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and The Nature Conservancy, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. A cultural resource survey was conducted at the Eugene Wetlands Phase II site on July 9, 2001. No prehistoric or historic cultural materials were observed during the survey and no landforms considered likely to be archaeological sites were noted. The nearest recorded archeological find consists of two prehistoric sites that are located within a mile of the project

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-17)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-09-13

    BPA proposes to partially fund the acquisition of 7,630 acres of shrub-steppe, riparian, and wetland habitat in northern Franklin County, Washington. Title to the land will be transferred initially to The Conservation Fund and ultimately for inclusion as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Passive management practices will take place on the land until an official management plan is developed and approved for the property. Some short-term control of invasive, exotic plant species may occur as necessary prior to the approval of a management plan. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Randy Hill with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Wildlife Refuge and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the fee-title purchase of the subject property. Mark Miller with the Eastern Washington Ecological Services Office of USFWS concurred with this finding on August 3, 2001. Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and USFWS, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. In accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) and USFWS policy, the addition of the Eagle Lakes property to the National Wildlife Refuge System does not constitute an undertaking as defined by the NHPA, or require compliance with Section 106 of the NHPA. Anan Raymond, Regional Archaeologist with USFWS Region 1 Cultural Resource Team, concurred with this finding on May 4, 2001. Compliance with NHPA, including cultural resources surveys, will be implemented, as necessary, once specific management

  1. Systematic color tuning of a family of luminescent azole-based organoboron compounds suitable for OLED applications.

    PubMed

    Kiprof, Paul; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Anderson, Derrick R; Nemykin, Victor N

    2013-11-14

    A new tunable luminescent family of heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing boron has been prepared and characterized through NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as structural study using single crystal X-ray crystallography. Spectroscopic properties of the new compounds were also studied using DFT and TDDFT computational models that showed very good agreement of the theoretical data with experimental results. Through introduction of auxochromic atoms such as sulfur and extension of the π system of the ligands it is possible to cover a large range of the visible spectrum. Activation and enhancement of the luminescence is achieved by condensation reactions that introduce the boron fragment forming stable, sublimable compounds suitable for OLED applications.

  2. Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Katchman, Benjamin A; Smith, Joseph T; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O'Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S

    2016-07-04

    Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm(2). Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers.

  3. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  4. Assessment of the Olea pollen and its major allergen Ole e 1 concentrations in the bioearosol of two biogeographical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Aira, M. J.; Elvira-Rendueles, B.; Fernández-González, M.; Fernández-González, D.; García-Sánchez, A.; Martínez-García, M. J.; Moreno, J. M.; Negral, L.; Vara, A.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Olea pollen is currently an important allergy source. In some regions of Southern Spain, olive pollen is the main cause of allergic sensitization exceeding 40% of the sensitized individuals. Due to the scarce presence of olive trees in Northern Spain, limited to some cultivated fields in the South of the Galicia region where they also grow wild, only 8% of the sensitized individuals showed positive results for Olea pollen. The aim of the paper was to assess the behaviour pattern of the Olea pollen and its aeroallergens in the atmosphere, as this information could help us to improve the understanding and prevention of clinical symptoms. Airborne Olea pollen and Ole e 1 allergens were quantified in Cartagena (South-eastern Spain) and Ourense (North-western Spain). A volumetric pollen trap and a Burkard Cyclone sampler were used for pollen and allergen quantification. The Olea flowering took place in April or May in both biometeorological sampling areas. The higher concentrations were registered in the Southern area of Spain, for both pollen and Ole e 1, with values 8 times higher for pollen concentrations and 40 times higher for allergens. An alternate bearing pattern could be observed, characterized by years with high pollen values and low allergen concentrations and vice versa. Moreover, during some flowering seasons the allergen concentrations did not correspond to the atmospheric pollen values. Variations in weather conditions or Long Distance Transport (LDT) processes could explain the discordance. The back trajectory analysis shows that the most important contributions of pollen and allergens in the atmosphere are coincident with air masses passing through potential source areas. The exposure to olive pollen may not be synonym of antigen exposure.

  5. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels.

  6. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  7. 75 FR 81709 - Mississippi Division; Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison, George, Greene, Jackson, Perry, and Stone Counties, Mississippi AGENCY..., Harrison, George, Greene, Jackson, Perry, and Stone Counties, Mississippi. The original Notice of...

  8. Recommendations for an Executive Information System (EIS) for the NASA Accounting and Financial Information System (NAFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, Ernest Preston

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to: (1) survey state-of-the-art computing architectures, tools, and technologies for implementing an Executive Information System (EIS); (2) review MSFC capabilities and efforts in developing an EIS for Shuttle Projects Office and the Payloads Project Office; (3) review management reporting requirements for the NASA Accounting and Financial Information System (NAFIS) Project in the areas of cost, schedule, and technical performance, and insure that the EIS fully supports these requirements; and (4) develop and implement a pilot concept for a NAFIS EIS. A summary of the findings of this work is presented.

  9. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117

  10. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly

  11. Draft Executive Summary Hawaii Geothermal Project - EIS Scoping Meetings

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    After introductions by the facilitator and the program director from DOE, process questions were entertained. It was also sometimes necessary to make clarifications as to process throughout the meetings. Topics covered federal involvement in the HGP-EIS; NEPA compliance; public awareness, review, and access to information; Native Hawaiian concerns; the record of decision, responsibility with respect to international issues; the impacts of prior and on-going geothermal development activities; project definition; alternatives to the proposed action; necessary studies; Section 7 consultations; socioeconomic impacts; and risk analysis. Presentations followed, in ten meetings, 163 people presented issues and concerns, 1 additional person raised process questions only.

  12. Effect of Organic Salt Doping on The Performance of Poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) Organic Light Emitting Diode, OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Shahrul Akram Mohd; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    Single layer OLED devices made of poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PHF) as electroluminescent layer were fabricated. The effect of organic salt, tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) doping on these devices were studied. The original device with structure of ITO/PHF/Al has the brightness of 0.16 cd/m2 and turn-on voltage of 23 V. After doping process, the device with the structure of ITO/PHF:TBAPF6/Al has the brightness of 0.63 cd/m2 and the turn on voltage of 15 V. The doping process of the luminescent material with organic salt not only enhanced the performance of the OLED devices in terms of turn-on voltage and the brightness, but also changed the color of light emission where the doped device has emitted broader visible spectrum.

  13. Effect of Organic Salt Doping Ratios on the Performance of Poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) Organic Light Emitting Diode, OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Shahrul Akram Mohd; Chin Yap, Chi; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Ali Umar, Akrajas; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2011-03-01

    Single layer OLEDs by using poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PHF) as the electroluminescent (EL) layer were fabricated. This paper reports the effect of doping ratios of organic salt, tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) on the turn-on voltage, brightness and the EL spectra of the OLEDs. The PHF:TBAPF6 EL layers with weight ratios of 100:x (x = 5, x = 10 and x =20) were prepared by spin coating technique using chloroform as solvent. The reduction of turn-on voltage and increment of EL intensity were achieved by increasing the TBAPF6 doping ratio. The ITO/PHF:TBAPF6(100:20)/Al device showed the best performance with turn-on voltage as low as 7 V and the highest brightness at 0.36 cd/m2.

  14. High-Performance Blue OLEDs Based on Phenanthroimidazole Emitters via Substitutions at the C6- and C9-Positions for Improving Exciton Utilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Yi; He, Dan; Huang, De-Yue; Luo, Cheng-Yuan; Zhu, Ze-Lin; Lu, Feng; Tong, Qing-Xiao; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-16

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) molecular architecture has been shown to be an effective strategy for obtaining high-performance electroluminescent materials. In this work, two D-A molecules, Ph-BPA-BPI and Py-BPA-BPI, have been synthesized by attaching highly fluorescent phenanthrene or pyrene groups to the C6- and C9-positions of a locally excited-state emitting phenylamine-phenanthroimidazole moiety. Equipped with good physical and hybridized local and charge-transfer properties, both molecules show high performances as blue emitters in nondoped organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). An OLED using Ph-BPA-BPI as the emitting layer exhibits deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08), and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE), current efficiency (CE), and power efficiency (PE) of 4.56 %, 3.60 cd A(-1) , and 3.66 lm W(-1) , respectively. On the other hand, a Py-BPA-BPI-based, sky-blue OLED delivers the best results among nondoped OLEDs with CIEy values of < 0.3 reported so far, for which a very low turn-on voltage of 2.15 V, CIE coordinates of (0.17, 0.29), and maximum CE, PE, and EQE values of 10.9 cd A(-1) , 10.5 lm W(-1) , and 5.64 %, were achieved, respectively. More importantly, both devices show little or even no efficiency roll-off and high singlet exciton-utilizing efficiencies of 36.2 % for Ph-BPA-BPI and 39.2 % for Py-BPA-BPI.

  15. High-Performance Blue OLEDs Based on Phenanthroimidazole Emitters via Substitutions at the C6- and C9-Positions for Improving Exciton Utilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Yi; He, Dan; Huang, De-Yue; Luo, Cheng-Yuan; Zhu, Ze-Lin; Lu, Feng; Tong, Qing-Xiao; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-16

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) molecular architecture has been shown to be an effective strategy for obtaining high-performance electroluminescent materials. In this work, two D-A molecules, Ph-BPA-BPI and Py-BPA-BPI, have been synthesized by attaching highly fluorescent phenanthrene or pyrene groups to the C6- and C9-positions of a locally excited-state emitting phenylamine-phenanthroimidazole moiety. Equipped with good physical and hybridized local and charge-transfer properties, both molecules show high performances as blue emitters in nondoped organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). An OLED using Ph-BPA-BPI as the emitting layer exhibits deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08), and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE), current efficiency (CE), and power efficiency (PE) of 4.56 %, 3.60 cd A(-1) , and 3.66 lm W(-1) , respectively. On the other hand, a Py-BPA-BPI-based, sky-blue OLED delivers the best results among nondoped OLEDs with CIEy values of < 0.3 reported so far, for which a very low turn-on voltage of 2.15 V, CIE coordinates of (0.17, 0.29), and maximum CE, PE, and EQE values of 10.9 cd A(-1) , 10.5 lm W(-1) , and 5.64 %, were achieved, respectively. More importantly, both devices show little or even no efficiency roll-off and high singlet exciton-utilizing efficiencies of 36.2 % for Ph-BPA-BPI and 39.2 % for Py-BPA-BPI. PMID:27412733

  16. 78 FR 28699 - Notice to Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Dickson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Statement (EIS): Dickson Southwest Bypass From US-70 to State Route 46 and/or Interstate 40, Dickson County... EIS for the proposed Southwest Dickson Bypass from US-70 to State Route (SR) 46 and/or Interstate...

  17. 36 CFR 1010.6 - Determination of requirement for EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of requirement for EA or EIS. 1010.6 Section 1010.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.6 Determination of requirement for EA or EIS. In deciding whether to require...

  18. 76 FR 78916 - Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 34073). After considering the environmental impacts... June 2011.\\2\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 66078 (October 10, 2010). \\2\\ The Final EIS can be found on Western's Web site... Area Power Administration Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439) AGENCY:...

  19. Invited Reaction: Developing Emotional Intelligence (EI) Abilities through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimbach, Michael P.; Maringka, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The preceding article (Clarke, 2010) examines an important and interesting question; that is, under what conditions can learning contribute to the development of emotional intelligence (EI)? Despite the controversy surrounding the definition and construct of EI, its prevalence for the human resources development (HRD) field and its implications…

  20. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... of a notice. This billing code number can be found on GPO bills, GPO Form 400, in the upper...

  1. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... of a notice. This billing code number can be found on GPO bills, GPO Form 400, in the upper...

  2. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period July 2001 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  3. Solar-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2002-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period August 2002 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  4. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period through June 2001, Phase C/D, Detailed Design and Development Through Launch Plus Thirty Days, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  5. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22. 2... practicable after a decision is made to prepare a draft EIS or draft supplement. See 40 CFR 1507.3(e) for... authority citation, Federal Register citation to a previously published document, or CFR citation...

  6. 7 CFR 650.20 - Reviewing and commenting on EIS's prepared by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... future use considered in the EIS? (3) Provisions for soil and water conservation managment measures on... of severance on private land ownerships? (6) The impact on existing soil and water conservation... response. (2) EIS's submitted to conservation districts. NRCS may furnish needed soil, water, and...

  7. Second Language Acquisition of Spanish /e/ and /ei/ by Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Miriam; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present article reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of the Spanish /e/-/ei/ contrast, as in "pena-peina" and "reno-reino," by native-English intermediate and advanced learners of Spanish. The acoustic parameter that distinguishes Spanish /e/ from /ei/ is formant change--/e/ is a…

  8. Coping Mediates the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between performance measures of emotional intelligence (EI), coping styles, and academic achievement is sparse. Two studies were designed to redress this imbalance. In each of these studies, both EI and coping styles were significantly related to academic achievement. In Study 1, 159 community college students…

  9. 76 FR 55643 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Forest is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the effects of proposed changes to... for wheeled and over-snow motorized vehicles. Consistent with Forest Service travel...

  10. 78 FR 47048 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... this notice to advise the public that a Final EIS for proposed improvements to Runway Safety Areas at the Kodiak Airport has been prepared and is available for public review. Included in the Final EIS are a Subsistence Evaluation consistent with Section 810 of the Alaska National Interest...

  11. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  12. 75 FR 81591 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Entry Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... EIS will address issues associated with ECPs and the on-base roadway network located in Area A of the installation. The EIS will address primary concerns related to the ECPs and existing roadway network where.... Technical studies related to the proposed reconfiguration of ECPs includes biological and cultural...

  13. De Novo Design of Boron-Based Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue and White Phosphorescent OLEDs with Low Efficiency Roll-Off.

    PubMed

    Xue, Miao-Miao; Huang, Chen-Chao; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Lin-Song; Li, Yong-Xi; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Fung, Man-Keung; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-08-10

    Borane is an excellent electron-accepting species, and its derivatives have been widely used in a variety of fields. However, the use of borane derivatives as host materials in OLEDs has rarely reported because the device performance is generally not satisfactory. In this work, two novel spiro-bipolar hosts with incorporated borane were designed and synthesized. The strategies used in preparing these materials were to increase the spatial separation of the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) in the molecules, tune the connecting positions of functional groups, and incorporate specific functional groups with desirable thermal stability. Based on these designs, phosphorescent OLEDs with borane derivatives as hosts and with outstanding device performances were obtained. In particular, devices based on SAF-3-DMB/FIrpic exhibited an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of >25%. More encouragingly, the device was found to have quite a low efficiency roll-off, giving an efficiency of >20% even at a high brightness of 10000 cd/m(2). Furthermore, the EQE of the three-color-based (R + G + B) white OLED employing SAF-3-DMB as a host was also as high as 22.9% with CIE coordinates of (x, y) = (0.40, 0.48). At a brightness of 5000 cd/m(2), there was only a 3% decrease in EQE from its maximum value, implying a very low efficiency roll-off.

  14. 75 FR 16828 - Notice of Intent To Prepare and Scope an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    .... Comments on the relationship between the Oil and Gas Program and the Alternative Energy Program are also... alternatives that should be evaluated in the EIS. The EIS will analyze the potential impacts of the adoption of... received in response to the January 21, 2009 Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS (74 FR 3631) and the...

  15. 77 FR 52108 - Notice of Withdrawal of the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Register Vol. 72, No. 214; FR Doc. 07-5518) to prepare an EIS for the proposed Sheep Mountain Parkway... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Proposed Sheep Mountain Parkway Multimodal Transportation Project, Clark... Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS for Sheep Mountain Parkway Multimodal Transportation Project,...

  16. 77 FR 37092 - Notice of Withdrawal of the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    .... 69, No. 156; FR Doc 04-18584) to prepare an EIS for the proposed improvements to I-515 in the cities... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Improvements to Interstate 515 (I-515), Clark County, NV AGENCY: U.S... prepare an EIS for the improvements to I-515 in Clark County, Nevada. SUMMARY: The FHWA is issuing...

  17. 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane based molecular dopants for p-type doping of OLEDs: A theoretical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2011-11-15

    The array of organic conductivity dopants used for organic light emitting devices (OLED) to reduce the operating voltage and improve power efficiency is extremely limited. Here we report a comparative theoretical study between newly proposed analogs and the standard state-of-the-art conductivity dopant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). We used density functional theory to determine the bond lengths, bond angles and electronic properties, such as the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E{sub HOMO}) and lowest occupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}) states, as well as the triplet energies of the novel structures (ET). The ground state structures of the proposed molecules were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. The results show that substitution of one or two fluorine groups in the F4-TCNQ core with a substituted phenyl ring or other electron withdrawing moieties, will not substantially affect the geometry of the molecule or its electronic ability to accept electrons. The most significant finding was that the phenyl substitutions onto the TCNQ core are nearly perpendicular to the TCNQ plane, and thus there is no electronic communication between the two rings. This is extremely important, as such extension of the {pi} conjugated system would negatively affect the E{sub LUMO} and thus the electron affinity of the molecule.

