Marinho, Manoela M F; Ohara, Willian M
During recent expeditions to several localities in the rio Madeira basin, a poorly known species of Characidae described more than a century ago, Astyanax guaporensis Eigenmann, was collected. The species is herein redescribed based on the type material and many recently collected specimens. The species seems to occur only in the rio Madeira basin, rio Amazonas drainage. The species is mainly recognized among its congeners by having five to nine maxillary teeth, a series of V-shaped marks on the midlateral line of body, and the absence of a black mark on the caudal peduncle.
Benine, Ricardo C; Melo, Bruno F; Castro, Ricardo M C; Oliveira, Claudio
Characidae, one of the most diverse families of Characiformes and one of the largest clades of fishes in the world, has a complex taxonomic background, with one issue being the placement of various genera, including Gymnocorymbus. Herein, we generate the first molecular phylogeny for the genus using three nuclear and two mitochondrial loci and review the systematics of Gymnocorymbus. This genus includes the black tetra, a well-known and popular species among aquarists. Molecular phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of Gymnocorymbus, with this hypothesis corroborated by the presence of three morphological synapomorphies. Of the six previously known nominal species of Gymnocorymbus, three are considered valid herein: Gymnocorymbus bondi from the Río Orinoco basin, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi from the Rio Paraguay basin, and Gymnocorymbus thayeri from the Corantijn and Amazon basin and rivers of northeastern Brazil. A fourth species, Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai sp. n., is described from the Rio Madeira, Amazon basin. Lectotypes are designated for G. ternetzi and G. thayeri. Our results support previous hypotheses of the alignment of Gymnocorymbus close to the subfamily Stethaprioninae and also support the sister relationship between G. ternetzi and G. thayeri, and of that clade as sister to G. bondi.
Coutinho-Sanches, Natália; Dergam, Jorge Abdala
The genus Deuterodon has been taxonomically recently redefined. Seven of its species have been included in this genus, whereas three others are regarded as Incertae Sedis in Characidae. One of latter is Deuterodon pedri, an endemic species from Santo Antônio River in Minas Gerais. Cytogenetic and molecular data on 21 specimens of D. pedri allowed to reevaluate the phylogenetic position of this taxon. The specimens showed karyotypic formula 12m+12sm+20st+6a, low heterochromatin content, nucleolar organizer regions present in two chromosome pairs, and 10 and 2 labeled regions by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S probes respectively, a karyotype similar to Deuterodon stigmaturus. The phylogenetic tree generated by a cytochrome oxidase subunit I fragment revealed that D. pedri and Deuterodon singularis are closely related and are the sister-group of Deuterodon parahybae, Deuterodon iguape, Astyanax giton, Astyanax intermedius, Astyanax ribeirae, Astyanax scabripinnis, and Probolodus heterostomus. The same arrangement was partially recovered with the nuclear gene RAG2. Our data indicate the genus Deuterodon is not monophyletic and that it is closely related to other species that occur in Brazil coastal basins.
Leknes, I L
The general structure and cell types in kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi, family Characidae, are described. The capability and capacity of these organs to clean foreign ferritin from the blood stream are analysed and compared. Head kidney was mainly composed of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, whereas unmatured and matured red blood cells were few in number. Spleen often contained much red pulp, that is mainly matured red blood cells between splenic cords, often with some macrophages and neutrophils in the latter. Occasionally, this pulp contained large volumes of unmatured red blood cells, particularly in the periphery of the spleen. The splenic white pulp consisted of ellipsoids composed of an inner endothelial layer covered by a thick sheet of white blood cells, which in the periphery consisted mainly of macrophages. Erythrocytes occupied nearly the entire splenic volume in some specimens, whereas up to half of this volume was filled by ellipsoid macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells in other specimens. The macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells in kidney and spleen from ferritin-injected specimens were tightly packed by yellow-brown granules or Prussian blue precipitations, in tissue treated with Mallory stain or acid ferrocyanide, respectively, suggesting a large uptake of foreign ferritin. In the present tetra large amounts of white blood cells are developed in head kidney, where macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells play important roles in the cleansing of scavenger and foreign molecules and particles from the blood stream. The spleen seems primarily to be a site for iron recycling and production and storage of red blood cells. Sometimes, however, it was rich in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, suggesting functions like blood cleansing and non-specific and specific defence in such specimens. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing
Marinho, Manoela M F; Camelier, Priscila; Birindelli, José L O
Astyanax guianensis is redescribed based on the holotype, paratypes, and additional specimens from the rio Essequibo in Guyana, rio Orinoco in Venezuela and from several localities in the Amazon river basin in Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Astyanax guianensis is diagnosed by having five to 10 maxillary teeth, 31 to 35 pored lateral-line scales, 21 to 25 branched anal-fin rays, and a dark vertical humeral blotch followed by a clear area and then by a dark longitudinal stripe, ending before the caudal-fin rays. In addition, comments on the importance of revisionary studies on the species of the Characidae are provided.
Soares, Isabel Matos; Bührnheim, Cristina Motta
A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the lower Amazon basin, Pará State, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to Moenkhausia collettii, M. copei, and M. venerei by the presence of a dark horizontal stripe across the middle portion of the eye, a conspicuous slightly rounded humeral blotch, a dark longitudinal midlateral stripe and a dark stripe along the anal-fin base. However, the new species can be distinguished from M. collettii, M. copei, and M. venerei mainly by the number of cusps on the inner row of the premaxillary, maxillary and dentary teeth, and by the number of scales in transversal series above and below the lateral line.
Oliveira, Gustavo D; Marinho, Manoela M F
Moenkhausia abyss is herein described from the rio Amazonas basin lowlands. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by presenting the combination of the following characters: a dark blotch located on the upper caudal-fin lobe and the lower lobe hyaline, 25-29 branched anal-fin rays, humeral spot rectangular, vertically oriented, extending horizontally through two or two and a half scales and located over the third to the fifth lateral line scales, five longitudinal scale rows above the lateral line, predorsal scales arranged in a single not interrupted median row and 30-34 perforated lateral line scales. Brief comments on Moenkhausia megalops are provided.
Vanegas-Ríos, James A
Gephyrocharax currently comprises 13 valid species distributed in the Cis- and Trans-Andean basins of the Neotropical region. The genus has not been reviewed in more than 80 years, and thus, the older species descriptions are poorly detailed, based on small samples of specimens, and supported by uninformative diagnoses. The present review is based on external morphology and morphometric, meristic, osteological, and myological data. Counts and measurements were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate statistical procedures implemented in PAST and SigmaPlot. Cases of synonyms and geographic variation were evaluated using sheared principal components analyses (SPCA). Eleven valid species are recognized for the genus: G. atracaudatus, G. caucanus, G. chocoensis, G. intermedius, G. major, G. martae, G. melanocheir, G. sinuensis, G. torresi, G. valencia, and G. venezuelae. Gephyrocharax whaleri is proposed as junior synonym of G. intermedius, and Corynopomops opisthopterus and G. chaparae are proposed as junior synonyms of G. major. A lectotype for G. major and neotypes for G. melanocheir and G. sinuensis are designated. Gephyrocharax atracaudatus is confirmed for the first time in the Palenque River basin of the Pears islands in the Gulf of Panama. New distributional records are reported for G. major in the Amazon River basin. Gephyrocharax major and G. valencia are the most widely distributed members of the genus. Distributional and georeferenced maps are presented for all Gephyrocharax species based on extensive examined material. An identification key of the Gephyrocharax species is provided.
Dal Pai, V; Pai-Silva, M D; Carvalho, E D; Fujihara, C Y; Gregório, E A; Curi, P R
Histochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric methods were used to study growth patterns of red, pink and white muscle fibres and their relation to body weight and total length in the fast-growing freshwater fish Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg. The correlations amongst body weight, body length and diameter of red, pink and white fibres were low. From 10-15 to 40-50 cm, body weight increased 102.7 times, while the diameter of each type of fibre increased by factors of 0.94, 0.74 and 0.70, respectively. Muscle fibres revealed different morphological and histochemical stages of maturation. The frequencies of < 20 microns fibres of red, pink and white muscle tissue in the youngest and oldest classes were 64.5 and 11.0, 38.2 and 7.7 and 24.0 and 1.4%, respectively. In 30-40 cm fish, the frequency of < 20 microns fibres in the red and pink tissue was 24.5 and 25.5%, while in the white tissue it was 11.5%. During sexual maturity (40-50 cm), the recruitment of < 20 microns fibres in white muscle was 1.4%. Muscle fibres of this species showed continuous growth by both hyperplastic and hypertrophic mechanisms, and hyperplasia was particularly active in the juvenile phase.
Nakayama, Celeste Mutuko; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Feldberg, Eliana
Cytogenetic studies were conducted on five piranha species belonging to the genus Serrasalmus, subfamily Serrasalminae (Serrasalmus altispinis, S. compressus, S. elongatus, S. manuelli, and S. spilopleura). All the species were collected in the Amazon basin: confluence of Negro and Solimões Rivers (CatalãoLake), Solimões River (Marchantaria Island - Camaleão Lake), Uatumã River (Hydroelectric Power Station of Balbina), and Pitinga River (Hydroelectric Power Station of Pitinga). All the five species possess 2n = 60 chromosomes with 5-12 subtelo-and acrocentric chromosomes bearing nucleolar organizer regions. A proximal C-band positive heterochromatin block was evident on the long arms of a medium-sized metacentric chromosome pair in all the analized species, thus making it a cytogenetic marker for the genus. It is hypothesized that 2n = 60 chromosomes represents a derived feature in terms of the chromosomal evolution of piranhas because the basal lineages possess 2n = 62. Both Robertsonian centric fusion and non-Robertsonian rearragements such as pericentric inversions seem implicated in the chromosomal evolution of this group.
Dagosta, Fernando C P; Marinho, Manoela M F; Benine, Ricardo C
Moenkhausia lineomaculata, new species, is described herein from the upper rio Juruena, upper rio Tapajós basin. The new species seems to be part of a monophyletic group formed by M. cosmops, M. cotinho, M. diktyota, M. forestii, M. oligolepis, M. sanctaefilomenae, and M. pyrophthalma, the Moenkhausia oligolepis/M. sanctaefilomenae complex, by sharing a reticulated color pattern on body and the presence of a light area preceding a wide, dark caudal-peduncle blotch. The new species is distinguished from these species, except M. cotinho, by the presence of longitudinal series of dark dots on body, and from M. cotinho by the humeral blotch evenly pigmented along its length and by having the dark line along horizontal septum starting approximately at the vertical through dorsal-fin origin. The new species presents intraspecific variation in lateral-line scales perforation, a feature often present in species of the aforementioned group.
Background B chromosomes, also known as supernumerary or accessory chromosomes, are additional chromosomes over the standard complement found in various groups of plants and animals. We investigated the presence of, and characterized, supernumerary microchromosomes in Astyanax goyacensis using classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. Findings Three specimens possessed 2n = 50 chromosomes (8m + 26sm + 8st + 8a), and two specimens contained 1 to 9 additional B microchromosomes varying intra- and inter-individually. Chromosome painting with a B chromosome-specific probe yielded signals for several B microchromosomes, with one exhibiting no markings. Acrocentric chromosomes of the standard complement were also painted. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using ribosomal probes located two chromosome pairs carrying 18S rDNA marked on the short arm, and one pair carrying 5S rDNA with pericentromeric markings. One chromosome was observed in synteny with 18S cistrons. Conclusion These data contribute to knowledge of the karyotype evolution, the origin of B chromosomes, and to an understanding of the functionality of rDNA. PMID:24192310
Dagosta, Fernando C P; Datovo, Aléssio
The Characidae is the most diverse family of Neotropical fishes, currently encompassing more than one thousand valid species. Some subgroups within this family still lack phylogenetic definitions, being diagnosed on the basis of combination of characters, a common procedure in pre-cladistic studies. Agoniatinae, currently composed by two valid species, Agoniates anchovia and A. halecinus, is one of them. In the present study the Agoniatinae is redefined using a phylogenetically oriented comparative survey that included the two Agoniates species plus 114 species representing all the major clades of the Characidae and their closest relatives. Six derived morphological characters are identified as synapomorphies for the Agoniatinae: deep notch on the posterior region of the maxilla joining the ventral margin of the infraorbital 2; dentigerous portion of premaxilla shorter than the ascending process of this bone; dentary canine preceded by tricuspid teeth; ventral margin of the urohyal markedly convex; base of the uppermost ray of the ventral lobe of the caudal fin much expanded, being as deep as the distal margin of hypural 2; and levator arcus palatini muscle with a posterodorsal bundle of fibers attaching to the dorsal face of the sphenotic spine.
Dagosta, Fernando C P; Netto-Ferreira, André L
A new species of Bryconamericus is described from the rio Teles Pires, a tributary of the rio Tapajós. The new taxon can be distinguished from its congeners by having a short anal fin with 11-13 branched rays, two maxillary teeth, four outer premaxillary teeth, and 34-38 perforated lateral-line scales. Other diagnostic characters of the species are the absence of a caudal-peduncle spot and the presence of a pigmented vertical band at the caudal-fin rays base. The phylogenetic position of the new species is inferred based in two available phylogenetic hypotheses, and a discussion on its generic placement is provided.
Zanata, A M; Birindelli, J L O; Moreira, C R
A new species of Moenkhausia is described from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except from Moenkhausia moisae, by having more scales in the lateral series, 43-47 (v. 23-41 in the remaining congeners). The new species is distinguished from M. moisae by its colour pattern, which consists of a dark midlateral stripe, and an asymmetrical caudal blotch (inconspicuous or faded in specimens from the Rio Arinos) continuous with the midlateral stripe (v. narrow dark midlateral line and conspicuous, regularly rounded and symmetrical blotch not continuous with the midlateral line). The new species is putatively assumed to be mimetic to Jupiaba apenima, in the Rio Xingu and Rio Teles Pires drainages, and to Jupiaba yarina in the Rio Arinos. The two species of Jupiaba are sympatric and remarkably similar in size, general external morphology and colouration to the new species. A small difference occurs in the colouration between the two species of Jupiaba and is also observed in the two respectively sympatric morphotypes of the new species of Moenkhausia. The occurrence of polymorphic Batesian mimicry is therefore discussed for neotropical freshwater fishes.
Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran
We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother. PMID:25949207
Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran
We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother.
Oliveira, Claudio; Avelino, Gleisy S; Abe, Kelly T; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Benine, Ricardo C; Ortí, Guillermo; Vari, Richard P; Corrêa e Castro, Ricardo M
With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions
Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance
Reys, Paula; Sabino, José; Galetti, Mauro
Frugivory and seed dispersal have been poorly studied in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by the piraputanga fish ( Brycon hilarii, Characidae) in the Formoso River, Bonito, western Brazil. We examined the stomach contents of 87 fish and found the diet of piraputanga consisted of 24% animal prey (arthropods, snails, and vertebrates), 31% seeds/fruits and 45% other plant material (algae/macrophytes/leaves/flowers). The piraputangas fed on 12 fruit species, and were considered as seed dispersers of eight species. Fruits with soft seeds larger than 10 mm were triturated, but all species with small seeds (e.g. Ficus, Psidium) and one species with large hard seed ( Chrysophyllum gonocarpum) were dispersed. Piraputangas eat more fruits in the dry season just before the migration, but not during the spawning season. Fish length had a positive relation with the presence of fruits in their guts. The gallery forest of the Formoso River apparently does not have any plant species that depend exclusively on B. hilarii for seed dispersal because all fruit species are also dispersed by birds and mammals. Based on seed size and husk hardness of the riparian plant community of Formoso River, however, the piraputangas may potentially disperse at least 50% of the riparian fleshy fruit species and may be particularly important for long-distance dispersal. Therefore, overfishing or other anthropogenic disturbances to the populations of piraputanga may have negative consequences for the riparian forests in this region.
Condition factor of Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann, 1908 (OSTEICHTHYES, CHARACIDAE) parasitised by Paracymothoa astyanaxi Lemos de Castro, 1955 (CRUSTACEA, CYMOTHOIDAE) in the Grande River, Serra do Mar State Park - Santa Virgínia Unit, São Paulo, Brazil.
Gomiero, L M; Souza, U P; Braga, F M S
In this work the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Astyanax intermedius parasitised and not by Paracymothoa astyanaxi were analysed in the Grande River. The length-weight relationship was estimated for females, males and immatures, and seasonally for the fishes and the parasites through the expression W = aLb. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens differed seasonally and between sexes, contrasting with the results for parasitised fishes which showed no differences between sexes and season. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens was higher than that of the parasitised fishes. Specimens of Astyanax intermedius parasitised do not have the same biotic conditions compared to non-parasitised individuals, in which the condition factor was similar over the years. In conclusion, parasitism by P. astyanaxi has deleterious effects on this host population which may cause changes in the reproductive and food dynamics of parasitised specimens due to low body conditions.
Acosta, Aline Angelina; González-Solís, David; da Silva, Reinaldo José
Nematodes belonging to Spinitectus Fourment, 1883 (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) were found in the intestine of Pimelodella avanhandavae Eigenmann (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) from the Aguapeí River, Brazil. They represent a new species, Spinitectus aguapeiensis n. sp., which differs morphologically from its congeners in the body length, the number of spinose rings, the location of the excretory pore, the number of precloacal papillae and the length of the spicules. The new species is the first South American species within the genus with a remarkably spirally coiled posterior extremity in males and the largest spicules. It is also the second species with the highest number of precloacal papillae and has unique shape of the small spicule. Spinitectus aguapeiensis n. sp. is the first helminth species found in P. avanhandavae, the fourth species of this genus recorded in the River Paraná Basin and the sixth species of Spinitectus in South America.
Netto-Ferreira, André Luiz; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; de Sousa, Leandro Melo; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Oliveira, Claudio
Erythrocharax altipinnis is described from the Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil. The new taxon is distinguished from all of the Characidae genera by having the pelvic bones firmly attached through the isquiatic processes; a nearly triangular hiatus in the musculature covering the anterior chamber of the swim bladder between the first and second pleural ribs (pseudotympanum); the pedunculate, notably expanded and distally compressed teeth in both jaws; circumorbital series represented by antorbital and four infraorbital bones with laterosensory canals not enclosed; a single tooth row in the premaxillary with the teeth perfectly aligned and similar in shape and cusp number; the first three branched dorsal-fin rays distinctly elongate in males; a bright red adipose and caudal fins in life; a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe extending from the opercle to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays; and by the absence of a humeral spot. The phylogenetic position of the new taxon is discussed using morphological and molecular datasets, with conflicting results of both approaches discussed. Additionally, a summarized discussion on the current problems in the Characidae taxonomy is presented and the principal biases in the morphological dataset are also discussed. PMID:23300963
Netto-Ferreira, André Luiz; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; de Sousa, Leandro Melo; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Oliveira, Claudio
Erythrocharax altipinnis is described from the Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil. The new taxon is distinguished from all of the Characidae genera by having the pelvic bones firmly attached through the isquiatic processes; a nearly triangular hiatus in the musculature covering the anterior chamber of the swim bladder between the first and second pleural ribs (pseudotympanum); the pedunculate, notably expanded and distally compressed teeth in both jaws; circumorbital series represented by antorbital and four infraorbital bones with laterosensory canals not enclosed; a single tooth row in the premaxillary with the teeth perfectly aligned and similar in shape and cusp number; the first three branched dorsal-fin rays distinctly elongate in males; a bright red adipose and caudal fins in life; a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe extending from the opercle to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays; and by the absence of a humeral spot. The phylogenetic position of the new taxon is discussed using morphological and molecular datasets, with conflicting results of both approaches discussed. Additionally, a summarized discussion on the current problems in the Characidae taxonomy is presented and the principal biases in the morphological dataset are also discussed.
Marinho, M M F; Langeani, F
A new species of Characidae, Moenkhausia celibela, is described from the Rio Amazonas at Santarém, Rio Maraú, several localities in the Rio Tapajós, Rio Curuá-Una, Rio Xingu and Rio Jari, all from the Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, except species included in Géry's 1992 Moenkhausia lepidura group, by presenting a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, and the lower lobe is hyaline or light grey. Moenkhausia celibela is distinguished from the species of the M. lepidura group by the absence of a humeral spot and the presence of a roughly triangular and dark spot at the caudal-fin base, extending posteriorly along the middle caudal-fin rays, and distinctly separate from the spot on the upper caudal-fin lobe.
Peres, Wellington Adriano Moreira; Buckup, Paulo Andreas; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Bertollo, Luiz Antônio Carlos; Moreira-Filho, Orlando
In the 1960s, as a part of the construction of the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Dam, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the Rio Piumhi was diverted from the Rio Grande drainage to the São Francisco River basin, with the resulting introduction of species from one basin to the other. Chromosomal characteristics of various populations of Astyanax fasciatus sensu Eigenmann from the transect region were studied using cytogenetic techniques, with the goal to identify and map the dispersal of invasive species in the Rio São Francisco. Populations of the Rio Grande and Rio Piumhi are distinct from those of the São Francisco basin based on chromosome markers associated to the heterochromatin, Ag-NORs, 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and As-51 satellite DNA sites. Individuals with karyomorph originally present in the Piumhi drainage are now present in the São Francisco basin, downstream from the transposition channel. This expansion of the distribution corroborates a hypothesis of progressive substitution of native populations by the invasive Piumhi form.
Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Silva, Duílio M. Z. A.; Serrano, Érica A.; Rosa, Ivana F.; Scudeler, Patrícia E. S.; Hashimoto, Diogo T.; Oliveira, Claudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto
Satellite DNA (satDNA) is an abundant fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes and plays an important role in genome organization and evolution. In general, satDNA sequences follow a concerted evolutionary pattern through the intragenomic homogenization of different repeat units. In addition, the satDNA library hypothesis predicts that related species share a series of satDNA variants descended from a common ancestor species, with differential amplification of different satDNA variants. The finding of a same satDNA family in species belonging to different genera within Characidae fish provided the opportunity to test both concerted evolution and library hypotheses. For this purpose, we analyzed here sequence variation and abundance of this satDNA family in ten species, by a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS), PCR and Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found extensive between-species variation for the number and size of pericentromeric FISH signals. At genomic level, the analysis of 1000s of DNA sequences obtained by Illumina sequencing and PCR amplification allowed defining 150 haplotypes which were linked in a common minimum spanning tree, where different patterns of concerted evolution were apparent. This also provided a glimpse into the satDNA library of this group of species. In consistency with the library hypothesis, different variants for this satDNA showed high differences in abundance between species, from highly abundant to simply relictual variants. PMID:28855916
Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio
Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto
Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081
Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto
B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.
Thomaz, Andréa T; Arcila, Dahiana; Ortí, Guillermo; Malabarba, Luiz R
The subfamily Stevardiinae is a diverse and widely distributed clade of freshwater fishes from South and Central America, commonly known as "tetras" (Characidae). The group was named "clade A" when first proposed as a monophyletic unit of Characidae and later designated as a subfamily. Stevardiinae includes 48 genera and around 310 valid species with many species presenting inseminating reproductive strategy. No global hypothesis of relationships is available for this group and currently many genera are listed as incertae sedis or are suspected to be non-monophyletic. We present a molecular phylogeny with the largest number of stevardiine species analyzed so far, including 355 samples representing 153 putative species distributed in 32 genera, to test the group's monophyly and internal relationships. The phylogeny was inferred using DNA sequence data from seven gene fragments (mtDNA: 12S, 16S and COI; nuclear: RAG1, RAG2, MYH6 and PTR). The results support the Stevardiinae as a monophyletic group and a detailed hypothesis of the internal relationships for this subfamily. A revised classification based on the molecular phylogeny is proposed that includes seven tribes and also defines monophyletic genera, including a resurrected genus Eretmobrycon, and new definitions for Diapoma, Hemibrycon, Bryconamericus sensu stricto, and Knodus sensu stricto, placing some small genera as junior synonyms. Inseminating species are distributed in several clades suggesting that reproductive strategy is evolutionarily labile in this group of fishes.
Composition and interrelationships of a large Neotropical freshwater fish group, the subfamily Cheirodontinae (Characiformes: Characidae): a case study based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.
Mariguela, T C; Ortí, G; Avelino, G S; Abe, K T; Oliveira, C
Characidae is the most species-rich family of freshwater fishes in the order Characiformes, with more than 1000 valid species that correspond to approximately 55% of the order. Few hypotheses about the composition and internal relationships within this family are available and most fail to reach an agreement. Among Characidae, Cheirodontinae is an emblematic group that includes 18 genera (1 fossil) and approximately 60 described species distributed throughout the Neotropical region. The taxonomic and systematic history of Cheirodontinae is complex, and only two hypotheses about the internal relationships in this subfamily have been reported to date. In the present study, we test the composition and relationships of fishes assigned to Cheirodontinae based on a broad taxonomic sample that also includes some characid incertae sedis taxa that were previously considered to be part of Cheirodontinae. We present phylogenetic analyses of a large molecular dataset of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Our results reject the monophyly of Cheirodontinae as previously conceived, as well as the tribes Cheirodontini and Compsurini, and the genera Cheirodon, Compsura, Leptagoniates, Macropsobrycon, Odontostilbe, and Serrapinnus. On the basis of these results we propose: (1) the exclusion of Amazonspinther and Spintherobolus from the subfamily Cheirodontinae since they are the sister-group of all remaining Characidae; (2) the removal of Macropsobrycon xinguensis of the genus Macropsobrycon; (3) the removal of Leptagoniates pi of the genus Leptagoniates; (4) the inclusion of Leptagoniates pi in the subfamily Cheirodontinae; (5) the removal of Cheirodon stenodon of the genus Cheirodon and its inclusion in the subfamily Cheirodontinae under a new genus name; (6) the need to revise the polyphyletic genera Compsura, Odontostilbe, and Serrapinnus; and (7) the division of Cheirodontinae in three newly defined monophyletic tribes: Cheirodontini, Compsurini, and Pseudocheirodontini
Nishiyama, P B; Vieira, M M R; Porto, F E; Borin, L A; Portela-Castro, A L B; Santos, I C M
The group Incertae sedis within the Characidae family currently includes 88 genera, previously included in the subfamily Tetragonopterinae. Among them is the genus Astyanax comprising a group of species with similar morphology and widely distributed in the Neotropics. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the karyotype diversity in Astyanax species from different watersheds by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH rDNA 18S) probe.specimens of Astyanax aff. paranae belonging to the "scabripinnis complex", Astyanax asunsionensis and Astyanax aff. bimaculatus were analyzed". Two sympatric karyomorphs were observed in Astyanax.aff paranae, one of them having2n=48andthe other one with 2n=50 chromosomes. Other population of this same species also presented 2n=50 chromosomes, but differing in the karyotype formula and with macro supernumerary chromosome found in 100% of the cells in about 80%of females analyzed. Two population of A. asuncionensis and one population of Astyanax. aff. bimaculatus, also showed a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, but also differing in their karyotype formulas. Therefore, A. asuncionensis was also characterized by intraspecific chromosome diversity. The C-banding analysis was able to demonstrate a distinctable to demonstrate a distinct pattern of heterochromatin differing A. asuncionensis from Astyanax aff. paranae and Astyanax aff. bimaculatus. The supernumerary chromosome of Astyanax aff. paranae proved completely heterochromatic. Only Astyanax.aff. bimaculatus multiple showed multiple sites of nucleolar organizing regions. The other species were characterized by having a simple system of NOR. These data contributes to the know ledge of the existing biodiversity in our fish fauna, here highlighted by the inter- and intraspecific chromosomal diversity in the genus Astyanax.
Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo
This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group.
Diniz, Débora; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos
Chromosomes of Triportheus nematurus, a fish species from family Characidae, were analyzed in order to establish the conventional karyotype, location of C-band positive heterochromatin, Ag-NORs, GC- and AT-rich sites, and mapping of 18S and 5S rDNA with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The diploid number found was 2n = 52 chromosomes in both males and females. However, the females presented a pair of differentiated heteromorphic chromosomes, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The Z chromosome was metacentric and the largest one in the karyotype, bearing C-positive heterochromatin at pericentromeric and telomeric regions. The W chromosome was middle-sized submetacentric, appearing mostly heterochromatic after C-banding and presenting heterogeneous heterochromatin composed of GC- and AT-rich regions revealed by fluorochrome staining. Ag-NORs were also GC-rich and surrounded by heterochromatic regions, being located at the secondary constriction on the short arms of the second chromosome pair, in agreement with 18S rDNA sites detected with FISH. The 18S and 5S rDNA were aligned in tandem, representing an uncommon situation in fishes. The results obtained reinforce the basal condition of the ZZ/ZW sex system in the genus Triportheus, probably arisen prior to speciation in the group.
Tabares, C J; Montoya, A F; Arboleda, L; Echeverri, A; Restrepo, L F; Olivera-Angel, M
Effect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae). In Colombia the fish Brycon henni is a protected endemic species. It inhabits water bodies in coffee producing areas (700-1900 ma.s.l.; 4 degrees 35'56" N - 74 degrees 04'51" W; 18-28 degrees C). Insufficient knowledge of its basic biology and behavior prevent the commercial culture of this promising fish. We studied the production and sperm physiology of captive males. Along a year 20 samples were taken from each of 10 males. The sample was obtained by abdominal cefalo-caudal massage and transported to the laboratory at 4 degrees C. Except for September and October (maximum rainfall), sperm was always obtained in at least 50% of the males. Color, osmolality and pH were similar in all the samples. Volume, concentration, viability, motility and activation time were variable: sunshine had a positive effect on volume (Spearman p < 0.05) and on sperm concentration (Spearman p < 0.05) while pluviosity had a negative effect on volume and viability. The proportion of ions (Na, K, Mg, Ca) was constant along the year; Na being 10-fold higher than K and 100-fold higher than Mg and Ca; however the absolute concentration of all ions was slightly higher in April and in July (with no apparent relation with the other variables analyzed).
Small, G.E.; Pringle, C.M.; Pyron, M.; Duff, J.H.
Nutrient recycling by animals is a potentially important biogeochemical process in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stoichiometric traits of individual species may result in some taxa playing disproportionately important roles in the recycling of nutrients relative to their biomass, acting as keystone nutrient recyclers. We examined factors controlling the relative contribution of 12 Neotropical fish species to nutrient recycling in four streams spanning a range of phosphorus (P) levels. In high-P conditions (135 ??g/L soluble reactive phosphorus, SRP), most species fed on P-enriched diets and P excretion rates were high across species. In low-P conditions (3 ??g/L SRP), aquatic food resources were depleted in P, and species with higher body P content showed low rates of P recycling. However, fishes that were subsidized by terrestrial inputs were decoupled from aquatic P availability and therefore excreted P at disproportionately high rates. One of these species, Astyanax aeneus (Characidae), represented 12% of the total population and 18% of the total biomass of the fish assemblage in our focal low-P study stream but had P excretion rates >10-fold higher than other abundant fishes. As a result, we estimated that P excretion by A. aeneus accounted for 90% of the P recycled by this fish assemblage and also supplied ???90% of the stream P demand in this P-limited ecosystem. Nitrogen excretion rates showed little variation among species, and the contribution of a given species to ecosystem N recycling was largely dependent upon the total biomass of that species. Because of the high variability in P excretion rates among fish species, ecosystem-level P recycling could be particularly sensitive to changes in fish community structure in P-limited systems. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.
Small, Gaston E; Pringle, Catherine M; Pyron, Mark; Duff, John H
Nutrient recycling by animals is a potentially important biogeochemical process in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stoichiometric traits of individual species may result in some taxa playing disproportionately important roles in the recycling of nutrients relative to their biomass, acting as keystone nutrient recyclers. We examined factors controlling the relative contribution of 12 Neotropical fish species to nutrient recycling in four streams spanning a range of phosphorus (P) levels. In high-P conditions (135 microg/L soluble reactive phosphorus, SRP), most species fed on P-enriched diets and P excretion rates were high across species. In low-P conditions (3 microg/L SRP), aquatic food resources were depleted in P, and species with higher body P content showed low rates of P recycling. However, fishes that were subsidized by terrestrial inputs were decoupled from aquatic P availability and therefore excreted P at disproportionately high rates. One of these species, Astyanax aeneus (Characidae), represented 12% of the total population and 18% of the total biomass of the fish assemblage in our focal low-P study stream but had P excretion rates > 10-fold higher than other abundant fishes. As a result, we estimated that P excretion by A. aeneus accounted for 90% of the P recycled by this fish assemblage and also supplied approximately 90% of the stream P demand in this P-limited ecosystem. Nitrogen excretion rates showed little variation among species, and the contribution of a given species to ecosystem N recycling was largely dependent upon the total biomass of that species. Because of the high variability in P excretion rates among fish species, ecosystem-level P recycling could be particularly sensitive to changes in fish community structure in P-limited systems.
Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst; Strecker, Ulrike
Astyanax has become an important model system for evolutionary studies of cave animals. We investigated correlations of population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data and phylogeographic patterns shown by mitochondrial DNA sequences in Mexican cave and surface fish of the genus Astyanax (Characidae, Teleostei) to improve the understanding of the colonization history of this neotropical fish in Central and North America and to assess a recent taxonomic classification. The distribution of nuclear genotypes is not congruent with that of the mitochondrial clades. Admixture analyses suggest there has been nuclear gene flow between populations defined by different mitochondrial clades. The microsatellite data indicate that there was mitochondrial capture of a cave population from adjacent populations. Furthermore, gene flow also occurred between populations belonging to different nuclear genotypic clusters. This indicates that neither the nuclear genotypic clusters nor the mitochondrial clades represent independent evolutionary units, although the mitochondrial divergences are high and in a range usually characteristic for different fish species. This conclusion is supported by the presence of morphologically intermediate forms. Our analyses show that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt limited gene flow, but has been crossed by Astyanax several times. In Yucatán, where obvious geographic barriers are missing, the incongruence between the distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial markers reflects random colonization events caused by inundations or marine transgressions resulting in random phylogeographic breaks. Thus, conclusions about the phylogeographic history and even more about the delimitation of species should not be based on single genetic markers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali
Abstract The Hyphessobrycon are allocated in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family, one of the genera with more species of the group. The chromosomes of some species of Hyphessobrycon are known, and the diploid number most common for genus is 2n = 50 chromosomes. The aims of this study were to examine the karyotype macrostructure in the Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, and show a new origin hypothesis for B chromosomes. The diploid number observed for Hyphessobrycon eques was 2n = 52 chromosomes, and a karyotype formulae of 12m + 18sm + 8st + 14a, with FN (fundamental number) = 90 for both sexes. Only two females showed one B chromosome. The heterochromatin was observed mainly on centromeric regions, and in the long arm of the B chromosome. In this paper, the relationship of the B chromosome of Hyphessobrycon eques with an occasional chromosome rearrangement was discussed. PMID:26310656
Netto-Ferreira, A L; Birindelli, J L O; Sousa, L M; Menezes, N A
A new species of Rhinopetitia is described from the Rio Teles Pires, a major tributary of the Rio Tapajós. The new taxon is distinguished from its only congener, Rhinopetitia myersi, by having all premaxillary teeth in both rows with seven to nine cusps, maxillary teeth with seven or eight cusps, a distinct dark midlateral stripe on the body and a round humeral blotch (v. outer series of premaxillary teeth with three cusps and inner series of premaxillary teeth with three to five cusps, maxillary teeth with three to five cusps, the absence of a dark midlateral stripe and humeral blotch). Putative characters suggesting a close relationship between Rhinopetitia, Bryconacidnus, Ceratobranchia, Monotocheirodon, Odontostoechus, Othonocheirodus and Rhinobrycon are presented. This putative clade is included in the Stevardiinae, a monophyletic group within the Characidae. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Piscor, Diovani; Alves, Anderson Luís; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali
The species of genus Astyanax is widely distributed in freshwater neotropical zones. Astyanax is considered to be taxonomically confused, similar to other genera placed incertae sedis in Characidae. The cytogenetics of this genus is well characterized; species vary widely in diploid number, from 2n=36 chromosomes in Astyanax schubarti to 2n=50 for most species studied. The size, number, and position of different cytological markers vary among species and populations of Astyanax. We analyzed the karyotypes of individuals from three Astyanax species (Astyanax abramis, Astyanax altiparanae, and Astyanax eigenmanniorum) from populations not previously analyzed. We describe variations in several cytogenetic markers and the karyotypic relationships between them, specifically focusing on the characteristics of the conserved and divergent locations of the ribosomal genes. Our data are useful for establishing relationships between species and for investigating the karyotype evolution within the genus.
The life cycle of Neocladocystis intestinalis (Vaz, 1932) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae), in Aylacostoma chloroticum (Prosobranchia: Thiaridae), and Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae), in Argentina.
Quintana, Manuel G; Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita
The life cycle of Neocladocystis intestinalis (Vaz, 1932) was resolved experimentally. The prosobranchiate snail Aylacostoma chloroticum Hylton Scott (Thiaridae) collected in the Yacyretá Dam, Province of Misiones, Argentina, was found naturally infected with cercariae that possessed pigmented eye spots, 7 pairs of penetration glands, 12 pairs of flame cells, and a V-shaped, or Y-shaped excretory vesicle with very short stem. The cercariae developed in oval cysts, which were found on fin rays, and under scales of naturally and experimentally exposed tetragonopterid fish species and of experimentally exposed poecilid and prochilodont fish species. Adults were obtained experimentally from juvenile Salminus brasiliensis (Characidae), bred in captivity, and infected with metacercariae from albino Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Tetragonopteridae), which had been exposed to emerging cercariae.
Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás
Presently, only 2 species of dactylogyrid monogeneans have been reported Characidae inhabiting lakes and streams from the Pampasic region (central Argentina). During a parasitological survey on the characid Oligosarcus jenynsii, from Nahuel Rucá Lake (Buenos Aires province, Argentina), dactylogyrids were found on the gills. Specimens were identified as members of Characithecium: C. chascomusensis n. comb, C. longianchoratum n. sp., C. robustum n. sp., C. quadratum n. sp. and C. chelatum n. sp. These species can be distinguished from each other mainly by differences in the shape of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ, morphology of anchors and ventral bars as well as position of vaginal aperture. The observation of some additional features present in all species studied, such as the vaginal aperture position (as midventral, lateroventral or lateromarginal) and the variability in the morphology of ventral bar (posteromedial projection present or absent) justified an emended diagnosis of Characithecium.
Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás
Nematodes belonging to genus Hedruris Nitzsch, 1821 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) were found in the stomach of the freshwater fish Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther, 1864) (Characidae) from a shallow eutrophic lake in Argentina. Morphological comparisons with congeneric relatives showed that these nematodes belong to a new species, for which H. bifida n. sp. is proposed. Hedruris bifida n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: bifid deirids, absence of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal papillae and non-mammillated eggs. The new species closely resembles Hedruris suttonae Brugni & Viozzi, 2010¸ the only known species from Argentina; however, the bifid deirids in the new species and the distribution pattern of perianal spines in females clearly distinguish both species. Hedruris bifida n. sp. represents the second nominal species of the genus in Argentina and the eighth species described in the Neotropical region.
Monteiro, Cassandra M; Kritsky, Delane C; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C
Anacanthorus franciscanus sp. n. and Anacanthorus brevicirrus sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) are described from the gills of the matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia Günther (Characidae), from the Rio São Francisco in Brazil. Anacanthorusfranciscanus most closely resembles Anacanthorus e[egans and A. kruidenieri from the matrinchõ, Brycon melanopterus, of the Amazon River Basin. It differs from these species in part by having the bulbous proximal end of the hook shank with two translucent regions. Anacanthorus brevicirrus resembles A. franciscanus, A. kruidenieri and A. elegans but is differentiated from these species by its short straight male copulatory organ and by having one translucent region in the bulbous base of the hook shank.
Garavello, J C; Sampaio, F A A
Five new species of the Neotropical characiform genus Astyanax Baird & Girard are described from Rio Iguaçu at the border of Paraná and Santa Catarina states, southeastern Brazil and Astyanax gymnogenis Eigenmann is redescribed. Each new species can be distinguished from all other Astyanax species from the upper Rio Paraná basin by exclusive combinations of: tooth shape, number of dental cuspids, distance between third infraorbital and preopercle, number of lateral line scales, longitudinal series of scales, number of gill-rakers and differences from shape of body and head traits. This study proposes the species of genus Astyanax from Rio Iguaçu as probably endemic, since all of them are absent from tributaries of the Rio Paraná hydrographic system. The high degree of diversification acquired by those Astyanax species in the Iguaçu basin may perhaps be allied to the long isolation period of this river from the Rio Paraná basin caused by the Iguaçu waterfalls. This barrier probably isolated those basins resulting in original groups of Characiformes and then Astyanax species, both isolated from one another and both different from their relatives in neighbouring basins.
Piscor, Diovani; Centofante, Liano; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali
Genus Astyanax is well distributed in Neotropical freshwater environments and its taxonomic position is uncertain, as is the case with other Characidae genera allocated in the group incertae sedis. This study aimed to analyse the karyotype of different populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Corumbataí River basin) using Giemsa staining, C-band technique, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes, in addition we describe for the first time the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNAgenes in A. marionae (ParaguayRiver basin). Chromosomes of three A. fasciatus populations were analysed (two with 2n = 50 and one with 2n = 48) and the heterochromatin was organized in two forms (blocks with blurred boundaries and distinct blocks). H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in all the three populations of A. fasciatus on two chromosome pairs (one metacentric chromosome showing H3 histone and 5S rRNA gene clusters). In A. marionae (2n = 48), H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes were observed in one acrocentric chromosome pair (different pairs). Further, differences between karyotypes and heterochromatin, as well as the chromosomal organization of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in Astyanax species, focussing on chromosome evolution in the group are discussed.
Mendes, M M; da Rosa, R; Giuliano-Caetano, L; Dias, A L
A large number of genera in the tropical fish family Characidae are incertae sedis. Cytogenetic analysis was made of four of these species: Astyanax eigenmanniorum, Deuterodon stigmaturus, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii, and H. anisitsi, collected from various hydrographic basins: hydrographic system from Laguna dos Patos/RS, Tramandaí basin/RS and Tibagi River basin/PR. The first two species were collected in their type locality in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The 2n = 48 karyotype was observed only in A. eigenmanniorum, while the other species had 2n = 50 chromosomes, with different karyotypic formulas. There was weak heterochromatin staining in the pericentromeric region of A. eigenmanniorum, D. stigmaturus and H. luetkenni chromosomes. In H. anisitsi, heterochromatin appeared to be more abundant and distributed in the pericentromeric and terminal regions of the chromosomes; three pairs showed more evident heterochromatic blocks. There were multiple Ag-NORs in all populations, visualized by FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. While D. stigmaturus and H. luetkenii had conserved AgNOR, CMA3 and 18S rDNA sites, the other two species showed intra- and interindividual variation at these sites. The karyotype variability was high, as is common in this group of fish. Different species arising from isolated hydrographic basins maintain an elevated level of karyotype differentiation, mainly with respect to chromosome structure, heterochromatin distribution and rDNA localization. This is the first report with cytogenetic data for D. stigmaturus and H. luetkenii.
Cytogenetic analysis in the incertae sedis species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britzki, 2000 and Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper Paraná river basin
Martinez, Emanuel R. M.; Alves, Anderson L.; Silveira, Sara M.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
Abstract Cytogenetic analyses were accomplished in two populations of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britzki, 2000 and one population of Hyphessobrycon eques Steindachner, 1882, considered incertae sedis in Characidae family. Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Mogi-Guaçu and Tietê rivers) presented 2n=50, with the same karyotype formula: 6M+12SM+20ST+12A (FN=88). Hyphessobrycon eques from Capivara river presented 2n=52 and karyotype formula 14M+16SM+4ST+18A (FN=86). In each karyotype, the nucleolus organizer regions were detected at the end of the short arm of a single medium-sized subtelocentric chromosome. The Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) marking is coincident for the NORs in chromosomes of the two species and present additionally in two different chromosomes of Astyanax altiparanae thus showinginterpopulation differences in this species. In Hyphessobrycon eques, weak heterochromatic blocks in the position of centromeres and telomeres of most chromosomes and negative C-banding for the NOR bearing chromosome were visualized. The obtained results contribute both to the understanding of karyotype evolution of these species and to the clarifying their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:24260651
Sánchez-Romero, Omar; Abad, César Quezada; Cordero, Patricio Quizhpe; de Sene, Viviani França; Nirchio, Mauro; Oliveira, Claudio
Abstract Karyotypic features of Rhoadsia altipinna Fowler, 1911 from Ecuador were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes through Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. The species exhibit a karyotype with 2n = 50, composed of 10 metacentric, 26 submetacentric and 14 subtelocentric elements, with a fundamental number FN=86 and is characterized by the presence of a larger metacentric pair (number 1), which is about 2/3 longer than the average length of the rest of the metacentric series. Sex chromosomes were not observed. Heterochromatin is identifiable on 44 chromosomes, distributed in paracentromeric position near the centromere. The first metacentric pair presents two well-defined heterochromatic blocks in paracentromeric position, near the centromere. Impregnation with silver nitrate showed a single pair of Ag-positive NORs localized at terminal regions of the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair number 12. FISH assay confirmed these localization of NORs and revealed that minor rDNA clusters occur interstitially on the larger metacentric pair number 1. Comparison of results here reported with those available on other Characidae permit to hypothesize that the presence of a very large metacentric pair might represent a unique and derived condition that characterize one of four major lineages molecularly identified in this family. PMID:26140168
New species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the anus and the gill lamellae of Astyanax aeneus (Pisces, Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the Rio Lacantún basin in the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules, Chiapas, Mexico.
Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Salgado-Maldonado, G
As part of a biological inventory of the Rio Lacantún basin in the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules from Chiapas State (southeastern, Mexico), the following monogenoid ectoparasites infecting the external surface of the anal opening and the gill lamellae of the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) in ten streams were found: Cacatuocotyle chajuli sp. nov. (anus), Cacatuocotyle exiguum sp. nov., and Cacatuocotyle sp. (gill lamellae). C. chajuli is differentiated from its single congener, Cacatuocotyle paranaensis (Boeger et al. Syst Parasitol 36:75-78, 1997), from the gills of Characidium lanei (Characidae) from Paraná Brazil, in having a noticeably V-shaped haptoral bar and larger hooks and anchors. C. exiguum differs from these two latter species in the size of its anchors. Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual specimens of C. chajuli and C. exiguum from different streams are provided. The present data support the statement about three species of Astyanax, which harbor the richest monogenoidean diversity in the Neotropics with a total of 18 species reported up to now. Occurrences of species of Cacatuocotyle on different sites of infection on three distant host species [including a Neotropical cichlid (Cichlidae) species] suggest that these monogenoideans switching to new hosts can result in the availability of potential hosts within the same habitat instead of showing signs of preferential switching between closely related hosts or on their respective microhabitats.
Background Nowadays, the genus Bryconamericus is placed in subfamily Stevardiinae within of Characidae, but not shows consistent evidence of monophyletism. The purpose of this work was to study the chromosomes of three species of Bryconamericus, aiming to add cytogenetic knowledge and contribute to the understanding of the chromosomal evolution of this genus. Results The chromosomes of three species of Bryconamericus were analyzed using cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of Bryconamericus stramineus contained 6 metacentric (m) + 10 submetacentric (sm) + 16 subtelocentric (st) + 20 acrocentric (a), the fundamental number (FN) of 84, one silver impregnated (Ag-NOR) pair, one pair bearing the 18S ribosomal DNA sites, another pair bearing the 5S rDNA sites, and a few positive C-bands. Bryconamericus turiuba had a karyotype containing 8 m + 10sm + 14st + 20a (FN = 84), one chromosome pair Ag-NOR, two pairs bearing the 18S rDNA sites, two pairs bearing the 5S rDNA sites, and a few C-band regions. Bryconamericus cf. iheringii had a karyotype containing 10 m + 14sm + 18st + 10a (FN = 94), including one pair with a secondary constriction Ag-NOR positive. In this karyotype the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the 18S and 5S rDNA probe in adjacent position. Conclusions The results obtained in this work showed different characteristics in the organization of two multigene families, indicating that distinct evolutionary forces acting on the diversity of rDNA sequences in the genome of three Bryconamericus species. PMID:23547656
Giesen, Suely C; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Calitz, Frikkie; Lizama, Maria de los Angeles Perez; Junker, Kerstin
During parasitological surveys of freshwater fish from the Miranda River, Brazil, 199 Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Characidae) were caught. Two pentastomid families, Subtriquetridae Fain, 1961, represented by its single genus Subtriquetra Sambon, 1922, and Sebekidae Sambon, 1922, represented by three genera, were present. Free-living larvae of Subtriquetra subtriquetra (Diesing, 1835) were collected from the swim bladder. Encysted larvae of Alofia Giglioli, 1922 were found in the abdominal cavity, chambers of the heart, musculature, on the surface of the gonads and swim bladder. Some Alofia larvae were moving freely in the swim bladder. Larvae of Sebekia Sambon, 1922 were encysted in the musculature. Some larvae of Leiperia Sambon, 1922 were found encysted in the musculature and on the surface of the pyloric caeca, whereas others occurred free in the abdominal cavity. In some of the latter, the head was buried deep in the wall of the intestine, stomach or ovaries, whereas the rest of their body remained free. Infective pentastomid larvae were present throughout the year with an overall prevalence of 77%. Both prevalence and intensity were higher in members of the Sebekidae than in Su. subtriquetra, possibly due to the latter's mode of transmission and its high pathogenicity. No sex-related, statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in prevalence or abundance were found. Fish weight and length had significant but weak positive correlations (r < or = 0.27) with the abundance of pentastomid larvae, possibly reflecting an increased likelihood of prior exposure in older fish. Parasite abundance had no significant effect on host body condition (p > or = 0.69). A higher prevalence and monthly mean abundance of pentastomids were seen in the dry season and might be due to increased host densities as habitats dry up. Pygocentrus nattereri represents a new intermediate host record for the genera Alofia, Leiperia and Subtriquetra.
Boudriot, F; Reutter, K
This study describes the ultrastructure of the taste buds of the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus and of the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani (= Anoptichthys) (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae). In Astyanax and Anoptichthys, taste buds occur in the epithelia of the lips, oral cavity, and, in Anoptichthys, lower jaw. Both possess three types of taste buds: type I (elevated), type II (slightly elevated), and type III taste buds (not elevated or sunken). The taste buds are up to 60 microm high and up to 35 microm wide. The taste bud's sensory epithelium consists of 100--130 elongated cells: light cells, dense-cored-vesicles (dcv) -cells, dark cells, and degenerating cells. The dcv-cells are rich in dense-cored vesicles and are described for the first time in a teleostean taste bud. At the taste bud's base, there lie two to three basal cells. The basal cells of type I and type II taste buds have microvillus (spine)-like processes, in contrast to those of type III taste buds. The taste bud's nerve fiber plexus is situated between the bases of the elongated taste bud cells and the basal cells. Afferent synapses occur between dcv-cells and basal cells (presynaptic sides) and axons (postsynaptic side). Indistinct synapses occur between light cells and dark cells (presynaptic sides) and axons (postsynaptic side). The nerve fiber plexes of Anoptichthys type II and type III taste buds contain significantly more axon profiles than those of Astyanax. This may be associated with a compensatory improvement of the sense of taste in the blind, cave-dwelling fish. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Highly Similar Morphologies Between Chromosomes Bearing U2 snRNA Gene Clusters in the Group Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Characiformes, Characidae): An Evolutionary Approach in Species with 2n = 36, 46, 48, and 50.
