Lumme, K.; Bowell, E.
The multiple-scattering theory of K. Lumme and E. Bowell (1981) was criticized by B. Hapke by stating, in particular, that energy is not conserved. It is shown that Hapke's treatment is, in this respect, inferior to that of Lumme and Bowell, and itself violates the principal concepts of radiative transfer theory. Hapke's additinal claim that, in Lumme and Bowell's work, the reflectance tends to zero at the limb is also refuted. Comment is made on the deduction of surface physical properties by modeling photometric observations.
Pang, K.; Ajello, J. M.; Lumme, K.; Bowell, E.
The Lumme-Bowell (1981) theory has been used to interpret the integrated phase curves of Callisto and Ganymede, and it is noted that while the theory explains the brightness angles of these satellites up to about 80 deg solar phase angle, the observed brightness drops off at larger angles more rapidly than predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is due to the fact that single regolith particles must have phase functions which are much more elongated in the forward or backward scattering directions than is allowed for by the Lumme-Bowell theory. The hemispheric asymmetry in Callisto's surface texture can be explained by invoking the formation of an ice film on the trailing side, consistent with Voyager detailed photometry and thermometry of Callisto.
Lumme, K.; Bowell, E.; Harris, A. W.
The exhibition of an opposition effect is a phenomenon common to all atmosphereless bodies in the solar system. This effect involves a nonlinear surge in brightness for solar phase angles, alpha, less than about 7 deg, and a nonlinear drop-off in brightness at large phase angles. Except for the moon, Mercury, and close-earth-approaching asteroids, atmosphereless bodies can be observed from earth only in a limited phase angle range. Lumme and Bowell (1981) developed a radiative transfer formalism and showed that multiple scattering between the regolith particles represents an essential factor. It was found that all the phase curves can be generated by only two standard functions with two unknown parameters. The first function is due to single scattering processes in the regolith and the second function is due to multiply scattered light. Another purely empirical approach was also investigated by Lumme et al. (1984). A summary of the fit of an empirical model to 13 objects is provided in the paper.
James, P. B.; Malolepszy, K. M.; Martin, L. J.
Published observational data on the seasonal recession of the south polar cap on Mars (covering the period 1903-1977) are compiled in tables and graphs and analyzed statistically. The basic data set (photographic observations obtained at Lowell Observatory) of Fischbacher et al. (1960) and James and Lumme (1982) and the reduction procedures described by Baum and Martin (1973) are employed, and Viking data from 1977 are used for comparison; the early onset (relative to the mean) of the 1956 recession is characterized in detail. A list of photographically documented large dust storms is provided, and it is suggested that in years with early spring storms, recession may be slower than in years without such storms.
Pang, K. D.; Rhoads, J. W.; Hanover, G. A.; Lumme, K.; Bowell, E.
Small scale surface features of the moons Deimos and Phobos were studied using star tracker observations made by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. The whole-disk brightness/solar phase angle phase curves were developed out to a phase angle of 125 deg. An analysis was undertaken according to Lumme-Bowell theory to obtain accurate phase integrals zero-phase geometric albedos, and Bond albedos. The microstructural and particulate surface properties of the two moons were found to be very similar, as were the whole-body densities and the microphysical makeup, thereby suggesting a common origin. However, the presence of streamers on Deimos and the relatively smooth surfaces of both moons indicates a long-term influence of Mars producing surface morphologies different from what would occur with asteroids.