  18. Efficient solution-processed double-layer red OLEDs based on a new europium complex with a carbazole group.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Miao, Jing-Sheng; Wu, Hong-Bin

    2015-06-01

    A new europium complex EuL3 (Phen) was used as guest dopant, and a blend of Polyvinylcarbazole and 2-(biphenyl-4-yl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PVK and PBD) as host matrix. Efficient red organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with double-layer structures were manufactured via a solution-processed technique. The guest-doped levels were 1, 3 and 5 wt% relative to the blend mass, respectively. For the 1 wt% doping-level device, the luminous efficiency and luminance were up to 2.96 cd/A and 635.78 cd/m(2) with emissions from both EuL3 (Phen) and from the host; for the 3 wt% doping-level device, the maximum luminous efficiency and luminance were 1.01 cd/A and 370.91 cd/m(2) for the single emission from EuL3 (Phen) only.

  19. Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Katchman, Benjamin A.; Smith, Joseph T.; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O’Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm2. Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers. PMID:27374875

  20. AIE-Active Fluorene Derivatives for Solution-Processable Nondoped Blue Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin Jiang; Peng, Jinghong; Xu, Zheng; Fang, Renren; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Xu, Xinjun; Li, Lidong; Gao, Jianhua; Wong, Man Shing

    2015-12-30

    A series of fluorene derivatives end-capped with diphenylamino and oxadiazolyl were synthesized, and their photophysical and electrochemical properties are reported. Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effects were observed for the materials, and bipolar characteristics of the molecules are favored with measurement of carrier mobility and calculation of molecular orbitals using density functional theory (DFT). Using the fluorene derivatives as emitting-layer, nondoped organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been fabricated by spin-coating in the configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS(35 nm)/PVK(15 nm)/PhN-OF(n)-Oxa(80 nm)/SPPO13(30 nm)/Ca(8 nm)/Al(100 nm) (n = 2-4). The best device with PhN-OF(2)-Oxa exhibits a maximum luminance of 14 747 cd/m(2), a maximum current efficiency of 4.61 cd/A, and an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3.09% in the blue region. Investigation of the correlation between structures and properties indicates that there is no intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) increase in these molecules with the increase of conjugation length. The device using material of the shortest conjugation length as emitting-layer gives the best electroluminescent (EL) performances in this series of oligofluorenes. PMID:26647284

  1. Simultaneous Enhancement of Efficiency and Stability of Phosphorescent OLEDs Based on Efficient Förster Energy Transfer from Interface Exciplex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Zhang, Yunge; Bin, Zhengyang; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2016-02-17

    Exciplex forming cohosts have been widely adopted in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), achieving high efficiency with low roll-off and low driving voltage. However, the influence of the exciplex-forming hosts on the lifetimes of the devices, which is one of the essential characteristics, remains unclear. Here, we compare the influence of the bulk exciplex and interface exciplex on the performances of the devices, demonstrating highly efficient orange PHOLEDs with long lifetime at low dopant concentration by efficient Förster energy transfer from the interface exciplex. A bipolar host, (3'-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl)-9-carbazole (CzTrz), was adopted to combine with a donor molecule, tris(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)amine (TCTA), to form exciplex. Devices with energy transfer from the interface exciplex achieve lifetime almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the ones based on bulk exciplex as the host by avoiding the formation of the donor excited states. Moreover, a highest EQE of 27% was obtained at the dopant concentration as low as 3 wt % for a device with interface exciplex, which is favorable for reducing the cost of fabrication. We believe that our work may shed light on future development of ideal OLEDs with high efficiency, long-lifetime, low roll-off and low cost simultaneously.

  2. Theoretical study and design of multifunctional phosphorescent platinum(II) complexes containing triarylboron moieties for efficient OLED emitters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Shan, Guo-Gang; Li, Hai-Bin; Wu, Shui-Xing; Ren, Xin-Yao; Geng, Yun; Su, Zhong-Min

    2015-01-28

    The geometries, electronic structures, photophysical properties and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects in the radiative process for the recently synthesized complexes (Bppy)Pt(acac) (1) and (BNppy)Pt(acac) (2) as well as the designed complexes 3-6 were investigated by DFT and TD-DFT calculations, to reveal the influences of the functional ligands on charge injection ability and phosphorescence efficiency of emitters. It is found that compared with electron acceptor complex 1, complexes 2-6 have lower ionization potentials and comparable high electronic affinities, which are suited for bipolar luminescent materials. The results also demonstrated that Bppy complexes 1, 5 and 6 have more (3)MLCT compositions in T1 emitting states compared with BNppy complexes 2-4, which results in strong SOC and fast kr. Thus, the phosphorescence efficiency of 1 is higher than that of 2. In addition, 5 and 6 have the balanced charge transport and better hole injection ability when the hole-transporting ligand is incorporated to 1. Therefore, 5 and 6 can server as promising candidates for efficient multifunctional phosphorescent OLED emitters owing to their ambipolar characters, balanced charge carrier injection/transport features and high phosphorescence quantum efficiency.

  3. Spectroscopic mapping and selective electronic tuning of molecular orbitals in phosphorescent organometallic complexes - a new strategy for OLED materials.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Pascal R; Sanning, Jan; Koch, Tobias; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Strassert, Cristian A; Wegner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes requires fundamental knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of the employed molecules as well as their interactions with neighboring molecules or interfaces. We show that highly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) are powerful tools to correlate the electronic properties of phosphorescent complexes (i.e., triplet emitters) with their molecular structure as well as the local environment around a single molecule. We used spectroscopic mapping to visualize several occupied and unoccupied molecular frontier orbitals of Pt(II) complexes adsorbed on Au(111). The analysis showed that the molecules exhibit a peculiar localized strong hybridization that leads to partial depopulation of a dz² orbital, while the ligand orbitals are almost unchanged. We further found that substitution of functional groups at well-defined positions can alter specific molecular orbitals without influencing the others. The results open a path toward the tailored design of electronic and optical properties of triplet emitters by smart ligand substitution, which may improve the performance of future OLED devices.

  4. Investigation of electrical and optical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shafura, A. K.; Affendi, I. H. H.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Saurdi, I.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. The optical and electrical of nanocomposite films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured of various deposition layers (1 to 3 layers) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films were deposited using spin-coating technique. The surface morphology nanocomposite films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope. From surface profiler measurement, we found that the thickness of nanocomposite films increased as deposition time increased. The optical properties were measured using photoluminescence spectroscope. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that two deposition layers is the highest intensity at visible region (green emission) due to high energy transfer from particles to the polymer. The current density for two layers sample is due to aggregation of conjugated polymer chain hence form excited interchain exciton for optical excitation. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  5. Spectroscopic mapping and selective electronic tuning of molecular orbitals in phosphorescent organometallic complexes – a new strategy for OLED materials

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Pascal R; Sanning, Jan; Koch, Tobias; Doltsinis, Nikos L

    2014-01-01

    Summary The improvement of molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes requires fundamental knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of the employed molecules as well as their interactions with neighboring molecules or interfaces. We show that highly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) are powerful tools to correlate the electronic properties of phosphorescent complexes (i.e., triplet emitters) with their molecular structure as well as the local environment around a single molecule. We used spectroscopic mapping to visualize several occupied and unoccupied molecular frontier orbitals of Pt(II) complexes adsorbed on Au(111). The analysis showed that the molecules exhibit a peculiar localized strong hybridization that leads to partial depopulation of a dz² orbital, while the ligand orbitals are almost unchanged. We further found that substitution of functional groups at well-defined positions can alter specific molecular orbitals without influencing the others. The results open a path toward the tailored design of electronic and optical properties of triplet emitters by smart ligand substitution, which may improve the performance of future OLED devices. PMID:25551053

  6. [Assessment of the quality of scientific evidence in Anales Españoles de Pediatría].

    PubMed

    González De Dios, J

    2001-04-01

    Evidence-based medicine is a new scientific paradigm that aims to use medical literature more effectively in guiding medical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of scientific evidence in Spanish pediatric articles. Original articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría during a 6.5year period (n733) were compared with those published in Pediatrics during a 1.5year period (n300). The quality of scientific evidence in Anales was high in only 3% of original articles (randomized clinical trials). It was average in 30.4% (non-randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies) and poor in 66.6% (descriptive studies, case reports, etc.). Only 10.2% of articles used appropriate methodological concepts according to evidence-based medicine. These concepts were mainly "soft" (odds ratio, relative risk, confidence interval) and no "hard" concepts (number needed to treat, likelihood ratio, odds pretest) were detected. The pediatric specialty showing the highest quality of scientific evidence, greatest use of appropriate methodological concepts and greatest statistical accessibility was pneumology. The first step in improving the quality of scientific evidence would be to establish collaboration between epidemiologists and/or biostatisticians. The evidence-based bibliometric indicators found in Pediatrics serve as a gold standard for Anales.

  7. Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Dana L; Jin, Jing; Newman, Daniel A; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-03-01

    Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance--mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability. PMID:25243996

  8. A solar tornado observed by EIS. Plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Fletcher, L.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The term "solar tornadoes" has been used to describe apparently rotating magnetic structures above the solar limb, as seen in high resolution images and movies from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). These often form part of the larger magnetic structure of a prominence, however the links between them remain unclear. Here we present plasma diagnostics on a tornado-like structure and its surroundings, seen above the limb by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard the Hinode satellite. Aims: We aim to extend our view of the velocity patterns seen in tornado-like structures with EIS to a wider range of temperatures and to use density diagnostics, non-thermal line widths, and differential emission measures to provide insight into the physical characteristics of the plasma. Methods: Using Gaussian fitting to fit and de-blend the spectral lines seen by EIS, we calculated line-of-sight velocities and non-thermal line widths. Along with information from the CHIANTI database, we used line intensity ratios to calculate electron densities at each pixel. Using a regularised inversion code we also calculated the differential emission measure (DEM) at different locations in the prominence. Results: The split Doppler-shift pattern is found to be visible down to a temperature of around log T = 6.0. At temperatures lower than this, the pattern is unclear in this data set. We obtain an electron density of log ne = 8.5 when looking towards the centre of the tornado structure at a plasma temperature of log T = 6.2, as compared to the surroundings of the tornado structure where we find log ne to be nearer 9. Non-thermal line widths show broader profiles at the tornado location when compared to the surrounding corona. We discuss the differential emission measure in both the tornado and the prominence body, which suggests that there is more contribution in the tornado at temperatures below log T = 6.0 than in the

  9. Corrosion behavior of boride layers evaluated by the EIS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, I.; Palomar-Pardavé, M.; Amador, A.; VillaVelázquez, C.; Hadad, J.

    2007-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of boride layers at the AISI 304 steel surface is evaluated in the present study. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used for the evaluation of the polarization resistance at the steel surface, with the aid of AUTOLAB potentiostat. Samples were treated with boron paste thickness of 4 and 5 mm, in the range of temperatures 1123 ≤ T ≤ 1273 K and exposed time of 4 and 6 h. The electrochemical technique employed 10 mV AC with a frequency scan range from 8 kHz to 3 mHz in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl solution. Nyquist diagrams show that the highest values of corrosion resistance are present in the samples borided at the temperature of 1273 K, with treatment time of 4 h and 4 mm of boron paste thickness. The values of corrosion resistance on borided steels are compared with the porosity exhibited in the layers.

  10. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  11. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-10-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  12. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  13. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  14. Velocity Characteristics of Evaporated Plasma using Hinode/EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of chromospheric evaporation using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode in conjunction with HXR observat,ions from RHESSI. The advanced capabilities of EIS were used to measure Doppler shifts in 15 emission lines covering the temperature range T=0.05-16 MK during the impulsive phase of a C-class flare on 2007 December 14. Blueshifts indicative of the evaporated material were observed in six emission lines from Fe XIV-XXIV (2-16 MK). Upflow velocity was found to scale with temperature as v(sub up) (kilometers per second) approximately equal to 5-17 T (MK). Although the hottest emission lines, Fe XXIII and Fe XXIV, exhibited upflows of greater than 200 kilometers per second, their line profiles were found to be dominated by a stationary component in stark contrast to the predictions of the standard flare model. Emission from O VI-Fe XIII lines (0.5-1.5 MK) was found to be redshifted by v(sub down) (kilometers per second) approximately equal to 60-17 T (MK) and was interpreted as the downward-moving 'plug' characteristic of explosive evaporation. These downflows occur at temperatures significantly higher than previously expected. Both upflows and downflows were spatially and temporally correlated with HXR emission observed by RHESSI that provided the properties of the electron beam deemed to be the driver of the evaporation. The energy contained in the electron beam was found to be greater than or equal to 10(sup 11) ergs per square centimeter per second consistent with the value required to drive explosive chromospheric evaporation from hydrodynamic simulations.

  15. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ5 (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, I. M.; Painuly, Deepshikha; Rabanal, Maria Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    The various composition of ZnAlQ5 such as Zn1.5A10.5Q5, Zn1Al1Q5, Zn0.5Al1.5Q5 organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ2 and AlQ3 were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ5. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ5,in which Zn1.5Al0.5Q5 shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ2 was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ3 at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn2+ and Al3+. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn2+ and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  16. Concepts for the material development of phosphorescent organic materials processable from solution and their application in OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janietz, S.; Krueger, H.; Thesen, M.; Salert, B.; Wedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    One example of organic electronics is the application of polymer based light emitting devices (PLEDs). PLEDs are very attractive for large area and fine-pixel displays, lighting and signage. The polymers are more amenable to solution processing by printing techniques which are favourable for low cost production in large areas. With phosphorescent emitters like Ir-complexes higher quantum efficiencies were obtained than with fluorescent systems, especially if multilayer stack systems with separated charge transport and emitting layers were applied in the case of small molecules. Polymers exhibit the ability to integrate all the active components like the hole-, electron-transport and phosphorescent molecules in only one layer. Here, the active components of a phosphorescent system - triplet emitter, hole- and electron transport molecules - can be linked as a side group to a polystyrene main chain. By varying the molecular structures of the side groups as well as the composition of the side chains with respect to the triplet emitter, hole- and electron transport structure, and by blending with suitable glass-forming, so-called small molecules, brightness, efficiency and lifetime of the produced OLEDs can be optimized. By choosing the triplet emitter, such as iridium complexes, different emission colors can be specially set. Different substituted triazine molecules were introduced as side chain into a polystyrene backbone and applied as electron transport material in PLED blend systems. The influence of alkyl chain lengths of the performance will be discussed. For an optimized blend system with a green emitting phosphorescent Ir-complex efficiencies of 60 cd/A and an lifetime improvement of 66.000 h @ 1000 cd/m2 were achieved.

  17. Unusual regioversatility of acetyltransferase Eis, a cause of drug resistance in XDR-TB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenjing; Biswas, Tapan; Porter, Vanessa R.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2011-09-06

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global threat. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. Resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin is a hallmark of XDR-TB. Here, we reveal the function and structure of the mycobacterial protein Eis responsible for resistance to kanamycin in a significant fraction of kanamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates. We demonstrate that Eis has an unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple amines of many aminoglycosides. Structural and mutagenesis studies of Eis indicate that its acetylation mechanism is enabled by a complex tripartite fold that includes two general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase regions. An intricate negatively charged substrate-binding pocket of Eis is a potential target of new antitubercular drugs expected to overcome aminoglycoside resistance.

  18. OpenEI: Datasets in the OpenEnergyInfo Data Repository

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open Energy Information initiative (OpenEI) is a platform to connect the world's energy data. It is a linked open data platform bringing together energy information to provide improved analyses, unique visualizations, and real-time access to data. OpenEI follows guidelines set by the White House Open Government Initiative , which is focused on transparency, collaboration, and participation. OpenEI strives to provide open access to this energy information, with the ultimate goal of spurring creativity and driving innovation in the energy sector.[Copied from the OpenEI Wiki main page]. It features a wiki, a blog, a list of information gateways, and a browsing list of deposited data sets.

  19. 78 FR 20169 - Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Hancock County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Routes 43 and 603 in the vicinity of Kiln Mississippi. The original Notice of Intent for this EIS process... the intersection of State Routes 43 and 603 just north of Kiln, Mississippi, a distance...