Piscor, Diovani; Centofante, Liano; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali
Repetitive sequences and their chromosomal locations have been widely studied in species of the Astyanax genus. However, the chromosomal organization of U2 snDNA remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to examine the chromosomal contexts of U2 snRNA and 5S rRNA genes in Astyanax species and determine the degree of chromosome morphological similarity between species with different diploid numbers. Clusters of U2 snDNA and 5S rDNA were determined in nine species of Astyanax, including two karyomorphs of Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier, 1819. All species exhibited U2 snDNA clusters on two chromosome pairs, except Astyanax mexicanus De Filippi, 1853 (one pair). The 5S rDNA clusters were located on one chromosome pair in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000, and Astyanax marionae Eigenmann, 1911, two pairs in Astyanax abramis Jenyns, 1842, Astyanax asuncionensis Géry, 1972, Astyanax bockmanni Vari and Castro, 2007, Astyanax eigenmanniorum Cope, 1894, A. fasciatus (karyomorphs I and II), and Astyanax schubarti Britski, 1964, and four pairs in A. mexicanus. The relationships between the repetitive sequences in different species suggest that A. schubarti and A. mexicanus exhibit an unusual U2 snDNA chromosomal format as a result of events occurring in the evolutionary history of the Astyanax group.
During the 1988 rainy season, I studied the 24 h feeding chronology of juvenile (40–68 mm standard length) piranhas, Pygocentrus notatus (Characidae: Serrasalminae) from a natural population inhabiting a small savanna stream in Apure State, Venezuela. Stomach contents analyses, supported by laboratory determinations of digestion rate, showed that these fish are primarily diurnal carnivores. Predatory activity on 4–5 August 1988 increased markedly after sunrise, peaked around 1100 h, and essentially stopped after sunset. Means of stomach content weight-to-fish weight ratios among the periods sampled were significantly different. Small fish were the major prey at all hours (81% of total prey volume). Underlying factors responsible for the observed 24 h feeding patterns were not investigated, but avoidance of predation by adult piranhas, which were very active near sunset, may have been important.
A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from Central Veracruz, Mexico, described with the use of morphological and molecular data.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) collected in a tributary creek of the Bobos River in Filipinas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is set apart from all congeners by the combination of some morphological characters such as the testes position (oblique in most specimens), the ventral to oral sucker ratio (1:1.2 × 1:1.1), the cirrus sac originating at the ovarian region, and by having vitelline follicles not confluent in the posttesticular region. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. closely resembles Auriculostoma platense (Szidat, 1954) Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 and Auriculostoma diagonale Curran, Tkach and Overstreet, 2011 by possessing oblique testes; however, it differs from both species by possessing a genital pore located at level of the cecal bifurcation and by having vitelline follicles extending anteriorly up to the cecal bifurcation level, instead of a genital pore located between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and cecal bifurcation, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the mid level of the esophagus as in A. platense or to the pharynx level as in A. diagonale. Additionally, the new species differs from A. diagonale by having vitelline follicles not confluent or scarcely confluent in the posttesticular region rather than extensively confluent. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the new species demonstrated the presence of a single pair of muscular lobes on either side of the oral sucker, with a broad base, stretching from the ventrolateral to the dorsolateral side. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of the 28S rRNA gene sequences placed A. totonacapanensis as sister species of Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 . Nucleotide variation between A. totonacapanensis and A. astyanace was 2.0% and 3.6% for the 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequences, respectively. Sequence variation
Silva, Duilio M Z A; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto
Astyanax is a genus of Characidae fishes currently composed of 155 valid species. Previous cytogenetic studies revealed high chromosomal diversification among them, and several studies have been performed using traditional cytogenetic techniques to investigate karyotypes and chromosomal locations of 18S and 5S rDNA genes. However, only a few studies are currently available about other repetitive sequences. Here, the chromosomal location of small nuclear RNA genes, identified as U1 and U2 snRNA clusters, was established and compared to the distribution of 5S rDNA and histone clusters in 5 Astyanax species (A. paranae, A. fasciatus, A. bockmanni, A. altiparanae, and A. jordani) using FISH. The cytogenetic mapping of U1 and U2 snRNA demonstrated a conserved pattern in the number of sites per genome independent of the location in Astyanax species. The location of the U1 snRNA gene was frequently associated with 5S rDNA sequences, indicating a possible interaction between the distinct repetitive DNA families. Finally, comparisons involving the location of U1 and U2 snRNA clusters in the chromosomes of Astyanax species revealed a very diverse pattern, suggesting that many rearrangements have occurred during the diversification process of this group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zanata, Angela M; Lima, Flávio C T; Dario, Fabio DI; Gerhard, Pedro
Astyanax brucutu is described from the rio Pratinha, rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is promptly distinguished from other characids by having four, rarely three, robust, rounded, and usualy tricuspid teeth on inner premaxillary series and similar teeth on dentary. The species is furthermore characterized by a series of unusual character states in the Characidae, including head blunt in lateral and dorsal views, longitudinal foreshortening of lower jaw, ventral margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from horizontal limb of preopercle, leaving a broad area without superficial bones, mesethmoid anteroventrally expanded, and adductor mandibulae and primordial ligament remarkably developed. Analysis of gut contents of adults revealed the almost exclusive presence of crushed shells of tiny gastropods of the family Hydrobiidae. The robust anatomy of jaws, teeth, muscles and associated ligaments are likely adaptations to durophagy, a feeding strategy unusual among characids. Astyanax brucutu is known only from its type locality, an approximately 670 m long, transparent and isolated perennial epigean watercourse surrounded by subterranean or intermittent rivers. The distinctive combination of environmental features characterizing the area of occurrence of the new species is not observed elsewhere in the basin or adjacent basins. A series of severe anthropogenic impacts, associated with the restricted geographic range of the species, implies that A. brucutu should be regarded as Critically Endangered (CR) according to IUCN Red List Criteria.
da Silva, Laura Lahr Lourenço; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Dias, Ana Lúcia
The genus Astyanax comprises 86 species of fish distributed in Brazilian river basins and is considered of the Incertae sedis group within the family Characidae. This study presents an analysis of 12 specimens of Astyanax jacuhiensis from the Tramandai River Basin, RS Brazil: 6 from the Maquiné River and 6 from the Quadros Lagoon. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with different karyotypic formula between the two localities. The population from the Maquiné River showed 10m+26sm+6st+8a (FN=92). Fish from the Quadros Lagoon showed 12m+20sm+6st+12a (FN=88). AgNORs were evidenced in the short arm of one acrocentric chromosome pair in both populations, confirmed by FISH with the 18S rDNA probe. CMA3 fluorochrome corresponded with the AgNOR sites, while DAPI staining was negative in these regions. C banding revealed that heterochromatin was weakly distributed, mainly in the pericentromeric and terminal regions in most chromosomes. Analyses of male gonadal tissue were conducted with the objective of characterizing the meiotic chromosome behavior in A. jacuhiensis. The following stages were evidenced: spermatogonial with 50 chromosomes, pachytene and metaphase I with 25 bivalents, and metaphase II with 25 chromosomes, thus confirming the diploid number of the species. Chromosomal abnormalities were not observed. This study shows preliminary data on A. jacuhiensis from the Tramandai River Basin, contributing with more chromosomal information for this group of fish.
Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues
The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.
Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I
Oocyte secondary growth in S. spiloleura corresponds to the period in which different vesicular structures are formed, including the cortical alveoli and the yolk granules. The oocytes with cortical alveolus formation show vesicular structures with filamentous content in the cortical cytoplasmic region, which are the cortical alveolus precursors. In these oocytes, electron-dense vesicles of heterogenous content are dispersed in the inner cytoplasmic region and their nuclei are irregular, showing many nucleoli of different sizes. The oocytes in vitellogenesis are filled with many vesicles. The cortical alveolus precursors are in the peripheral region, and electron-dense granules are seen near to the nucleus. These fuse and form yolk granules. The oocytes in vitellogenesis show a very irregular nucleus that has nucleoli of different sizes. In the oocytes in final vitellogenesis, the yolk granules are scattered throughout the cytoplasm, displacing the cortical alveoli toward cell periphery. The nucleus is similar to the other stages.
Roxo, Fábio F.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.; Troy, Waldo P.
Abstract Two new species of Hisonotus are described from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin in Brazil. The most remarkable features of the new species are the odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows (one odontode after the other, but not necessarily forming parallel series) on the head and trunk (vs. odontodes not forming longitudinally aligned rows), a pair of rostral plates at the tip of the snout (vs. a single rostral plate), the functional v-shaped spinelet (vs. spinelet non-functional, square-shaped, or absent). These features suggest close phylogenetic relationships with Hisonotus bockmanni, H. insperatus, H. luteofrenatus and H. piracanjuba. Additionally, both new species are distinguished from their congeners by characters related to head length and depth, orbital diameter, suborbital depth, caudal peduncle depth, pectoral-fin spine length, snout length and counts of teeth. Hisonotus paresi sp. n. further differs from its congeners by having contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body, a character lacking in H. oliveirai sp. n. The variation in number and shape of the rostral plate, posterior rostrum plates, infraorbitals and the preopercle in both new species and in H. insperatus are discussed. PMID:24715789
Reusing, Ana Flávia; Renesto, Erasmo; Roxo, Fábio F.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.
Allozyme electrophoresis was used to examine 12 enzymatic systems in two populations of the genus Neoplecostomus from the Paraná River basin. Samples of Neoplecostomus sp. 1 were collected in Paraitinguinha stream of the Tietê River basin, in the municipality of Salesópolis, São Paulo State, and those of Neoplecostomus sp. 2 from São Domingos stream of the Rio Grande River basin, in the municipality of Muzambinho, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability of the two populations was estimated by Nei’s expected heterozygosity and was considered lower than average for populations of freshwater fish. The proportion of polymorphic loci was low (only 5.26% for the locus Idh). The low frequency of heterozygosity for both populations revealed a high fixation of alleles for each locus. Homozygote excess was observed in both populations. The values of Nei’s genetic identity and the presence of loci with different allele frequencies in both populations may imply that the two populations belong to different species. The genetic variability between populations was compared to other data for loricariids. PMID:21931525
Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Na-Ri; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ji-Hyeong; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Kwon
Hyphessobrycon eques is a famous fish for ornamental fish market and aquarium. They are inhabit in regions of Amazon and Paraguay River basin. Serpae fishs were investigated 2–3 males are chased to female, and then males attempted to simulate the females abdomen. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 28°C. The fertilized eggs had adhesive and demesal characteristics and had a mean diameter of 0.92 ± 0.01 mm. Larvae hatched at 16 hrs post fertilization. The hatched larvae averaged 2.90 ± 0.16 mm in total length (LT). Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day post hatching. At 45 days post hatching, the larvae were 12.5 ± 1.60 mm LT and had reached the juvenile stage. PMID:25949194
Walsh, Stephen J.; Ribeiro, Frank R.V.; Rapp Py-Daniel, Lúcia H.
The Neotropical catfish genus Tympanopleura, previously synonymized within Ageneiosus, is revalidated and included species are reviewed. Six species are recognized, two of which are described as new. Tympanopleura is distinguished from Ageneiosus by having an enlarged gas bladder not strongly encapsulated in bone; a prominent pseudotympanum consisting of an area on the side of the body devoid of epaxial musculature where the gas bladder contacts the internal coelomic wall; short, blunt head without greatly elongated jaws; and smaller adult body size. Species of Tympanopleura are distinguished from each other on the basis of unique meristic, morphometric, and pigmentation differences. Ageneiosus melanopogon and Tympanopleura nigricollis are junior synonyms ofTympanopleura atronasus. Tympanopleura alta is a junior synonym of Tympanopleura brevis. A lectotype is designated for T. brevis. Ageneiosus madeirensis is a junior synonym of Tympanopleura rondoni. Tympanopleura atronasus, T. brevis, T. longipinna, and T. rondoni are relatively widespread in the middle and upper Amazon River basin. Tympanopleura cryptica is described from relatively few specimens collected in the upper portion of the Amazon River basin in Peru and the middle portion of that basin in Brazil. Tympanopleura piperata is distributed in the upper and middle Amazon River basin, as well as in the Essequibo River drainage of Guyana.
Landínez-García, Ricardo M; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J
Brycon henni (Characiformes, Bryconidae) is a trans-Andean omnivorous fish considered as promising species in aquaculture of temperate zones. In this work we report for first time the complete mitochondrial genome of B. henni. This mitogenome spans 16,885 bp and encodes 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Additionally, the synteny is conserved with others species of the order Characiformes.
Oliveira, A K; Alvim, M C; Peret, A C; Alves, C B
This study aimed to identify shifts in the Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875 diet related to body size. Specimens were collected from April 1992 to January 1993 at the Cajuru Reservoir, in the Pará River, São Francisco River Basin, by seining the shore with nets of nylon, 1 mm opening, and with gill nets. Stomach contents of 152 individuals measuring 15-192 mm SL were examined. Food items were identified and weighed separately. For qualitative analysis, the frequency of occurrence method was used. The relative importance of each food component was determined based on the alimentary index (IAi). The frequencies of occurrence data were subjected to cluster analysis using the Canberra coefficient of dissimilarity and UPGMA as the cluster method. Distinctive gradual changes in food habits, associated with body size, were identified in this species. The smaller individuals fed predominantly on microcrustaceans and insect larvae. The intermediate size classes ingested insects, fish fins, fish scales, and chunks of fish flesh, in this order of importance. For the larger pirambebas, fish was the most abundant food category identified, followed by insects.
Faustino, F; Silva, R C; Hilbig, C C; Makino, L C; Senhorini, J A; Ninhaus-Silveira, A; Nakaghi, L S O
This study analyzed semen parameters and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Brycon vermelha. The semen was white and viscous, with a mean volume of 5.0±2.6 mL/kg body weight and mean spermatozoon concentration of 4.3±0.8×10(10) spermatozoa/mL. The estimated motility rate was 90%, with 50% of spermatozoa motile at 35.0±0.1 s and 100% immotile by 46.5±0.1 s. The spermatozoon of B. vermelha had a distinct head, midpiece, and flagellum. The ovoid head measured 1.9±0.2 μm by 1.3±0.1 μm, with its volume almost completely occupied by the nucleus, and was enveloped by an irregular nuclear membrane, with no acrosome vesicle. The nuclear fossa held the centriole complex and the initial segment of flagellum. The midpiece was symmetrical and measured 1.3±0.3μm. Mitochondria were scarce and restricted to the anterior region, while vesicles were absent. The posterior region of the midpiece was characterized by the absence of mitochondria and the presence of the cytoplasmic sheath. The flagellum, enclosed by the flagellar membrane, measured 29.6±3.4 μm, and possessed an axial filament containing a 9+2 microtubule pattern. The spermatozoa of B. vermelha appeared similar in structure to those of fish that breed through external fertilization, thus classifying them as uniflagellate anacrosomal aquasperm, or Type 1 aquasperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Huanpu; Li, Shuisheng; Xie, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Chunhua; Deng, Siping; Li, Guangli; Huang, Hai
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Piaractus brachypomus is described in the present study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,561 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The P. brachypomus mitochondrial genome shows the similar gene order and composition with those of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand in descending order is 31.57% of A, 26.19% of C, 26.18% of T and 16.06% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
Ballen, Gustavo A; Mojica, José Iván
A new species of Farlowella is described from El Carmen de Chucurí in the Departamento de Santander, western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, río Magdalena Basin, Colombia. Farlowella yarigui n. sp. differs from its congeners in lateral body plate morphology, abdominal cover, cephalic hypertrophied odontodes, and details of coloration. This is the first verifiable record of the genus in the Magdalena drainage. Aspects of natural history and implications of this finding are provided concerning the state of knowledge of the fishes of the río Magdalena Basin. Previous records of Farlowella gracilis in the río Cauca basin are examined and herein considered erroneous, rendering the new species the only representative of the genus in the Magdalena-Cauca system. A key to species of Farlowella from Colombia is provided.
Parenti, Lynne R; LoNostro, Fabiana L; Grier, Harry J
Tomeurus gracilis is a species long considered pivotal in understanding the evolution of livebearing in atherinomorph fishes. Tomeurus gracilis is a zygoparous or embryoparous poeciliid: internal fertilization is followed by females laying fertilized eggs singly or retaining fertilized eggs until or near hatching. Tomeurus was hypothesized as the sister group of the viviparous poeciliids until it was proposed as a close relative of a derived viviparous poeciliid, Cnesterodon, hence nested among viviparous taxa rather than near the root of the tree. Here, we describe and compare reproductive morphological characters of the little-known Tomeurus with those of representative atherinomorphs. In Tomeurus and Cnesterodon, sperm are packaged in naked sperm bundles, or spermatozeugmata, in a configuration considered here diagnostic of viviparous poeciliids. Testes are single and free sperm are stored in the ovary in both taxa in contrast to oviparous atherinomorphs in which testes are paired and sperm are not packaged and not stored in the ovary. Efferent ducts in Cnesterodon testes and other viviparous poeciliids have a PAS-positive secretion demonstrating presence of a glycoprotein that inactivates sperm or prevents final sperm maturation. No PAS-positive staining secretion was observed in Tomeurus or oviparous atherinomorphs. Tomeurus shares apomorphic reproductive characters, such as sperm bundle and testis morphology and a gonopodium, with viviparous poeciliids and plesiomorphic characters, such as a thick zona pellucida with filaments, with oviparous taxa. We do not postulate loss or reversal of viviparity in Tomeurus, and we corroborate its phylogenetic position as sister to the viviparous poeciliids.
Bellafronte, Elisangela; Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Filho, Orlando Moreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo
Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes. PMID:23271937
Velasquez-Vottelerd, P.; Anton, Y.; Salazar-Lugo, R.
The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd) effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV) and acid soluble thiols levels (AST) in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill) was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate) were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l-1). We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman’s method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions. PMID:26623384
SA, N Characiformes Characidae (characins) Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus G, SA, N, NR Siluriformes Ictaluridae (bullhead... Characidae Astyanax mexicanus Mexican tetra -- Cichlidae Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum Rio Grande cichlid pond fish Tilapia aurea Blue tiliapia aquaria
Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira
Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.
Tolussi, Carlos E; Gomes, Aline D Olio; Kumar, Anupama; Ribeiro, Cristiele S; Nostro, Fabiana L Lo; Bain, Peter A; de Souza, Gabriela B; Cuña, Rodrigo Da; Honji, Renato M; Moreira, Renata G
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have the potential to alter fish reproduction at various levels of organization. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a natural environment with heavily anthropogenic influence on the physiological processes involved in reproduction in the freshwater fish lambari (Astyanax fasciatus) using different biomarkers. Adult males and females were collected in different seasons from two distinct sites in the same watershed: Ponte Nova Reservoir (PN) considered a pristine or small anthropogenic influence reference point; and Billings Reservoir (Bil), subjected to a large anthropogenic impact. Biological indices, such as hepatosomatic index and gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal histomorphology, fecundity, and biomarkers such as plasma levels of estradiol (E2) as well as hepatic gene expression of its alfa nuclear receptor (ERα), were analyzed. Hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression was evaluated in both sexes, as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. Females collected at PN presented a typical annual variation reflected in GSI, whereas for those sampled at Bil the index did not change through the seasons. The higher concentration of E2 in males collected at Bil during spring/2013, together with the detection of VTG gene expression, suggest the presence of EDCs in the water. These EDCs may have also influenced fecundity of females from Bil, which was higher during winter and spring/2013. Gene expression of ERα and ovarian morphology did not differ between fish from both sites. Water conditions from Bil reservoir impacted by anthropic activity clearly interfered mainly with biomarkers of biological effect such as plasma E2 levels and absolute and relative fecundity, but also altered biomarkers of exposure as VTG gene expression. These facts support the notion that waterborne EDCs are capable of causing estrogenic activity in A. fasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Siqueira-Silva, D H; Dos Santos-Silva, A P; Bashiyo-Silva, C; Rodrigues, M S; Vicentini, C A; Ninhaus-Silveira, A; Veríssimo-Silveira, R
This study aimed to describe testicular and its main ducts structure in the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, contributing to the knowledge of the region in which semen is produced, storage and released, focusing mainly on the dynamic of germinal epithelium and Sertoli cells during germ cell maturation. Ten sexually mature male A. altiparanae had their testes processed according to the routine protocols to optical microscopy. Moreover, spermatic ducts and tubular compartment of the testes of three specimens were perfused with vinyl resin for gross anatomy and scanning electron microscopy. Astyanax altiparanae testes are paired organs, separated for most of their extension, joining posteriorly in a spermatic duct formed by a squamous simple epithelium. Seminiferous compartment presents anastomosing tubular type organisation, and spermatogonia spread along its extent. Spermatogenesis is of cystic type, and there is no main testicular duct. Spermatogenesis develops in 'waves', from posterior to anterior part of the gonad. Thus, while sperm is storage posteriorly, spermatogenesis keeps maturing germ cells anteriorly, making the germinal epithelium very dynamic, holding Sertoli cells that change their function as a cystic envelope to produce secretions of the seminal fluid and store sperm. Such kind of development is thought to be responsible by the high prolificacy of this species. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Vieira, Vanessa A R O; Correia, Tiago G; Moreira, Renata G
We investigated the effects of acidic pH and acute aluminum (Al) exposure on the metabolic substrates of Astyanax bimaculatus, and on the ability of these animals to recover in clean water. After an acclimation period, sexually mature A. bimaculatus females were sorted into six glass aquaria with three experimental groups: control in neutral pH (7.0), acidic pH (5.5), and Al (0.5 mg·L(-1)) in acidic pH (5.5). After a 96 h treatment, 10 animals from each experimental group were sampled and the rest were returned to clean water in neutral pH without Al for a recovery period of 96 h. The acidic pH, either alone or combined with Al, decreased T4 levels, whereas Al exposure increased T3 levels. Recovery of T3 levels occurred after 96 h. Al exposure decreased ovary and plasma proteins, muscle glycogen contents, and hepatic lipids due to lipoperoxidation. In the recovery phase, lipids decreased in most tissues, probably to re-establish ovary protein and hepatic glycogen. A. bimaculatus prioritized the use of energetic resources during acclimatization to Al instead of prioritizing reproduction, thereby avoiding the ovulation of impaired eggs.
Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel
Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.
Zhang, Songhao; Cui, Jun; Xu, Ru; Xu, Peng; Sun, Jinsheng
The complete mitochondrial genome of Paracheirodon axelrodi was obtained by the traditional polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome was determined to be a 17,100 bp long circular molecule. It contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. This is first report on the complete mitogenome sequence of P. axelrodi.
de A Silva, Duílio M Z; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Penitente, Manolo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto
Eukaryote genomes are frequently burdened with the presence of supernumerary (B) chromosomes. Their origin is frequently investigated by chromosome painting, under the hypothesis that sharing the repetitive DNA sequences contained in the painting probes is a sign of common descent. However, the intragenomic mobility of many anonymous DNA sequences contained in these probes (e.g., transposable elements) adds high uncertainty to this conclusion. Here we test the validity of chromosome painting to investigate B chromosome origin by comparing its results for seven B chromosome types in two fish species genus Astyanax, with those obtained (1) by means of the physical mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H1 histone genes, the As51 satellite DNA and the (AC)15 microsatellite, and (2) by comparing the nucleotide sequence of one of these families (ITS regions from ribosomal DNA) between genomic DNA from B-lacking individuals in both species and the microdissected DNA from two metacentric B chromosomes found in these same species. Intra- and inter-specific painting suggested that all B chromosomes that were assayed shared homologous DNA sequences among them, as well as with a variable number of A chromosomes in each species. This finding would be consistent with a common origin for all seven B chromosomes analyzed. By contrast, the physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences failed to give support to this hypothesis, as no more than two B-types shared a given repetitive DNA. Finally, sequence analysis of the ITS regions suggested that at least some of the B chromosomes could have had a common origin.
Villares Junior, G A; Goitein, R
This study described the variations seasonal and ontogenetic of Salminus hilarii diet. Samples were collected in the Sorocaba River, São Paulo, Brazil, one of the few rivers where individuals of the species still occur in a higher frequency. The preys consumed were analyzed by Importance Alimentary Index (AIi). To determine similarities between year seasons, the AIi data were analyzed by the Morisita-Horn index and reduced in cluster analysis, along with a statistical comparison made by one-way ANOSIM test (5%). The feeding activity was analyzed according to the stomach repletion index and compared among the year seasons using non parametric variance analysis Kruskal-Wallis test (5%). Comparison of prey consumed between immature and adult individuals was made by Spearman correlation (5%). A Pearson correlation (5%) was applied between the standard length of the fish and prey consumed, as well as between the mouth and prey heights. The analyzes of stomach contents showed that the diet of this species was exclusively piscivorous, with significant difference of prey consumption during the period, the same happening among adult and immature individuals. It was observed that these fishes use to swallow their prey whole and that significant correlations between size of predator and prey size can be observed. There is also correlation between the mouth height and the maximum prey depth. Salminus hilarii feeds on the available prey, and the species food composition and feeding activity depends on prey`s abundance, their size and morphology, as do the water temperatures.
Faustino, F; Makino, L C; Neumann, E; Nakaghi, L S O
Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Petrolli, Marina G; Azevedo-Santos, Valter M; Benine, Ricardo C
Moenkhausia venerei is described from the rio Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. The new species differs from its congeners, except M. collettii and M. copei, by the combination of the following characters: a longitudinal dark band extending from the tip of the snout to the base of caudal fin; a dark line along the base of the anal fin; and a conspicuous humeral spot. Moenkhausia venerei is distinguished from M. collettii by having a wider and more conspicuous longitudinal dark band and from M. copei by the higher number of anal-fin rays. A discussion about the overall similarity and putative relationship with M. collettii, M. copei, Hemigrammus ulreyi, H. ataktos, and H. barrigonae is provided.