Peltoniemi, J I; Lumme, K; Irvine, W M
Analysis of disk resolved images of Phobos obtained by the Phobos 2 spacecraft allows us to study the surface scattering law and albedo variations. From low phase angle images we find variations in local geometric albedo approximately 10%, with a correlation length approximately 1km. The scattering law is reasonably well matched by the recent proposed LPI (Lumme et al. 1990a) model, which allows us to deduce a small scale (approximately 1 mm) surface roughness (approximately 0.5), defined here as the rms. tangent of the local surface normal relative to the mean surface normal in the Duxbury (1991) model of Phobos. This value is very close to what has been found for Mercury and the Moon. PMID:11538497
Controlled laboratory BRDF and transmission measurements on layers of polymer and glass spheres have been carried out to investigate the connection between single particle optics and the optics of a packed surface. The measurements show that despite being closely packed, significant features of single scattering, such as the rainbow peaks, are preserved even in aggregated sphere layers. The measurements have been compared to 5 radiative transfer model predictions: the Hapke's model and its improved version, the Lumme-Bowell model, Mishchenko et al.'s BRF algorithm and DISORT. It has been found that strict numerical RTE models predict the measurements well in some regions, but have errors in both forward and backward scattering directions. The discrepancies have been attributed to the non-ideal factors such as internal inhomogeneity and surface roughness and may be corrected using Lumme-Bowell's roughness correction factor for oblique incident light. The inadequacy of the semi-empirical models can be partly attributed to the exclusion of a diffraction contribution in the models. In-situ BRDF measurements on submerged sediments with grain sizes ranging from 300 mum to over 1000 mum have been carried out. For normally illuminated small grain size samples the BRDF was nearly Lambertian, but samples with larger grain sizes are less Lambertian, with the BRDF decreasing with increasing view angles. Under oblique incident angles the samples become increasingly non-Lambertian; the dominant feature in the BRDF is enhanced backscattering. An empirical model is presented for each sediment type which represents the data within the standard deviation of the sample variation. This model is well behaved at angles out to 90°, and thus can be incorporated into the radiative transfer models to improve the light field predictions in shallow water. The BRDF of both dry and wet ooid sand layers with different particle size distributions and layer thicknesses on a reflecting mirror have
High-quality photographs of Mars (red, yellow, green, and blue) are used to analyze the surface, limb, and south-polar-cap brightness of Mars. The surface brightness can be fitted with the Lommel-Seeliger reflection law. For the limb and polar-cap brightness, the method suggested by Lumme (1974) has been used to correct for smearing effects. It is found that the brightness increases noticeably when approaching the limb, that the upper limit to optical thickness of the atmosphere in the blue is 0.16, and that the corresponding single-scattering albedo is 0.55, both with uncertainties of about 15%. Values for the geometric albedo and the phase function (at 37-deg phase angle) are also obtained for both the atmosphere and the ground for a central meridian of 0 deg. The south polar cap in September 1973 was nearly circular, with a radius of about 8 deg (heliocentric longitude of 0 deg) and geometric albedos of 0.68 (red), 0.68 (yellow), 0.60 (green), and 0.53 (blue).
Lee, J.; Buratti, B.; Mosher, J.
We apply Cassini ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) data from the January 1st, 2005 flyby of Iapetus to a surface roughness model originally developed by Buratti and Veverka (1985). Since macroscopic features of topography alter the scattering properties of a planetary surface (Schoenberg, 1925; Hameen-Antilla et al., 1965; Hapke, 1966, 1984; Veverka and Wasserman, 1972; Lumme and Bowell, 1981; Buratti et al., 1985), this model uses the observed scattering behavior to provide a depth to radius factor q quantifying the size of craters on the surface. Relative surface roughness of the low albedo (leading) hemisphere and high albedo (trailing) hemisphere can then be determined by comparing the value for the two hemispheres, and any differences observed will provide an estimate of the depth of the dark material. Our preliminary findings show marked differences in macroscopic roughness between the high and low albedo hemispheres, indicating that the surface on the dark side is much smoother than the bright. Our results further suggest that the dark material is substantial enough to cause significant infilling of the craters on the dark side. Funded by the NASA Space Grant.
Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Paladini, Giuseppe; Freeman, Mark A; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Shinn, Andrew P
Gyrodactylus salmonis (Yin et Sproston, 1948) isolates collected from feral rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in Veracruz, southeastern Mexico are described. Morphological and molecular variation of these isolates to G. salmonis collected in Canada and the U.S.A. is characterised. Morphologically, the marginal hook sickles of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis closely resemble those of Canadian specimens - their shaft and hook regions align closely with one another; only features of the sickle base and a prominent bridge to the toe permit their separation. The 18S sequence determined from the Mexican specimens was identical to two variable regions of SSU rDNA obtained from a Canadian population of G. salmonis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (spanning ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis are identical to ITS sequences of an American population of G. salmonis and to Gyrodactylus salvelini Kuusela, Ziętara et Lumme, 2008 from Finland. Analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis show 98-99% similarity to those of Gyrodactylus gobiensis Gläser, 1974, Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957, and Gyrodactylus rutilensis Gläser, 1974. Mexican and American isolates of G. salmonis are 98% identical, as assessed by sequencing the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Oncorhynchus mykiss is one of the most widely-dispersed fish species in the world and has been shown to be an important vector for parasite/disease transmission. Considering that Mexican isolates of G. salmonis were collected well outside the native distribution range of all salmonid fish, we discuss the possibility that the parasites were translocated with their host through the aquacultural trade. In addition, this study includes a morphological review of Gyrodactylus species collected from rainbow trout and from other salmonid fish of the genus Oncorhynchus which occur throughout North America.