  20. Comparison of Printed Bibliographic Descriptions Distributed by BIOSIS, CAS, and Ei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Julian R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Printed bibliographic descriptions of journal articles cited by BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), and Engineering Index (Ei) were compared to identify similarities and differences in form, format, and data content. (Author)

  1. Computer graphics for management: An abstract of capabilities and applications of the EIS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solem, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Executive Information Services (EIS) system, developed as a computer-based, time-sharing tool for making and implementing management decisions, and including computer graphics capabilities, was described. The following resources are available through the EIS languages: centralized corporate/gov't data base, customized and working data bases, report writing, general computational capability, specialized routines, modeling/programming capability, and graphics. Nearly all EIS graphs can be created by a single, on-line instruction. A large number of options are available, such as selection of graphic form, line control, shading, placement on the page, multiple images on a page, control of scaling and labeling, plotting of cum data sets, optical grid lines, and stack charts. The following are examples of areas in which the EIS system may be used: research, estimating services, planning, budgeting, and performance measurement, national computer hook-up negotiations.

  2. Structurally integrated organic light-emitting device (OLED)-based sensors for industrial and environmental security: sensors for hydrazine and anthrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqun; Shinar, Ruth; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Liao, Chuxiong; Shinar, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The application of the new compact platform of structurally integrated, photoluminescent (bio)chemical sensors, where the photoluminescence (PL) excitation source is an OLED, to the detection of hydrazine and anthrax, is described. The hydrazine sensor is based on the reaction between nonluminescent anthracene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and hydrazine or hydrazine sulfate, which generates a luminescent product. The anthrax sensor is based on a Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, where the anthrax-secreted lethal factor enzyme cleaves certain labeled peptides at a specific site. The cleaving separates the FRET donor-acceptor pair, resulting in an increase in the PL of the donor, which was previously absorbed by the acceptor.

  3. The role of data in the EIS process: Evidence from the BLM wilderness review

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, C.; Mohai, P. )

    1993-03-01

    Various propositions have been offered about the role of the environmental impact statement (EIS) in agency decision making. These include statements that agencies are (1) using the information collected in the EIS to make rational decisions; (2) justifying decisions made a priori; (3) using the EIS to gain support or consensus for projects; or (4) simply fulfilling a legal mandate, with the EIS having no substantive impact on decisions. Previous studies regarding the role of EIS data have focused on the quality of the data in the EIS and whether or not the data are related to decisions. The role of site-specific information in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) wilderness EIS process is analyzed and the results are used to reflect on the impact of the EIS in agency decision making. These results are compared with an earlier analysis of the Forest Service's Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II). The results of the statistical analyses of three sets of BLM wilderness EISs indicate that although some of the site-specific information about resource potential is statistically related to agency wilderness recommendations, the vast majority of the information is not. In addition, in some cases, the information was related to wilderness recommendations in a counterintuitive direction. Overall, of the 190 measures of resource potential found in these documents, only 17 (9%) were statistically related to BLM recommendations in an intuitive direction. The fact that most of the information in these EISs is not statistically related to decisions lends support to the proposition that the agency was primarily fulfilling the legally mandated procedure of the National Environmental Policy Act in producing these EISs, rather than achieving the spirit of the law. Results from the analysis of the Forest Service's RARE II wilderness review are similar.

  4. Supplement Analysis for Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project, (DOE/EIS-0169-SA-05)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Patricia R.

    2002-09-20

    Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project – Under the Monitoring and Evaluation Program (M&E), the domestication selection research task would be modified to include a hatchery control line, maintained entirely by spawning hatchery-origin fish. The Bonneville Power Administration is funding ongoing studies, research, and artificial production of several salmonid species in the Yakima and Klickitat river basins. BPA analyzed environmental impacts of research and supplementation projects in the Yakima basin in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) completed in 1996 (USDOE/BPA 1996), and in the following Supplement Analyses: DOE/EIS-0169-SA-01, completed in May 1999; DOE/EIS-0169-SA-02, completed in August 1999; DOE/EIS-0169-SA-03, completed in 2000; DOE/EIS-0169-SA-04, completed in November 2000. The purpose of this Supplement Analysis is to determine if a Supplemental EIS is needed to analyze the changes proposed in the Monitoring and Evaluation program (#199506325) of the Yakima Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) as reviewed in the FY 2001 Project Proposals for the Columbia River Gorge and Inter-Mountain Provinces, ISRP 2000-9 (December 1, 2000). Modifications to the M&E program are in support of the experimental acclimation, rearing and incubating activities for spring chinook.

  5. EIS Data on the Chandra Deep Field South Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this note is to announce that the ESO Imaging Survey programme has released a full set of optical/infrared data covering the socalled Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) rapidly becoming a favoured target for cosmological studies in the southern hemisphere. The field was originally selected for deep X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM. The former have already been completed producing the deepest high-resolution X-ray image ever taken with a total integration time of one million seconds. The data obtained by EIS include J and Ks infrared observations of an area of 0.1 square degree nearly matching the Chandra image down to JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6 and UU'BVRI optical observations over 0.25 square degree, matching the XMM field of view, reaching 5 s limiting magnitudes of U'AB = 26.0, UAB = 25.7, BAB = 26.4, VAB = 25.4, RA B = 25.5 and IA B = 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 ´ FWHM aperture.

  6. Exploiting p-Type Delayed Fluorescence in Hybrid White OLEDs: Breaking the Trade-off between High Device Efficiency and Long Lifetime.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Despite that the majority of practical organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) still rely on blue fluorophors with low triplet (T1) for creating blue light, hybrid white OLEDs based on low T1 blue fluorophors are still much lagged behind in power efficiency. Here, "ideal" hybrid WOLEDs with recorded efficiency as well as low roll-off, good color-stability and long lifetime were realized by utilizing the bipolar mixed materials as the host of green phosphor as well as the spacer to reduce T1 trap, while blue fluorophors with p-type delayed fluorescence to recycle the trapped T1. An electron transport material with both high electron mobility and good exciton confinement ability was used to boost the TTA efficiency. Hybrid WOLEDs with maximum current efficiency, external quantum efficiency and power efficiency of 49.6 cd/A, 19.1%, and 49.3 lm/W, respectively, together with a high color rendering index of 80 and a half lifetime of over 7000 h at an initial luminescence of 1000 cd/m(2) were realized, manifesting the high potential of the strategy.

  7. Helicenes as All-in-One Organic Materials for Application in OLEDs: Synthesis and Diverse Applications of Carbo- and Aza[5]helical Diamines.

    PubMed

    Jhulki, Samik; Mishra, Abhaya Kumar; Chow, Tahsin J; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2016-06-27

    A set of eight helical diamines were designed and synthesized to demonstrate their relevance as all-in-one materials for multifarious applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), that is, as hole-transporting materials (HTMs), EMs, bifunctional hole transporting + emissive materials, and host materials. Azahelical diamines function very well as HTMs. Indeed, with high Tg values (127-214 °C), they are superior alternatives to popular N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). All the helical diamines exhibit emissive properties when employed in nondoped as well as doped devices, the performance characteristics being superior in the latter. One of the carbohelical diamines (CHTPA) serves the dual function of hole transport as well as emission in simple double-layer devices; the efficiencies observed were better by quite some margin than those of other emissive helicenes reported. The twisting endows helical diamines with significantly high triplet energies such that they also function as host materials for red and green phosphors, that is, [Ir(btp)2 acac] (btp=2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridine; acac=acetylacetonate) and [Ir(ppy)3 ] (ppy=2-phenylpyridine), respectively. The results of device fabrications demonstrate how helicity/ helical scaffold may be diligently exploited to create molecular systems for maneuvering diverse applications in OLEDs. PMID:27244223

  8. Helicenes as All-in-One Organic Materials for Application in OLEDs: Synthesis and Diverse Applications of Carbo- and Aza[5]helical Diamines.

    PubMed

    Jhulki, Samik; Mishra, Abhaya Kumar; Chow, Tahsin J; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2016-06-27

    A set of eight helical diamines were designed and synthesized to demonstrate their relevance as all-in-one materials for multifarious applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), that is, as hole-transporting materials (HTMs), EMs, bifunctional hole transporting + emissive materials, and host materials. Azahelical diamines function very well as HTMs. Indeed, with high Tg values (127-214 °C), they are superior alternatives to popular N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). All the helical diamines exhibit emissive properties when employed in nondoped as well as doped devices, the performance characteristics being superior in the latter. One of the carbohelical diamines (CHTPA) serves the dual function of hole transport as well as emission in simple double-layer devices; the efficiencies observed were better by quite some margin than those of other emissive helicenes reported. The twisting endows helical diamines with significantly high triplet energies such that they also function as host materials for red and green phosphors, that is, [Ir(btp)2 acac] (btp=2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridine; acac=acetylacetonate) and [Ir(ppy)3 ] (ppy=2-phenylpyridine), respectively. The results of device fabrications demonstrate how helicity/ helical scaffold may be diligently exploited to create molecular systems for maneuvering diverse applications in OLEDs.

  9. UNDERFLIGHT CALIBRATION OF SOHO/CDS AND HINODE/EIS WITH EUNIS-07

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tongjiang; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thomas, Roger J.; Rabin, Douglas M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Young, Peter R.; Del Zanna, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Flights of Goddard Space Flight Center's Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket in 2006 and 2007 provided updated radiometric calibrations for Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO/CDS) and Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (Hinode/EIS). EUNIS carried two independent imaging spectrographs covering wavebands of 300-370 A in first order and 170-205 A in second order. After each flight, end-to-end radiometric calibrations of the rocket payload were carried out in the same facility used for pre-launch calibrations of CDS and EIS. During the 2007 flight, EUNIS, SOHO/CDS, and Hinode/EIS observed the same solar locations, allowing the EUNIS calibrations to be directly applied to both CDS and EIS. The measured CDS NIS 1 line intensities calibrated with the standard (version 4) responsivities with the standard long-term corrections are found to be too low by a factor of 1.5 due to the decrease in responsivity. The EIS calibration update is performed in two ways. One uses the direct calibration transfer of the calibrated EUNIS-07 short wavelength (SW) channel. The other uses the insensitive line pairs, in which one member was observed by the EUNIS-07 long wavelength (LW) channel and the other by EIS in either the LW or SW waveband. Measurements from both methods are in good agreement, and confirm (within the measurement uncertainties) the EIS responsivity measured directly before the instrument's launch. The measurements also suggest that the EIS responsivity decreased by a factor of about 1.2 after the first year of operation (although the size of the measurement uncertainties is comparable to this decrease). The shape of the EIS SW response curve obtained by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the one measured in laboratory prior to launch. The absolute value of the quiet-Sun He II 304 A intensity measured by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the radiance measured by CDS NIS in quiet regions near the

  10. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).

  11. Consensus structure elucidation combining GC/EI-MS, structure generation, and calculated properties.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Emma L; Gallampois, Christine M J; Krauss, Martin; Meringer, Markus; Neumann, Steffen; Schulze, Tobias; Wolf, Sebastian; Brack, Werner

    2012-04-01

    This article explores consensus structure elucidation on the basis of GC/EI-MS, structure generation, and calculated properties for unknown compounds. Candidate structures were generated using the molecular formula and substructure information obtained from GC/EI-MS spectra. Calculated properties were then used to score candidates according to a consensus approach, rather than filtering or exclusion. Two mass spectral match calculations (MOLGEN-MS and MetFrag), retention behavior (Lee retention index/boiling point correlation, NIST Kovat's retention index), octanol-water partitioning behavior (log K(ow)), and finally steric energy calculations were used to select candidates. A simple consensus scoring function was developed and tested on two unknown spectra detected in a mutagenic subfraction of a water sample from the Elbe River using GC/EI-MS. The top candidates proposed using the consensus scoring technique were purchased and confirmed analytically using GC/EI-MS and LC/MS/MS. Although the compounds identified were not responsible for the sample mutagenicity, the structure-generation-based identification for GC/EI-MS using calculated properties and consensus scoring was demonstrated to be applicable to real-world unknowns and suggests that the development of a similar strategy for multidimensional high-resolution MS could improve the outcomes of environmental and metabolomics studies. PMID:22414024

  12. Time series forecasting of future claims amount of SOCSO's employment injury scheme (EIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Faiz; Ismail, Isma Liana; Chek, Mohd Zaki Awang; Jamal, Nur Faezah; Ridzwan, Ahmad Nur Azam Ahmad; Jelas, Imran Md; Noor, Syamsul Ikram Mohd; Ahmad, Abu Bakar

    2012-09-01

    The Employment Injury Scheme (EIS) provides protection to employees who are injured due to accidents whilst working, commuting from home to the work place or during employee takes a break during an authorized recess time or while travelling that is related with his work. The main purpose of this study is to forecast value on claims amount of EIS for the year 2011 until 2015 by using appropriate models. These models were tested on the actual EIS data from year 1972 until year 2010. Three different forecasting models are chosen for comparisons. These are the Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model and Double Exponential Smoothing Model. The best model is selected based on the smallest value of error measures using the Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). From the result, the best model that best fit the forecast for the EIS is the Average Percent Change Model. Furthermore, the result also shows the claims amount of EIS for the year 2011 to year 2015 continue to trend upwards from year 2010.

  13. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; et al

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energymore » channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).« less

  14. Luminescent Di- and Trinuclear Boron Complexes Based on Aromatic Iminopyrrolyl Spacer Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Suresh, D; Gomes, Clara S B; Lopes, Patrícia S; Figueira, Cláudia A; Ferreira, Bruno; Gomes, Pedro T; Di Paolo, Roberto E; Maçanita, António L; Duarte, M Teresa; Charas, Ana; Morgado, Jorge; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José

    2015-06-15

    afford green to yellow emissions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated by using the new polyboron complexes and their luminance was found to be in the order of 2400 cd m(-2) , for single layer devices, increasing to 4400 cd m(-2) when a hole-transporting layer is used.

  15. Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Arun; Johnson, Christopher Andrew; Kavusi, Sam; Hassibi, Arjang

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful electrochemical technique to detect biomolecules. EIS has the potential of carrying out label-free and real-time detection, and in addition, can be easily implemented using electronic integrated circuits (ICs) that are built through standard semiconductor fabrication processes. This paper focuses on the various design and optimization aspects of EIS ICs, particularly the bio-to-semiconductor interface design. We discuss, in detail, considerations such as the choice of the electrode surface in view of IC manufacturing, surface linkers, and development of optimal bio-molecular detection protocols. We also report experimental results, using both macro- and micro-electrodes to demonstrate the design trade-offs and ultimately validate our optimization procedures. PMID:23202170

  16. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Framework in the Selection of an Enterprise Integration (EI) Approach That Best Satisfies Organizational Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngeru, James

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, adoption of Enterprise Integration (EI) through initiatives such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has consistently dominated most of organizations' top strategic priorities. Additionally, the field of EI has generated a vast amount…

  17. 75 FR 13131 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island... Agency, announces its Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS for the anticipated sale of Plum Island..., Boston, MA 02222. All comments received by GSA in response to the Plum Island NEPA process,...

  18. 78 FR 49484 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... CFR parts 325 and 332; 73 FR 19594 (April 10, 2008). 3. Alternatives. The EIS will address an array of... (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview Shipping Facility Project AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview, LLC...

  19. The Feasibility of Training and Development of EI: An Exploratory Study in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chi-Sum; Foo, Maw-Der; Wang, Cheng-Wen; Wong, Ping-Man

    2007-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been an emerging topic for psychological, educational, and management researchers and consultants in recent years. However, existing literature has concentrated on demonstrating the effects of EI on either the mental health or on job outcomes such as job attitudes and performance. There is relatively little…

  20. 7 CFR 1940.313 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1940.313 Section 1940.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Environmental Program § 1940.313 Actions that normally require the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental assessment process will be used, as defined in this subpart, to...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.313 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1940.313 Section 1940.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Environmental Program § 1940.313 Actions that normally require the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental assessment process will be used, as defined in this subpart, to...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.313 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1940.313 Section 1940.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Environmental Program § 1940.313 Actions that normally require the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental assessment process will be used, as defined in this subpart, to...

  3. 78 FR 32240 - Notice of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... of Inent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Oro Verde Solar Project at... joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Environmental Impact Report (EIR) with the County of Kern, California to evaluate potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Oro Verde...

  4. Preparation of CaO as OLED getter material through control of crystal growth of CaCO{sub 3} by block copolymers in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2009-01-08

    As the starting materials of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) getter, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) particles with various shapes and crystal structures have been successfully prepared with additives (L64 or PEGPG), which contain blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO). These CaCO{sub 3} particles were calcinated into highly crystalline calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles with high capacity of water adsorption up to 14.23 wt.%. The CaCO{sub 3} and CaO particles prepared at various conditions were characterized using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method.