Villares, G A; Goitein, R
This study compared various morphological characteristics of S. hilarii, in order to verify possible variations over the life of the fish. It was used individuals collected from the Tietê river basin (sub-basins of Sorocaba, Jacaré Pepira and Corumbataí rivers) and from the Rio Grande basin (sub-basins of Pardo and Mogi Guaçu rivers). For the analysis we used 15 relative values of morphological attributes. Measures of S. hilarii were taken from samples with a range of size ranging between 49-430 mm standard length. The relative values were first analyzed by an array of Principal Component Analysis of correlation (PCA). Subsequently the most important attributes of PCA were correlated with standard length, using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The PCA revealed eight most important characteristics, and six showed a significant correlation with standard lengths (relative height, depth ratio, relative area of caudal fin, relative head length, eye diameter relative height and relative mouth height), indicating common variations along the fish's growth besides indicating an adaptation to the conditions of the environment it occupies. On the other hand some characteristics have not changed, maintaining typical morphological patterns of fish that occupy the middle water and piscivorous predators.
Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto
B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.
Leknes, I L
Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species-specific features of the intestine goblet cells and mucin types in tiger barb and black tetra. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the diet and feeding habits in stomach-less teleosts compared with stomach-containing teleosts, greatly influence the number of intestine goblet cells and type of mucin in these cells. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto
B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481
Lima, Flávio C T; Coutinho, Daniel P; Wosiacki, Wolmar B
Hyphessobrycon montagi, new species, is described from tributaries of the Rio Arapiuns, a left margin affluent of the lower Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners by the possession of a combination of two well-defined humeral blotches, connected by a narrow stripe, and a caudal peduncle blotch. A putatively monophyletic Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, restricted to H. heterorhabdus, H. amapaensis, and H. eschwartzae, is herein proposed based on shared derived features of color pattern. Alternative proposals of a "Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus group" presented in the recent literature are evaluated and criticized.
Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiao-Wen
We first sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of silvertip tetra (Hasemania nana). The mitogenome was determined to be 16,581 bp long circular molecule with a typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. All genes were encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Mitochondrial DNA information provided the basis for the studies in species identification and conservation of the species' natural resources.
Trujillo-Jiménez, Patricia; Sedeño-Diaz, Jacinto Elias; Camargo, Julio A; López-López, Eugenia
Champotón River is an unknown area within the Mesoamerican hotspot in Southestern México. Reproductive traits and population structure of Astyanax aeneus were analyzed along an environmental gradient of the upper, middle and lower sections of the river, where diverse environmental factors were recorded. For this, nets were cast for 1 h at each site and A. aeneus were collected from all sections with sweep nets (5 and 10 m long by 5 m deep, 0.03m mesh size) and a casting net (0.05m mesh size). At each study site and campaign, a total of 80 specimens (in average) were collected and were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for further analysis. Population structure by size was analyzed for each study site, based on the relative frequencies by standard length classes. The length-weight relationship was determined, and the identification of gonadal developmental stages, reproductive period, size at first sexual maturity, relative fecundity, sex ratio and somatic indexes (gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and Fulton's condition factor) were also assessed. Seven size classes were found in the upper and middle sections, and nine downstream, with seasonal and spatial pattern in size-class frequency distribution. Size at first maturity was 45.7mm for females and 40.8mm for males. The maximum relative fecundity was recorded at the downstream site and was positively correlated with body weight and standard length. Sex ratio (1.8:1 males: females) differed significantly from expected values (1:1). Gonadosomatic index scores indicated that the reproductive period of this species in the Champot6n River was from April to July, during the warm and wet season. Hepatosomatic index was negatively correlated with the Gonadosomatic index, evidencing transfer of energy from the liver towards gamete production. This strategy enabled A. aeneus to maintain robustness during the study period with tiny changes in condition factor. A. aeneus in the Champotón River, as opposed to South American river congeneric species of similar size, shows early sexual maturity, a short reproductive period with high gonadosomatic index values, and high fecundity, a trade-off for the short reproductive period. Spatio-temporal segregation was evident: breeders congregate downstream, while juveniles prefer the upper reaches. This pattern allows A. aenus to be successful in a river with high frequency of hurricanes.
Castro Paz, Francis Paola; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo
DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the “Rosy Tetra Clade” collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi), whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi) lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus. PMID:24878569
Silva, G S C; Melo, B F; Oliveira, C; Benine, R C
The combination of morphological and molecular data of Tetragonopterus species collected in the Rio Araguaia basin allows the recognition of two undescribed species that are presented in this article. These species are distinguished from their congeners (Tetragonopterus anostomus, Tetragonopterus argenteus, Tetragonopterus carvalhoi, Tetragonopterus chalceus and Tetragonopterus rarus) by characters related to the number and morphology of the teeth, the numbers of gill rakers on the upper and lower limbs of the first gill arch, the number of predorsal scales and the overall colour pattern. In addition, the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences identified an accentuated genetic distance between these two new species and their congeners. A discussion of the phylogenetic relationships within Tetragonopterus is provided. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
García-Alzate, Carlos A.; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Taphorn, Donald C.
Abstract Hyphessobrycon klausanni sp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin) in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically) three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia, H. loretoensis, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. eschwartzae, H. montogoi, H. psittacus, H. metae, H. margitae, H. vanzolinii, and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four) and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 4.6–8.0% SL). Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin (H. metae and H. acaciae) in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four) and 10 branched pectoral–fin rays (vs. 11 to 12). It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6–22.8% HL vs. 9.9–15.2% HL) and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 7.3–11.8% SL). PMID:28769647
Studies of genotoxicity in fish caused by cyanobacterial microcystins can be useful both in determining the sensitivity of native species, as well as comparing exposure routes. The genotoxicity caused by the microcystins LR and LA from a bloom collected in a eutrophic lake, was revealed in the fish Astyanaxbimaculatus, a native species from South America. LC50 (72 h) was determined as 242.81 μg L -1 and LD50 (72 h) as 49.19 μg kg -1 bw. There was a significant increase of DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes, following intraperitoneal injection (ip) with tested concentrations of 24.58 μg kg -1 bw and 36.88 μg kg -1 bw, as well as through body exposure to a concentration of 103.72 μg L -1 . Micronucleus (MN) induction was observed after ip injections of 24.58 μg kg -1 bw and 36.88 μg kg -1 bw for 72 h, as well as following body exposure for 72 at 103.72 μg L -1 . Thus, both exposure routes resulted in MN induction and DNA damage. Apoptosis-necrosis testing was carried out only by ip injection with concentrations of 24.58 μg kg -1 bw and 36.88 μg kg- 1 bw. Exposure to microcystins at lower concentrations induced more apoptosis than necrosis in peripheral erythrocytes, whereas exposure at higher concentrations gave rise to both conditions. Thus, Astyanax bimaculatus can be considered as a species sensitive to the genotoxic effects caused by microcystins. PMID:21637586
Deprá, I C; Gomes, V N; Deprá, G C; Oliveira, I J; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J
Astyanax altiparanae, belonging to the bimaculatus group, which includes species with similar colors and morphology, occurs in the upper Paraná River basin. As the use of mitochondrial DNA has made great strides in the diagnosis of species, in previous researches, two strains were detected in A. altiparanae with a high divergence in the D-loop region, provisionally called AltoPR and AltoPR-D. Evidence led to the hypothesis that the two strains did not belong to the same species. Phylogenetic hypotheses were produced by maximum-likelihood. Mean internal distances of the AltoPR and AltoPR-D groups were respectively 0.002 and 0.003, with the distance between them being 0.037. Sequences from GenBank of specimens collected from the Paraíba do Sul River basin were also divided into two groups, of which one may be identified as AltoPR. Since the other group provided an intermediate distance when compared to AltoPR-D, an in-depth investigation was required. The other species analyzed showed a greater distance and was revealed to be a monophyletic taxon. The results suggested that they are really two species and that neither corresponds to the other species used in the current study.
Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica
Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cytogenetic data are presented for Astyanax altiparanae populations from three Brazilian hydrographic systems. The chromosomal data obtained in A. altiparanae support the hypothesis of diploid number conservation. However, small differences in the karyotype formula and number of nucleolar organizer regions were observed in these populations. The apparent karyotypical similarity among the studied populations strongly suggests a close relationship among them with some chromosomal divergences due to gene flow restriction. PMID:21637456
Four populations of Astyanax hastatus Myers 1928 from the Guapimirim River basin (Rio de Janeiro State) were analyzed and three distinct cytotypes identified. These cytotypes presented 2n = 50 chromosomes, with 4M+8SM+10ST+28A (Cytotype A), 8M+10SM+14ST+18A (Cytotype B), 6M+8SM+4ST+32A (Cytotype C) and scanty heterochromatin, mainly located throughout pericentromeric regions of several chromosomal pairs. No homologies with the As-51 satellite DNA were observed in the three cytotypes, although all of them presented multiple 18S rDNA sites, as detected by both silver nitrate staining and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). The application of the term “species complex” in Astyanax is discussed from a cytotaxonomic viewpoint. PMID:21637509
Azevedo, M A; Fialho, C B; Malabarba, L R
The reproductive biology of two inseminating Glandulocaudini species, Mimagoniates microlepis and Mimagoniates rheocharis, was investigated and compared with reproductive patterns described for other inseminating and non-inseminating characids, hypothesizing the evolutionary history of these reproductive traits. The long reproductive period, with higher activity in colder months, distinguishes the reproductive strategy of these species when compared with most characiforms. The M. rheocharis population was structured in two groups of males throughout the year, mature males with high gonado-somatic index (IG = 2·0 and 4·4) and immature and maturing males with low IG values (0·0 and 1·2). Mimagoniates rheocharis and M. microlepis showed the lowest absolute mean fecundities known for characids, indicating that inseminating species allocate less energy to oocyte production and reinforcing the hypothesis that insemination has an adaptive advantage, which provides a higher chance of fertilization. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Barbosa, Patrícia; Leal, Eliza Viola; da Silva, Maelin; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira
Abstract DNA sequences of multiple copies help in understanding evolutionary mechanisms, genomic structures and karyotype differentiation. The current study investigates the organization and distribution of different repetitive DNA in the standard complement and B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842) chromosomes from three allopatric populations in Campos do Jordão region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The location of microsatellite sequences showed different chromosome distribution between Lavrinha Farm Stream (LFS) and Lake of Pedalinho (LP) populations. However, the karyotype of these populations basically followed the pattern of dispersed distribution in the A complement, conspicuous in telomeric/interstitial regions and preferential accumulation in the B chromosome. The B chromosome showed heterogeneous location of microsatellite probes CA, CAC and GA. The H3 and H4 histone genes were isolated from the total genome of the species and then the chromosomal mapping was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH signals showed high similarity for the probes H3 and H4 mapping in genomes of the populations analyzed. The sequences (GATA)n revealed a sex-specific trend between the chromosomal location in males and females at (LFS) and (LP) populations. Although species that comprise the Astyanax scabripinnis complex do not have morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes, the preferential GATA location – sex-associated – may represent a sex chromosome in differentiation. PMID:28919955
Mello, R; Maniglia, T C; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J
The genetic relationships among 17 species of Astyanax from the Iguaçu River and adjacent river basins in Brazil were examined using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb). Congruent trees were constructed using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods. The resulting clades suggest that at least three major groups share similar origins with the endemic species of the Iguaçu River. The results indicate that Astyanax is polyphyletic in this location, which suggests that Astyanax did not diversify from a single ancestral group that was isolated when the Iguaçu River basin formed. Astyanax bifasciatus shares an origin with some species of the altiparanae-bimaculatus complex, while A. minor originated from the same group as A. aff. paranae, A. fasciatus, and A. bockmanni. The third group includes A. dissimilis, Astyanax sp F, and A. serratus that are endemic species to the Iguaçu River basin. Geological and hydrological events that influenced the biogeographical patterns of these species are discussed.
Schmitter-Soto, Juan J
A phylogeny is presented for 34 species of Astyanax, 27 of them once included within A. aeneus or A. fasciatus in Central America and Mexico, based on 52 morphological characters (mostly osteological, but also pigmentation and meristics), with three outgroups. Monophyly is not supported for A. aeneus s. lat., as Brazilian species such as A. fasciatus s. str. and others occur also within that clade. There were only five resolved clades, three of them including both Brazilian and Central American species, one purely Nicaraguan, and one for central-northern Mexico and Texas. Coincidence with previous cladistic hypotheses is only partial. The genus Bramocharax Gill is not recovered, and thus confirmed as a synonym of Astyanax Baird & Girard. The findings point at a more complex biogeographic history of the region than usually recognized.
Guimarães, A C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I
The ultrastructural characteristics of the organelles present in Serrasalmus spilopleura oogonia and oocytes undergoing primary growth were described in detail, considering its role in the nuclear and cytoplasmic metabolic processes that occur in these cell types. Even though these cells do not significantly differ from those similar to them that are found in other teleost groups, the analysis of their ultrastructure makes available new data on the reproductive biology of Characiformes.
Leão, M S L; Justo, M C N; Bueno, G W; Cohen, S C; São Clemente, S C
This study investigated the occurrence, prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of monogenoidean parasites in Piaractus mesopotamicus farmed in cages in the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná River, Brazil. The parasite distribution pattern and the correlation of prevalence and abundance with the total length of hosts were also investigated. Four monogenoidean species were collected: Anacanthorus penilabiatus, A. toledoensis, Mymarothecium ianwhitingtoni and M. viatorum. All the parasites collected in P. mesopotamicus showed the typical aggregated distribution pattern, and the abundance and the prevalence did not shown any correlation with the total length of hosts.
Mazzoni, R; Caramaschi, E P; Fenerich-Verani, N
The Ubatiba river is a coastal stream subject to stochastic spates all over the year and, Characidium sp.n. is among the twenty-two species that compose its ichthyofauna. In this study we analyse some traits of its reproductive biology and discuss whether the adopted strategy has causal relationship with the environmental variables. Specimens were collected in the upper Ubatiba river. Samplings, were carried out monthly by electrofishing, between Oct./94 and Sep./95. Some differences between male and female strategies were observed. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) bigger than males; length--weight relationship was different (p < 0.05) between sexes with the onset of sexual maturity occuring at smaller sizes among males. Reproductive investment is high for both males and females but higher for males, maximum Gonadosomatic Index for females and males were 40.97% and 44.90%, respectively. Reproductive specimens were registered all over the year, suggesting continuous reproduction. High values of fecundity were also registered varying from 1342 to 5535 eggs for ripe females of 4.4 and 7.0 cm, respectively and an amount of 1105 oocytes per grams of fish. We suggest that differences in the reproductive strategy, between sexes, determine the observed patterns in the size structure; the absence of males in the higher SL classes could be a consequence of high mortality rates and/or reduction in the growth rates as a precocity consequence in the onset of reproduction and/or high reproductive investment. Relationship between continuous reproduction and environmental condition could be explained as an adaptation to maximise supervivency of the young fishes that is: guarantee the species maintenance in a stochastic environment.
Lopes, F P; Pereira, B F; Alves, R M S; Valim, J R T; Figueiredo, F A T; Pitol, D L; Caetano, F H
Most water bodies in Brazil, and in the world, are contaminated by some types of pollutants, ranging from sewage to metal/chemicals, carcinogenic products, and biodegradable detergents. Despite the extensive knowledge on their effects on fish biology and especially on gill morphology, research that concerns their impacts on gill rakers and implications in parameters such as food consumption cannot be found in the literature. Gill rakers are vital because, together with gills, they are responsible for the defense and protection of the organism and for selecting appropriate food for survival. When detergents, which can act as toxic chemical agents, get in contact with the body of the fish, they can cause severe effects that must be understood. Therefore, our study investigated ultramorphological changes in gill rakers of Astyanax altiparanae (Lambeth) caused by the exposure to biodegradable detergents. Fish were exposed to a 1 mg/L dilution of a mixture of detergents and pure water from an artesian well for 5 months. Results revealed that the first month of exposure to detergent caused dilation of chemical receptors in taste buds and the rise of a large number of orifices for mucus release among pavement cells in gill rakers, although only a small amount of mucus was found in fish exposed both to pure water and the detergent dilution. After 5 months, there was an increase in the dilation of these chemoreceptors, excess mucus on gill rakers of detergent groups, and the emergence of microbridges between microridges in pavement cells.
Pazza, R; Frehner Kavalco, K; Bertollo, L A C
Studies about composition of repetitive sequences and their chromosomal location have been helpful to evolutionary studies in many distinct organisms. In order to keep on assessing the possible relationships among different cytotypes of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) in the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo State, Brazil), C-banding, chromomycin A(3) staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with a repetitive DNA sequence (As51) isolated from Astyanax scabripinnis were performed in the present work. The constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in terminal regions on long arms of submetacentric, subtelocentric, and acrocentric chromosomes and in the terminal region on short arms of a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in both standard cytotypes. This latter heterochromatic site was also GC-rich, as revealed by chromomycin A(3) staining, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR), as shown by previous studies. The sites of the satellite As51 DNA were located in terminal regions on long arms of several chromosomes. Some variant karyotypic forms, which diverge from the two standard cytotypes, also presented distinctive chromosomes carrying As51 satellite DNA. It is possible that the standard 2n = 46 cytotype represents an invader population in the Mogi-Guaçu River able to interbreed with the resident standard 2n = 48 cytotype. Therefore, the variant karyotypes would be related to a possible viable offspring, where complementary chromosomal rearrangements could favor new locations of the satellite DNA analyzed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Espinasa, Luis; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Jeffery, William R
Prior to this study, it was believed that epigean and hypogean Astyanax differ markedly in their display of agonistic behavior. Research suggested that surface-dwelling individuals were extremely aggressive whereas their blind, cave-dwelling counterparts tended to show little or no aggressive behavior. Aggression in Astyanax was thought to be triggered by visual stimuli because surface fish in a dark environment or surface fish blinded late in life did not show aggression. Here, we demonstrate that surface fish blinded early on in their embryonic development are highly aggressive as adults. We also report the first case of a population of blind cave-dwelling Astyanax that is highly aggressive. We conclude that reduced aggression is not the only evolutionary pathway for troglobitic Astyanax and that there is some degree of developmental plasticity in the releaser of aggression and in the selection of its triggering stimuli.
García-Alzate, Carlos A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Taphorn, Donald C
Hyphessobrycon klausannisp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin) in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically) three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia, H. loretoensis, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. eschwartzae, H. montogoi, H. psittacus, H. metae, H. margitae, H. vanzolinii, and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four) and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4-17.0% SL vs. 4.6-8.0% SL). Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin (H. metae and H. acaciae) in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four) and 10 branched pectoral-fin rays (vs. 11 to 12). It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6-22.8% HL vs. 9.9-15.2% HL) and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4-17.0% SL vs. 7.3-11.8% SL).
Langecker, T G; Neumann, B; Hausberg, C; Parzefall, J
Epigean and blind cave-dwelling populations of the characid Astyanax fasciatus differ in their agonistic behavior. Epigean specimens are characterized by intense aggressive behavior and territoriality in the laboratory, whereas the blind cave fishes are rarely aggressive and have totally lost the territorial behavior. These behavioral changes are genetically based. In the present study, a comparative analysis of the optical releasers for aggressive behavior has been performed in both epigean and cave-dwelling populations. It was expected that the regression of aggressive behavior should be accompanied by the regression of the genetically fixed optical releasers for aggression in the cave specimens. For the analysis of cave fishes, well-eyed F1-hybrids of cave and epigean specimens (Pachon × Teapao) as well as phylogenetically young cave specimens (Micos) selected for large eyes, have been used. In epigean specimens, aggression is most intensely released by a combination of the signals 'natural shape' and 'locomotion'. The cave populations exhibit a partial regression of the releaser 'natural shape'. 'Locomotion', however, has become a more effective releaser for aggression in cave fishes than it has in their epigean relatives. The results are discussed with respect to their evolutionary significance.
Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P
Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs.
Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I; Taphorn, Donald C; Mancera-Rodriguez, Néstor J; García-Alzate, Carlos A
Fish biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems is highly threatened by different economic activities driven by human populations, and its description is increasingly a priority. For the Cauca-Magdalena River system we have described 14 species, and the purpose of this paper was to describe three new species belonging to the same genus Hemibrycon from the Nare and Guatapé River drainages of the middle Magdalena River, Colombia. The description was based on a series of 200 specimens, and the use of morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, as well as fish distribution and morphogeometric analytical methods. We have found that Hemibrycon fasciatus n. sp. (n = 54) differs from other species of Hemibrycon (that also have a vertical humeral spot) in having: melanophores outlining the posterior margins of the scales along sides of body; humeral spot extending onto posterior margin of opercle; a dark lateral stripe, formed by deep pigment that is continuous with the peduncular spot; the toothed portion of the maxilla not reaching the dorsal margin of the dentary (vs. toothed portion of maxilla extending beyond dorsal margin of dentary); all maxillary teeth tricuspid (vs. some unicuspid teeth present on maxilla). H. cardalensis n. sp. (n = 64) differs in having: a vertically elongate humeral spot that extends one or two scales below the lateral line canal. H. cardalensis n. sp. differs from all congeners in having the pigment of the caudal spot restricted to the ventral half of the caudal peduncle, and in having melanophores around the anterior scales of the lateral line. Hemibrycon antioquiae n. sp. (n = 82) differs in having a circular humeral spot. It differs from the other species with a circular humeral spot, like H. mikrostiktos, in having a projection of disperse melanophores extending from the dorsal margin of the humeral spot to below the lateral stripe. Habitat data and environmental impacts caused by the construction of reservoirs for hydroelectric projects and other threats in the area are included, as well as a key to all species Hemibrycon present in the Magdalena River Basin. The synonymy of H. pautensis with H. polyodon is discussed and H. pautensis is revalidated.
Fragoso-Moura, E N; Luiz, T F; Coeti, R Z; Peret, A C
The trophic ecology of ichthyofauna in a stream can be related to the presence or absence of riparian and aquatic vegetation, and mainly resource availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the seasonal and ontogenetic variations for the trophic ecology of Hemigrammus marginatus in the Beija-Flor stream located at the Jataí Ecological Station in the municipality of Luiz Antônio-SP, Brazil. In order to attain this objective, the data collections were carried out on a monthly basis from August, 2011 to July, 2012. Fish were collected using a trawl net and bait traps from three collection stations distributed along the Beija-Flor stream. The quality of the water was evaluated by the chemical variables: ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and physical temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity and conductivity, obtained by using a Yellow Springs sonde. The collected specimens were fixed in 10% formalin in the field and were subjected to biometric measurements in the laboratory. The stomachs were weighed and transferred to 70% alcohol and the stomach contents were analysed using a stereomicroscope at the lowest possible taxonomic level. The species was considered insectivorous and the autochthonous food items were the most important during the dry season, mainly from the orders Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, while allochthonous items from the order Hymenoptera were more important in the wet season. The young individuals' diet was based on the consumption of zooplankton, and insofar as the fish develops, there was a decrease in this item in the diet showing that the species has ontogenetic shifts in its diet. The conservation state of the Beija-Flor stream, as well as the flexibility of using food and food resources provided by aquatic macrophytes and riparian vegetation are key factors for the high abundance of the H. marginatus species.
Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia P
The organization of microsatellites in B and sex chromosomes has been linked to chromosomal evolution in a number of animal groups. Here, the chromosomal organizations of (CA)15, (GA)15, (CG)15, (GACA)4, and (GATA)8 microsatellites were examined in several Astyanax species with different diploid numbers: Astyanax mexicanus (2n = 50 + 1 B chromosome), A. altiparanae (2n = 50), A. marionae (2n = 48), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). The (CA)15 and (GA)15 microsatellites were dispersed across the chromosomes of A. altiparanae and A. fasciatus but were also observed as clusters (CA and GA for A. altiparanae, and CA for A. fasciatus). In A. marionae and A. schubarti, the (CA)15 and (GA)15 microsatellites were dispersed but were also observed as clustered signals and coincident with heterochromatic regions. In all 4 of these species, the (CG)15 and (GACA)4 microsatellites were dispersed across chromosomes, and the (GATA)8 microsatellite was co-localized with 5S rDNA. In A. mexicanus, the (CA)15, (GA)15, (CG)15, (GATA)8, and (GACA)4 microsatellites were weakly detected and dispersed across the chromosomes of the A complement. On the B chromosome, signals for the different microsatellites were weak, strong, absent, weak, and absent, respectively. The distribution of microsatellites and the locational relationship between microsatellites and 5S rDNA are discussed, and a possible evolutionary pathway is proposed for microsatellites in Astyanax.
Bertaco, Vinicius A
Astyanax douradilho, new species, is described from the rio Tramandaí system, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by possessing 37-39 perforated scales along the lateral line, 3-5 maxillary tricuspid teeth, 22-24 branched anal-fin rays, absence of a conspicuous dark stripe from humeral region to caudal peduncle, two vertically elongated humeral spots, head length (26.0-29.9% of standard length), upper jaw length (43.8-50.6% of head length), and snout length (23.0-28.6% of HL).
Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Poltronieri, Juliana; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Liehr, Thomas; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo
Repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes, especially in sex chromosome differentiation. The genus Triportheus represents an interesting model for such studies because all of its species analyzed so far contain a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A close relationship has been found between the differentiation of the W chromosome and heterochromatinization, with the involvement of different types of repetitive DNA in this process. This study investigated several aspects of this association in the W chromosome of Triportheus trifurcatus (2n = 52 chromosomes), including the cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNAs such as telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n, microsatellites and retrotransposons. A remarkable heterochromatic segment on the W chromosome was observed with a preferential accumulation of (CAC)10, (CAG)10, (CGG)10, (GAA)10 and (TA)15. The retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3 showed a general distribution pattern in the chromosomes, and Rex6 showed a different distribution on the W chromosome. The telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)n was highly evident in both telomeres of all chromosomes without the occurrence of ITS. Thus, the differentiation of the W chromosome of T. trifurcatus is clearly associated with the formation of heterochromatin and different types of repetitive DNA, suggesting that these elements had a prominent role in this evolutionary process. PMID:24632562
Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Melo, Renato Garcia; Narcizo, Amanda de Moraes; Amaral, Juliane Suzuki; Araújo, Ronaldo de Carvalho; Hilsdorf, Alexandre Wagner Silva
Potamodromous teleosts that require migration to reproduce show dysfunctions that block ovulation and spawning while in captivity. To understand the physiological basis of these reproductive dysfunctions, follicle-stimulating hormone b subunit (fshb) and luteinizing hormone b subunit (lhb) gene expression analyses by real-time quantitative PCR, together with measurements of estradiol (E 2), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-DHP) levels, were carried out throughout the reproductive cycle of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii. The following reproductive stages were evaluated in captive and wild females: previtellogenic (PV), advanced maturation/mature (AM) and regression/spent (REG/SPENT). In the wild females, fshb expression decreased from the PV to the AM stage, and the opposite pattern was detected for E 2, which increased from the PV to the AM stage. fshb was expressed at lower levels in captive than in wild females, and this difference did not change during the reproductive cycle. lhb expression also increased from the PV to the AM stage in both groups, but the wild females at the AM and REG/SPENT stages showed higher lhb expression levels than the captive females. The concentrations of 17α-OHP did not change during the reproductive cycle, and the levels were higher in the captive than in the wild females at all reproductive stages. 17α,20β-DHP levels did not change between wild and captive females. However, in captive females, the transition from PV to AM stage was followed by an increase in 17α,20β-DHP levels. These data indicate that dysfunctions in the gonadotropins and steroids synthesis pathways cause the ovulation failure in captive S. hilarii.