Morozhenko, Alexandr; Vidmachenko, Anatolij; Kostogryz, Nadiia
Typically, to analyze the data of the phase dependence of brightness atmosphereless celestial bodies one use some modification of the shadow mechanism involving the coherent mechanism. There are several modification of B.Hapke  model divided into two groups by the number of unknown parameters: the first one with 4 parameters [3,4] and the second one with up to 10 unknown parameters  providing a good agreement of observations and calculations in several wavelengths. However, they are complicated by analysing of the colorindex C(α) dependence and photometric contrast of details with phase K(α) and on the disk (μ o = cos i). We have got good agreement between observed and calculated values of C(α) = U(α)-I(α), K(α), K(muo) for Moon and Mars with a minimum number of unknown parameters . We used an empirical dependence of single scattering albedo (ω) and particle semi-transparency(æ): æ = (1-ω)n. Assuming that [χ (0°)/χ(5°)] = χ (5°)/χ (0°)], where χ(α) is scattering function, using the phase dependence of brightness and opposition effect in a single wavelength, we have defined ω,χ(α),g (particle packing factor), and the first term expansion of χ(α) in a series of Legendre polynomials x1. Good agreement between calculated and observed data of C(α) = U(α)-I(α) for the light and dark parts of the lunar surface and the integral disk reached at n ~ 0,25, g = 0,4 (porosity 0,91), x1 = -0,93, ω = 0,137 at λ = 359nm and 0,394 at λ = 1064nm;, for Mars with n ~ 0,25,g = 0,6 (porosity 0,84), x1 ~ 0, ω = 0,210 at λ = 359nm and ω = 0,784 at λ = 730nm. 1. Bowell E., Hapke B., Domingue D., Lumme K., et al. Applications of photometric models to asteroids, in Asteroids II. Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press. p.524-556. (1989) 2. Hapke B. A theoretical function for the lunar surface, J.Geophys.Res. 68, No.15., 4571-4586(1963). 3. Irwine W. M., The shadowing effect in diffuse reflection, J.Geophys.Res. 71,No.12, 2931-2937(1966). 4. Morozhenko A. V
Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.; Wang, X.; Cellino, A.
The rotational period, pole orientation, and convex three-dimensional shape of an asteroid can be derived from photometric lightcurves observed in a number of apparitions with varying illumination and observation geometries (e.g., Kaasalainen et al. 2001, Torppa et al. 2008, Durech et al. 2009). It is customary to estimate the rotational period with a simplified shape model and a small number of trial pole orientations. Once the period is available, the pole orientation can be refined with a general convex shape model represented by the spherical harmonics expansion for the Gaussian surface density. Once the Gaussian surface density is available, the actual convex shape is constructed as a solution of the Minkowski problem. We focus on the initial derivation of the rotational period and pole orientation with the help of the Lommel-Seeliger ellipsoid (LS-ellipsoid), a triaxial ellipsoid with a Lommel-Seeliger surface scattering law. The disk-integrated photometric brightness for the LS-ellipsoid is available in a closed form (Muinonen and Lumme, in preparation), warranting efficient direct computation of lightcurves. With modern computers and the LS-ellipsoid, the rotation period, pole orientation, and ellipsoidal shape can be derived, in principle, simultaneously (see Cellino et al., present meeting). However, here we choose to proceed systematically as follows. First, the rotation period is scanned systematically across its relevant range with a resolution of P_0^2/2T dictated by a tentative period estimate P_0 and the time interval spanned by the photometric data T. This is typically carried out for a small number of pole orientations distributed uniformly on a unit sphere. For each pole orientation, the ellipsoid pole orientation, rotational phase, and axial ratios are optimized with the help of the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method. Although the shape optimization can suffer from getting stuck in local minima, overall, the rotation period is fairly accurately