  5. Luminescent properties of a di-hydrazone derived from the antituberculosis agent isoniazid: Potentiality as an emitting layer constituent for OLED fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Rafaela S.; Aderne, Rian E.; Cremona, Marco; Rey, Nicolás A.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrazones constitute a class of compounds presenting azomethine R‧R″Nsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd R hydrogens, which show diverse properties and a wide range of applications. A hydrazone derived from the antituberculosis drug isoniazid, namely, N,N‧-diisonicotinoyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylisophthalaldehyde hydrazone (DMD) was synthesized and chemically characterized. Its luminescent properties were also investigated, as well as the possibility of using this compound as a constituent of the emitting layer for the fabrication of OLEDs. Co-deposited devices were fabricated using the organic molecule BSBF as matrix and DMD as dopant. All the devices presented a broad electroluminescence band, in which it was possible to recognize the DMD emission along with emissions of some of the other organic layers. The best results were obtained with 35% DMD doping, achieving a luminance of about 35 cd/m2.

  6. The Addition of EI/CI Capability to the Mattauch-herzog Spectrograph with EOID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fergusson, G. J.; Koslin, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    A modification was made to the Mattauch-Herzog Spectrograph with an electro-optical ion detector (EOID) previously designed and constructed, so that it would be capable of operating not only in the electron-impact (EI) mode of ionization, but also in the chemical ionization (CI) mode. This modification necessitated an effort in three specific design areas: (1) sample inlet; (2) ion source and analyzer regions; and (3) the pumping system. In addition, an appropriate electronics package had to be designed to control and operate the combined EI/CI source.

  7. Studies on high power ultrasonic microembossing and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for the creation of lab-on-CD devices for sensor related applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengasandra, Srikanth G.

    This study demonstrates the application of High Power Ultrasonic Microembossing Technology (HPUMT) in producing microfeatures on polymer substrates. The work reviews a novel method of obtaining flash free and precise microfeatures by manipulating the material density through microcellular foaming. The microfeatures created on the polymer substrates were further characterized by analyzing the feature depth with respect to the critical ultrasonic embossing operating parameters such as embossing heating times (s), embossing amplitude (microm) at a constant embossing trigger force (N). An experiment design was constructed and performed to characterize the parameters on foamed and unfoamed (or regular) versions of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) sample materials. Results indicated feature depth was proportional to heating times, amplitude and force. It was also seen the maximum depth was achieved in the shortest cycle times with higher amplitudes and forces of operation. HPUMT was further studied to create functional network of microchannels functioned as reservoirs, reaction chamber and burst or gate valves to form a centrifugal biosensing platform that is also referred to as a lab-on-CD or a bio-CD device. The surface energy of the polymer substrates was increased to enable fluid flow by using a surfactant based organic coating to facilitate hydrophilicity. Using an organic light emitting diode (OLEDs) as an electroluminescence source provided luminescence decay results in good agreement with stern-volmer relationship. The functionality of the OLED-coupled lab-on-CD device was further tested in measuring unknown concentrations of a particular analyte in corn slurry sample which contained numerous contaminants. Combinatorial multianalyte sensing was also made possible on a single bio-CD using a four photodetector (PD) quad preamp disk sensor.

  8. 76 FR 2881 - Fishlake National Forest; Utah; Oil and Gas Leasing EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Forest Service Fishlake National Forest; Utah; Oil and Gas Leasing EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Leasing Analysis. The original notice was published on July 7, 2006. SUMMARY: The Fishlake National Forest... proposal to make lands administered by the FNF available for oil and gas leasing, and to determine...

  9. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... things as salaries and expenses, procurement, guarantees, financial assistance, income transfers, audits, fees, bonds and royalties; (5) Management, formulation, allocation, transfer and reprogramming of...

  10. 75 FR 72784 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Blackfoot Travel Plan. SUMMARY: This notice extends the comment period for the Blackfoot Travel Plan from November...

  11. 75 FR 60089 - Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Addressing Campus Development at Fort Meade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... . Additional copies of the Final EIS are available at the Fort Meade Main Post Library, 4418 Llewellyn Avenue, Fort Meade, MD 20755; the Anne Arundel County Public Library North County Area Branch, 1010 Eastway, Glen Burnie, MD 21060; and the Anne Arundel County Public Library West County Area Branch,...

  12. 7 CFR 650.20 - Reviewing and commenting on EIS's prepared by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ensure the health and welfare of the agricultural community. Comments are to be based on knowledge...? What benefits are foregone if prime farmland is taken? (8) Impacts on ecosystems. Does the EIS describe impacts on major plant communities, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems? (9) Impacts on...

  13. 7 CFR 650.20 - Reviewing and commenting on EIS's prepared by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ensure the health and welfare of the agricultural community. Comments are to be based on knowledge...? What benefits are foregone if prime farmland is taken? (8) Impacts on ecosystems. Does the EIS describe impacts on major plant communities, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems? (9) Impacts on...

  14. 78 FR 28841 - Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Project was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 75632). After considering the environmental impacts... which was released on December 21, 2012 (77 FR 76477).\\1\\ The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S... Area Power Administration Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440)...

  15. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intent should be processed through local Chief, Information Management channels to: HQDA, SFIS-APP, ATTN...) WASH DC 20314-1000 by 1 June of each year. Consult the local chief, Information Management for... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22....

  16. 78 FR 15039 - Extending Scoping Period To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...: The BIA published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register on January 14, 2013, (78 FR 2685) and... 20, 2013. Please refer to the January 14, 2013, (78 FR 2685) Notice of Intent for project details and... Statement (EIS) for the Navajo Nation Integrated Weed Management Plan Within Coconino, Navajo, and...

  17. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... new building, if that activity has a significant effect on the human environment; (3) Proposals that... impact on the environment, an EA is not required, and the Trust will prepare or direct the preparation of... or actions may significantly affect the environment and therefore require an EIS are described in...

  18. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... CFR part 68 and that would have no or only minimal environmental impact; (22) Rehabilitation...) Replacement of minor structures and facilities (e.g., signs, kiosks, fences, comfort stations, and...

  19. 78 FR 29124 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste Sustainability Initiatives at Fort Bliss, Texas and New Mexico AGENCY: Department...

  20. 75 FR 39926 - Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (DOE/EIS-0415)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... a new 300-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired combined-cycle generation facility in Brookings County... line, two water wells, a 1.25-mile water supply line, and 1 mile of local road improvements. Western... Iowa. Western published a Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS for the project on February 6, 2009 (74...

  1. 76 FR 43994 - Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Proposed Regional Watershed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Prepare an EIS was published in the Federal Register on Friday, March 20, 2009 (74 FR 11920), with subsequent amended announcements on May 8, 2009 (74 FR 21665) and August 11, 2009 (74 FR 40171). FOR FURTHER... Proposed Regional Watershed Supply Project in Wyoming and Colorado AGENCY: Department of the Army,...

  2. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... financing authority, minor boundary changes and land transactions; or having primarily economic, social... which are too broad, speculative, or conjectural to lend themselves to environmental analysis and...

  3. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... financing authority, minor boundary changes and land transactions; or having primarily economic, social... which are too broad, speculative, or conjectural to lend themselves to environmental analysis and...

  4. 36 CFR 1010.7 - Actions that do not require an EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... QUALITY § 1010.7 Actions that do not require an EA or EIS. (a) Categorical Exclusions. Pursuant to 40 CFR... financing authority, minor boundary changes and land transactions; or having primarily economic, social... which are too broad, speculative, or conjectural to lend themselves to environmental analysis and...

  5. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...

  6. 78 FR 28842 - Searchlight Wind Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0413)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 74479). The U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management... published in the Federal Register on December 16, 2008 (73 FR 76377). The BLM published a Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Draft EIS in the Federal Register on January 12, 2012 (77 FR 2999). The NOA...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.324 - Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by another Federal Agency. 1940.324 Section 1940.324 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Environmental Program § 1940.324 Adoption of EIS or environmental assessment prepared by another Federal Agency... prepared by another Federal Agency after completion if: (1) An independent review of the document...

  8. Transferable green fluorescence-tagged pEI2 in Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pEI2 plasmid of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate, I49, was tagged using a Tn10-GFP-kan cassette to create the green fluorescence-expressing derivative I49-gfp. The Tn10-GFP-kan insertion site was mapped by plasmid sequencing to 663 bp upstream of orf2 and appeared to be at a neutral site in the pla...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY...

  10. 7 CFR 650.10 - Adoption of an EIS prepared by a cooperating agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... adopts an EIS prepared by another Federal or State agency, the RFO is to review the document to insure that it meets the requirements of the CEQ regulations and NRCS-NEPA procedures. (b) If the actions... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES COMPLIANCE WITH NEPA...

  11. An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

  12. Recruitment and Retention of Qualified Early Intervention (EI) Personnel. Practice Brief. Winter 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of qualified early intervention (EI) personnel remains a challenge throughout many regions of the nation. In response to this challenge, states and localities are employing a range of innovative strategies. Based on examples drawn from around the country, including examples provided by the National Early Childhood…

  13. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., then the public shall be apprised of the decision. This notice shall be prepared according to 40 CFR... format, shall be according to 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Decisionmaking and implementation. The... final EIS has been published in the Federal Register by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR...

  14. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., then the public shall be apprised of the decision. This notice shall be prepared according to 40 CFR... format, shall be according to 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Decisionmaking and implementation. The... final EIS has been published in the Federal Register by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR...

  15. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., then the public shall be apprised of the decision. This notice shall be prepared according to 40 CFR... format, shall be according to 40 CFR parts 1502-1506. (d) Decisionmaking and implementation. The... final EIS has been published in the Federal Register by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY... Sinha, Project Manager, Bonneville Power Administration--TEP-3, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, Oregon 97208... (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  17. The Iterative Use of Single Case Research Designs to Advance the Science of EI/ECSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Decker, Jessica; Germansky, Sara E.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research in early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is focused on identifying effective practices related to positive outcomes for young children with disabilities and their families. Individual responses to evidence-based practices are often variable, and non-responders are common. Single case research (SCR) might be…

  18. Comparative Study of Eis-like Enzymes from Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Pricer, Rachel E; Stewart, Megan N; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-06-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. Of particular importance is the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to currently available antibiotics used in the treatment of infected patients. Up-regulation of an aminoglycoside (AG) acetyltransferase, the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein of Mtb (Eis_Mtb), is responsible for resistance to the second-line injectable drug kanamycin A in a number of Mtb clinical isolates. This acetyltransferase is known to modify AGs, not at a single position, as usual for this type of enzyme, but at multiple amine sites. We identified, using in silico techniques, 22 homologues from a wide variety of bacteria, that we then cloned, purified, and biochemically studied. From the selected Eis homologues, 7 showed the ability to modify AGs to various degrees and displayed both similarities and differences when compared to Eis_Mtb. In addition, an inhibitor proved to be active against all homologues tested. Our findings show that this family of acetyltransferase enzymes exists in both mycobacteria and non-mycobacteria and in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. The bacterial strains described herein should be monitored for rising resistance rates to AGs. PMID:27622743

  19. 78 FR 20883 - Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative Management EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Availability of the Draft EIS (78 FR 12310) for more detailed information related to the Salt River Allotments...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tonto National Forest; Arizona; Salt River Allotments Vegetative... that it is extending the public comment period for the Salt River Allotments Vegetative...

  20. 36 CFR 1010.8 - Actions that normally require an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or project is not categorically excluded under § 1010.7, the Trust shall require the preparation of... impact on the environment, an EA is not required, and the Trust will prepare or direct the preparation of an EIS without preparing or completing the preparation of an EA. To assist the NEPA...

  1. 75 FR 17765 - Termination of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Special Resource Study (SRS) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...'s Order 2 (Park Planning) and Director's Order 12 (Conservation Planning, Environmental Impact Analysis, and Decision- making), the NPS is terminating the EIS process for the SRS for Castle Nugent Farms... Federal Register on November 21, 2007 (72 FR 65593). The NPS has since determined that an EA rather...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft EIS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intent should be processed through local Chief, Information Management channels to: HQDA, SFIS-APP, ATTN...) WASH DC 20314-1000 by 1 June of each year. Consult the local chief, Information Management for... notice of intent to prepare a draft EIS or a draft supplement is discussed in 40 CFR 1508.22....

  3. The influence of minimum time between rain events (MTE) on the daily rainfall and EI30 erosivity index relation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuso-Ruiz, P.; Ayuso-Muñoz, J. L.; Taguas, E. V.; García-Marín, A.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of rain registered between two consecutives dry time intervals can be defined as a downpour or rain event. The length of these dry periods is known as minimum time between events (MTE). This work analyses the influence of the MTE value on the daily rainfall and EI30 erosivity index relationship. Using a potential equation like , the relation between daily EI30 index and daily precipitation, P, was obtained for Malaga. Hourly rainfall data from 1981 to 2007 were used. Rain events of at least 10 mm were identified four each rainy day and several MTE were used (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours). Due to hourly resolution of the data, the EI60 index was then obtained by multiplying the kinetic energy and the maximum hourly rainfall. Ten minutes resolution data were also available in Malaga from 1999 to 2002. Using these records the lineal correlation between EI30 and EI60 indexes was obtained, allowing the conversion of the EI60 indexes previously obtained. The results showed that no significant differences appear when varying the MTE value. The R2 coefficient had values of 0.7192 when working with a 2 hour MTE and 0.7503 for 6 hour MTE. Thus, it can be concluded that the best relation was obtained for the last MTE, though a slightly dependency between daily rainfall and EI30 index was found.

  4. Macrophages in Injured Skeletal Muscle: A Perpetuum Mobile Causing and Limiting Fibrosis, Prompting or Restricting Resolution and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bosurgi, Lidia; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages are present in regenerating skeletal muscles and participate in the repair process. This is due to a unique feature of macrophages, i.e., their ability to perceive signals heralding ongoing tissue injury and to broadcast the news to cells suited at regenerating the tissue such as stem and progenitor cells. Macrophages play a complex role in the skeletal muscle, probably conveying information on the pattern of healing which is appropriate to ensure an effective healing of the tissue, yielding novel functional fibers. Conversely, they are likely to be involved in limiting the efficacy of regeneration, with formation of fibrotic scars and fat replacement of the tissue when the original insult persists. In this review we consider the beneficial versus the detrimental actions of macrophages during the response to muscle injury, with attention to the available information on the molecular code macrophages rely on to guide, throughout the various phases of muscle healing, the function of conventional and unconventional stem cells. Decrypting this code would represent a major step forward toward the establishment of novel targeted therapies for muscle diseases. PMID:22566851

  5. Comprehensive Summary and Analysis of Oral and Written Scoping Comments on the Hawaii Geothermal Project EIS (DOE Review Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-09-18

    This report contains summaries of the oral and written comments received during the scoping process for the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Oral comments were presented during public scoping meetings; written comments were solicited at the public scoping meetings and in the ''Advance Notice of Intent'' and ''Notice of Intent'' (published in the ''Federal Register'') to prepare the HGP EIS. This comprehensive summary of scoping inputs provides an overview of the issues that have been suggested for inclusion in the HGP EIS.

  6. The C-terminal segment of the 1,3-beta-glucanase Ole e 9 from olive (Olea europaea) pollen is an independent domain with allergenic activity: expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Oscar; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2003-01-01

    Several allergenic proteins, such as the 1,3-beta-glucanases, have been associated with plant defence responses. Ole e 9 (46 kDa) is a 1,3-beta-glucanase and major allergen from olive pollen, which is a principal cause of allergy in Mediterranean countries. Its C-terminal segment (101 amino acid residues) has been produced as a recombinant polypeptide in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding the polypeptide was inserted into the plasmid vector pPICZalpha-A and overexpressed in KM71 yeast cells. The recombinant product was purified by size-exclusion chromatography followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Edman degradation, MS and CD were used to determine molecular properties of the recombinant polypeptide, which exhibited 16% alpha-helix and 30% beta-sheet as regular elements of secondary structure. Disulphide bridges of the molecule were determined at positions Cys-14-Cys-76, Cys-33-Cys-94 and Cys-39-Cys-48. The high IgE-binding capability of the recombinant C-terminal segment of Ole e 9 against sera from Ole e 9-sensitive individuals, which was determined by immunoblotting and ELISA inhibition, supported the proper folding of the polypeptide and the maintenance of antigenic properties that it exhibits as a part of the whole allergen. These data indicated that this portion of Ole e 9 constitutes an independent domain, which could be used to study its three-dimensional structure and function, as well as for clinical purposes such as diagnosis and specific immunotherapy. Since it shows sequence similarity with portions of 1,3-beta-glucanases from plant tissues and the Gas/Phr/Epd protein families involved in yeast morphogenesis, we suggest that this domain could play an equivalent functional role within these enzymes. PMID:12392450

  7. Modulation of the Physicochemical Properties of Donor-Spiro-Acceptor Derivatives through Donor Unit Planarisation: Phenylacridine versus Indoloacridine-New Hosts for Green and Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs).

    PubMed

    Thiery, Sébastien; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Poriel, Cyril

    2016-07-11

    This work reports a detailed structure-property relationship study of a series of efficient host materials based on the donor-spiro-acceptor (D-spiro-A) design for green and sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The electronic and physical effects of the indoloacridine (IA) fragment connected through a spiro bridge to different acceptor units, namely, fluorene, dioxothioxanthene or diazafluorene moiety, have been investigated in depth. The resulting host materials have been easily synthesised through short, efficient, low-cost, and highly adaptable synthetic routes by using common intermediates. The dyes possess a very high triplet energy (ET ) and tuneable HOMO/LUMO levels, depending on the strength of the donor/acceptor combination. The peculiar electrochemical and optical properties of the IA moiety have been investigated though a fine comparison with their phenylacridine counterparts to study the influence of planarisation. Finally, these molecules have been incorporated as hosts in green and sky-blue PhOLEDs. For the derivative SIA-TXO2 as a host, external quantum efficiencies as high as 23 and 14 % have been obtained for green and sky-blue PhOLEDs, respectively. PMID:27294680

  8. Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping Contributions of Variable-Speed Wind Generators in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI)

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R,; King, Jr, Thomas J.; Liu, Yilu

    2014-05-16

    The U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest electric power grids in the world and is expected to have difficulties in dealing with frequency regulation and oscillation damping issues caused by the increasing wind power. On the other side, variable-speed wind generators can actively engage in frequency regulation or oscillation damping with supplementary control loops. This paper creates a 5% wind power penetration simulation scenario based on the 16 000-bus EI system dynamic model and developed the user-defined wind electrical control model in PSS (R) E that incorporates additional frequency regulation and oscillation damping control loops. We evaluatedmore » the potential contributions of variable-speed wind generations to the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping, and simulation results demonstrate that current and future penetrations of wind power are promising in the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping.« less

  9. Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping Contributions of Variable-Speed Wind Generators in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R,; King, Jr, Thomas J.; Liu, Yilu

    2014-05-16

    The U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest electric power grids in the world and is expected to have difficulties in dealing with frequency regulation and oscillation damping issues caused by the increasing wind power. On the other side, variable-speed wind generators can actively engage in frequency regulation or oscillation damping with supplementary control loops. This paper creates a 5% wind power penetration simulation scenario based on the 16 000-bus EI system dynamic model and developed the user-defined wind electrical control model in PSS (R) E that incorporates additional frequency regulation and oscillation damping control loops. We evaluated the potential contributions of variable-speed wind generations to the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping, and simulation results demonstrate that current and future penetrations of wind power are promising in the EI system frequency regulation and oscillation damping.

  10. 75 FR 74128 - Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison and Stone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): Harrison and Stone Counties, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, DOT....

  11. Information on SOR Draft EIS Technical Appendices : A Guide to Contents of the Appendices and How to Order Them.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    This brochure provides information on the various appendices to the System Operation Review (SOR) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This information should help you decide which of the 19 appendices to request for review and comment. The appendices collectively are approximately 3500 pages long and as such represent a significant amount of information. They are the raw materials from which the summary and Draft EIS are prepared.

  12. The impact of trough geometry on film shape. A theoretical study of droplets containing polymer, for P-OLED display applications.

    PubMed

    Eales, Adam D; Dartnell, Nick; Goddard, Simon; Routh, Alexander F

    2015-11-15

    For P-OLED display fabrication, it is important to control the final film shape, arising from drying of volatile droplets containing polymer. Due to peripheral pinning and subsequent outward capillary flow, a coffee-ring typically develops. This is inconvenient since a spatially uniform height, above the substrate, is required to ensure uniform current across the device. Typically the droplets are deposited inside a trough-like structure on the substrate. We present a thin-film lubrication model that tracks the drying dynamics through to the final film shape. The governing equations are derived and solved numerically. We investigate the effect of the trough's depth and the slope of the walls. Increasing the depth or the wall's gradient increases coffee-ring formation. This is due to an increase in horizontal velocity, caused by the substrate's shape as well as delayed gelation of the polymer. The latter allows the outward capillary flow to act for a longer time, before the height becomes fixed.

  13. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-04-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  14. Efficient triplet application in exciplex delayed-fluorescence OLEDs using a reverse intersystem crossing mechanism based on a ΔES-T of around zero.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Peng, Qi Ming; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yongshi; Jin, Fangming; Yan, Xingwu; Gao, Yuan; Wu, Hairuo; Zhang, Feng; Fan, Di; Wang, Junbo

    2014-08-13

    We demonstrate highly efficient exciplex delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which 4,4',4″-tris[3-methylphenyl(phenyl)aminotriphenylamine (m-MTDATA) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) were selected as donor and acceptor components, respectively. Our m-MTDATA:Bphen exciplex electroluminescence (EL) mechanism is based on reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) from the triplet to singlet excited states. As a result, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 7.79% at 10 mA/cm(2) was observed, which increases by 3.2 and 1.5 times over that reported in Nat. Photonics 2012, 6, 253 and Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 023306, respectively. The high EQE would be attributed to a very easy RISC process because the energy difference between the singlet and triplet excited states is almost around zero. The verdict was proven by photoluminescence (PL) rate analysis at different temperatures and time-resolved spectral analysis. Besides, the study of the transient PL process indicates that the presence of an unbalanced charge in exciplex EL devices is responsible for the low EQE and high-efficiency roll-off. When the exciplex devices were placed in a 100 mT magnetic field, the permanently positive magnetoelectroluminescence and magnetoconductivity were observed. The magnetic properties confirm that the efficient exciplex EL only originates from delayed fluorescence via RISC processes but is not related to the triplet-triplet annihilation process. PMID:24840782

  15. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  16. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF AN EIT WAVE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS AND SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M.; Goemoery, P.; Vrsnak, B.; Warren, H. P.

    2011-12-10

    We present plasma diagnostics of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave observed with high cadence in Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) sit-and-stare spectroscopy and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imagery obtained during the HOP-180 observing campaign on 2011 February 16. At the propagating EIT wave front, we observe downward plasma flows in the EIS Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XVI spectral lines (log T Almost-Equal-To 6.1-6.4) with line-of-sight (LOS) velocities up to 20 km s{sup -1}. These redshifts are followed by blueshifts with upward velocities up to -5 km s{sup -1} indicating relaxation of the plasma behind the wave front. During the wave evolution, the downward velocity pulse steepens from a few km s{sup -1} up to 20 km s{sup -1} and subsequently decays, correlated with the relative changes of the line intensities. The expected increase of the plasma densities at the EIT wave front estimated from the observed intensity increase lies within the noise level of our density diagnostics from EIS Fe XIII 202/203 A line ratios. No significant LOS plasma motions are observed in the He II line, suggesting that the wave pulse was not strong enough to perturb the underlying chromosphere. This is consistent with the finding that no H{alpha} Moreton wave was associated with the event. The EIT wave propagating along the EIS slit reveals a strong deceleration of a Almost-Equal-To -540 m s{sup -2} and a start velocity of v{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 590 km s{sup -1}. These findings are consistent with the passage of a coronal fast-mode MHD wave, pushing the plasma downward and compressing it at the coronal base.

  17. ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF TWO FLARE LOOPS OBSERVED BY AIA AND EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.

    2012-10-10

    We analyze and model an M1.0 flare observed by SDO/AIA and Hinode/EIS to investigate how flare loops are heated and evolve subsequently. The flare is composed of two distinctive loop systems observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images. The UV 1600 A emission at the feet of these loops exhibits a rapid rise, followed by enhanced emission in different EUV channels observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). Such behavior is indicative of impulsive energy deposit and the subsequent response in overlying coronal loops that evolve through different temperatures. Using the method we recently developed, we infer empirical heating functions from the rapid rise of the UV light curves for the two loop systems, respectively, treating them as two big loops with cross-sectional area of 5'' by 5'', and compute the plasma evolution in the loops using the EBTEL model. We compute the synthetic EUV light curves, which, with the limitation of the model, reasonably agree with observed light curves obtained in multiple AIA channels and EIS lines: they show the same evolution trend and their magnitudes are comparable by within a factor of two. Furthermore, we also compare the computed mean enthalpy flow velocity with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS during the decay phase of the two loops. Our results suggest that the two different loops with different heating functions as inferred from their footpoint UV emission, combined with their different lengths as measured from imaging observations, give rise to different coronal plasma evolution patterns captured both in the model and in observations.

  18. Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Warm Pool EI Nino Events in the GEOS CCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Song, In-Sun; Oman, Luke D.; Newman, Paul A.; Molod, Andrea M.; Frith, Stacey M.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new type of EI Nino event has been identified in the last decade. During "warm pool" EI Nino (WPEN) events, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central equatorial Pacific are warmer than average. The EI Nino signal propagates poleward and upward as large-scale atmospheric waves, causing unusual weather patterns and warming the polar stratosphere. In austral summer, observations show that the Antarctic lower stratosphere is several degrees (K) warmer during WPEN events than during the neutral phase of EI Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Furthermore, the stratospheric response to WPEN events depends of the direction of tropical stratospheric winds: the Antarctic warming is largest when WPEN events are coincident with westward winds in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere i.e., the westward phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Westward winds are associated with enhanced convection in the subtropics, and with increased poleward wave activity. In this paper, a new formulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, Version 2 (GEOS V2 CCM) is used to substantiate the observed stratospheric response to WPEN events. One simulation is driven by SSTs typical of a WPEN event, while another simulation is driven by ENSO neutral SSTs; both represent a present-day climate. Differences between the two simulations can be directly attributed to the anomalous WPEN SSTs. During WPEN events, relative to ENSO neutral, the model simulates the observed increase in poleward planetary wave activity in the South Pacific during austral spring, as well as the relative warming of the Antarctic lower stratosphere in austral summer. However, the modeled response to WPEN does not depend on the phase of the QBO. The modeled tropical wind oscillation does not extend far enough into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, likely explaining the model's insensitivity to the phase of the QBO during WPEN events.

  19. Temperature And Density Analysis Of A Coronal Loop Observed By Eis And Aia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plowman, Joseph; Martens, P.; Kankelborg, C.; Ritchie, M.; Scott, J.; Sharma, R.

    2012-05-01

    We present a combined DEM and density-sensitive line ratio analysis of a loop observed simultaneously by EIS and AIA. The DEMs are calculated using a fast new method which we also describe. The temperature and density profiles of the loop are compared to and isolated from those of the surrounding material, and these properties are fit to an analytic strand heating model developed by Martens (2010). Supported by an AIA subcontract to Montana State University.

  20. Real-time monitoring of copper ions-induced cytotoxicity by EIS cell chips.

    PubMed

    Primiceri, Elisabetta; Chiriacò, Maria Serena; D'Amone, Eliana; Urso, Emanuela; Ionescu, Rodica Elena; Rizzello, Antonia; Maffia, Michele; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2010-08-15

    An important goal of biomedical research is the development of tools for high-throughput evaluation of drug effects and cytotoxicity tests. Here we demonstrate EIS cell chips able to monitor cell growth, morphology, adhesion and their changes as a consequence of treatment with drugs or toxic compounds. As a case study, we investigate the uptake of copper ions and its effect on two cell lines: B104 and HeLa cells. For further understanding, we also carried out in parallel with EIS studies, a complete characterization of cell morphology and changes induced by copper ions through complementary methodologies (including state-of-the-art AFM, viability test and Western blot). Our results reveal a strong correlation between EIS data and both MTT test and AFM characterization so our chip can be used as powerful tools in all biology lab in combination with other standard methods giving additional information that can be useful in a complete and deep investigation of a biological process. This chip can be used even alone replacing in vitro drug tests based on conventional biochemical methods, being very cheap and reusable and allowing to perform cytotoxicity tests without using any expensive reagent or equipment.

  1. FLARE FOOTPOINT REGIONS AND A SURGE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS, RHESSI, AND SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; Dennis, B. R.; Reep, J. W.; Caspi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft observed flare footpoint regions coincident with a surge for an M3.7 flare observed on 2011 September 25 at N12 E33 in active region 11302. The flare was observed in spectral lines of O vi, Fe x, Fe xii, Fe xiv, Fe xv, Fe xvi, Fe xvii, Fe xxiii, and Fe xxiv. The EIS observations were made coincident with hard X-ray bursts observed by RHESSI. Overlays of the RHESSI images on the EIS raster images at different wavelengths show a spatial coincidence of features in the RHESSI images with the EIS upflow and downflow regions, as well as loop-top or near-loop-top regions. A complex array of phenomena were observed, including multiple evaporation regions and the surge, which was also observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly telescopes. The slit of the EIS spectrometer covered several flare footpoint regions from which evaporative upflows in Fe xxiii and Fe xxiv lines were observed with Doppler speeds greater than 500 km s{sup −1}. For ions such as Fe xv both evaporative outflows (∼200 km s{sup −1}) and downflows (∼30–50 km s{sup −1}) were observed. Nonthermal motions from 120 to 300 km s{sup −1} were measured in flare lines. In the surge, Doppler speeds are found from about 0 to over 250 km s{sup −1} in lines from ions such as Fe xiv. The nonthermal motions could be due to multiple sources slightly Doppler-shifted from each other or turbulence in the evaporating plasma. We estimate the energetics of the hard X-ray burst and obtain a total flare energy in accelerated electrons of ≥7 × 10{sup 28} erg. This is a lower limit because only an upper limit can be determined for the low-energy cutoff to the electron spectrum. We find that detailed modeling of this event would require a multithreaded model owing to its complexity.

  2. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  3. Supplement Analysis for Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project, Boone Pond Acclimation Site (DOE/EIS-0169-SA-08)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Patricia R.

    2004-04-07

    Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project – Under the Monitoring and Evaluation Program (M&E), the coho acclimation research task would be modified to include a new site located in the upper Yakima south of Cle Elum, WA. The Yakima Fisheries Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (YFP EIS) (USDOE/BPA 1996) analyzed impacts of undertaking fishery research and mitigation activities in the Yakima River Basin. The EIS focused on the impacts of construction, operation and maintenance of anadromous fish production facilities in order to conduct research designed to increase knowledge of supplementation techniques. Spring chinook were the priority species analyzed in the EIS, however, Coho feasibility studies, potential harvest benefits, and predation impacts for returning natural production of Coho salmon to the Yakima River Basin were also evaluated. Subsequent Supplement Analyses (SA’s) have analyzed the potential impacts of research activities relating to this experimental design program (DOE/EIS-0169-SA-01 through SA-07). The purpose of this Supplement Analysis (SA) is to determine if a Supplemental EIS (SEIS) is needed to analyze the changes proposed in the Yakima Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) Coho Program feasibility studies.

  4. Pt(II) metal complexes tailored with a newly designed spiro-arranged tetradentate ligand; harnessing of charge-transfer phosphorescence and fabrication of sky blue and white OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chi, Yun; Hsu, Ming-Kuan; Wu, Szu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao; Liu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil

    2015-04-20

    Tetradentate bis(pyridyl azolate) chelates are assembled by connecting two bidentate 3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl)azoles at the six position of pyridyl fragment with the tailored spiro-arranged fluorene and/or acridine functionalities. These new chelates were then utilized in synthesizing a series of Pt(II) metal complexes [Pt(Ln)], n = 1-5, from respective chelates L1-L5 and [PtCl2(DMSO)2] in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. The single-crystal X-ray structural analyses were executed on 1, 3, and 5 to reveal the generalized structures and packing arrangement in crystal lattices. Their photophysical properties were measured in both solution and solid state and are discussed in the context of computational analysis. These L1-L5 coordinated Pt(II) species exhibit intense emission, among which complex 5 shows remarkable solvatochromic phosphorescence due to the dominant intraligand charge transfer transition induced by the new bis(pyridyl azolate) chelates. Moreover, because of the higher-lying highest occupied molecular orbital of acridine, complex 5 can be considered as a novel bipolar phosphor. Successful fabrication of blue and white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using Pt(II) complexes 3 and 5 as the phosphorescent dopants are reported. In particular, blue OLEDs with 5 demonstrated peak efficiencies of 15.3% (36.3 cd/A, 38.0 lm/W), and CIE values of (0.190, 0.342) in a double-emitting layer structure. Furthermore, a red-emitting Os(II) complex and 5 were used to fabricate warm-white OLEDs to achieve peak external quantum efficiency, luminance efficiency, and power efficiency values as high as 12.7%, 22.5 cd/A, and 22.1 lm/W, respectively. PMID:25848710

  5. Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

  6. Analyzing sediment impacts for the Glen Canyon Long-term Experimental and Management Plan EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, K.; Huang, V.; Varyu, D.; Greimann, B. P.; O'Connor, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of the Interior is currently evaluating alternatives in the Glen Canyon Dam Long-term Experimental and Management Plan (LTEMP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The purpose of the EIS to evaluate dam operations and identify management actions and experimental options that will provide a framework for adaptively managing operations of Glen Canyon Dam over the next 15 to 20 years. Sediment and sandbars along the Colorado River are important downstream resources in Grand Canyon National Park. Sediment is one of the resources being analyzed for impacts in Marble and Grand Canyon. Since 1963, Glen Canyon Dam has regulated the flow in the Colorado River by decreasing the magnitude of annual flood flows and increasing the magnitude of base flows, and has nearly eliminated main-channel sand supply from the upper Colorado River Basin. These changes disrupted the natural ability of the river to build and maintain sandbars. Grand Canyon sandbars provide camping beaches for river runners and hikers, generate habitat for native fish and vegetation, and supply sediment to protect archaeological resources. In order to measure the impacts of the different alternatives on the sediment resource, several different models are being utilized. A sand budget numerical model that tracks the storage and transport of sand in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam developed by the USGS is utilized. The model uses empirically based rating curves for specific particle sizes. The decision criteria for the high flow experiment environmental assessment is applied to the sand budget model as well as other flow changes incorporated in the alternatives. An empirically based sandbar volume model was also developed for the LTEMP EIS process to address the sandbar resource impacts. Based on the model results, performance criteria have been established to allow for comparisons between the alternatives. The criteria include the changes in the sand mass balance of the system, the

  7. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids.

  8. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. PMID:26489966

  9. Broad spectrum drug screening using electron-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GCMS).

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2010-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of drugs and internal standard (promazine) is performed by mixing urine at basic pH with 1-chlorobutane. There are no hydrolysis or derivatization steps. After centrifugation the organic (upper) layer is transferred to another tube and evaporated. The dried extract is reconstituted with ethyl acetate and 1 microL is injected onto the GCMS. Drugs are volatilized in the GC inlet and separated on a capillary column. In the EI source drugs become positively charged and fragment. Mass analysis of ionized fragments occurs with a single quadrupole. The resulting full scan mass spectra are automatically searched against three libraries. PMID:20077071

  10. Constraining the Coronal Heating Mechanism Using Data from AIA, EIS, and Hi-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, P. C.; Plowman, J.; Kankelborg, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed an ultra-fast DEM inversion code that computes over 1000 DEMs/sec for a sample active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on SDO, and achieves reduced chi-squareds of order unity with no negative emission in all but a few test cases (Plowman et al. 2013 ApJ). Applying the code to simultaneous Hinode/EIS data we find good agreement, and of course much less uncertainty in the EIS DEMs. For the short interval that we have Hi-C data we can estimate filling factors from those. We are using this new tool to constrain the still elusive mechanism of coronal heating. In one approach we use simultaneous AIA and EIS data of loops that are mostly north-south oriented, and hence do not require a broad EIS raster. We derive the density in these loops from density sensitive line pairs, and the DEMs from AIA data. In many cases the background subtracted DEMs indicate a single temperature at many points in the loop, and hence we have a measurement of both density and temperature along a good part of the loop. Combining these results with analytical (Martens 2010) models for loop heating we find that the heating is concentrated at the footpoints, consistent with, for example, Ohmic heating, but inconsistent with several other popular models for coronal heating. In the second approach we use the remarkable speed of our DEM inversion code to measure the occurrence of heating events in Active Regions (AR). We have determined that with the cadence of about ten seconds of the combined AIA channels, our code can detect heating events roughly down to the energy of nano-flares, about 10^24 ergs. By analyzing the DEMs sequences per pixel of target ARs we derive statistics on the heating events, in particular their frequency and energy distribution. Therefrom we can determine whether the energy input from nano-flares and more energetic events provides the energy required to sustain the AR corona.

  11. The Europa Imaging System (EIS): Investigating Europa's geology, ice shell, and current activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Thomas, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Hayes, Alexander; Ernst, Carolyn; Collins, Geoffrey; Hansen, Candice; Kirk, Randolph L.; Nimmo, Francis; McEwen, Alfred; Hurford, Terry; Barr Mlinar, Amy; Quick, Lynnae; Patterson, Wes; Soderblom, Jason

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Europa Mission, planned for launch in 2022, will perform more than 40 flybys of Europa with altitudes at closest approach as low as 25 km. The instrument payload includes the Europa Imaging System (EIS), a camera suite designed to transform our understanding of Europa through global decameter-scale coverage, topographic and color mapping, and unprecedented sub- meter-scale imaging. EIS combines narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras to address these science goals: • Constrain the formation processes of surface features by characterizing endogenic geologic structures, surface units, global cross-cutting relationships, and relationships to Europa's subsurface structure and potential near-surface water. • Search for evidence of recent or current activity, including potential plumes. • Characterize the ice shell by constraining its thickness and correlating surface features with subsurface structures detected by ice penetrating radar. • Characterize scientifically compelling landing sites and hazards by determining the nature of the surface at scales relevant to a potential lander. EIS Narrow-angle Camera (NAC): The NAC, with a 2.3°° x 1.2°° field of view (FOV) and a 10-μμrad instantaneous FOV (IFOV), achieves 0.5-m pixel scale over a 2-km-wide swath from 50-km altitude. A 2-axis gimbal enables independent targeting, allowing very high-resolution stereo imaging to generate digital topographic models (DTMs) with 4-m spatial scale and 0.5-m vertical precision over the 2-km swath from 50-km altitude. The gimbal also makes near-global (>95%) mapping of Europa possible at ≤50-m pixel scale, as well as regional stereo imaging. The NAC will also perform high-phase-angle observations to search for potential plumes. EIS Wide-angle Camera (WAC): The WAC has a 48°° x 24°° FOV, with a 218-μμrad IFOV, and is designed to acquire pushbroom stereo swaths along flyby ground-tracks. From an altitude of 50 km, the WAC achieves 11-m pixel scale over a 44-km

  12. Shape-based Particle Separation via Elasto-Inertia Pinched Flow Fractionation (eiPFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinyu; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-11-01

    We report in this talk a continuous-flow shape-based separation of spherical and peanut-shaped rigid particles of equal volume via elasto-inertial pinched flow fractionation (eiPFF). This separation exploits the shape-dependence of the cross-stream particle migration induced by the elaso-inertial lift force in viscoelastic fluids. The parametric effects on this separation are systematically investigated in terms of dimensionless numbers. It is found that this separation is strongly affected by the Reynolds number, Weissenberg number and channel aspect ratio. Interestingly, the elasto-inertial deflection of peanut particles can be either greater or smaller than that of spherical particles.

  13. Identification of an interaction between EI and a histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid protein in Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Ma, Yushu; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-02-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans may contain an incomplete phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system consisting of three components--EI, HPr and EIIA, while the function of individual members of the system remains unknown. In this research, a specific interaction between EI and a histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid protein was screened by yeast two-hybrid assay, and the interaction was further identified with GST pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in vitro and in vivo, respectively. As the histidine kinase-response regulator hybrid protein serves as a member of two-component system in G. oxydans, its interaction with EI implied that PTS may play certain roles in bacteria under stress.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis EIS gene inhibits macrophage autophagy through up-regulation of IL-10 by increasing the acetylation of histone H3.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Yi, Min; Chen, Juan; Li, Shengjin; Chen, Weixian

    2016-05-13

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in the progress of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Recently, MTB enhanced intracellular survival (EIS) protein was reported to be secreted from MTB cells and linked to the inhibition of autophagy and the intracellular persistence of the pathogen. Here, we investigated the mechanism of EIS-mediated inhibition of autophagy in a human phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cell line as well as in murine macrophages. We confirmed that the presence of EIS led to the inhibition of rapamycin (Rapa)-induced autophagy, while IL-10 gene expression was increased and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated during the process. IL-10 gene silencing led to a significant recovery of EIS-mediated autophagy suppression and decreased activity of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. IL-10 promoter activity was unaffected by EIS. Remarkably, EIS increased the acetylation level of histone H3 (Ac-H3), which binds to the SP1 and STAT3 region of the human IL-10 gene promoter sequence. Thus, EIS protein possibly increased IL-10 expression through the regulation of Ac-H3 of its promoter. Our data demonstrated that one possible mechanism of the MTB evasion of autophagy is that the EIS protein up-regulates IL-10 via Ac-H3 and thus activates Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. PMID:27079235

  15. The Impact of Engineering Integrated Science (EIS) Curricula on First-Year Technical High School Students' Attitudes toward Science and Perceptions of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Lee, Sun-Ju; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how engineering integrated science (EIS) curricula affect first-year technical high school students' attitudes toward science and perceptions of engineering. The effect of the EIS participation period on students' attitudes toward science was also investigated via experimental study design. Two engineering integrated…

  16. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  17. Analysis of cyanolipids from Sapindaceae seed oils by gas chromatography-EI-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa

    2014-04-01

    As a continuation of our investigation on unusual lipids, in the present work we describe a method based on GC-FID and GC-EI-MS to analyze the molecular composition of intact cyanolipids (CL) from selected Sapindaceae plants. We applied our method to the study of CL of type I (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl-prop-2-en-1-ol-diester) from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis and Allophylus dregeanus and CL type III (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl-prop-1-en-3-ol-diester) from A. natalensis and Nephelium lappaceum. Our analytical approach allowed us to obtain useful mass spectra to identify individual isomeric molecular species composing the CL mixtures and resulted in the very sensitive detection and identification of minor CL. Defined CL mass spectra resulted in suitable detection of these phytochemicals in complex plant oil mixtures containing acylglycerols. To the best of our knowledge GC-EI-MS spectra of cyanolipids have never been reported before. Moreover, this study improved previous knowledge of the lipid chemistry of Sapindaceae plants. PMID:24549633

  18. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation explores the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with beach exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, Glidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanoz V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure as Beach Corrosion Test Site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to three weeks. An examination of the variation of the Bode magnitude plots with atmospheric exposure revealed no clearly identifiable trend at this point that could distinguish between the good and the poor coatings. The test will be continued by including EIS measurements after six months and one year of atmospheric exposure.

  19. Propagating waves in polar coronal holes as seen by SUMER & EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Teriaca, L.; Gupta, G. R.; Imada, S.; Stenborg, G.; Solanki, S. K.

    2009-06-01

    Context: To study the dynamics of coronal holes and the role of waves in the acceleration of the solar wind, spectral observations were performed over polar coronal hole regions with the SUMER spectrometer on SoHO and the EIS spectrometer on Hinode. Aims: Using these observations, we aim to detect the presence of propagating waves in the corona and to study their properties. Methods: The observations analysed here consist of SUMER spectra of the Ne viii 770 Å line (T = 0.6 MK) and EIS slot images in the Fe xii 195 Å line (T = 1.3 MK). Using the wavelet technique, we study line radiance oscillations at different heights from the limb in the polar coronal hole regions. Results: We detect the presence of long period oscillations with periods of 10 to 30 min in polar coronal holes. The oscillations have an amplitude of a few percent in radiance and are not detectable in line-of-sight velocity. From the time distance maps we find evidence for propagating velocities from 75 km s-1 (Ne viii) to 125 km s-1 (Fe xii). These velocities are subsonic and roughly in the same ratio as the respective sound speeds. Conclusions: We interpret the observed propagating oscillations in terms of slow magneto-acoustic waves. These waves can be important for the acceleration of the fast solar wind.

  20. [Investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kellina, O I; Strelkova, M V

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in 1920 to 2009. The analysis includes papers on biology, ecology, taxonomy, and experimental transmission of the agents of leishmaniases via the bites of sand flies, the principle in the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during the agricultural development of extensive territories in the Karshin steppe, on quantitative approaches in the epidemiology of ZCL, a search for Russian effective medicaments to treat patients with this disease and the development of criteria for selecting L. major strains for individual and mass vaccinations against ZCL, the revision of Leishmania circulating in great gerbil populations, and the description of the new species L. turanica, an important parasite for L. major persistence from one transmission season to the next. The first investigations on leishmaniasis were made by Prof. E.I. Martsinovsky, the founder and the first director of the Institute in the early 20th century.

  1. Comparison of ECN and EIS measurement for corrosion monitoring under multiphase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Gopal, M.; Jepson, W.P.

    1997-12-01

    Electrochemical Noise (ECN) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscope (EIS) measurements were made simultaneously in a 75 mm I.D., 10 m long acrylic pipeline using salt-water/carbon dioxide mixtures. Full pipe flow was studied for liquid velocities of 0.5, 0.75, 1.1, 1.5 m/s and slug flow for Froude numbers 4, 6 and 9. Experiments were carried out at a constant pressure of 136 kPa and temperature of 40 C. ECN data were measured with a fast auto zero resistance ammeter. The ECN technique is able to detect changes in flow regime, showing distinct differences between full pipe flow and slug flow. The choice of sampling rate when using ECN is very important. For slug flows, sampling rates as high as 100 Hz are necessary to include most of the transients in the flow. Distinct differences can be seen in the Fast Fourier Transforms where dominant frequencies exist which correspond to possible bubble action in the slug body. EIS can be used to measure corrosion rate in multiphase flows. It does show an increase in the corrosion rate with liquid flow rates for full pipe flow and Froude numbers for stationary slug flow. A simple statistical analysis of ECN response gives a correlation with corrosion rate. These show ECN could be a very powerful tool for determining corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism in multiphase flow.

  2. E/I corrected paleolatitudes for the sedimentary rocks of the Baja British Columbia hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Tauxe, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations from sediments of the western terranes of Canada are consistently too shallow for their reconstructed paleogeographic positions. Two contradicting explanations for these discrepancies are: (1) terranes have been displaced northward with respect to the stable American craton by several thousands of kilometres between the Late Cretaceous (˜ 75 Ma) and the Eocene (˜50 Ma) and (2) sedimentary inclination error has caused a shallow bias in the paleomagnetic directions. Here, we apply the elongation/inclination (E/I) method to paleomagnetic data sets from sedimentary rocks of supposedly allochtonous terranes of western North America to correct for inclination flattening. Our results indicate that the paleomagnetic directions from the continental Silverquick sediments (95-92 Ma) of southern British Colombia are not seriously affected by inclination error, because the magnetic signal most likely concerns a chemical remanent magnetisation (CRM). In contrast, the marine sediments of the Nanaimo Group (84-72 Ma) of Vancouver Island region appear seriously affected by inclination flattening ( f = 0.7) and the E/I corrected mean inclinations are about 9° steeper than the original data. We arrive at corrected inclinations/paleolatitudes of I** = 57°/ λ = 38°N for the Silverquick and I** = 55°/ λ = 36°N for the Nanaimo sediments. Our corrected paleolatitudes indicate that the Canadian terranes were indeed located adjacent to the Baja Californian margin during the Late Cretaceous, thus supporting the Baja BC hypothesis.

  3. Lessons learnt from post EIS evaluations of national road schemes in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    King, E.A.; O'Malley, V.P.

    2012-01-15

    The Irish National Roads Authority (NRA) recently completed over twenty post environmental impact assessment evaluations of noise chapters prepared as part of Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) for new national road schemes in Ireland. The study focused on a range of issues including a review of noise monitoring procedures, noise prediction methodologies and an assessment of the effectiveness of noise mitigation measures currently in use on national road schemes. This review was carried out taking cognisance of best international practices for noise assessment and methodologies used to mitigate road traffic noise. The primary focus of the study was to assess the actual noise impacts of national road scheme developments and to revise, where necessary, methodologies recommended in the current NRA guidance document describing the treatment of noise on national road schemes. This paper presents a summary of the study and identifies a number of key areas that should be considered prior to the development of future guidance documents. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presents a post-EIS evaluation of noise assessments for national roads in Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of some noise mitigation measures is critically evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Issues related to the current EIS noise assessment methodologies are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implications for alterations to the NRA noise guidelines.