Nimet, Jardel; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana
Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was measured in Astyanax bifasciatus maintained in controlled conditions. Muscle ChE activity of individuals collected in field conditions in two seasons was compared among specimens collected in seven streams (forest and rural) of the lower Iguaçu river basin in association with physical, chemical, pesticides and biological factors. Significant differences in muscle ChE activity between control fish and fish collected in streams in both seasons were found, with higher activity in natural conditions. This the first time that differences in muscle ChE activity have been found among fish collected from different streams, suggesting synergism among multiple factors (e.g. temperature, pH, animal weight) and ecological attributes (richness and abundance) as influencing the variation in biomarkers. It is necessary to evaluate the quality of aquatic environments for a more accurate biomonitoring approach.
Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I.; Taphorn, Donald C.; García-Alzate, Carlos A.
Abstract Hemibrycon sanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from Hemibrycon boquiae, Hemibrycon brevispini, Hemibrycon cairoense, Hemibrycon colombianus, Hemibrycon mikrostiktos, Hemibrycon metae, Hemibrycon palomae, Hemibrycon rafaelense and Hemibrycon tridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3–4 scales in Hemibrycon palomae, Hemibrycon rafaelense, Hemibrycon brevispini and Hemibrycon cairoense, and 0–1 scales, in Hemibrycon metae and Hemibrycon boquiae). It further differs from Hemibrycon colombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular). It differs from Hemibrycon beni, Hemibrycon dariensis, Hemibrycon divisorensis, Hemibrycon helleri, Hemibrycon huambonicus, Hemibrycon inambari, Hemibrycon jabonero, Hemibrycon jelskii, Hemibrycon mikrostiktos, Hemibrycon polyodon, Hemibrycon quindos, Hemibrycon raqueliae, Hemibrycon santamartae, Hemibrycon surinamensis, Hemibrycon taeniurus, Hemibrycon tridens, and Hemibrycon yacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body). The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except Hemibrycon cairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row). PMID:25493068
Gallas, Moisés; Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia; Amato, Suzana B
A new species of Cacatuocotyle is described from the external surface of Astyanax aff. fasciatus and Astyanax jacuhiensis from Lake Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It differs from the other three species of the genus, recorded from Mexico and the State of Paraná, Brazil, by possessing an accessory piece with a long proximal portion, a U-shaped bar with irregular posterior margin in its midportion, and a haptor containing two circular thickenings with muscular anterior margins. Only one monogenean species, Urocleidoides astyanacis (= Characithecium costaricensis) was recorded for the host Astyanax aff. fasciatus, whereas none were known for A. jacuhiensis. This paper records a new host (A. jacuhiensis) for monogeneans in southern Brazil and extends southward with the geographical distribution of the genus Cacatuocotyle to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Over the course of one year, undescribed specimens of Gyrodactylus were recovered from banded tetra, Astyanax aeneus collected in the La Antigua and Nautla river basins in central Veracruz, Mexico. Parasites were processed for morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphometrically, Gyrodactylus samples collected in the La Antigua river had slightly smaller haptoral structures than those collected from the Nautla river. During the 12month-collection of samples, however, water temperature varied considerably (ca. 20°C to 30°C), and this abiotic factor is known to affect the size of gyrodactylid attachment structures. Moreover, no clear discrimination was possible between individual parasites collected from the two rivers based on the morphology of the marginal hook, which is recognised as a very informative character to discriminate between species. The morphology of the ventral bar, however, differed between specimens from both rivers: worms from Nautla all had long, rounded processes on the ventral bar, which formed a relatively closed angle with the dorsal edge of the bar proper, while most - but not all - specimens from La Antigua had comparatively slender processes forming a more open angle with respect to the ventral bar. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2 of gyrodactylids indicated the existence of two distinct, well-supported lineages whose sequences differ by >4%, one of which was only found in the Nautla basin, while the other was collected in both river systems. A posteriori, principal component analysis (PCA) of the morphometric data of sequenced specimens indicated that features of the dorsal bar, the hamuli and the ventral bar enable discrimination between the two phylogenetic lineages. Based on these independent sources of information (morphometric and molecular data), two new species of Gyrodactylus are described: Gyrodactyluspakan n. sp. and Gyrodactylusteken n. sp. The phylogenetic relationships of both new species to other gyrodactylids infecting characiformes (for which molecular data are available) are presented, which suggests that their closest relative is Gyrodactylus carolinae, a parasite of Characidium lanei in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manrique, Wilson Gómez; Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; de Andrade Belo, Marco Antonio; Martins, Maurício Laterça; Azevedo, Carlos
This study characterizes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and morphometric features the myxozoan Myxobolus cuneus (Myxosporea) in Piaractus mesopotamicus and reports the skeletal muscle and kidney as site of infection. The register was based in 21 young fish from intensive fish farming in Southeast Brazil and the spores were analyzed in fresh-mounted slides of the infected organs stained with Toluidine blue and processed as usual for TEM. It differs from Myxobolus cunhai from the fish host and different polar capsule size, and from Myxobolus serrasalmi on the pyriform spore shape and an oval macrospore, differently to that reported in this study. Morphometric characteristics and TEM study confirmed the present material as M. cuneus.
Silva-Oliveira, Cárlison; Canto, André Luiz C; Ribeiro, Frank Raynner V
A new species of Bryconops is described from a right tributary of the lower Tapajós River, State of Pará, Brazil. Bryconops munduruku, sp. nov., differs from its congeners, except B. inpai and B. piracolina, by having a black adipose fin (vs. adipose fin hyaline in alcohol) and, except B. inpai, by possessing two humeral blotches (vs. lack of humeral blotch or only one humeral blotch). Bryconops munduruku differs from B. inpai by having a uniform color pattern on the posterior portion of the side of the body (vs. a dark stripe extending posteriorly from the half of the anal-fin base onto the base of the middle caudal-fin rays). It differs further from B. inpai and B. piracolina by the presence of a black adipose fin that is hyaline along its base (vs. entirely black adipose fin in B. inpai and B. piracolina). The new species is allocated in the subgenus Creatochanes by having a maxillary bone with one to three teeth on both sides, and its posterior extension reaching the junction of second and third infraorbital bones.
Almirón, Adriana; Casciotta, Jorge; Piálek, Lubomír; Doubnerová, Klára; Říčan, Oldřich
Oligosarcus amome is described from tributaries of the arroyo Yabotí-Guazú, río Uruguay basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. This new species can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: presence of two conspicuous series of teeth on premaxilla bearing pentacuspidate teeth in the outer series. Oligosarcus amome is the sister taxon of all remaining analyzed species of the genus excepting O. itau.
Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C
From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla.
García-Alzate, Carlos A; Román-Valencia, César; Taphorn, Donald C
The genus Hyphessobrycon is included within the subfamily Tetragonopterinae. The species are generally small, do not exceed 70mm of standard length, are economically important as ornamental fish, with 128 valid species distributed from Southern Mexico to Rio La Plata in Argentina. The collections of fish were made with seines, in a single biotope, along shore in backwaters and working downstream. Measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) specimens. The morphometric relationships between species were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA)using 21 variables. We described a new species, Hyphessobrycon chocoensis, from the Telembi River drainage of the Pacific versant of Colombia. The new species, Hyphessobrycon chocoensis, is distinguished from congeners not of the "flammeus" species group by: having a diffuse humeral spot, in lacking a dark spot on the dorsal fin and caudal peduncle. It is distinguished from members its species group by the number of rays in the dorsal fin (ii, 8, i), by the number of branched anal-fin rays (25-26) and by having a diffuse humeral spot. It differs from H. tortuguerae in the number of teeth on the maxilla (1-2), by the number of predorsal scales and the high number of scales between the lateral line and the anal fin (6-7). Hyphessobrycon chocoensis can be distinguished from the other known species of Hyphessobrycon from the Pacific Coast of Colombia in having: a high number of pored lateral-line scales, by the snout to dorsal-fin length, by caudal-peduncle depth and by eye diameter. In addition, it differs from H. columbianus by the distance from the dorsal fin to the anal fin, by the length of the upper jaw, and by snout length. It differs from H. condotensis in having a high number of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal fin, and by the number of simple rays in the anal fin. H. chocoensis is distinguished from H. sebastiani by the number of transverse scales and the number of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal fin. A taxonomic key is provided to aid with the identification of the species of Hyphessobrycon from the Pacific Coast of Colombia.
Medrado, Aline Souza; Ribeiro, Mavione Souza; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Carneiro, Paulo Luíz Souza; Costa, Marco Antônio
The fish genus Astyanax is widespread throughout the Neotropical region and is one of the most species-rich genera of the Characiformes. Cytogenetic studies of Astyanax have revealed marked intra- and interspecific diversity, with the identification of various species complexes. In this report, we describe the karyotypic structure of two sympatric species of Astyanax (Astyanax sp. and Astyanax aff. fasciatus) from the Middle Contas River basin in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species had 2n = 48 but differed in their karyotypic formulae. Small heterochromatic blocks and multiple nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in both species. Terminal CMA3+/DAPI− signals were observed in Astyanax sp. and A. aff. fasciatus, mostly coincident with NORs. These results show that chromosomal markers can be used to identify species in this fish complex. These markers can provide useful information for evolutionary studies and investigations on the mechanisms of chromosomal diversity in Astyanax. PMID:23271941
Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto
Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650
Ribeiro, Alexandre Cunha; Menezes, Naércio Aquino
The characid genus Oligosarcus consists of 20 described species distributed throughout most of South American river basins below 14º south latitude. This study focus on the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oligosarcus based on the analysis of osteological characters to provide data to discuss the biogeographic history of the genus. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree with 152 steps (CI= 0.355 and RI= 0.600). The 18 included Oligosarcus species were hierarchically organized into 17 clades. A minimal age of 15 Ma for the genus is suggested based on the putatively cladogenetic event represented by the continued shortening of the Eastern Cordillera that established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau and was responsible for cladogenesis between the common ancestor of O. schindleri + O. bolivianus versus the remaining congeners. There is a pronounced disjunction in the upland species distribution by the lowland areas of the Chaco-Pantanal basin. This indicates that upland habitats (headwater streams) are preferential habitats for a set of species including O. argenteus, O. bolivianus, O. brevioris, O. paranensis, O. perdido, O. pintoi, O. planaltinae, O. brevioris, and O. schindleri. Fragmentation of populations of O. pintoi and O. perdido are at least 2.5 Ma old, since the origin of the upper Paraguay depression clearly promoted the present-day observed disjunction in the distribution of these species. The lowland Oligosarcus species are all included in a single clade but the obtained results suggest that fragmentation of upland versus lowland components of the genus was not causally related to a single vicariant event. The available fossil record of Oligosarcus indicates that the genus already occurred in the coastal plain at about 2.3 to 1.25 Ma. The sister-group relationship between O. hepsetus and O. longirostris provided additional evidences of the so-called historical affinities between the SE Brazilian coastal plain and the Rio Iguaçu drainage basin.
Silva, Priscilla Caroline; Malabarba, Luiz Roberto
The description of Tetragonopterus vittatus presented by Francis L. Castelnau (1855) was very concise and apparently based on a single specimen (not explicitly stated in the text, but deducible according to the single counts for the meristic data presented in the description). The type locality is recorded simply as "Bahia", with no specification of the drainage or nearby city. The existence of type specimens has been considered unknown (Lima et al., 2003; Eschmeyer & Fricke, 2015; Lucena & Soares, 2016), and have not been mentioned in published catalogues for type specimens of MNHN (e.g. Bertin, 1948).
Marcon, Lucas; Thomé, Ralph Gruppi; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos
Thiodan(®) is an organochlorine insecticide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems where it can affect fish reproduction. This research aimed to evaluate follicular development and the expression of integrin β1, collagen type IV and caspase 3 by morphological, histometrical and immunohistochemical analyses of Astyanax bimaculatus exposed to Thiodan(®). Treatments included three sublethal concentrations of Thiodan(®) (1.15, 2.30, and 5.60μgL(-1)) for 96h and a control without the insecticide. Mature females with ovaries in advanced follicular development were chosen for study (average weight: 11.52 ± 2.0g; average total length: 9.12 ± 0.64cm). The follicles of A. bimaculatus exhibited normal morphology, while the diameters of secondary follicles showed an increase (P< 0.05) in all concentrations when compared to the control group; a characteristic of follicles undergoing the initial stages of intoxication. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed secondary follicles with greater expression of integrin β1 and collagen type IV in cytoplasm of follicular cells than in the primary follicles in all treatments and in the control. Immunolocalization of caspase 3 was detected in follicular cells during secondary development in all tested concentrations of Thiodan(®) and the control. These analyses demonstrate positive immunolocalization throughout the course of follicular development, even in fish exposed to varying concentrations of Thiodan(®) for 96h, demonstrating that follicular cells retain their physiological integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya). PMID:19102731
Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina
The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.
Ohara, Willian M; Lima, Flávio C T
A new species of characid is described from the upper rio Machado, a tributary of the rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon lucenorum can be distinguished from all congeners by the unique combination of the presence of a conspicuous rounded humeral blotch and a broad and diffuse longitudinal stripe. The new species is included within the Hyphessobrycon agulha group. The high number of endemic species of fishes occurring in the headwater tributaries of three river systems (rio Madeira, rio Tapajós, and rio Paraguai) draining the watershed defined by the Chapada dos Parecis is discussed.
de Almeida, F. S.; Santana, C. A.; Lima, D. M. V.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Súarez, Y. R.; Lima, S. M.
Astyanax altiparanae fish species is considered very generalist and opportunist, occupying different types and sizes of environments. This characteristic turns it very appropriate as bioindicator or biomarked. Therefore, in this work, A. altiparanae fish species was used to identify populations by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy directly in its scales. The discriminant analysis applied in the infrared spectra demonstrated a significant differentiation among the analyzed populations, with the first and second canonical roots explain together 100% of the data variation. The obtained results were correlated with environmental descriptors and diet of fishes, and a better agreement was obtained when spectroscopic data were compared with the composition of food present in the fish stomachs. However, this study indicates that the combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy with discriminant analysis is a very appropriate methodology to be used in fish scales as bioindicator for intraspecific study.
Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio
Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Silva, Gabriel S C; Melo, Bruno F; Oliveira, Claudio; Benine, Ricardo C
The systematics of the characid genus Tetragonopterus is reviewed based on morphological and molecular data of specimens from its entire geographical range encompassing all major South American river drainages from Orinoco basin southward to the La Plata basin. Eight previously described species (T. anostomus, T. araguaiensis, T. argenteus, T. carvalhoi, T. chalceus, T. denticulatus, T. georgiae n. comb., and T. rarus) are recognized as valid, four of which are redescribed (T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus), and four new species from the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon and São Francisco river basins are herein described. We also provide evidence for the reallocation of Moenkhausia georgiae into Tetragonopterus and recognize T. akamai as junior synonym of T. anostomus. DNA barcodes of Tetragonopterus revealed genetic support for each recognized species and provided valuable population-level information within T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus.
The location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites was determined in eight species and populations of the fish genus Triportheus by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The males and females of all species had 2n = 52 chromosomes and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A single 18S rDNA site that was roughly equivalent to an Ag-NOR was detected on the short arms of a submetacentric pair in nearly all species, and up to two additional sites were also observed in some species. In addition, another 18S rDNA cluster was identified in a distal region on the long arms of the W chromosome; this finding corroborated previous evidence that this cluster would be a shared feature amongst Triportheus species. In T. angulatus, a heterozygotic paracentric inversion involving the short arms of one homolog of a metacentric pair was associated with NORs. The 5S rDNA sites were located on the short arms of a single submetacentric chromosomal pair, close to the centromeres, except in T. auritus, which had up to ten 5S rDNA sites. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites were co-localized and adjacent on the short arms of a chromosomal pair in two populations of T. nematurus. Although all Triportheus species have a similar karyotypic macrostructure, the results of this work show that in some species ribosomal genes may serve as species-specific markers when used in conjunction with other putatively synapomorphic features. PMID:21637644
Galvan, Gabrieli L; Lirola, Juliana R; Felisbino, Karoline; Vicari, Taynah; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Cestari, Marta M
The sublethal effects of water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG, 1.5 % v/v) were evaluated in the freshwater fish, Astynax altiparanae, after acute exposure (96 h) under a semi-static system. In addition, the recovery process was assessed in the fish following contaminant depuration. Recovery treatments were carried out with gradual depuration (GD), consisting of 7 days in the WSFG, followed by 8 days in clean water; and treatments with total depuration in clean water for 15 (DEP 15) and 30 days (DEP 30). The effects were evaluated through the piscine micronucleus test and by differential counting of organic defense cells. Acute exposure increased the frequency of neutrophils. In the GD treatment, the thrombocyte count and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) increased. In the DEP 15 treatment, there was a reduction of ENA; and following 30 days of depuration (i.e., DEP 30), the number of lymphocytes increased and the thrombocyte count remained high. These results indicate a long-term response to a condition of stress from WSFG.
Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I
The morphophysiological changes that occur during oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura were studied using ultrastructural cytochemical techniques. In the previtellogenic oocytes endoplasmic reticulum components, Golgi complex cisternae and vesicles, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies and some electron-dense vesicles react to acid phosphatase (AcPase) detection. The endoplasmic reticulum components, Golgi complex cisternae and vesicles also react to osmium tetroxide and potassium iodide impregnation (KI). These structures, except for the Golgi complex cisternae, are strongly contrasted by osmium tetroxide and zinc iodide impregnation (ZIO). Some electron-dense vesicles are ZIO-stained, while microvesicles in the multivesicular bodies and other large isolated cytoplasmic vesicles are contrasted by KI. At primary oocyte growth, the activity of the endomembranous system and the proliferation of membranous organelles are intense. The biosynthetic pathway of the lysosomal proteins such as acid phosphatase, involves the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vesicles with inactive hydrolytic enzymes and, finally, the lysosomes. The oocyte endomembranous system have reduction capacity and are involved in the metabolism of rich in SH groups.
Santos, Angélica Rossotti Dos; Usso, Mariana Campaner; Gouveia, Juceli Gonzalez; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Frantine-Silva, Wilson; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Foresti, Fausto; Dias, Ana Lúcia
The mapping of repetitive DNA sites by fluorescence in situ hybridization has been widely used for karyotype studies in different species of fish, especially when dealing with related species or even genera presenting high chromosome variability. This study analyzed three populations of Bryconamericus, with diploid number preserved, but with different karyotype formulae. Bryconamericus ecai, from the Forquetinha river/RS, presented three new cytotypes, increasing the number of karyotype forms to seven in this population. Other two populations of Bryconamericus sp. from the Vermelho stream/PR and Cambuta river/PR exhibited interpopulation variation. The chromosome mapping of rDNA sites revealed unique markings among the three populations, showing inter- and intrapopulation variability located in the terminal region. The molecular analysis using DNA barcoding complementing the cytogenetic analysis also showed differentiation among the three populations. The U2 small nuclear DNA repetitive sequence exhibited conserved features, being located in the interstitial region of a single chromosome pair. This is the first report on its occurrence in the genus Bryconamericus. Data obtained revealed a karyotype variability already assigned to the genus, along with polymorphism of ribosomal sites, demonstrating that this group of fish can be undergoing a divergent evolutionary process, constituting a substantive model for studies of chromosomal evolution.
Ortaz, Mario; von Bach, Pablo Borjas; Candia, Rubén
The diet ofa neotropical fish species (Creagrutus bolivari) was studied using different methods: the Cortés 1997 graphic method and two relative importance indexes, one designed by George and Hadley in 1979 (% RIi) and another proposed by Cortés in 1997 (% IRIi). Only discrete prey (aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates) were used in the diet analysis. The occurrence (% A), number (% N) and weight (% G) frequencies were estimated for each food item. A total of 240 specimens (size range from 25.3 to 64.7 mm standard length) were analyzed. For values of % A > 50 %, % IRIi was higher than % RIi with an opposite trend (up to 130 times) for values of % A < 50 %. % IRIi overestimated the relative importance of prey for high values of % A, while it underestimated the relative importance of prey for low values of % A, showing a nonlinear relationship to % A. The variables used in the Cortés graphic method are insufficient to evaluate predator feeding strategy (generalization versus specialization). Therefore, we suggest including other variables, such as population and individual trophic niche breadth and a suitable field sampling record. An extended sampling record is necessary to classify prey as rare or dominant according to Cortés' classification. The indexes of relative importance and graphic method are complementary. Compound indexes that comprise mass, number, and occurrence provide a more accurate description of diet and allow comparative studies. The graphic analysis is easy to interpret and helps in the evaluation of prey importance and predator feeding strategy.
Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar; Doadrio, Ignacio
Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI) and a single nuclear gene (RAG1) yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations), with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya) explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (approximately 8 Mya), which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (approximately 3.3 Mya).
Rivero-Wendt, C L G; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Ferreira, M F N; Borges, A M; Grisolia, C K
The synthetic hormone, 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT), is used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Androgenic effects on various fish species have been reported; however, few studies have assessed possible genotoxic effects, although there are concerns about such effects in target and non-target species. We evaluated genotoxic and gonadal effects of MT in adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Astyanax bimaculatus (a common native non-target fish in Brazil). Fish were fed for 28 days with ration containing MT (60 mg/L), a normal dose used in fish farming. Evaluation of MT genotoxicity was carried out through micronucleus test, nuclear abnormality, and comet assay analyses on peripheral erythrocyte cells collected by cardiac puncture. There were no significant differences in micronucleus frequencies and DNA damage in both species; however, MT caused cytogenetic toxicity in the non-target species, A. bimaculatus, with significantly increased erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities. Histopathological analyses of the female gonads of O. niloticus revealed that MT significantly inhibited the development of mature oocytes, while in A. bimaculatus it provoked significant inhibition of spermatozoa production. We concluded that discharge of fish-hatcheries water onto the surface of aquatic ecosystems should be avoided due to risks to reproduction of native species.
Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães
Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.
da Graça, W J; Oliveira, C A M; Lima, F C T; da Silva, H P; Fernandes, I M
A new species of Astyanax is described from the upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having the body intensely yellowish in life (v. silvery, reddish or lightly yellow) and by morphometric and meristics traits. Astyanax dolinae n. sp. cannot be assigned to any of the Astyanax species complex currently recognized for the genus. It is only known from the Dolina Água Milagrosa, a karstic sinkhole lake, entirely fed by groundwater, surrounded by Cerrado, the savannah-like vegetation of central South America. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Tavares-Dias, M; Moraes, F R
Morphological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies are important to demonstrate the function of the blood cells, which is very little understood in teleosts. In peripheral blood of 'piracanjuba' Brycon orbignyanus, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and heterophils were studied and characterized. Thrombocytes had a fusiform or oval shape with PAS-positive granules. Lymphocytes presented small size with sparse basophilic cytoplasm. Monocytes were large in size, presented basophilic cytoplasm that may be foamy or vacuolated, with non-specific esterase staining. The neutrophils presented lightly neutrophilic granule cytoplasm, with positivity for PAS and peroxidase. The heterophils were large in size, with eosinophilic and basophilic granules cytoplasm and PAS-positive. Transmission electron microscopy study demonstrated that the thrombocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes features were similar to other teleosts. In ultrastructural study only one type of neutrophils was observed. Cytochemical findings indicated that neutrophils and monocytes of B. orbignyanus may be involved in phagocytosis, and neutrophils play an important microbicidal role.
Pineda Santis, Hermes; Arboleda Chacón, Lucy; Echeverry Echavarria, Amparo; Urcuqui Inchima, Silvio; Pareja Molina, Diego; Olivera Angel, Martha; Builes Gómez, Juan
Knowledge on the genetic diversity of wild fish species is essential for conservation and appropriate management of individuals in repopulation programs. In Colombia, Brycon henni has been reported in the Magdalena and Cauca river basins, but the population and range have diminished as a consequence of anthropic activities. In this study, the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to estimate the actual genetic structure in this species. For the purpose, six sample sites located in the department of Antioquia (Central Chain Mountains of Colombia) were used. Thirty five primers (87.5%), out of forty used, yielded 1 466 reliable and consistent fragments; 417 were considered as unique fragments able to discriminate among the Magdalena (Humarada-1 and Humarada-2) and Cauca (Piedras, La Clara y Guaracfi) river basins samples, suggesting that each is a discrete unit. This diversity suggests that anthropic effects of over fishing, dam building, deforestation and water pollution, have contributed to the isolation of these fish groups on the high mountains. Brycon moorei and Colossoma macropomum, as an interspecific control groups, were placed out of the B. henni general group, confirming their taxonomic classification through morphologic data. The RAPD technique was useful to know the genetic diversity and to discriminate among B. henni populations from different geographic origins, as a basis for an appropriate plan of repopulation, conservation and wildlife management.
Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I; Taphorn, Donald C; García-Alzate, Carlos A
Hemibryconsanjuanensis, new species, is described from the upper San Juan River drainage, Pacific versant, Colombia. It is distinguished from Hemibryconboquiae, Hemibryconbrevispini, Hemibryconcairoense, Hemibryconcolombianus, Hemibryconmikrostiktos, Hemibryconmetae, Hemibryconpalomae, Hemibryconrafaelense and Hemibrycontridens by the presence of a circular or oblong humeral spot that is located two scales posterior to the opercle (vs. 3-4 scales in Hemibryconpalomae, Hemibryconrafaelense, Hemibryconbrevispini and Hemibryconcairoense, and 0-1 scales, in Hemibryconmetae and Hemibryconboquiae). It further differs from Hemibryconcolombianus in having a round or oblong humeral spot (vs. rectangular). It differs from Hemibryconbeni, Hemibrycondariensis, Hemibrycondivisorensis, Hemibryconhelleri, Hemibryconhuambonicus, Hemibryconinambari, Hemibryconjabonero, Hemibryconjelskii, Hemibryconmikrostiktos, Hemibryconpolyodon, Hemibryconquindos, Hemibryconraqueliae, Hemibryconsantamartae, Hemibryconsurinamensis, Hemibrycontaeniurus, Hemibrycontridens, and Hemibryconyacopiae in having melanophores on the posterior margins of the scales along the sides of body (vs. lacking melanophores on margins of scales along entire length of the sides of body). The new species differs from all congeners mentioned above in having, among other features, six teeth in the outer premaxillary row arranged in a straight line (vs. five or fewer teeth not arranged in straight line except Hemibryconcairoense with two to six teeth in the outer premaxillary row).
Burchards, H; Dölle, A; Parzefall, J
The different populations have been tested for aggressive behaviour in groups of four to eight animals of both sexes in tanks ranging from 251 to 9501. In darkness less aggressive behaviour has been observed with the help of an infrared video-camera in the epigean fish and the eyed Micos cave fish. The strongest degree of reduction in aggressive behaviour is shown by the totally blind populations. The aggressiveness increases in the epigean fish as soon as space and food supply diminish.
Vieira-Menezes, Flavia Guerra; Costa, Danielle Priscilla Correia; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho
The endoparasite fauna of Astyanax fasciatus from the upper São Francisco river was investigated and ecological parameters and morphological and morphometric data on the parasites are presented. A total of 74 specimens of banded astyanax were collected downstream from the Três Marias dam, municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais (18°12'32"S, 45°15'41"W) in January 2011 and January 2012. Eleven taxa of Nematoda were found: Contracaecum sp.; Hysterothylacium sp.; Goezia sp.; Brevimulticaecum sp.; Procamallanus sp.; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) saofranciscencis; Cystidicoloides sp.; Spinitectus rodolphiheringi; Rhabdochona sp.; Spiroxys sp.; and Eustrongylides sp.. The fauna of A. fasciatus consisted of by larval specimens of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., and Spiroxys sp., and by adult specimens of P. saofranciscencis, whose prevalence was greater than 10%. Thus, this fish acts as an intermediate host of some species of larval nematodes especially, Anisakidae and Acanthocheilidae (Brevimulticaecum sp., new host record and new locality). It participates in transmitting species such Rhabdochona sp. to carnivorous fish and also acts as a definitive host for P. saofranciscencis and S. rodolphiheringi in the upper São Francisco river.
Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika
Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.
Santos, Paulo Henrique Nascimento; Tavares-Dias, Marcos
This study was the first investigation on the parasites of Triportheus rotundatus, a Characiformes fish from the Amazon, in Brazil. All the fish collected (100%) in a tributary from the Amazon River system were infected by one or more parasite species. The mean species richness of parasites was 4.9 ± 0.9, the Brillouin index was 0.39 ± 0.16, the evenness was 0.24 ± 0.09 and the Berger-Parker dominance was 0.81 ± 0.13. A total of 1316 metazoan parasites were collected, including Anacanthorus pithophallus, Anacanthorus furculus, Ancistrohaptor sp. (Dactylogyridae), Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae), Posthodiplostomum sp. (Diplostomidae), Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus (Camallanidae), Echinorhynchus paranensis (Echinorhynchidae) and Ergasilus sp. (Ergasilidae), but monogenoideans were the dominant parasites. These parasites presented an aggregate dispersion pattern, except for P. (S.) inopinatus, which showed a random dispersion pattern. The body conditions of the hosts were not affected by the parasitism levels. This first report of these parasites for T. rotundatus indicates that the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was due to hosts behavior and availability of infective stages in the environment, and this was discussed.
characidae ). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 157:837–843, 1985.  T. Teyke. Learning and remembering the environment in the blind cave fish anop...objects by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani ( characidae ). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 143:375–381, 1981.  G. Weymouth, 2011. http
Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Kohn, Anna
Mymarothecium boegeri sp. n. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Characidae), collected from the aquaria of the "Centro de Pesquisas em Aquicultura, Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas (DNOCS)", Pentecoste City, State of Ceará, Brazil. Mymarothecium viatorum Boeger, Piasecki et Sobecka, 2002 is reported from the type host, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier) (Characidae) and from a new host, P. mesopotamicus (Holmberg) (Characidae), confirming the occurrence of M. viatorum in the Neotropical Region. The new species differs from the congeneric species in the structure of male copulatory complex; it is more closely related to M. viatorum by the presence of a posteromedial projection on ventral bar.
Teixeira, T F; Netto-Ferreira, A L; Birindelli, J L O; Sousa, L M
Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the headwaters of the Tapajós and Xingu River basins, Pará, Brazil. Both new species can be distinguished from congeners by the presence of a vertically elongate humeral blotch, a conspicuous round to vertically oblong caudal-peduncle blotch not extending onto the distal portions of the middle caudal-fin rays, a conspicuous blotch on the central portion of the third infraorbital immediately ventral to the eye, the lack of a conspicuous longitudinal stripe and the lack of sexual dimorphism in the extension of the caudal-peduncle blotch. Hyphessobrycon delimai n. sp. can be distinguished from Hyphessobrycon krenakore n. sp. by the extent of the caudal-peduncle blotch which extends across most of the caudal-peduncle depth (v. restricted to the middle portion of the caudal peduncle), the presence of dark chromatophores uniformly scattered along the length of the interradial membranes of the dorsal, anal and caudal fins (v. concentrated on the distal one-half or one-fourth of the interradial membranes) and the absence of small bony processes on the pelvic and anal fins of mature males (v. small bony processes present). © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Lima, Flávio C T
A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Guyana; Brycon gouldingi Lima, endemic from the rio Tocantins basin, Brazil; Brycon melanopterus (Cope), from the western and central rio Amazonas basin, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia; and Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, widespread in the the rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, and several guyanese river systems, in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. All species are redescribed and illustrated, and a key to the species is provided. Comments on the diagnosis of the genus Brycon, the biogeography of the cis-andean species, and their current conservation status, are presented.
Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani
Although there are several studies on morphogenesis in Teleostei, until now there is no research describing the role of the basement membrane in the establishment of the germinal epithelium during gonadal differentiation in Characiformes. In attempt to study these events that result in the formation of ovarian and testicular structures, gonads of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi were prepared for light microscopy. During gonadal development in G. ternetzi, all individuals first developed ovarian tissue. The undifferentiated gonad was formed by somatic cells (SC) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). After successive mitosis, the PGCs became oogonia, which entered into meiosis originating oocytes. An interstitial tissue developed. In half of the individuals, presumptive female, prefollicle cells synthesized a basement membrane around oocyte forming a follicle. Along the ventral region of the ovary, the tissue invaginated to form the ovigerous lamellae, bordered by the germinal epithelium. Stroma developed and the follicle complexes were formed. The gonadal aromatase was detected in interstitial cells in the early steps of the gonadal differentiation in both sexes. In another half of the individuals, presumptive male, there was no synthesis of basement membrane. The interstitium was invaded by numerous granulocytes. Pre-Leydig cells proliferated. Apoptotic oocytes were observed and afterward degenerated. Spermatogonia appeared near the degenerating oocytes and associated to SCs, forming testicular tubules. Germinal epithelium developed and the basement membrane was synthesized. Concomitantly, there was decrease of the gonadal aromatase and increase in the 3β-HSD enzyme expression. Thus, the testis was organized on an ovary previously developed, constituting an indirect gonochoristic differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ota, Rafaela P; Lima, Flávio C T; Pavanelli, Carla S
A new species of Hemigrammus is described from the middle rio Solimões/Amazonas and tributaries, upper and middle rio Madeira, and rio Paraná-Paraguai basins in Brazil and Paraguay. The new species is most similar among congeners with Hemigrammus marginatus, with which it shares similar caudal-fin pigmentation pattern. The new species can be distinguished from Hemigrammus marginatus by possessing two conspicuous dark patches of pigmentation on caudal fin, occupying most of caudal-fin lobes, except the tips, by having two dark narrow stripes along anal-fin base, and by possessing 5-8 pored lateral line scales. The new species differs from Hyphessobrycon diancistrus, which is similar in color pattern and general body shape, by the presence of small scales on caudal-fin lobes, occupying approximately its basal third, by the presence of two narrow stripes along anal fin base, and by the absence of bony hooks on analfin in mature males. The occurrence of the new species in both Amazon and rio Paraná-Paraguai basins is discussed in order to clarify and expand recent discussions on the biogeographical relationships between both river systems.
Marinho, M M F; Dagosta, F C P; Camelier, P; Oyakawa, O T
A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from a tributary of the upper Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its exuberant colour in life, with blue to purple body and red fins, is appreciated in the aquarium trade. Characters to diagnose the new species from all congeners are the presence of a single humeral blotch, absence of a distinct caudal-peduncle blotch, absence of a well-defined dark mid-lateral stripe on body, the presence of 16-18 branched anal-fin rays, nine branched dorsal-fin rays and six branched pelvic-fin rays. A brief comment on fish species descriptions solely based on aquarium material and its consequence for conservation policies is provided. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán
Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal).
Acosta, A A; Silva, R J
This study reports for the first time infection with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques from the Paranapanema River, Jurumirim Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. A sample of 33 specimens of H. eques was collected in October, 2011. Four specimens of H. eques were parasitized by Hysterothylacium sp. larvae in the intestine and coelomic cavity, with prevalence of 12.1%, mean intensity of infection of 1, and mean abundance of 0.121 ± 0.05. A total of 40 unidentified free-living nematodes were found in the stomach content of 17 fish. This fish species is introduced in the Paranapanema River. Invasive species may affect the native fauna given the introduction of pathogens and parasites. This study also complements data on the diet of H. eques due to the records of free-living nematode as part of the stomach content. Infections with Hysterothylacium sp. larvae may affect the biology of this fish and bring about profit losses to aquarists.
Black spot disease is common in freshwater fish and is usually caused by the metacercaria stage of digenetic trematodes, normally from the Diplostomidae family. The present study evaluated the prevalence and intensity of this disease in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Teleostei: Characiformes) in the Guaíba Lake basin (RS, Brazil), including body parts assessment and the points of sampling with higher occurrence of black spots. Fish samples were taken seasonally from December 2002 until October 2004. The samples were collected with the use of a seine net at eleven points. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and stored in 70% ethanol. Black spot disease showed a low frequency in the Guaíba lake basin (2.07%) and no specificity to the species Astyanax aff. fasciatus was observed. A high prevalence among the individuals and high intensity of infection levels was found in the ventral and dorsal regions in relation to other body parts (e.g., pectoral, pelvic and anal regions). Among the sampling points studied, we observed a higher prevalence on samples collected at points Gasômetro, Saco da Alemoa and Sinos, located in open areas with less occurrence of mollusks.
Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C
In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. © 2016 Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Domingos, T J; Moraes, L N; Moresco, R M; Margarido, V P; Venere, P C
Molecular genetic assessments that consider ecological information, in addition to endogamy levels, genetic diversity, and the genetic differentiation among species and populations, are particularly important for the conservation of biological diversity. Prime candidates for conservation genetic review are those subject to human use, including harvests for the ornamental fish trade. Colorful South American tetra, such as Moenkhausia oligolepis and M. forestii, are good examples of fish species that are widely collected and exported worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the population-specific characteristics of M. oligolepis and M. forestii by comparing morphometric and molecular analyses based on ISSR markers, to provide information that would facilitate the sustainable management of these 2 species. Seventy-two specimens were collected from the Araguaia-Tocantins and Paraguay River Basins in Brazil. All specimens were measured and analyzed using ISSR markers. Population-exclusive bands were found among the 86 detected bands, while morphometric clusters reflected the geographical distribution of individuals. Correlated genetic and morphological variation supported the presence of 3 distinct groups from tributaries of the Araguaia and Mortes Rivers. Using the same techniques, all M. oligolepis populations were isolated from M. forestii. This study on Moenkhausia presents an interesting example that could be used to construct a framework of South American ichthyodiversity, and reinforces the necessity of habitat conservation to prevent the loss of biological diversity.
Malato, Grace; Shervette, Virginia R; Navarrete Amaya, Ronald; Valdiviezo Rivera, Jonathan; Nugra Salazar, Fredy; Calle Delgado, Paola; Karpan, Kirby C; Aguirre, Windsor E
Neotropical mountain streams are important contributors of biological diversity. Two species of the characid genus Rhoadsia differing for an ecologically important morphological trait, body depth, have been described from mountain streams of the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador. Rhoadsia altipinna is a deeper-bodied species reported from low elevations in southwestern Ecuador and northern Peru, and Rhoadsia minor is a more streamlined species that was described from high elevations (>1200 m) in the Esmeraldas drainage in northwestern Ecuador. Little is known about these species and their validity as distinct species has been questioned. In this study, we examine how their body shape varies along replicated elevational gradients in different drainages of western Ecuador using geometric morphometrics and the fineness ratio. We also use sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c I gene and the second intron of the S7 nuclear gene to examine whether genetic data are consistent with the existence of two species. We found that body depth varies continuously among populations within drainages as a function of elevation, and that body shape overlaps among drainages, such that low elevation populations of R. minor in the Esmeraldas drainage have similar body depths to higher elevation R. altipinna in southern drainages. Although a common general trend of declining body depth with elevation is clear, the pattern and magnitude of body shape divergence differed among drainages. Sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear genes failed to meet strict criteria for the recognition of two species (e.g., reciprocal monophyly and deep genetic structure). However, there was a large component of genetic variation for the COI gene that segregated among drainages, indicating significant genetic divergence associated with geographic isolation. Continued research on Rhoadsia in western Ecuador may yield significant insight into adaptation and speciation in Neotropical mountain streams.
Baumgartner, Matheus Tenório; da Silva, Pedro Rogério Leandro; Baumgartner, Gilmar
Success in fish breeding depends on reproduction intensity, periodicity and the place where it occurs. Information about fish species reproduction is important to assist managers, and to determine conservation and management strategies. The fish assemblage of the Iguaçu River basin is already known for its high endemism, and despite this privilege, the large number of dams built along it, threat this particular biodiversity. Astyanax gymnodontus is an endemic fish species and studies on its population structure and reproductive biology are important, since they represent the first step for further community studies. Our objective was to evaluate some aspects of the population structure and reproductive biology of A. gymnodontus in the influence area of Salto Santiago dam, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil. Sampling was made monthly from July 2003 to June 2005, and bimonthly from July 2005 to March 2013, at five sites in the influence area of Salto Santiago dam. Fishes were collected using 10 m length gillnets with meshes ranging from 2.5 to 6.0 cm between non-adjacent knots and trammel nets with inner meshes of 6.0 cm between non-adjacent knots. Nets were arranged on surface, bottom and margins of each site, exposed for 24 h. Additional drags on littoral areas were performed from January to March and October to December from 2009 to 2011, with 50.0 m nets, 0.5 cm mesh size, for juveniles capture. We captured and analyzed 21 932 individuals, being 9 249 females and 12 683 males, representing 42.2 % and 57.8 %, respectively. The average body length was 8.8 cm for females and 8.3 cm for males. The average weight was 18.8 g for females and 16.0 g for males. Sex ratio calculated for the entire period was 1.8 males/female. Males were more abundant than females in 73.2 % of samples and significant differences were observed in 35.3 % of samples. The estimated length at first maturity (SL(50)) was 6.4 cm for females and 6.2 cm for males. We suggest that sexual differences in body length and weight, and sex ratio occurred as a result of sexual differences in energy allocation. Females spend more energy on body growth, which means more eggs production and higher fecundity. As an integrated response, males spend more energy on sperm production, in competition with other males, leading to a smaller body size. Differences in estimated SL(50) might be an indicator of this sexual difference in energy allocation. The reproduction period was from September to February, with greater intensity at the beginning of this period, and the sites of highest reproductive intensity were those immediate downstream from dams, and therefore with more riverine characteristics.
Marcon, Lucas; Lopes, Diego Senra; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Goulart, Amara Manarino Andrade; Leandro, Mila Vasques; Dos Anjos Benjamin, Laércio
Female individuals of Hyphessobrycon eques were exposed to Diflubenzuron (Dimilin(®)) in order to determine whether exposure to sublethal levels of this insecticide causes changes in gill morphology. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0mgL(-1) for 96h and 17 days and then submitted to pathological and histometric evaluation. Pathological lesions, such as hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, vascular congestion, secondary lamellar disarray, vasodilatation, hemorrhage and increased lamellar epithelium, were significantly more common in the gills of fish exposed to Dimilin(®) than the control. Histometric analysis documented significant changes in blood vessel diameter, primary lamellae width and secondary lamellae length, and the appearance of hemorrhage foci in all concentrations tested. Even at low Dimilin(®) concentrations, the histopathological alteration index was mild to moderate, thereby indicating that the function of this tissue was compromised. These findings indicate that indiscriminate use of Dimilin(®) can adversely affect the structural integrity of the gills of H. eques, which can cause numerous problems for fish farming systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fine-scale genetic structure patterns in two freshwater fish species, Geophagus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) and Astyanax altiparanae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) throughout a Neotropical stream.
Ferreira, D G; Lima, S C; Frantine-Silva, W; Silva, J F; Apolinário-Silva, C; Sofia, S H; Carvalho, S; Galindo, B A
Streams are very important environments for Neotropical freshwater fish fauna, and possess a high number of species. These small drainages are also highlighted by their intrinsic biological and physicochemical features; however, knowledge on the genetic distribution of fish in these drainages is limited. Therefore, in the present study, RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and microsatellite markers were used to analyze population differentiation and gene flow of Astyanax altiparanae and Geophagus brasiliensis from three sites (high, medium, and low) throughout the Penacho stream (about 32 km long), which is a Neotropical stream. Both markers revealed higher levels of genetic diversity levels for A. altiparanae (: 90.05; HS: 0.350) compared to G. brasiliensis (: 30.43; HS: 0.118), which may be related to the particular biology of each species. AMOVA revealed significant genetic variation among populations of each species. All pairwise ΦST values were significant, ranging from 0.020 to 0.056 for A. altiparanae samples, and from 0.065 to 0.190 for G. brasiliensis samples. Bayesian clustering analysis corroborated these results and revealed clusters of both A. altiparanae (two based on RAPD data) and G. brasiliensis (two based on RAPD data and three on microsatellite data). Gene flow estimates showed that there were similar rates of migration among A. altiparanae samples and low rates of migration among some G. brasiliensis samples. These results suggest patterns of fine-scale genetic structure for both species in the Penacho stream. This information may enhance knowledge of Neotropical streams and may be useful for future management and conservation activities.
Malabarba, Luiz R; Jerep, Fernando C
Species of the genus Serrapinnus from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin are revised and three new species are described. Serrapinnus aster new species is diagnosed by the presence of scimitar-shaped ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays of mature males forming a semicircle and by the presence of 7-9 cusps on the premaxillary teeth; S. lucindai new species is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a higher number of ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays (17 to 19); and S. tocantinensis new species differs from the remaining species of the genus by the elongation of the unbranched dorsal and pelvic-fin rays into filaments in mature males. Serrapinnus sterbai is recognized as broadly distributed in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin and is redescribed based on specimens from across its entire distribution. A key for the cheirodontines occurring in the Atlantic drainages of northeastern Brazil, from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia to the rio Paraguaçú is provided.
Camus, Alvin C; Dill, Jennifer A; Rosser, Thomas G; Pote, Linda M; Griffin, Matt J
An investigation of mortalities in a group of cardinal tetras Paracheirodon axelrodi Meyers, 1936, a popular ornamental fish, revealed myxozoan parasites in ventricles of the brains in 3/10 fish and the ocular retina of a fourth. Parasite impacts were unclear, as additional histopathological findings were present, including bacterial dermatitis and meningitis. Ethanol-preserved specimens pooled from multiple fish were used for morphological characterization of myxospores. Elongate, teardrop myxospores were 20.5 ± 0.7-μm (mean ± SD; range = 19.0-21.8 μm) long, 6.6 ± 0.5-μm (5.7-7.9 μm) wide, and 5.1 ± 0.4-μm (4.8-5.9 μm) thick (valvular width). Two, unequally sized, apical, pyriform polar capsules were in the same plane as the sutural ridge. The larger measured 9.9 ± 0.8-μm (8.0-11.2 μm) long and 3.8 ± 0.3-μm (3.2-4.8 μm) wide. The smaller was 4.1 ± 0.3-μm (3.5-4.5 μm) long and 2.0 ± 0.1-μm (1.8-2.3 μm) wide. Identical 1912 bp 18S rRNA sequences were obtained from two pooled spore samples from tetra brains, which did not match any sequences in the NCBI nr/nt database. Phylogenetically, these parasites grouped loosely within a clade containing Myxobolus spp. from other South American characins and Unicauda spp. from siluriform catfish. Myxospores shared some morphological similarities with Myxobolus inaequus from the unrelated glass knifefish (Order: Gymnotiformes), but were genetically divergent (<85 % similarity) from other myxozoan parasites of South American characins and shared few morphological features or tissue predilection sites. Based on host and tissue tropism, spore morphology, and 18S rRNA sequencing, we report this isolate as a previously unknown species, Myxobolus axelrodi n. sp.
Angulo, Arturo; Gracian-Negrete, Jatziry Marlene
A new species of Brycon is described from the Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Brycon costaricensis n. sp. differs from all other Central American Brycon species by the following combination of characters: 49 to 54 scales in the lateral line; 5 or 6 rows of scales between lateral line and pectoral fin base; 9 to 11 rows of scales between lateral line and dorsal fin base; 5 to 7 rows of scales between lateral line and anal fin base; anal fin notably longer than head, with 33 to 37 total rays; and a elongated and shallow caudal peduncle, whose length is 1.78 to 2.35 times its depth. A key to lower Mesoamerican species of the genus is also presented.
Ceneviva-Bastos, M; Taboga, S R; Casatti, L
We investigated the reproductive biology of Knodus moenkhausii, an abundant small-sized characin fish with broad occurrence in the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly to determine fecundity, length at first maturity, reproductive period and spawning type. Gonads were macroscopically classified according to their form, size and texture in three different stages (immature, maturing or mature). Histological procedures were conducted to confirm gonadal developmental stages, and it was possible to notice that maturing females actually presented atretic oocytes, and all males that were macroscopically classified as immature, maturing and mature actually presented abundant spermatozoa in their gonads. Because of these discrepancies, a reclassification of gonadal maturations stages was needed after histological analysis, reinforcing its importance to studies on the reproduction of small characins. Reproduction occurred throughout the year though with two peaks. The length of the smallest mature individuals was 13 mm SL for males and 24 mm SL for females. Despite presenting relatively small batch fecundity, some life history traits such as early reproduction, multiple spawning throughout the year, in association with known opportunistic feeding habits, explain the high abundance of this species in locations where it occurs. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Dos Santos, Matheus Pereira; Yasui, George Shigueki; Xavier, Pedro Luiz Porfírio; de Macedo Adamov, Nadya Soares; do Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Senhorini, José Augusto; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada
The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of gametes, post-fertilization events and subsequent temperature effects on the early developmental stages of the neotropical species Astyanax altiparanae. The sperm of this species presents a typical morphology of teleost sperm with a spherical head (diameter = 1.88 µm), midpiece (diameter = 0.75 µm) and a single flagellum (length = 18.67 µm). The extrusion of the second polar body and fusion of male and female pronucleus were reported for the first time in this species. Additionally, we observed the formation of the fertilization cone, which prevents polyspermic fertilization. Developmental stages at 22°C, 26°C and 30°C gave rise to fertilization rates at 91.12, 91.42 and 93.04% respectively. Hatching occurred at 25 hpf at 22°C, 16 hpf at 26°C and 11 hpf at 30°C and the hatching rates were 61.78%, 62.90% and 59.45%, respectively. At 22°C, the second polar body was extruded at ≈6 mpf and the male and female pronucleus fused at ≈10 mpf. This fundamental information is important for the field and opens up new possibilities in fish biotechnology, including micromanipulation and chromosome-set manipulation.
Muriel-Hoyos, Felipe; Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo
A new copepod species, Ergasilus curticrus n. sp. is described based on 14 female specimens collected from the gills of the characid teleost Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez, captured in the Vichada River Basin in Colombia. The new species has a unique combination of characters including: (i) 2-segmented endopods in legs 1 and 4; (ii) a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal segment of the first leg exopod; (iii) a 1-segmented fourth leg exopod; (iv) a reduced fifth leg with a single seta; and (v) a circular structure fused to a groove near the lateral margins of the second pedigerous tergite. Only two other known congeners have a 1-segmented leg 4 exopod, E. coatiarus Araujo & Varella, 1998 and E. iheringi Tidd, 1942. Among other characters, they differ from the new species by the lack of a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 1 and in the structure and armature of the fifth leg. The prevalence of E. curticrus n. sp. was 13.6% and its mean abundance was 0.4 specimens per host. This is the first new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 described from the Orinoco River Basin.