  4. [Investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kellina, O I; Strelkova, M V

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in 1920 to 2009. The analysis includes papers on biology, ecology, taxonomy, and experimental transmission of the agents of leishmaniases via the bites of sand flies, the principle in the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during the agricultural development of extensive territories in the Karshin steppe, on quantitative approaches in the epidemiology of ZCL, a search for Russian effective medicaments to treat patients with this disease and the development of criteria for selecting L. major strains for individual and mass vaccinations against ZCL, the revision of Leishmania circulating in great gerbil populations, and the description of the new species L. turanica, an important parasite for L. major persistence from one transmission season to the next. The first investigations on leishmaniasis were made by Prof. E.I. Martsinovsky, the founder and the first director of the Institute in the early 20th century. PMID:21400708

  5. The effect of substituted 1,2,4-triazole moiety on the emission, phosphorescent properties of the blue emitting heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes and the OLED performance: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruby; Joshi, Laxmikanth Rao

    2014-08-28

    A series of neutral heteroleptic mononuclear iridium(III) complexes was investigated using the density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory approach to determine the effect of the substituted 1,2,4-triazole moiety on the electronic structures, emission, and phosphorescent properties and the organic light emitting diode (OLED) performance. The results reveal that substitution of the free position in the triazole ring by -PhOCH3 (2) provides a higher emission energy and a lower oscillator strength, leading to longer radiative lifetime values mainly due to the ligand-to-ligand charge transfer transition character. The evaluation, based on one-center spin-orbit coupling, results in higher kr values for the substituent -F5Ph (5) and a lower ΔE(S-T) value. Furthermore, we also investigated the performance of the OLED device, including the charge injection/transport/balance ability, increases in the Förster energy transfer rate and triplet exciton confinement for host and guest materials of blue emitting Ir(III) complexes. Finally, we hope that our investigations will help in the design of highly efficient phosphorescent materials.

  6. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2015-03-03

    Optoelectronic devices that have enhanced internal outcoupling are disclosed. The devices include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and a hole injecting layer. The hole injecting layer includes inorganic nanoparticles that have a bimodal particle size distribution and which are dispersed in an organic matrix.

  7. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Area Power Administration Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz..., intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County, near Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE)...

  8. 78 FR 2685 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Navajo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...) for the Navajo Nation Integrated Weed Management Plan Within Coconino, Navajo, and Apache Counties... Department of Transportation serving as cooperating agencies, intends to prepare an EIS for a proposed weed... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The BIA is proposing to develop a ten-year integrated weed management plan for...

  9. 78 FR 18325 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft AGENCY... Training Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft. The EIS... infrastructure and manpower of the FTU and MOB 1 at existing active duty Air Force installations within...

  10. 75 FR 26739 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Airfield Operations at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Operations at Naval Air Station (NAS) Key West, FL and To Announce Public Scoping Meetings AGENCY: Department... at NAS Key West. The EIS will consider all reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the No Action Alternative. Dates and Addresses: Public scoping meetings will be held in Key...

  11. 78 FR 40128 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Reaches 8, 9...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... County Comprehensive Erosion Control (SAJ-2008-04086). The projects overlap (i.e. had proposed the... recreational usage. The Proposed Activities may result in localized shoreline accretion or erosion on the... issued a Notice of Intent for the Central Palm Beach County Comprehensive Erosion Control Project EIS...

  12. 78 FR 54871 - Notice of Amendment to the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... on August 14, 2013 (78 FR 49484) by providing additional and updated information on a separate but... Rule for Losses of Aquatic Resources, 33 CFR parts 325 and 332; 73 FR 19594 (April 10, 2008). 3... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals- Longview Shipping Facility...

  13. 77 FR 58531 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Gateway Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Gateway Pacific Terminals Bulk Dry Goods Shipping Facility and the Custer... Pacific International Terminal, Inc.'s Gateway Pacific Terminal (GPT) and Burlington Northern Santa Fe..., northwest of Ferndale and south of Birch Bay in an area called Cherry Point. Pacific International...

  14. 76 FR 53705 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Ada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... 13, 2004, at 69 FR 2040, to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a proposed highway..., ``Communities in Motion,'' prepared by the Boise-Nampa Metropolitan Planning Organization, Community Planning... the Federal Register on January 18, 2008, at 73 FR 3464. A public hearing was held on February...

  15. 77 FR 68807 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Halletts Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... parking lots, a day care center and senior center, basketball courts and playgrounds, walkways, and other... should contact the person listed below up to 30 days following publication of this notice. The EIS will... the comment period and after at least 15 days of publishing this Notice of Intent. Notices of...

  16. 75 FR 31770 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Training Land Expansion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... they train at home station to deploy to support operations abroad. This action will also support the training requirements of the Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCoE). The EIS will analyze four alternatives... action alternative of not acquiring more training land. ADDRESSES: Written comments may be mailed to...

  17. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…

  18. 76 FR 12755 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Hold Public Scoping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Scoping Meetings for the Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Shortage Policy (WSP), Central Valley... (Reclamation) proposes to prepare an EIS to analyze the potential effects of an update to the M&I WSP. The policy would be implemented by Reclamation during water short years. Reclamation previously developed,...

  19. 75 FR 23253 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Central Palm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to address potential impacts associated with the construction of groins and... permit for the work under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act... recreational uses of the project area, the potential to cause down drift erosion, and other...

  20. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... accordance with Executive Order 13175 ``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR... Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408) AGENCIES: Western Area... Service (Service), have, as joint lead agencies, prepared the Upper Great Plains Wind Energy...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 989 - Procedures for Holding Public Hearings on Draft Environmental Impact Statements (EIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) C Appendix C to Part 989 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) Pt. 989, App. C Appendix C to Part 989—Procedures for Holding Public Hearings on Draft Environmental...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 989 - Procedures for Holding Public Hearings on Draft Environmental Impact Statements (EIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) C Appendix C to Part 989 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) Pt. 989, App. C Appendix C to Part 989—Procedures for Holding Public Hearings on Draft Environmental...

  3. The Europa Imaging System (EIS), a Camera Suite to investigate Europa's Geology, Ice Shell, and Potential for Current Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; McEwen, A. S.; Osterman, S. N.; Boldt, J. D.; Strohbehn, K.; EIS Science Team

    2016-10-01

    EIS NAC and WAC use identical rad-hard rapid-readout 4k × 2k CMOS detectors for imaging during close (≤25 km) fast ( 4.5 km/s) Europa flybys. NAC achieves 0.5 m/pixel over a 2-km swath from 50 km, and WAC provides context pushbroom stereo imaging.

  4. 78 FR 45277 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Development of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... of Prisons Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Development of a United States Penitentiary (USP) and Federal Prison Camp (FPC) by the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) on Land Under Consideration for Development Located in Letcher...

  5. 75 FR 17756 - Availability of the Final General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ..., natural, and socioeconomic environments. The Final GMP/EIS contains NPS responses to public comments on... the park and maximize the opportunity for visitors to experience solitude in natural settings that are... expanded. Alternative E extracts some features from Alternatives C and D, such as providing for...

  6. 77 FR 39322 - Notice to Rescind the Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... to advise the public that the Notice of Intent published on May 27, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 102) to... May 27, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 102) to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal... regional traffic model showed a significant drop in the projected traffic volumes and congestion within...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) (Arnouts+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, S.; Vandame, B.; Benoist, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; da Costa, L.; Schirmer, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Slijkhuis, R.

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at RA=03h32m, Dec=-27{deg}48'. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out as a part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. The paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. Image processing has been performed using multi-resolution image decomposition techniques adapted to the EIS pipeline. The automatic processing steps include standard de-bias and flat-field, automatic removal of satellite tracks, de-fringing/sky-subtraction, image stacking/mosaicking and astrometry. Stacking of dithered images is carried out using pixel-based astrometry which enables the efficient removal of cosmic rays and image defects, yielding remarkably clean final images. The final astrometric calibration is based on a pre-release of the GSC-II catalog and has an estimated intrinsic accuracy of la 0.10 arcsec, with all passbands sharing the same solution. The data are taken in six different filters (U'UBVRI), cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees, and reach the 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes of U'AB=26.0, UAB=25.7, BAB=26.4, VAB=25.4, RAB=25.5 and IAB=24.7 mag, as measured within a 2xFWHM aperture. The optical data covers an area of ~0.1 square degree for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared bands are also available, reaching 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes of JAB~23.4 and KAB~22.6. The current optical/infrared data also fully encompass the region of the deep X-ray observations recently completed by the Chandra telescope. The optical data presented here, as well as the infrared data released earlier, are publicly

  8. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  9. Determination of polycyclic musks in sewage sludge from Guangdong, China using GC-EI-MS.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangying; Sheng, Guoying; Xiong, Ying; Fu, Jiamo

    2005-08-01

    Polycyclic musks [Cashmeran (DPMI), Celestolide (ADBI), Phantolide (AHMI), Traseolide (ATII), Tonalide (AHTN) and Galaxolide (HHCB)] were Soxhlet extracted, separated and analyzed in sewage sludge from six different wastewater treatment plants from Guangdong, China, using GC and GC-EI-MS. DPMI, ADBI, HHCB, AHTN were found in all samples, and ATII was not found in any sample. AHMI was detected in five out of six samples. HHCB and AHTN were the two major polycyclic musks found in highest concentrations in sludge. The sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants contained HHCB, AHTN and DPMI at concentrations between 5.416 and 21.214, 0.715 and 6.195 and 0.599 and 2.870 mg/kg (dry), respectively. The highest concentration was found in sludge from one cosmetic plant at 703.681 mg HHCB/kg (dry). The results indicate that there are two sources of polycyclic musks: domestic sewage and industrial wastewater.

  10. Inner zone electron radial diffusion coefficients - An update with Van Allen Probes MagEIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Fennell, Joseph; Guild, Timothy; Mazur, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bernard; Roeder, James

    2016-07-01

    Using MagEIS data from NASA's recent Van Allen Probes mission, we estimate the quiet-time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt and slot, for energies up to ~700 keV. We provide observational evidence that energy diffusion is negligible. The main dynamic processes, then, are radial diffusion and elastic pitch angle scattering. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate over pitch angle to obtain a field line content whose dynamics consist of radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere. We estimate the loss timescale from periods of exponential decay in the time series. We then estimate the radial diffusion coefficient from the temporal and radial variation of the field line content. We show that our diffusion coefficients agree well with previously determined values. Our coefficients are consistent with diffusion by electrostatic impulses, whereas outer zone radial diffusion is thought to be dominated by electromagnetic fluctuations.

  11. Grupos españoles de cálculos ab initio de moléculas de interés astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, M.

    grupos españoles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas débilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidrógeno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosféricos como interestelares.

  12. Role of EIS in Materials and Coatings Selection for NASA's Launch Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion studies began at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966, during the Gemini/Apollo Programs, with the evaluation of long-term anti-corrosion coatings for carbon steel structures. NASAIKSC's Atmospheric Exposure Test Site was established at that time on the beach near the launch pad. In the years that followed, numerous studies at the site have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. The atmosphere at the launch pad is highly corrosive due to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean, high heat from rocket exhaust, and since the introduction of the Space Shuttle, the acidic combustion products of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs). Currently, NASAIKSC maintains about $2 billion worth of unique equipment and facilities, not including the orbiters, each valued at about $1.8 billion. Among the items: two launch complexes, two crawler transporters, three mobile launch platforms, and specialized testing equipment. Atmospheric exposure provides very valuable data but it takes a long time and relies on human visual inspection. NASA Technical Standard for Protective Coatings requires 18 months of good performance at the Atmospheric Exposure Test Site for preliminary approval and continued good performance for 5 years for final approval of a coating system. The use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was introduced at KSC in 1989 as a supplement to the traditional dc electrochemical techniques and atmospheric exposure studies. This paper presents and overview of several projects in which EIS was used in order to select materials and coatings to be used at NASA's launch facilities [1-2].

  13. Measurements of outflow velocities in on-disk plumes from EIS/Hinode observations

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Hui; Xia, Lidong; Li, Bo; Huang, Zhenghua; Jiao, Fangran; Mou, Chaozhou

    2014-10-20

    The contribution of plumes to the solar wind has been subject to hot debate in the past decades. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode provides a unique means to deduce outflow velocities at coronal heights via direct Doppler shift measurements of coronal emission lines. Such direct Doppler shift measurements were not possible with previous spectrometers. We measure the outflow velocity at coronal heights in several on-disk long-duration plumes, which are located in coronal holes (CHs) and show significant blueshifts throughout the entire observational period. In one case, a plume is measured four hours apart. The deduced outflow velocities are consistent, suggesting that the flows are quasi-steady. Furthermore, we provide an outflow velocity profile along the plumes, finding that the velocity corrected for the line-of-sight effect can reach 10 km s{sup –1} at 1.02 R {sub ☉}, 15 km s{sup –1} at 1.03 R {sub ☉}, and 25 km s{sup –1} at 1.05 R {sub ☉}. This clear signature of steady acceleration, combined with the fact that there is no significant blueshift at the base of plumes, provides an important constraint on plume models. At the height of 1.03 R {sub ☉}, EIS also deduced a density of 1.3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}, resulting in a proton flux of about 4.2 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} scaled to 1 AU, which is an order of magnitude higher than the proton input to a typical solar wind if a radial expansion is assumed. This suggests that CH plumes may be an important source of the solar wind.

  14. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Adherence to Daily Oral PrEP in Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women: A Marginal Structural Model Analysis of The iPrEx OLE Study.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Megha L; Glidden, David V; McMahan, Vanessa; Amico, K Rivet; Hosek, Sybil; Defechereux, Patricia; Mayer, Kenneth H; Veloso, Valdilea G; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Schechter, Mauro; Grant, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the role of depressive symptoms on adherence to daily oral FTC/TDF for HIV PrEP in cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women who have sex with men (TGW) using data from the iPrEx OLE study. A marginal structural logistic regression model was used to estimate the effect of time-varying CES-D scores on having protective levels of drug concentration, adjusting for confounding by sexual practices over time, prior adherence, and baseline demographic characteristics. We found a non-monotonic relationship between CES-D score and odds of protective FTC/TDF levels in MSM. We found evidence that the effect of depression on adherence varied between MSM and TGW, and that depressive symptoms did not contribute greatly to decreased adherence on a population scale. We recommend that depressive symptoms not preclude the prescription of PrEP, and that MSM and TGW be studied separately.

  15. A theoretical study on tuning the electronic structures and photophysical properties of newly designed platinum(II) complexes by adding substituents on functionalized ligands as highly efficient OLED emitters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luqiong; Tian, Li; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing; Shen, Wei

    2014-05-01

    By imitating FIrpic, seven new platinum(II) complexes with pic (pic = picolinate) ligand have been designed to be guest materials by means of adding different substituents to functionalized ligands (ppy and fpy, ppy = phenylpyridyl-N,C and fpy = 2-(9',9'-diethyl-9H-fluorenyl)pyridyl-N,C). In order to reveal their molecular structures, photophysical properties and structure-property relationships with typical host materials, an in-depth theoretical investigation was performed via quantum chemical calculations. The electronic structures and photophysical properties of these complexes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using the B3LYP functional with LANL2DZ and 6-31G* basis sets. It turns out that electronic structures and photophysical properties can be tuned by substituent modifications on functionalized ligands. This work highlights that the match between guest materials and host materials in typical OLED structures can be weighed by the energy levels of the HOMO and LUMO and the adiabatic triplet energy of each complex. Also, a combined analysis of electronic structures, host-guest match, reorganization energies (λ) and triplet exciton generation fraction (χ(T)) is helpful in exploring triplet emitters with high phosphorescence efficiency in OLEDs, which is an interesting and creative aspect of this work. Thereinto, λ reveals the capability of carrier transport and the balance between holes and electrons, whilst structural parameters and d-orbital splittings show that those complexes that have strong electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups are nonemissive. Consequently, complexes 3-7 can be better triplet emitters than FIrpic. Moreover, the emission colors could be predicted by the 0-0 transition energy (E(0-0)) instead of the triplet vertical transition energy (E(vert)). Accordingly, complexes 3, 4 and 6 would be efficient phosphorescent materials with different predicted

  16. A theoretical study on tuning the electronic structures and photophysical properties of newly designed platinum(II) complexes by adding substituents on functionalized ligands as highly efficient OLED emitters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luqiong; Tian, Li; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing; Shen, Wei

    2014-05-01

    By imitating FIrpic, seven new platinum(II) complexes with pic (pic = picolinate) ligand have been designed to be guest materials by means of adding different substituents to functionalized ligands (ppy and fpy, ppy = phenylpyridyl-N,C and fpy = 2-(9',9'-diethyl-9H-fluorenyl)pyridyl-N,C). In order to reveal their molecular structures, photophysical properties and structure-property relationships with typical host materials, an in-depth theoretical investigation was performed via quantum chemical calculations. The electronic structures and photophysical properties of these complexes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using the B3LYP functional with LANL2DZ and 6-31G* basis sets. It turns out that electronic structures and photophysical properties can be tuned by substituent modifications on functionalized ligands. This work highlights that the match between guest materials and host materials in typical OLED structures can be weighed by the energy levels of the HOMO and LUMO and the adiabatic triplet energy of each complex. Also, a combined analysis of electronic structures, host-guest match, reorganization energies (λ) and triplet exciton generation fraction (χ(T)) is helpful in exploring triplet emitters with high phosphorescence efficiency in OLEDs, which is an interesting and creative aspect of this work. Thereinto, λ reveals the capability of carrier transport and the balance between holes and electrons, whilst structural parameters and d-orbital splittings show that those complexes that have strong electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups are nonemissive. Consequently, complexes 3-7 can be better triplet emitters than FIrpic. Moreover, the emission colors could be predicted by the 0-0 transition energy (E(0-0)) instead of the triplet vertical transition energy (E(vert)). Accordingly, complexes 3, 4 and 6 would be efficient phosphorescent materials with different predicted

  17. Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD) for efficient OLED manufacturing: the specific advantages and possibilities of carrier-gas enhanced vapor phase deposition for the manufacturing of organic thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Juergen; Schwambera, Markus; Keiper, Dietmar; Gersdorff, Markus; Long, Michael; Heuken, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Being introduced more than 20 years ago, OLEDs have seen a strong push in particular in the last two years, mostly driven by key players in the flat panel display industry. The majority of OLEDs manufactured today are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE). Whilst this approach enables the making of high-performance devices scaling up of this approach has met new challenges when substrate dimensions are exceeding the "proof-of-principle" dimensions of pilot lines. Total production costs are increasingly moving into the focus of consideration. With Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD), AIXTRON has commercialized the principle of utilizing inert carriergas for the transport and controlled condensation of small molecules. While the original concept had been proposed by Prof. Steven Forrest at Princeton University, AIXTRON added its expertise in scaling gas phase processes to make this technology applicable for high-throughput production. Combining the basic concept of OVPD with AIXTRON's comprehensive expertise in utilizing close coupled showerheads and the underlying scaling rules, the disruptive approach offers a number of significant advantages: 1) decoupling of evaporation source and deposition system: additional freedom and independent optimization of source design and deposition area; 2) Utilization of carrier-gas for a more efficient evaporation, potentially increasing process windows; 3) Close-coupled showerhead approach realizes high material utilization with homogeneity; 4) Control of deposition rates by carrier-gas flow instead of the evaporation temperature enables precise rates control, co-deposition of various materials at changing rates. This paper will discuss the most significant differences compared to VTE and explain how the approach addresses requirements for efficient scaling as well as enabling advanced structure designs.

  18. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (créole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  19. Effect of Different Degrees of Sensitization on the EIS Response of 316L and 316 SS in Transpassive Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed Behbahani, K.; Pakshir, M.

    2014-06-01

    Different heat treatments were conducted on 316L and 316 stainless steels, and the sensitized specimens were characterized using anodic polarization and EIS tests in 0.5 M H2SO4 containing 0.01 molar KSCN. The potential ranges related to the transpassive region related to each specimen were determined. The EIS experiments were conducted at different potentials in that region, and the results showed the presence of three different regions, namely the anodic dissolution of the passive layer, dissolution of the grain boundaries, and the occurrence of pitting corrosion owing to the variations in the anodic potential. The higher the applied sensitization temperature, the lower the obtained charge-transfer resistance ( R ct) values, but healing effect was observed at the temperatures above 600 °C for these alloys.

  20. Performance of New Pb-Bi Alloys for Pb-Acid Battery Applications: EIS and Polarization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Bortolozo, Ausdinir D.; Garcia, Amauri; Osório, Wislei R.

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is focused on the evaluation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization results, associated with resulting microstructural features of two distinct as-cast Pb-Bi alloys (i.e., 1 and 2.5 wt.% Bi). EIS, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and equivalent circuits are used to analyze the corrosion behavior. The electrochemical parameters show that the corrosion resistance increases when the matrix microstructure is characterized by coarser cells when compared with finer ones. However, when a coarse cellular array is associated with increase in Bi content caused by macrosegregation during casting, the corrosion resistance decreases significantly. Bismuth modifies the anode/cathode area ratio increasing drastically the corrosion action.

  1. Identification and quantification of individual chemical compounds in biogenic secondary organic aerosols using GCxGC-VUV/EI-HRTOFMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, M.; Worton, D. R.; Isaacman, G. A.; Chan, A. W.; Ruehl, C.; Zhao, Y.; Wilson, K. R.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality and affect radiative forcing and thus climate. While the organic fraction of aerosols is substantial, the sources and chemistry leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosols are very poorly understood. Characterizing individual compounds present in organic aerosol provides insights into the sources, formation mechanisms and oxidative transformations that have taken place. Fifteen aerosol samples collected over a 5 day period at the Blodgett Forest Research Station in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, part of the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) in July 2009, were analyzed using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Approximately 600 compounds were observed in each sample as significant peaks in the chromatogram. Of these, around a third were identified by matching the unique electron ionization (EI) mass spectrum of each compound to the NIST library of characteristic fragmentation patterns. One filter sample was also analyzed using vacuum ultraviolet ionization (VUV) instead of EI. This 'soft' ionization technique results in much less fragmentation yielding the molecular ion of each compound, from which the exact mass was determined. If the formula of the EI library matched compound equaled the high mass resolution VUV molecular weight within a certain tolerance (< 30 ppm), then the library match was considered confirmed; 226 compounds were identified in this way. Using the VUV technique 234 additional compounds that were not in the EI mass spectral database were assigned chemical formulas based on the observed molecular weights. The chemical formulas in conjunction with the location of the compound in the GCxGC chromatogram were used to provide further classification of these compounds based on their likely functionalization. The broad array of observed oxygenated

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 989 - Procedures for Holding Public Hearings on Draft Environmental Impact Statements (EIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... A3.2. Notice of Hearing (40 CFR 1506.6) A3.2.1. Public Affairs officers: A3.2.1.1. Announce public... determined according to 40 CFR 1506.6(f). A3.7. Hearing Format Use the format outlined below as a general... transcript of the hearing, and to enable the officer to send a copy of the Final EIS (40 CFR 1502.19) to...

  3. Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

    2012-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

  4. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  5. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 10(6) and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  6. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications.

  7. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  8. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Vitamin B{sub 4}-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators require minimal interior surface roughness for Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Polishing of the Nb is currently achieved via electrochemical polishing with concentrated mixtures of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. This acid-based approach is effective at reducing the surface roughness to acceptable levels for SRF use, but due to acid-related hazards and extra costs (including safe disposal of used polishing solutions), an acid-free method would be preferable. This study focuses on an alternative electrochemical polishing method for Nb, using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride, also known as Vitamin B{sub 4} (VB{sub 4}). Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed on the VB4-based system. Nb polished using the VB4-based method was found to have a final surface roughness comparable to that achieved via the acid-based method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings indicate that acid-free VB{sub 4}-based electrochemical polishing of Nb represents a promising replacement for acid-based methods of SRF cavity preparation.

  9. Short-term plasticity regulates the E/I ratio and the temporal window for spike integration in CA1 pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Aundrea F.; Dobrunz, Lynn E.

    2016-01-01

    Many neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have an imbalance between excitation (E) and inhibition (I) caused by synaptic alterations. The proper E/I balance is especially critical in CA1 pyramidal cells because they control hippocampal output. Activation of Schaffer collateral axons causes direct excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells, quickly followed by disynaptic feed-forward inhibition, stemming from synaptically induced firing of GABAergic interneurons. Both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are modulated by short-term plasticity, potentially causing dynamic tuning of the E/I ratio. However, the effects of short-term plasticity on the E/I ratio in CA1 pyramidal cells are not yet known. To determine this we recorded disynaptic IPSCs and E/I ratio in CA1 pyramidal cells in acute hippocampal slices from juvenile mice. We find that while inhibitory synapses have paired-pulse depression, disynaptic inhibition instead expresses paired-pulse facilitation (≤ 200 ms intervals), caused by increased recruitment of feed-forward interneurons. Although enhanced disynaptic inhibition helps constrain paired-pulse facilitation of excitation, the E/I ratio is still larger on the second pulse, increasing pyramidal cell spiking. Surprisingly, this occurs without compromising the precision of spike timing. The E/I balance regulates the temporal spike integration window from multiple inputs; here we show that paired-pulse stimulation can broaden the spike integration window. Together, we find that the combined effects of short-term plasticity of disynaptic inhibition and monosynaptic excitation alter the E/I balance onto CA1 pyramidal cells, leading to dynamic modulation of spike probability and spike integration window. Short-term plasticity is therefore an important mechanism for modulating signal processing of hippocampal output. PMID:25903384

  10. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with atmospheric exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1994-01-01

    This investigation explored the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with atmospheric exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one commercially available zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, GLidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanox V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure at the Beach Corrosion Test site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to four weeks. Subsequent measurements were collected after 8 weeks and after one year of atmospheric exposure. Analysis of the impedance data was performed with the purpose of identifying parameters that could be used to predict the long-term performance of zinc-rich primers. It has been shown that there is a correlation between the long-term performance of zinc-rich primers and several parameters obtained from EIS measurements in combination with atmospheric exposure. The equivalent circuit R2(R2C(R3W)) provided a satisfactory fit for the EIS data. The corrosion potential and the R2 resistance are parameters indicative of the galvanic mechanism of protection. The capacitance of the coating is related to the barrier mechanism of protection.

  11. Quasi-periodic Fluctuations and Chromospheric Evaporation in a Solar Flare Ribbon Observed by Hinode/EIS, IRIS, and RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Inglis, Andrew R.

    2016-10-01

    The Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of an M7.3 flare ribbon in AR 12036 on 2014 April 18. Quasi-periodic (P ≈ 75.6 ± 9.2 s) intensity fluctuations occurred in emission lines of O iv, Mg vi, Mg vii, Si vii, Fe xiv, and Fe xvi during the flare's impulsive rise, and ended when the maximum intensity in Fe xxiii was reached. The profiles of the O iv–Fe xvi lines reveal that they were all redshifted during most of the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, while the Fe xxiii profile revealed multiple components including one or two highly blueshifted ones. This indicates that the flare underwent explosive chromospheric evaporation during its impulsive rise. Fluctuations in the relative Doppler velocities were seen, but their amplitudes were too subtle to extract significant quasi-periodicities. RHESSI detected 25–100 keV hard-X-ray sources in the ribbon near the EIS slit's pointing position during the peaks in the EIS intensity fluctuations. The observations are consistent with a series of energy injections into the chromosphere by nonthermal particle beams. Electron densities derived with Fe xiv (4.6 × 1010 cm‑3) and Mg vii (7.8 × 109 cm‑3) average line intensity ratios during the interval of quasi-periodic intensity fluctuations, combined with the radiative loss function of an optically thin plasma, yield radiative cooling times of 32 s at 2.0 × 106 K, and 46 s at 6.3 × 105 K (about half the quasi-period); assuming Fe xiv's density for Fe xxiii yields a radiative cooling time of 103 s (13 times the quasi-period) at 1.4 × 107 K.

  12. Structural aspect of the manifestation of thermal brittleness in a maraging steel of the EI-832 type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Kruglov, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    The character of fracture, phase composition, and structure of a maraging steel of the EI-832 type in large forged pieces (90 mm and more in cross section) have been investigated. Structural factors responsible for the level of impact toughness of the steel subjected to aging in a forged state and after quenching have been revealed. It has been shown that for this steel the manifestation of thermal brittleness that is caused by precipitation of dispersed titanium carbonitrides at grain boundaries and is not eliminated upon subsequent conventional heat treatment is possible.

  13. Coniochaetones E-I, new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives from the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lianwu; Niu, Shubing; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng; Li, Erwei

    2013-09-01

    Five new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives coniochaetones E-I (1-5), along with the known compounds coniochaetones B (6) and A (7) have been isolated from solid cultures of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were assigned using the modified Mosher's method. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 72.8 μM. The co-isolated known compound 6 showed modest inhibitory effects against Aspergilus fumigates, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium nivale. PMID:23685047

  14. NREL Develops OpenEI.org, a Public Website Where Energy Data can be Generated, Shared, and Compared (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed OpenEI.org, a public, open, data-sharing platform where consumers, analysts, industry experts, and energy decision makers can go to boost their energy IQs, search for energy data, share data, and get access to energy applications. The free site blends elements of social media, linked open-data practices, and MediaWiki-based technology to build a collaborative environment for creating and sharing energy data with the world. The result is a powerful platform that is helping government and industry leaders around the world define policy options, make informed investment decisions, and create new businesses.

  15. TD-DFT investigation of electronic structures, photophysical properties and the theoretical design of OLEDs based on phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes bearing the non-π electron-conjugated carbene ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qi; Xie, Zai-Feng; Wang, Jing; Tian, Zhao-Shuo; Bai, Fu-Quan

    2012-02-01

    In the search for efficient phosphorescent materials, a rational design is presented for the iridium complex material (dfbmb)Ir(fptz)2 (2) (dfbmb = 1-(2,4-difluorobenzyl)-3-methylbenzimidazolium), which involves the use of two 2-pyridyl triazolate (fptz) chromophores and a non-π electron-conjugated high-field ligand dfbmb assembled by a saturated σ-bond methylene group, and a comparison with the benchmark (dfbmb)2Ir(fptz) (1). In this work the electronic structures, absorption and phosphorescence spectra were investigated using the TD-DFT method. In order to obtain the mechanism of high phosphorescence yield in (1) and estimate the radiative rate constant k r for (2), the radiative rate constant k r, the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) matrix element, ΔE(S - T), and the square of the SOC matrix element (⟨ψS1|HSO|ψT1⟩2) for (1) and (2) were measured. It is concluded that the switch of the cyclometalated ligand from the main chelate to the ancillary chelate seems to enhance the splitting of ΔE(S - T) in the current system. Finally, using the information gained, a PhOLED utilizing (1) and (2) was designed.

  16. SmartGrid: Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub and SmartGrid Project Information (from OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Both OpenEI and SmartGrid.gov are DOE portals to a wealth of information about the federal initiatives that support the development of the technologies, policies and projects transforming the electric power industry. Projects funded through the U.S. Recovery Act are organized by type and pinned to an interactive map at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Smart_Grid. Each project title links to more detailed information. The Quarterly Data Summaries from the Data Hub at SmartGrid.gov are also available on OpenEI at http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/928. In addition, the SmartGrid Information Center contains documents and reports that can be searched or browsed. Smart Grid Resources introduces international SmartGrid programs and sites, while OpenEI encourages users to add SmartGrid information to the repository.

  17. LPS resistance of SPRET/Ei mice is mediated by Gilz, encoded by the Tsc22d3 gene on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Iris; Dejager, Lien; Petta, Ioanna; Vandevyver, Sofie; Puimège, Leen; Mahieu, Tina; Ballegeer, Marlies; Van Hauwermeiren, Filip; Riccardi, Carlo; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Libert, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Natural variation for LPS-induced lethal inflammation in mice is useful for identifying new genes that regulate sepsis, which could form the basis for novel therapies for systemic inflammation in humans. Here we report that LPS resistance of the inbred mouse strain SPRET/Ei, previously reported to depend on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), maps to the distal region of the X-chromosome. The GR-inducible gene Tsc22d3, encoding the protein Gilz and located in the critical region on the X-chromosome, showed a higher expressed SPRET/Ei allele, regulated in cis. Higher Gilz levels were causally related to reduced inflammation, as shown with knockdown and overexpression studies in macrophages. Transient overexpression of Gilz by hydrodynamic plasmid injection confirmed that Gilz protects mice against endotoxemia Our data strongly suggest that Gilz is responsible for the LPS resistance of SPRET/Ei mice and that it could become a treatment option for sepsis. PMID:23495141

  18. SDO/AIA AND HINODE/EIS OBSERVATIONS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EUV WAVE AND ACTIVE REGION LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Liu, Wei; Shen, Yuandeng E-mail: zjun@bao.ac.cn

    2013-09-20

    We present detailed analysis of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave and its interaction with active region (AR) loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). This wave was initiated from AR 11261 on 2011 August 4 and propagated at velocities of 430-910 km s{sup –1}. It was observed to traverse another AR and cross over a filament channel on its path. The EUV wave perturbed neighboring AR loops and excited a disturbance that propagated toward the footpoints of these loops. EIS observations of AR loops revealed that at the time of the wave transit, the original redshift increased by about 3 km s{sup –1}, while the original blueshift decreased slightly. After the wave transit, these changes were reversed. When the EUV wave arrived at the boundary of a polar coronal hole, two reflected waves were successively produced and part of them propagated above the solar limb. The first reflected wave above the solar limb encountered a large-scale loop system on its path, and a secondary wave rapidly emerged 144 Mm ahead of it at a higher speed. These findings can be explained in the framework of a fast-mode magnetosonic wave interpretation for EUV waves, in which observed EUV waves are generated by expanding coronal mass ejections.

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with the