Menezes, Naércio A; Zanata, Angela M; Camelier, Priscila
Analysis of morphometric and meristic data from specimens obtained from various river basins along the distribution of Nematocharax venustus revealed intraspecific variation among geographically isolated populations. A comparative analysis of these data with data from the original description of N. costai, in addition to data obtained from the holotype and topotypes of the species, showed broad overlap and absence of morphological features supporting the recognition of two species within Nematocharax. Characters previously used to distinguish N. costai from N. venustus, such as presence of hooks or spinules on dorsal and pelvic fins, number of hooks on anal-fin rays, occurrence of a pink horizontal mark on the caudal peduncle, number of supraneurals, and coloration of the pelvic-fin filament, are not useful to distinguish the two putative species. Thus, N. costai is considered herein as a junior synonym of N. venustus. Presence of a complete lateral line and length of fin-filaments of N. venustus are briefly discussed and a current overview of the distribution of the species is given. In view of the proposed synonymy of a so recently described species and aiming to avoid problems of similar nature in the future, we also take the opportunity to reinforce herein the importance of the examination of large population samples and of intraspecific variation of secondary sexual features.
Malato, Grace; Shervette, Virginia R.; Navarrete Amaya, Ronald; Valdiviezo Rivera, Jonathan; Nugra Salazar, Fredy; Calle Delgado, Paola; Karpan, Kirby C.
Neotropical mountain streams are important contributors of biological diversity. Two species of the characid genus Rhoadsia differing for an ecologically important morphological trait, body depth, have been described from mountain streams of the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador. Rhoadsia altipinna is a deeper-bodied species reported from low elevations in southwestern Ecuador and northern Peru, and Rhoadsia minor is a more streamlined species that was described from high elevations (>1200 m) in the Esmeraldas drainage in northwestern Ecuador. Little is known about these species and their validity as distinct species has been questioned. In this study, we examine how their body shape varies along replicated elevational gradients in different drainages of western Ecuador using geometric morphometrics and the fineness ratio. We also use sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c I gene and the second intron of the S7 nuclear gene to examine whether genetic data are consistent with the existence of two species. We found that body depth varies continuously among populations within drainages as a function of elevation, and that body shape overlaps among drainages, such that low elevation populations of R. minor in the Esmeraldas drainage have similar body depths to higher elevation R. altipinna in southern drainages. Although a common general trend of declining body depth with elevation is clear, the pattern and magnitude of body shape divergence differed among drainages. Sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear genes failed to meet strict criteria for the recognition of two species (e.g., reciprocal monophyly and deep genetic structure). However, there was a large component of genetic variation for the COI gene that segregated among drainages, indicating significant genetic divergence associated with geographic isolation. Continued research on Rhoadsia in western Ecuador may yield significant insight into adaptation and speciation in Neotropical mountain streams. PMID:28658255
Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Mirande, Juan Marcos; de Lima, Flávio Cesar Thadeo
A new genus and species of characid fish is described from rio Braço Norte, a tributary of rio Teles Pires, Tapajós basin, Mato Groso, Brazil. The new taxa can be diagnosed from the remaining characids by a unique combination of characters that includes the presence of a single row of relatively compressed premaxillary teeth, large teeth with four to nine cusps on premaxillary and dentary, absence of pseudotympanum, incomplete lateral line with 7–13 pored scales, sexually-dimorphic males with distal margin of anal fin approximately straight, and presence of a nearly triangular and horizontally elongated blotch from the posterior half of the body to caudal peduncle. The most parsimonious phylogenetic hypothesis, using morphological data, recovered the new genus and species in a clade including Paracheirodon axelrodi and Hyphessobrycon elachys. PMID:28199336
Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Mirande, Juan Marcos; de Lima, Flávio Cesar Thadeo
A new genus and species of characid fish is described from rio Braço Norte, a tributary of rio Teles Pires, Tapajós basin, Mato Groso, Brazil. The new taxa can be diagnosed from the remaining characids by a unique combination of characters that includes the presence of a single row of relatively compressed premaxillary teeth, large teeth with four to nine cusps on premaxillary and dentary, absence of pseudotympanum, incomplete lateral line with 7-13 pored scales, sexually-dimorphic males with distal margin of anal fin approximately straight, and presence of a nearly triangular and horizontally elongated blotch from the posterior half of the body to caudal peduncle. The most parsimonious phylogenetic hypothesis, using morphological data, recovered the new genus and species in a clade including Paracheirodon axelrodi and Hyphessobrycon elachys.
Tribuzy-Neto, I A; Conceição, K G; Siqueira-Souza, F K; Hurd, L E; Freitas, C E C
The effects of extreme droughts on freshwater fish remain unknown worldwide. In this paper, we estimated the condition factor, a measure of relative fitness based on the relationship of body weight to length, in four fish species representing two trophic levels (omnivores and piscivores) from Amazonian floodplain lakes for three consecutive years: 2004, 2005 (an anomalous drought year), and 2006. The two omnivores, Colossoma macropomum and Mylossoma duriventre, exhibited trends consistent with their life cycles in 2004 and 2006: high values during the hydrologic seasons of high water, receding water, and low water, with a drop following reproduction following the onset of rising water. However during the drought year of 2005 the condition factor was much lower than normal during receding and low water seasons, probably as a result of an abnormal reduction in resource availability in a reduced habitat. The two piscivorous piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura and S. elongatus, maintained relatively stable values of condition factor over the hydrologic cycles of all three years, with no apparent effect of the drought, probably because the reduction in habitat is counterbalanced by the resulting increase in relative prey density. We suggest that if predictions of increasing drought in the Amazon are correct, predatory species may benefit, at least in the short run, while omnivores may be negatively affected.
Morphofunctional changes in Leydig cells throughout the continuous spermatogenesis of the freshwater teleost fish, Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characiformes, Characidae): an ultrastructural and enzyme study.
Nóbrega, R H; Quagio-Grassiotto, I
The freshwater fish Serrasalmus spilopleura (piranha) has a continuous type of reproduction; gametes are constantly produced and released during the reproductive cycle. The testes do not undergo seasonal morphological changes but exhibit two constant regions throughout the year: the medullar region (involved with spermatogenesis) and the cortical region (involved with spermiation and sperm storage). We have evaluated the ultrastructure of the Leydig cells and the activity of 3beta-HSD (an essential enzyme related to steroid hormone biosynthesis) and acid phosphatase (AcPase; lysosomal marker enzyme) in these two regions. The activity of 3beta-HSD is stronger in the medullar region, and the Leydig cells in this region have a variety of cytological features that reflect differences in hormone synthesis and/or that could be linked to steroidogenic cells under various degrees of hormonal activity. In the cortical region, 3beta-HSD activity is weak and the Leydig cells exhibit signs of degeneration, as confirmed by their ultrastructure and intense AcPase activity. These degenerative signs are indicative of cytoplasmic remodelling to degrade steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-HSD, that could lead to senescence or even to autophagic cell degeneration. S. spilopleura thus constitutes an interesting model for increasing our understanding of steroidogenesis control in freshwater teleost fish.
Hamann, M I
From February 1987 to February 1989, the populational biology of Contraceacum sp. (larvae) in its paratenic host, the fish Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860, was studied in two ponds in a subtropical permanent habitat northeastern of Argentina. Fishes from Ramada Paso pond presented 80% of prevalence and 1 to 132 larvae per fish while fishes from Aeroclub pond presented 63% of prevalence and 1 to 184 larvae per fish. Fishes collected from Aeroclub pond have shown a high prevalence of infection during the first period of study (1987), diminishing the following year. In fishes from Ramada Paso pond the prevalence varied not significatively during the two years. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection increase with body length and weight of the hosts. Sex of hosts is not an influential factor in parasitic level. The lenitic "closed" environmental (Ramada Paso pond) evidenced the greatest larvae mean intensity and prevalence. Although, the lenitic "open" environmental (Aeroclub pond) showed the greatest parasitic number of individuals in an infrapopulation. The spatial dispersion in both ponds were aggregated and fit well a negative binomial model. Nevertheless, the Aeroclub pond presented the greatest overdispersion.
Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R
In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.
Vanegas-Ríos, J A; Urbano-Bonilla, A
Chrysobrycon mojicai sp. nov. is described from forest streams that are part of the Amazon River basin in Colombia. It is distinguished from all congeners by having most of the maxillary teeth with distal tips lateroventrally curved (v. teeth straight along their lengths) and a greater number of dentary teeth (20-27 v. 11-19, except in Chrysobrycon yoliae). The posterior margin of the ventral process of the quadrate does not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the symplectic and these features differentiate C. mojicai from Chrysobrycon myersi and C. yoliae (v. posterior margin of ventral process of quadrate reaching vertical through posterior margin of symplectic). In species of Chrysobrycon, the frontals are extensively contacting each other along the midline, resulting in an absent frontal fontanel and a reduced parietal fontanel. This extensive contact between the frontals modifying the fontanels is a condition rarely found within the Stevardiinae and hence is proposed as an additional diagnostic characteristic for the genus. An updated identification key for all Chrysobrycon species is provided. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio César; Mancera-Rodríguez, Néstor J; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I
Brycon henni is a native species in Magdalena's River basin, and because of its cultural and economic importance, is strongly overexploited. This study aimed to describe the genetic variability and population structure of this species from Nare and Guatapé rivers basins. A total of 195 individuals were collected and DNA extractions were obtained from muscle and blood tissue. Fourteen primers were evaluated with the RAPD technique, being four of them polymorphic, and produced 66 different fragments (63% polymorphism). Besides, using the molecular variance (AMOVA) analysis, the population structure was described for all sites (phi(ST) = 0.297, phi(ST) = 0.163; Nare and Guatapé river basins, respectively), and suggested the importance of the migratory behaviour of the species in the genetic differentiation. Genetic distances among sampled sites showed that most of the genetic differentiation occurred between sites Guatapé and El Cardal with respect to the others. A Mantel Test demonstrated a correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.431 both of the basins evaluated; r = 0.377, Nare river middle basin), and suggested isolation by distance. The outcomes obtained in this study have valuable implications in species conservation and the genetic variability of natural populations of B. henni, and should be complemented with morphological analyses.
Freire, I S; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Fascineli, M L; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Martins, E S; Monnerat, R G; Grisolia, C K
Bioinsecticides from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used around the world in biological control against larval stages of many insect species. Bt has been considered a biopesticide that is highly specific to different orders of insects, non-polluting and harmless to humans and other vertebrates, thus becoming a viable alternative for combating agricultural pests and insect vectors of diseases. The family of Bt δ-endotoxins are crystal-protein inclusions showing toxicity to insects' midgut, causing cell lysis leading to starvation, septicemia and death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of recombinant Bt spore-crystals expressing Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 on peripheral erythrocyte cells of Oreochromis niloticus, through comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) analysis. Fish (n = 10/group) were exposed for 96 h at 10(7) spores 30 l(-1), 10(8) spores 30 l(-1) or 10(9) spores 30 l(-1) of Bt spore-crystals. Cry1Ia showed a significant increase in comet cells at levels 1 and 2, but not at levels 3 and 4, so it was not mutagenic nor did it induce MN or NA. These three spore-crystals showed some fish toxicity at only the highest exposure level, which normally does not occur in the field.
Matoso, D A; da Silva, M; Artoni, R F; Torres, R A
A species complex hypothesis involving Astyanax fasciatus from southern Brazil was tested using 12S mtDNA sequences. Phylogenetic inferences were performed with maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian as phylogenetic methods and Hemigrammus bleheri as the outgroup. Besides 11 sequences from A. fasciatus, the data set was comprised of other partial 12S sequences including material from Astyanax altiparanae (two sequences) and Astyanax sp (four sequences), both from the Iguaçu River. The hypothesis of an A. fasciatus species complex was reinforced given the close relationship between A. altiparanae and Astyanax sp observed in the Bayesian tree. Consequently, a taxonomic revision is necessary for these species.
Schalch, Ergio H C; de Moraes, Flávio R; de Moraes, Julieta R E
This work described the lesions caused in different species of fish by gill parasites from fee-fishing at Guariba, State of São Paulo. The research was developed from april, 1997 to march to 1999, seeking to verified the kind tissues lesions from fish. Of these, forty and seven were Leporinus macrocephalus and fifty and five Piaractus mesopotamicus. About 87.2% of the L. macrocephalus, and 58.1% of the P. mesopotamicus were sponged by several species of parasites. The parasite most abundant in L. macrocephalus was Piscinoodinium pillulare, while monogenean, Trichodina sp and myxosporidian infected P. mesopotamicus. Severe gill lesions have been observed in L. macrocephalus and P. mesopotamicus caused by monogenean, P. pillulare e Trichodina sp. parasitism, such as intersticial hemorrhage, sub-epithelium edema, inflammation, epitelial hiperplasy in filaments and lamina, proliferation of mucosal cells and laminar fusion.
Bashiyo-Silva, Cristiane; Costa, Raphael da Silva; Ribeiro, Douglas de Castro; Senhorini, José Augusto; Veríssimo-Silveira, Rosicleire; Ninhaus-Silveira, Alexandre
This study aimed to establish a hormonal induction protocol for spermiation of Brycon cephalus males, using Ala6, Pro9Net-mGnRH + metoclopramide (Ovopel®). Thus, 20 males were used divided into three inductor treatments [⅓ pellet/kg (T1), ⅔ pellet/kg (T2) and 1⅓ pellet/kg (T3)] and one control group (CO), which only received physiological solution applications (0.9% NaCl). All treatments were applied in a single dose. For evaluation of the availability of the treatment, the following seminal parameters were analyzed: seminal volume, subjective spermatic motility, duration of motility, pH, osmolality and spermatic concentration. T3 showed the highest seminal volume (4.66 ± 1.52 ml), and was significantly different in comparison with T1 (2.0 ± 0.9 ml), T2 (3.5 ± 1.3 ml) and CO (2.3 ± 1.2 ml). In relation to spermatic motility, T2 and T3 showed significantly higher levels [5, (81-100%)]. However, T3 showed significantly lower average sperm motility duration than T1, T2 and CO (30 ± 7 s; 28 ± 6 s; 32 ± 8 s, respectively). With regard to the seminal parameters of spermatic concentration, pH and osmolality, no significant variation was verified among treatments. In conclusion, mGnRH + metoclopramide used for hormonal induction of B. cephalus reproduction does not induce changes related to spermatic concentration, pH and osmolality parameters of the seminal fluid and the most adequate doses among tested treatments were ⅔ pellet/kg live fish.
Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G
The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.
[Praziquantel, levamisole and diflubenzuron in the control of Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura) and Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae)].
Schalch, Sergio Henrique Canello; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Soares, Vando Edésio
This assay evaluated the control efficacy of diflubenzuron, praziquantel and levamisole added to the diet of pacu (Piaractus mesoptamicus) infected with Anacanthorus penilabiatus and Dolops carvalhoi. 19 water tanks of 300 L capacity were utilized with 28 fish in each one. The treatments were made by mixing the active principles in the diet. The experiment was evaluated in four harvests done 1 day before and 3, 7 and 15 days after the treatment. The medicated feeding was applied for 7 days. The results of efficacy suggest that the diflubenzuron alone or associated with levamisole and praziquantel was efficient against the crustacean D. carvalhoi and the efficacy in the 3, 7 and 15 days evaluations ranged from 96.2 to 100%. Against the monogenean the drugs did not present efficacy. The results suggest the use of diflubenzuron for the control of D. carvalhoi in captive fishes in special conditions.
Ohara, Willian M; Lima, Flávio C T; Barros, Bruno S
A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the rio Roosevelt, rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon petricolus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following features: a well-defined, relatively narrow dark midlateral stripe on body extending from immediately behind posterior margin of opercle to the middle caudal-fin rays, relatively conspicuous humeral blotch, and 16-20 branched anal-fin rays. Comments on the remaining Hyphessobrycon species presenting a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe are presented.
Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot"
subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.
Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea
The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.
Pacheco, Rosiley Berton; da Rosa, Renata; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Júlio Jr., Horácio Ferreira; Dias, Ana Lúcia
Abstract Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000) of the Água dos Patos stream/SP and lake Igapó/PR were analyzed. All individuals showed 2n = 50, however, different karyotypic formulae were observed. The population of the Água dos Patos stream showed 8m +24sm+6st+12a (NF=88) and the population of lake Igapó, 8m+28sm+4st+10a (NF=90). Nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) were observed in the terminal position on the short and long arm of different chromosomes of both populations, showing a variation from 3 to 4 chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probes revealed only one pair of chromosomes with fluorescent signals in the terminal site on the short arm in the Igapó lake population, while the population of Água dos Patos stream showed 4 fluorescence terminal signals, characterizing a system of simple and multiple NORs, respectively. 5S rDNA fluorescent signals were detected in the interstitial position of a pair of chromosomes in the two studied populations. Some AgNOR sites revealed to be GC-rich when stained with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), however, AT positive regions were not observed. The data obtained show that, despite the conservation of the diploid number and location of 5S DNAr, differences in both the distribution of 18S rDNA and karyotypic formula among the populations were found, thus corroborating the existing data on chromosome variability in Astyanax altiparanae that can be significant for cytotaxonomy in this group. PMID:24260632
Evolutionary divergence among Oligosarcus spp. (Ostariophysi, Characidae) from the São Francisco and Doce River basins: Oligosarcus solitarius Menezes, 1987 shows the highest rates of chromosomal evolution in the Neotropical Region.
de Barros, Lucas Caetano; Santos, Udson; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Dergam, Jorge Abdala
The Doce River, in southeastern Brazil, is a coastal drainage, configured since the Late Cretaceous, when South America separated from Africa. Of the 77 native fish species of the Doce River Basin, 37 are potentially endangered-Oligosarcus solitarius, Menezes 1987, is the only endemic species of the quaternary lakes in the middle portion of this drainage and Oligosarcus argenteus, Günther 1864, is distributed in the Doce River channel and headwaters. This study characterizes the morphological, cytogenetic, and mitochondrial DNA variation in the Oligosarcus spp. populations from the Doce and São Francisco River Basins. The principal component analysis indicates three morphological groups. Cytogenetic data corroborate existence of the O. solitarius and O. argenteus fish species in the Doce River Basin, with high levels of population cytogenetic polymorphism. Taking into consideration the Pleistocene-Holocene formation of the lacustrine system in the middle Doce River, with low molecular differentiation and high levels of chromosomal variation among the O. solitarius populations, we concluded that O. solitarius has the highest rate of chromosomal evolution observed in Neotropical freshwater fishes. The morphological and cytogenetic patterns of the Oligosarcus sp. population collected at the Das Velhas River headwaters suggest that it may represent an undescribed species.
Basic cytogenetics and physical mapping of ribosomal genes in four Astyanax species (Characiformes, Characidae) collected in Middle Paraná River, Iguassu National Park: considerations on taxonomy and systematics of the genus
Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Baumgärtner, Lucas; da Graça, Weferson Júnio; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan
Abstract Karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics of both minor and major rDNAs in four fish species known popularly as “lambaris”, namely Astyanax abramis (Jenyns, 1842), Astyanax asuncionensis Géry, 1972, Astyanax correntinus (Holmberg, 1891) and Astyanax sp. collected from downstream of the Iguassu Falls (Middle Paraná River basin), preservation area of the Iguassu National Park, were analyzed by conventional and molecular protocols. Astyanax abramis had diploid chromosome number 2n=50 (4m+30sm+8st+8a) and single AgNORs (pair 22), Astyanax asuncionensis had 2n=50 (8m+24sm+6st+12a) and single AgNORs (pair 20), Astyanax sp. had 2n=50 (4m+26sm+8st+12a) and single AgNORs (pair 25), and Astyanax correntinus had 2n=36 (12m+16sm+2st+6a) and multiple AgNORs (pairs 12, 15, 16, 17). FISH with 18S rDNA showed a single site for Astyanax abramis, Astyanax asuncionensis and Astyanax sp. and multiple for Astyanax correntinus (14 sites). FISH with 5S rDNA showed single 5S-bearing loci chromosome pair only for Astyanax asuncionensis and multiple for Astyanax abramis (four sites), Astyanax correntinus (five sites) and Astyanax sp. (four sites). Distinct distribution patterns of heterochromatin were observed for karyotypes of all species, with the exception of the first acrocentric chromosome pair characterized by centromeric, interstitial-proximal and telomeric blocks of heterochromatin on the long arm, which may represent homeology between karyotypes of Astyanax abramis and Astyanax asuncionensis. Our study showed species-specific characteristics which can serve in diagnosis and differentiation between Astyanax abramis and Astyanax asuncionensis, considered cryptic species, as well as strengthening the occurrence of a species of Astyanax not yet described taxonomically. In addition, the data obtained from first cytogenetic studies in Astyanax correntinus suggest a high similarity with Astyanax schubarti Britski, 1964, suggesting that these species may belong to the same morphological group and that can be phylogenetically related. PMID:25893074
Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.
Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília
Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.
Redescription of Hysteronotus megalostomus (Characiformes: Characidae: Stevardiinae), a poorly known characid from tributaries of the Rio São Fancisco, Brazil with comments on the conservation of the species.
Menezes, N A; Weitzman, S H; Teixeira, T F
Originally described from the upper Rio das Velhas, a tributary of the Rio São Francisco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Hysteronotus megalostomus was recently collected in many tributaries of the Rio São Francisco north of the type locality. The specimens of the population samples collected outside the type locality share the morphological features present in the type material except for the presence of an adipose fin found only in two specimens within the more recently collected material. Presence or absence of the adipose fin has been extensively used by fish taxonomists to characterize different species and even genera, but in H. megalostomus the character is not consistent, indicating its use alone is not diagnostic. The species is redescribed and its phylogenetic relationships and conservation status are briefly discussed. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Marinho, Manoela M F; Langeani, Francisco
Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner) is redescribed based on the examination of the type and other specimens from several localities of the Amazon and Orinoco basins. The species is readly diagnosed from congeners by a combination of a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, lower lobe hyaline, and by the arrangement of predorsal scales, in which scales of anterior portion of predorsal area are arranged in pairs, followed by a single median row of scales extending to dorsal-fin origin. The analysis of the type material of Gymnotichthys hildae Fernández-Yépez and Knodus calliurus Ahl demonstrated the former is a junior synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura, whereas the latter should be removed from its synonymy. An identification key to the Moenkhausia lepidura-group is provided.
Pacheco, Rosiley Berton; da Rosa, Renata; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; Júlio, Horácio Ferreira; Dias, Ana Lúcia
Two populations of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000) of the Água dos Patos stream/SP and lake Igapó/PR were analyzed. All individuals showed 2n = 50, however, different karyotypic formulae were observed. The population of the Água dos Patos stream showed 8m +24sm+6st+12a (NF=88) and the population of lake Igapó, 8m+28sm+4st+10a (NF=90). Nucleolus organizing regions (AgNORs) were observed in the terminal position on the short and long arm of different chromosomes of both populations, showing a variation from 3 to 4 chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probes revealed only one pair of chromosomes with fluorescent signals in the terminal site on the short arm in the Igapó lake population, while the population of Água dos Patos stream showed 4 fluorescence terminal signals, characterizing a system of simple and multiple NORs, respectively. 5S rDNA fluorescent signals were detected in the interstitial position of a pair of chromosomes in the two studied populations. Some AgNOR sites revealed to be GC-rich when stained with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), however, AT positive regions were not observed. The data obtained show that, despite the conservation of the diploid number and location of 5S DNAr, differences in both the distribution of 18S rDNA and karyotypic formula among the populations were found, thus corroborating the existing data on chromosome variability in Astyanax altiparanae that can be significant for cytotaxonomy in this group.
Wallinia chavarriae n. sp. (Trematoda: Macroderoididae) in Astyanax aeneus (Gunther, 1860) and Bryconamericus scleroparius (Regan, 1908) (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica.
Choudhury, Anindo; Daverdin, Rita Hartvigsen; Brooks, Daniel R
Wallinia chavarriae n. sp. is described from the small-bodied characids Astyanax aeneus and Bryconamericus scleroparius in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica. The species differs from W. valenciae in possessing an acetabulum that is smaller than the oral sucker and vitelline follicles that are ovoid or rounded rather than elongate and tubular. Detailed comparison between these 2 species is handicapped by the less than satisfactory condition of the type and only museum specimen of W. valenciae. Wallinia chavarriae and W. valenciae belong to a subfamily of trematodes, Walliniinae, that arguably includes Creptotrematina spp., Magnivitellum simplex, and possibly Margotrema. The morphology of walliniines suggests that they are macroderoidids, but a clearer understanding of their classification could be gained from their larval morphology or from molecular systematic studies. The host associations of a monophyletic Walliniinae would indicate diversification within 2 groups of freshwater fishes: the neotropical characids for species of Wallinia, Creptotrematina, and Magnivitellum and the endemic central Mexican goodeids for those of Margotrema. The biogeography and host associations of these parasites provide a system for studies of potential host switching and vicariance, involving the middle-American and neotropical regions.
A new species of the trichomycterid catfish genus Ituglanis is described from the Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Rio Amazonas drainage, Brazil. Ituglanis apteryx, new species, is promptly distinguished from congeners, except some specimens of I. parahybae (Eigenmann), by the absence of pelvic fins, girdle, and muscles. The new species differs from I. parahybae in the pattern of the cephalic laterosensory system; the absence of a posterior cranial fontanel; the presence of an epural; and the number of branchiostegal rays, ribs, and vertebrae. Ituglanis apteryx is one among the several trichomycterids lacking pelvic fins. Analysis reveals that pelvic fin loss independently evolved several times during the trichomycterid radiation.
Helminthological examination of specimens of the freshwater fishes Bryconamericus iheringi Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Anablepidae), collected from Medina River, Province of Tucuman, Argentina, revealed the presence of 2 species of parasitic nematodes, Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. and Rhabdochona acuminata (Molin, 1860) (Rhabdochonidae). Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. was characterized by the presence of 16 anterior teeth in the prostom and filamented eggs in females. Rhabdochona acuminata was recorded for the first time in the north of Argentina.
New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.
Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš
During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.
A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.
Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L
Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene).
Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Isaak, D.J.
Fish and habitat were sampled from 110 reaches in the Salt River basin (Idaho and Wyoming) during 1996 and 1997 to assess patterns in fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed. We identified four distinct fish assemblages using cluster analysis: (1) allopatric cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)); (2) cutthroat trout - brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell, 1814)) - Paiute sculpin (Cottus beldingi Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1891); (3) cutthroat trout - brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758) - mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi Girard, 1850); and (4) Cyprinidae-Catostomidae. The distribution of fish assemblages was explained by thermal characteristics, stream geomorphology, and local habitat features. Reaches with allopatric cutthroat trout and the cutthroat trout - brook trout - Paiute sculpin assemblage were located in high-elevation, high-gradient streams. The other two fish assemblages were generally located in low-elevation streams. Associations between habitat gradients, locations of reaches in the watershed, and occurrence of species were further examined using canonical correspondence analysis. The results suggest that stream geomorphology, thermal conditions, and local habitat characteristics influence fish assemblage structure across a Rocky Mountain watershed, and they provide information on the ecology of individual species that can guide conservation activities. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.
Arredondo, Nathalia J; De Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; De Chambrier, Alain
This study describes the proteocephalidean tapeworm Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Proteocephalinae), which was found in the intestine of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann et Eigenmann) from the Colastiné River, a tributary of the Paraná River. The new species differs from the two other species of the genus, P. eirasi (Rego et de Chambrier, 1995) and P. ludovici Ruedi et de Chambrier, 2012, parasites of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch et Schneider) from the Amazon River in Brazil, in having fewer proglottides (4-8 without ventral appendages vs 7-12 with ventral appendages and 20-36 without ventral appendages, respectively), a smaller scolex (350-450 μm wide vs 495-990 μm and 515-1020 μm wide, respectively), in the total number of testes (21-25 vs 21-51 and 37-79, respectively), a cirrus-sac usually directed anteriorly if the vagina is posterior to the cirrus-sac vs transversely situated in the known species. The study of the tegumental surface of Pseudocrepidobothrium spp. revealed the presence of four types of microtriches: papilliform, acicular and capilliform filitriches, and gladiate spinitriches. The three species have a similar microthrix pattern, with minor differences on the immature proglottis surface. Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. is the ninth proteocephalid reported from P. reticulatum.
Moravec, F; Huffman, D G
A new nematode species, Rhabdochona longleyi sp. n. is described from the intestine of two species of blind catfishes, Trogloglanis pattersoni Eigenmann (type host) and Satan eurystomus Hubbs et Bailey (both fam. Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) from the subterranean waters (artesian wells penetrating San Antonio pool of Edwards Aquifer) of Texas, USA. It is characterized largely by the presence of only six anterior teeth in the prostom, simple deirids, by the shape and length of spicules (0.42 to 0.50 mm and 0.093-0.102 mm), shape of the tail tip (rounded), and by filamented eggs. R. longleyi probably adapted to the environment of the aquifer by utilizing available troglobitic crustaceans instead of aquatic insects as an intermediate host.
Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça
The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.
Webb, D Harry; Marrero, Cynthia; Ellis, Helen; Merriwether, Lea; Dove, Alistair D M
A reagent-free spectrophotometric assay was developed to measure the concentration of metronidazole (a 5-nitroimidazole) in both freshwater and seawater matrices. This assay is simple, repeatable, sensitive, and precise and is ideal for use when a rapid, selective test to determine metronidazole concentration in aqueous matrices is necessary. The assay was practically tested on a South American fishes display during treatment with metronidazole for an outbreak of the flagellated parasite Spironucleus in a mixed cichlid (family Cichlidae) and tetra (family Characidae) community. The assay clearly illustrated the course of treatment for the system during a real clinical application. The assay is not without limitations, as interferences can occur from other drugs in the matrix with similar absorbance spectra. Nonetheless, this type of assay illustrates the potential for use of native absorbance assays in aqueous matrices for this and other therapeutic compounds.
Guisande, Cástor; Vari, Richard P; Heine, Jürgen; García-Roselló, Emilio; González-Dacosta, Jacinto; Perez-Schofield, Baltasar J García; González-Vilas, Luis; Pelayo-Villamil, Patricia
We present and discuss VARSEDIG, an algorithm which identifies the morphometric features that significantly discriminate two taxa and validates the morphological distinctness between them via a Monte-Carlo test. VARSEDIG is freely available as a function of the RWizard application PlotsR (http://www.ipez.es/RWizard) and as R package on CRAN. The variables selected by VARSEDIG with the overlap method were very similar to those selected by logistic regression and discriminant analysis, but overcomes some shortcomings of these methods. VARSEDIG is, therefore, a good alternative by comparison to current classical classification methods for identifying morphometric features that significantly discriminate a taxon and for validating its morphological distinctness from other taxa. As a demonstration of the potential of VARSEDIG for this purpose, we analyze morphological discrimination among some species of the Neotropical freshwater family Characidae.
Calcagnotto, Daniela; Schaefer, Scott A; DeSalle, Rob
Suprafamilial relationships among characiform fishes and implications for the taxonomy and biogeographic history of the Characiformes were investigated by parsimony analysis of four nuclear and two mitochondrial genes across 124 ingroup and 11 outgroup taxa. Simultaneous analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the mitochondrial 16S and cytochrome b genes and the nuclear recombination activating gene (RAG2), seven in absentia (sia), forkhead (fkh), and alpha-tropomyosin (trop) gene loci confirmed the non-monophyly of the African and Neotropical assemblages and corroborated many suprafamilial groups proposed previously on the basis of morphological features. The African distichodontids plus citharinids were strongly supported as a monophyletic Citharinoidei that is the sistergroup to all other characiforms, which form a monophyletic Characoidei composed of two large clades. The first represents an assemblage of both African and Neotropical taxa, wherein a monophyletic African Alestidae is sister to a smaller clade comprised of the Neotropical families Ctenolucidae, Lebiasinidae, and the African Hepsetidae, with that assemblage sister to a strictly Neotropical clade comprised of the Crenuchidae and Erythrinidae. The second clade within the Characoidei is strictly Neotropical and includes all other Characiformes grouped into two well supported major clades. The first, corresponding to a traditional definition of the Characidae, is congruent with some groupings previously supported by morphological evidence. The second clade comprises a monophyletic Anostomoidea that is sister to a clade formed by the families Hemiodontidae, Parodontidae, and Serrasalmidae, with that assemblage, in turn, the sistergroup of the Cynodontidae. Serrasalmidae, traditionally regarded as a subfamily of Characidae, was recovered as the sistergroup of (Anostomoidea (Parodontidae+Hemiodontidae)) and the family Cynodontidae was recovered with strong support as the sistergroup to this assemblage
Provenzano R, Francisco; Barriga S, Ramiro
At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins. A comparative analysis of bones related to the opercular mobility, shows important differences between H. annectens, H. landoni, and the new species, suggesting that H. annectens does not belong to the genus Hemiancistrus or the Ancistrini group. According to the characteristics observed in these bones, H. annectens shows greater similarity to those reported in species of the Hypostomini group, supporting its inclusion in this group, but placing it in the genus Hypostomus requires further analysis. On the other hand, the conditions observed on the bones of Hemiancistrus landoni and the new species suggest that both are inside of the Ancistrini group. The new species is placed in the genus Hemiancistrus tentatively, pending future analysis.
Carlson, Elof Axel
Fruit flies were used by several laboratories between 1901 and 1910 for studies of experimental evolution at Harvard, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor before Thomas Hunt Morgan found his white-eyed mutation that we associate with the beginnings of the fly lab at Columbia University. The major players prior to Morgan were William Castle and his students at Harvard University, Frank Lutz at Cold Spring Harbor, and Fernandus Payne whose ideas for working with fruit flies were shaped by his studies of blind cave fauna at Indiana University. Payne's interests were stimulated by the work of Carl Eigenmann, an authority on blind cave fauna, and William Moenkhaus, who introduced Payne to fruit flies at Indiana University before Payne moved to Columbia to pursue graduate work with Morgan and Edmund Wilson. The motivations of the laboratories differed in the theories used for their work. Castle spread the word about the utility of fruit flies for research, but Payne gave Morgan his first fruit flies for research leading to the discovery of the white-eye mutation.
Lisitsyna, Olga; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman
Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. is described from the catfishes Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host) and Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes) in the River Amazon basin, Peru. The new species belongs to the subfamily Diplosentinae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 of the family Diplosentidae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 because of its possession of an unarmed trunk, a cylindrical proboscis, proboscis hooks arranged in longitudinal rows and two tubular cement glands of the same length in males. Sharpilosentis n. g. differs from the other genera of the Diplosentidae in the morphology of the reproductive system: males have a large muscular penis covered with small tubercles and the vulva of females is devoid of muscular sphincters and the cephalic ganglion is located between the second and third part of the proboscis receptacle. In addition, proboscis hooks are of three types: large hooks with simple roots in the anterior part of the proboscis, transitional 6th hook in one from two adjacent rows with bifurcated root in the distal part and small hooks without roots in the posterior part of the proboscis. A partial sequence for the mitochondrial cox1 gene is provided for this new taxon. The taxonomic composition of the family Diplosentidae is discussed.
Moravec, Frantisek; Chara, Julian; Shinn, Andrew P
Light and scanning electron microscopical examinations of nematode samples collected from the stomachs and intestines of catfishes Trichomycterus spp. (Trichomycteridae, Siluriformes) from three streams in Colombia revealed the presence of two species, Dentinema trichomycteri n. g., n. sp. (Cosmocercidae) (type-host Trichomycterus sp.) and Procamallanus ( Spirocamallanus ) chimusensis Freitas & Ibáñez, 1968 (Camallanidae). The new, monotypic genus Dentinema is characterised mainly by the presence of a triangular mouth surrounded by three poorly developed lips, four submedian cephalic papillae, three conical teeth in the well-developed buccal cavity, an elongate oesophageal isthmus which is clearly separated from the corpus, precloacal oblique muscle bands, and by the absence of a ventral sucker. P. chimusensis , recorded from Colombia for the first time, is redescribed from specimens collected from Trichomycterus chapmani (Eigenmann) (a new host record) and Trichomycterus sp.; new observations show that this species belongs to a small group of Procamallanus spp. exhibiting a distinct sexual diversity in the structure of the buccal capsule. P. pexatus Pinto, Fábio, Noronha & Rolas, 1976 is synonymised with P. chimusensis .
Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina
Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075
Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.
Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041
Assumpção, Cindy M.; Quintela, Fernando M.; Corrêa, Fabiano; Loebmann, Daniel
Abstract The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine). Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits. PMID:28174498
Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S
We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.
Assumpção, Cindy M; Quintela, Fernando M; Corrêa, Fabiano; Loebmann, Daniel
The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine). Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.
Valdez-Moreno, M; Ivanova, N V; Elías-Gutiérrez, M; Contreras-Balderas, S; Hebert, P D N
The freshwater fish fauna of Mexico and Guatemala is exceptionally diverse with >600 species, many endemic. In this study, patterns of sequence divergence were analysed in representatives of this fauna using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcodes for 61 species in 36 genera. The average divergence among conspecific individuals was 0.45%, while congeneric taxa showed 5.1% divergence. Three species of Poblana, each occupying a different crater lake in the arid regions of Central Mexico, have had a controversial taxonomic history but are usually regarded as endemics to a single lake. They possess identical COI barcodes, suggesting a very recent history of isolation. Representatives of the Cichlidae, a complex and poorly understood family, were well discriminated by barcodes. Many species of Characidae seem to be young, with low divergence values (<2%), but nevertheless, clear barcode clusters were apparent in the Bramocharax-Astyanax complex. The symbranchid, Opisthernon aenigmaticum, has been regarded as a single species ranging from Guatemala to Mexico, but it includes two deeply divergent barcode lineages, one a possible new endemic species. Aside from these special cases, the results confirm that DNA barcodes will be highly effective in discriminating freshwater fishes from Central America and that a comprehensive analysis will provide new important insights for understanding diversity of this fauna.
Rossini, Bruno César; Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves de; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; Astarloa, Juan M Díaz de; Rosso, Juan J; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions.
Souza, Kleisson S; Bastazini, Vinicius A G; Colares, Elton P
The present study was based on the analysis of spraints (n = 294) collected between December 2005 and November 2007. The importance of each type of prey was determined by absolute and relative frequency. Niche breadth was also estimated. The results were reported as mean (± SD) of relative frequencies. Fish were the main prey found in spraints (57.8 ± 7.0%). Fish from Callichthyidae family were the main prey, followed by Cichlidae, the species Hoplias malabaricus and the family Characidae. The frequencies of other fish and taxa were lower than 13.9% (absolute frequency) and 5.6% (relative frequency). Despite significant seasonal variations, (P = 0.001), niche breadth values were low in all seasons (0.39 ± 0.11). Therefore, Lontra longicaudis presented a narrow niche breadth as a result of consistent fish predation. Based on these data, fish with rapid movement presenting territorial behavior and benthic fish with slow movements are the most consumed. Seasonal fluctuations are caused by the increase of secondary prey in the diet during some seasons.
Casal, G; Matos, E; Azevedo, C
Light and electron microscopy studies of a myxosporean, parasitic in the intertubular interstitial tissue of the kidney of the freshwater teleost fish Metynnis maculatus Kner, 1860 (Characidae) from the lower Amazon River (Brazil), are described. We observed polysporic histozoic plasmodia delimited by a double membrane and with several pinocytic channels and containing several life cycle stages, including mature spores. The spore body was of pyriform shape and was 21.0 microm long, 8.9 microm wide and 7.5 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size (12.7 x 3.2 microm) and contained a polar filament with 14 or 15 coils. The spore features fit those of the genus Myxobolus. Densification of the capsular primordium matrix, which increased in density from the inner core outwards, differentiating at the periphery into small microfilaments measuring 45 nm each, and tubuli arranged in aggregates and dispersed within the capsular matrix of the mature spores, are described. Based on the morphological differences and specificity of the host, we propose the creation of a new species named Myxobolus maculatus n. sp.
Harshbarger, J C; Slatick, M S
The repeated use of particular species for experimental oncology in fish increases their future value by accumulating background information for these models and justifies the establishment of genetic stock centers. However, the wide diversity that exists within the class Osteichthyes and Chondrichthyes suggests that the ideal surrogate models for studying some types of neoplasms might be found among lesser known species. To help assess cultured fish as surrogates for some other types of human neoplasia, we examined cases in the archives of the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals and reviewed reports in the literature. Spontaneous and induced neoplasms originating from a spectrum of cell types were seen in more than 215 fish species commonly raised in aquaria or cultured for study among 69 families. Prominent families include the Poeciliidae (livebearers), Cyprinidae (carps and minnows), Cichlidae (cichlids), Cyprinodontidae (killifish), Characidae (tetras), Adrianichthyidae (medakas), Aplocheilidae (rivulins), and Salmonidae (salmon and trout). The following are examples of potential fish tumor models that have received less consideration than some others: papilloma and carcinoma of the urinary bladder in oscar (Astronotus ocellatus); osteogenic neoplasms, peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and ependymoblastoma in coho salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus kisutch); and nephroblastoma resembling Wilms' tumor in Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica).
Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R
Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes.
Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; de Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; de Astarloa, Juan M. Díaz; Rosso, Juan J.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions. PMID:27992537
Baras, E; Lucas, M C
The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression.
Quarcoopome, Theodore; Amevenku, Francis; Ofori-Danson, Patrick
The Kpong Headpond was the second created on the Volta River after Akosombo Dam, primarily as a source of hydroelectric power generation and potable water supply, and additionally, it has supported some fish production in Ghana since impoundment. The changes in fish community of the Kpong Headpond were studied to provide baseline information for strategies formulation to support the socio-economic development of the reservoir. The study identified changes in the fish community of the reservoir by comparing occurrence, composition, relative abundance and relative importance estimates of fish species, families and trophic groups, from available previous studies in the reservoir. From the collated information all fishes identified in the reservoir were categorised based on occurrence and importance as disappeared, appeared, permanent, declined or important, to show current status. The results indicated that the fish community has experienced a shift in the composition and relative abundance of important species, families and trophic groups in terms of number and weight, while remaining ecologically balanced. Representatives of the families Osteoglossidae, Centropomidae and Characidae have declined while representatives of the families Claroteidae, Cyprinidae and Cichlidae have increased. The aufwuch-detritus and herbivores declined while semi-pelagic omnivores increased resulting in a shift in dominance to benthic and semi pelagic omnivores. The appearance of five species and the disappearance of 25 others indicated a dynamic restructuring of the fish community in the reservoir, as expected. Enforcement of fishing regulations including the use of appropriate gear and fishing methods, fishery access control, promotion of culture-based fisheries and improvement in fisher education are recommended topics for sustainable fisheries in the reservoir.
Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro
This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.
Anderson, Jill T; Saldaña Rojas, Joe; Flecker, Alexander S
Seed dispersal is a critical stage in the life history of plants. It determines the initial pattern of juvenile distribution, and can influence community dynamics and the evolutionary trajectories of individual species. Vertebrate frugivores are the primary vector of seed dispersal in tropical forests; however, most studies of seed dispersal focus on birds, bats and monkeys. Nevertheless, South America harbors at least 200 species of frugivorous fishes, which move into temporarily flooded habitats during lengthy flood seasons and consume fruits that fall into the water; and yet, we know remarkably little about the quality of seed dispersal they effect. We investigated the seed dispersal activities of two species of large-bodied, commercially important fishes (Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus brachypomus, Characidae) over 3 years in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (Peru). We assessed the diet of these fishes during the flood season, conducted germination trials with seeds collected from digestive tracts, and quantified fruit availability. In the laboratory, we fed fruits to captive Colossoma, quantified the proportion of seeds defecated by adult and juvenile fish, and used these seeds in additional germination experiments. Our results indicate that Colossoma and Piaractus disperse large quantities of seeds from up to 35% of the trees and lianas that fruit during the flood season. Additionally, these seeds can germinate after floodwaters recede. Overexploitation has reduced the abundance of our focal fish species, as well as changed the age structure of populations. Moreover, older fish are more effective seed dispersers than smaller, juvenile fish. Overfishing, therefore, likely selects for the poorest seed dispersers, thus disrupting an ancient interaction between seeds and their dispersal agents.
Granado-Lorencio, Carlos; Serna, Andrés Hernández; Carvajal, Juan David; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda; Gulfo, Alejandra; Alvarez, Frank
We investigated if fish assemblages in neotropical floodplain lakes (cienagas) exhibit nestedness, and thus offer support to the managers of natural resources of the area for their decision making. The location was floodplain lakes of the middle section of the Magdalena river, Colombia. We applied the nested subset analysis for the series of 30 cienagas (27 connected to the main river and three isolated). All fish were identified taxonomically in the field and the matrix for presence-absence in all the lakes was used for the study of the pattern of nestedness. The most diverse order was Characiformes (20 species), followed by Siluriformes (19 species). Characidae and Loricaridae were the richest families. The species found in all the lakes studied were migratory species (17), and sedentary species (33). Two species (Caquetaia kraussii and Cyphocharax magdalenae) were widespread across the cienagas archipelago (100% of incidence). Nestedness analysis showed that the distribution of species over the spatial gradient studied (840 km) is significantly nested. The cienagas deemed the most hospitable were Simiti, El Llanito, and Canaletal. Roughly, 13 out of the 50 species caught show markedly idiosyncratic distributions. The resulting dataset showed a strong pattern of nestedness in the distribution of Magdalenese fishes, and differed significantly from random species assemblages. Out of all the measurements taken in the cienagas, only the size (area) and local richness are significantly related to the range of order of nested subset patterns (r=-0.59 and -0.90, respectively, at p < 0.01). Differential species extinction is suggested as the cause of a nested species assemblage, when the reorganized matrix of species occurring in habitat islands is correlated with the island area. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis.
Zambrano, L.; Vazquez-Dominguez, E.; Garcia-Bedoya, D.; Loftus, W.F.; Trexler, J.C.
We evaluated the relationship between limnetic characteristics and fish community structure (based on species richness, abundance and individual size) in contrasting but interconnected inland aquatic habitats of freshwater karstic wetlands in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In the western hemisphere, freshwater karstic wetlands are found in south-eastern Mexico, northern Belize, western Cuba, Andros Island, Bahamas and the Everglades of southern Florida. Only in the Everglades have fish communities been well described. Karstic wetlands are typically oligotrophic because calcium carbonate binds phosphorus, making it relatively unavailable for plants. Fourteen permanent and seasonally flooded water bodies were sampled in both wet and dry seasons in Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Water systems were divided by morphology in four groups: cenotes with vegetation (CWV), cenotes without vegetation (CNV), wetlands (WTL), and temporal cenotes (TPC). Discriminant analysis based on physical characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, depth and oxygen confirmed that these habitats differed in characteristics known to influence fish communities. A sample-based rarefaction test showed that species richness was significantly different between water systems groups, showing that WTL and CWV had higher richness values than CNV and TPC. The most abundant fish families, Poeciliidae, Cichlidae and Characidae, differed significantly in average size among habitats and seasons. Seasonal and inter-annual variation, reflecting temporal variation in rainfall, strongly influenced the environmental differences between shallow and deep habitats, which could be linked to fish size and life cycles. Five new records of species were found for the reserve, and one new record for Quintana Roo state. ?? 2006 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.
Mena, F; Azzopardi, M; Pfennig, S; Ruepert, C; Tedengren, M; Castillo, L E; Gunnarsson, J S
In Costa Rica, thousands of tones of agricultural pesticides have been used for decades and their use is continuously increasing due to intensive and expanding production of coffee, pineapple, rice, ornamental plants and bananas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether choline esterase (ChE) activity could be used as a biomarker of exposure to pesticides in the Costa Rican native fish Astyanax aeneus (characidae). Three methods used in order to evaluate the ChE biomarker were as follows: Laboratory studies where A. aeneus was exposed to organophosphate pesticide (ethoprophos); In situ 48 hr exposure assessment using caging experiments with fish exposed upstream and downstream of banana plantations and ChE activity estimation of in fish captured directly at sites with different degrees of pesticide exposure. Results from the laboratory studies showed that ChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue was significantly lower in fish exposed to ethoprophos than in controls. Fish from the caging experiments showed no difference in ChE activity neither in brain nor in muscle tissue between the four tested sites and was attributed to the short duration of the exposure. Asignificant difference in ChE activity was determined in muscle of fish captured from Laguna Madre de Dios compared to fish from Canal Batán. Although our laboratory results revealed that ChE activity in A. aeneus was highly responsive to ethoprophos, results from field experiments were less conclusive and showed that the captured fish showed large variability in ChE activity and that more research is needed before ChE activity can be used as reliable biomarker of pesticide exposure.
Granado-Lorencio, Carlos; Serna, Andrés Hernández; Carvajal, Juan David; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda; Gulfo, Alejandra; Alvarez, Frank
We investigated if fish assemblages in neotropical floodplain lakes (cienagas) exhibit nestedness, and thus offer support to the managers of natural resources of the area for their decision making. The location was floodplain lakes of the middle section of the Magdalena river, Colombia. We applied the nested subset analysis for the series of 30 cienagas (27 connected to the main river and three isolated). All fish were identified taxonomically in the field and the matrix for presence–absence in all the lakes was used for the study of the pattern of nestedness. The most diverse order was Characiformes (20 species), followed by Siluriformes (19 species). Characidae and Loricaridae were the richest families. The species found in all the lakes studied were migratory species (17), and sedentary species (33). Two species (Caquetaia kraussii and Cyphocharax magdalenae) were widespread across the cienagas archipelago (100% of incidence). Nestedness analysis showed that the distribution of species over the spatial gradient studied (840 km) is significantly nested. The cienagas deemed the most hospitable were Simiti, El Llanito, and Canaletal. Roughly, 13 out of the 50 species caught show markedly idiosyncratic distributions. The resulting dataset showed a strong pattern of nestedness in the distribution of Magdalenese fishes, and differed significantly from random species assemblages. Out of all the measurements taken in the cienagas, only the size (area) and local richness are significantly related to the range of order of nested subset patterns (r=–0.59 and –0.90, respectively, at p < 0.01). Differential species extinction is suggested as the cause of a nested species assemblage, when the reorganized matrix of species occurring in habitat islands is correlated with the island area. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis. PMID:22833801
Sharpe, D M T; De León, L F; González, R; Torchin, M E
Predation is considered to be an important factor structuring natural communities. However, it is often difficult to determine how it may influence long-term, broad-scale, diversity patterns, particularly in diverse tropical systems. Biological introductions can provide powerful insight to test the sustained consequences of predation in natural communities, if pre-introduction data are available. Half a century ago, Zaret and Paine demonstrated strong and immediate community-level effects following the introduction of a novel apex predator (peacock bass, Cichla monoculus) into Lake Gatun, Panama. To test for long-term changes associated with this predator introduction, we followed up on their classic study by replicating historical sampling methods and examining changes in the littoral fish community at two sites in Lake Gatun 45 years post-introduction. To broaden our inference, we complemented this temporal comparison with a spatial analysis, wherein we compared the fish communities from two lakes with and one lake without peacock bass. Comparisons with historical data revealed that the peacock bass remains the most abundant predator in Lake Gatun. Furthermore, the collapse of the littoral prey community observed immediately following the invasion has been sustained over the past 45 years. The mean abundance of native littoral fish is now 96% lower than it was prior to the introduction. Diversity (rarefied species richness) declined by 64% post-introduction, and some native species appear to have been locally extirpated. We observed a similar pattern across invaded and uninvaded lakes: the mean abundance of native fishes was 5-40 times lower in lakes with (Gatun, Alajuela) relative to the lake without peacock bass (Bayano). In particular, small-bodied native fishes (Characidae, Peociliidae), which are common prey of the peacock bass, were more than two orders of magnitude (307 times) less abundant in Gatun and one order of magnitude (28 times) less abundant in
Espinoza Mendiola, Mario
Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific