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Sample records for eis field investigation

  1. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Clemmons, J. H.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Schlemm, C. E.; Brown, L. E.; Cooper, S. A.; Craft, J. V.; Fennell, J. F.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hammock, C. M.; Hayes, J. R.; Hill, P. A.; Ho, G. C.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Jacques, A. D.; Kerem, S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Rossano, E.; Stokes, M. R.; Westlake, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of 5 fields-and-particles investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. MMS comprises 4 spacecraft flying in close formation in highly elliptical, near-Earth-equatorial orbits targeting understanding of the fundamental physics of the important physical process called magnetic reconnection using Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory. EPD comprises two sensor types, the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) with one instrument on each of the 4 spacecraft, and the Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) with 2 instruments on each of the 4 spacecraft. EIS measures energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions from a required low energy limit of 20 keV for protons and 45 keV for oxygen ions, up to >0.5 MeV (with capabilities to measure up to >1 MeV). FEEPS measures instantaneous all sky images of energetic electrons from 25 keV to >0.5 MeV, and also measures total ion energy distributions from 45 keV to >0.5 MeV to be used in conjunction with EIS to measure all sky ion distributions. In this report we describe the EPD investigation and the details of the EIS sensor. Specifically we describe EPD-level science objectives, the science and measurement requirements, and the challenges that the EPD team had in meeting these requirements. Here we also describe the design and operation of the EIS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the EIS in-flight and ground operations. Blake et al. (The Flys Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) contribution to the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation of the Magnetospheric Magnetoscale (MMS) Mission, this issue) describe the design and operation of the FEEPS instruments, their calibrated performances, and the FEEPS in-flight and ground operations. The MMS spacecraft will launch in early 2015, and over its 2-year mission will provide comprehensive measurements of magnetic reconnection at Earth

  2. Development and Electrochemical Investigations of an EIS- (Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor) based Biosensor for Cyanide Detection

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Monika; Ketterer, Lothar; Claβen, Melanie; Berndt, Heinz K.; Elbers, Gereon; Krüger, Peter; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A cyanide biosensor based on a pH-sensitive p-doped electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure with an immobilised enzyme (cyanidase) is realised at the laboratory scale. The immobilisation of the cyanidase is performed in two distinct steps: first, the covalent coupling of cyanidase to an N-hydroxysuccinimide- (NHS) activated Sepharose™ gel and then, the physical entrapment of NHS-activated Sepharose™ with the immobilised cyanidase in a dialysis membrane onto the EIS structure. The immobilisation of the cyanidase to the NHS-activated Sepharose™ is studied by means of gel electrophoresis measurements and investigations using an ammonia- (NH3) selective electrode. For the electrochemical characterisation of the cyanide biosensor, capacitance/voltage and constant capacitance measurements, respectively, have been carried out. A differential measurement procedure is presented to evaluate the cyanide concentration-dependent biosensor signals.

  3. The Europa Imaging System (EIS): Investigating Europa's geology, ice shell, and current activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Thomas, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Hayes, Alexander; Ernst, Carolyn; Collins, Geoffrey; Hansen, Candice; Kirk, Randolph L.; Nimmo, Francis; McEwen, Alfred; Hurford, Terry; Barr Mlinar, Amy; Quick, Lynnae; Patterson, Wes; Soderblom, Jason

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Europa Mission, planned for launch in 2022, will perform more than 40 flybys of Europa with altitudes at closest approach as low as 25 km. The instrument payload includes the Europa Imaging System (EIS), a camera suite designed to transform our understanding of Europa through global decameter-scale coverage, topographic and color mapping, and unprecedented sub- meter-scale imaging. EIS combines narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras to address these science goals: • Constrain the formation processes of surface features by characterizing endogenic geologic structures, surface units, global cross-cutting relationships, and relationships to Europa's subsurface structure and potential near-surface water. • Search for evidence of recent or current activity, including potential plumes. • Characterize the ice shell by constraining its thickness and correlating surface features with subsurface structures detected by ice penetrating radar. • Characterize scientifically compelling landing sites and hazards by determining the nature of the surface at scales relevant to a potential lander. EIS Narrow-angle Camera (NAC): The NAC, with a 2.3°° x 1.2°° field of view (FOV) and a 10-μμrad instantaneous FOV (IFOV), achieves 0.5-m pixel scale over a 2-km-wide swath from 50-km altitude. A 2-axis gimbal enables independent targeting, allowing very high-resolution stereo imaging to generate digital topographic models (DTMs) with 4-m spatial scale and 0.5-m vertical precision over the 2-km swath from 50-km altitude. The gimbal also makes near-global (>95%) mapping of Europa possible at ≤50-m pixel scale, as well as regional stereo imaging. The NAC will also perform high-phase-angle observations to search for potential plumes. EIS Wide-angle Camera (WAC): The WAC has a 48°° x 24°° FOV, with a 218-μμrad IFOV, and is designed to acquire pushbroom stereo swaths along flyby ground-tracks. From an altitude of 50 km, the WAC achieves 11-m pixel scale over a 44-km

  4. [Investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kellina, O I; Strelkova, M V

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in 1920 to 2009. The analysis includes papers on biology, ecology, taxonomy, and experimental transmission of the agents of leishmaniases via the bites of sand flies, the principle in the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during the agricultural development of extensive territories in the Karshin steppe, on quantitative approaches in the epidemiology of ZCL, a search for Russian effective medicaments to treat patients with this disease and the development of criteria for selecting L. major strains for individual and mass vaccinations against ZCL, the revision of Leishmania circulating in great gerbil populations, and the description of the new species L. turanica, an important parasite for L. major persistence from one transmission season to the next. The first investigations on leishmaniasis were made by Prof. E.I. Martsinovsky, the founder and the first director of the Institute in the early 20th century.

  5. Investigation into the effect that probe immobilisation method type has on the analytical signal of an EIS DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Brian; Manning, Mary; Hurley, Eileen; Berney, Helen; Duane, Russell; Mathewson, Alan; Sheehan, Michelle M

    2007-02-15

    The analytical performance of an enhanced surface area electrolyte insulator semiconductor (EIS) device was investigated for DNA sensor development. The work endeavored to advance EIS performance by monitoring the effect of DNA probe layers have on the impedimetric signal during target hybridisation detection. Two universally employed covalent chemistries, direct and spacer-mediated attachment of amino modified probe molecules to amino-functionalised surfaces were investigated. Relative areal densities of immobilised probe were measured on planar and enhanced surface area substrates using epi-fluorescence microscopy. The reproducibility of the each immobilisation method was seen to have a direct effect on the reproducibility of the impedimetric signal. The sensitivity and selectivity was seen to be dependent on the type of immobilisation method. Real time, impedimetric detection of target DNA hybridisation concentrations as low as 25 and 1 nM were possible. The impact that probe concentration had on the impedimetric signal for selective and non-selective interactions was also investigated.

  6. Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Dana L; Jin, Jing; Newman, Daniel A; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-03-01

    Recent empirical reviews have claimed a surprisingly strong relationship between job performance and self-reported emotional intelligence (also commonly called trait EI or mixed EI), suggesting self-reported/mixed EI is one of the best known predictors of job performance (e.g., ρ = .47; Joseph & Newman, 2010b). Results further suggest mixed EI can robustly predict job performance beyond cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits (Joseph & Newman, 2010b; O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). These criterion-related validity results are problematic, given the paucity of evidence and the questionable construct validity of mixed EI measures themselves. In the current research, we update and reevaluate existing evidence for mixed EI, in light of prior work regarding the content of mixed EI measures. Results of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that (a) the content of mixed EI measures strongly overlaps with a set of well-known psychological constructs (i.e., ability EI, self-efficacy, and self-rated performance, in addition to Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and general mental ability; multiple R = .79), (b) an updated estimate of the meta-analytic correlation between mixed EI and supervisor-rated job performance is ρ = .29, and (c) the mixed EI-job performance relationship becomes nil (β = -.02) after controlling for the set of covariates listed above. Findings help to establish the construct validity of mixed EI measures and further support an intuitive theoretical explanation for the uncommonly high association between mixed EI and job performance--mixed EI instruments assess a combination of ability EI and self-perceptions, in addition to personality and cognitive ability.

  7. EI Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    The publication contains organizational information relating to Education International (EI). Included are lists of the EI Executive Board, EI Headquarters staff, and EI Regional Officers; for Constitution and By-Laws of EI; By-Laws for four of EI's five official regions--Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America (North American and the Caribbean is…

  8. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  9. The Europa Imaging System (EIS), a Camera Suite to investigate Europa's Geology, Ice Shell, and Potential for Current Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; McEwen, A. S.; Osterman, S. N.; Boldt, J. D.; Strohbehn, K.; EIS Science Team

    2016-10-01

    EIS NAC and WAC use identical rad-hard rapid-readout 4k × 2k CMOS detectors for imaging during close (≤25 km) fast ( 4.5 km/s) Europa flybys. NAC achieves 0.5 m/pixel over a 2-km swath from 50 km, and WAC provides context pushbroom stereo imaging.

  10. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  11. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  12. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-02-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  13. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to approx. 20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 x 10(exp. 6) nT per axis) with a resolution of approx. 0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (+/-1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through

  14. Determination of the transient period of the EIS complex and investigation of the suppression of blood glucose levels by L-arabinose in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Degawa, Yoko; Houda, Koichi

    2011-09-01

    L-Arabinose uncompetitively inhibits intestinal sucrase by forming an enzyme-inhibitor-substrate (EIS) complex. The transient period of the EIS complex affects the time span of inhibition. We determined the apparent transient period of the EIS complex of sucrase, L-arabinose, and sucrose both in vitro and in humans. Intestinal acetone powder (a source of sucrase), L-arabinose, and sucrose were mixed and injected into a dialysis membrane that was placed in a sucrose solution. The production rate of D-glucose and the release rate of L-arabinose from sucrase were determined. We also investigated the suppression of blood glucose levels by L-arabinose in 21 healthy volunteers. Sucrose (40 g) was ingested with or without L-arabinose (2 g), then blood glucose values were measured, which returned to steady-state conditions within 2 h. Volunteers were then given 90 g of commercial adzuki bean jelly containing 40 g sucrose as the sucrose load, and blood glucose values were measured again. Addition of L-arabinose reduced the production rate of D -glucose compared to the rates measured in the absence of L-arabinose for several hours in vitro. L-Arabinose was released at a lower rate in the presence of sucrose than in its absence. Blood glucose values measured 2 h after sucrose was given with L -arabinose were significantly lower than those measured when L-arabinose was not given (Δ change in maximum value: with L-arabinose, 53.8 ± 19.7 mg/dL; without L-arabinose, 65.0 ± 17.7 mg/dL). The EIS complex of sucrase-L -arabinose-sucrose was maintained for several hours both in vitro and in humans.

  15. The Giotto magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Musmann, G.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Mariani, F.; Wallis, M.; Ungstrup, E.; Schmidt, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Giotto spacecraft will carry sensors for investigating the interplanetary magnetic field while en route and the interaction between the solar wind magnetoplasma and Halley's Comet neutral gas outflow during close approach. Giotto will carry an outboard biaxial fluxgate system and inboard electronics. The instrumentation draws 1.2 kW and weighs 1.31 kg. Sampling rates will be 28/sec during close encounter, covering selectable ranges from 16 nT to 65,535 nT. In-flight calibration techniques are under development to ensure magnetic cleanliness will be obtained. Measurements are also planned of the inbound bow shock, the magnetosheath and the cometary ionopause. The data will be collected as close as 1000 km from the comet surface.

  16. Field investigation of keyblock stability

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, Jr., Jesse Lewis

    1985-04-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. This engineering problem is divided into two parts: block identification, and evaluation of block stability. One stable keyblock and thirteen fallen keyblocks were observed in field investigations at the Nevada Test Site. Nine blocks were measured in detail sufficient to allow back-analysis of their stability. Measurements included block geometry, and discontinuity roughness and compressive strength. Back-analysis correctly predicted stability or failure in all but two cases. These two exceptions involved situations that violated the stress assumptions of the stability calculations. Keyblock faces correlated well with known joint set orientations. The effect of tunnel orientation on keyblock frequency was apparent. Back-analysis of physical models successfully predicted block pullout force for two-dimensional models of unit thickness. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were examined. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls block displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender. Rock mass temperature decreases reduce the confining stress magnitudes and can lead to failure. The pattern of stresses affecting each block face explains conceptually the occurrence of pyramidal keyblocks that are truncated near their apex.

  17. Investigation of Magnetic Field Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-28

    the magnetic field in space by cancelling the ambient magnetic field. An observatory-quality, proton - precession magnetometer is available to monitor...test and calibrate the fluxgate magnetometers . Changes in design of the induction-coil magnetometere should enhance their reliability. The value of...Report) Ill. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (CoEntnue on revere side I necoseer mnd Identify by block mamber) AFGL Magnetometer Network Fluxgate

  18. Streamlining the EIS Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1977-01-01

    A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

  19. Investigation Of Far-Field Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yaujen; Scholl, Marija S.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experimental investigation of far-field diffracton by normally illuminated circular apertures with diameters of several wavelengths of incident light. Purpose of investigation to determine whether Keller's "geometrical" theory of diffraction valid for diffraction phenomena of this kind.

  20. “Playing around” with Field-Effect Sensors on the Basis of EIS Structures, LAPS and ISFETs

    PubMed Central

    Schöning, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Microfabricated semiconductor devices are becoming increasingly relevant, also for the detection of biological and chemical quantities. Especially, the “marriage” of biomolecules and silicon technology often yields successful new sensor concepts. The fabrication techniques of such silicon-based chemical sensors and biosensors, respectively, will have a distinct impact in different fields of application such as medicine, food technology, environment, chemistry and biotechnology as well as information processing. Moreover, scientists and engineers are interested in the analytical benefits of miniaturised and microfabricated sensor devices. This paper gives a survey on different types of semiconductor-based field-effect structures that have been recently developed in our laboratory.

  1. Field and laboratory investigations of selenium transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses the preparation and results of a field investigation of a selected coal mine site in Oklahoma. The field investigation has been on-going since July 1990. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se mobility from a coal mine site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of reclaimed land. Also, included is the investigation and preliminary results of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption and desorption using different soil media, including coal mine spoils (overburden).

  2. EIS and XPS investigations on the corrosion mechanism of ternary Zn-Co-Mo alloy coatings in NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, J.; Tylus, W.; Szczygieł, B.

    2016-02-01

    The changes in composition of the corrosion products of electrodeposited ternary Zn-Co-Mo alloy coatings on AISI 1015 steel during exposure to 0.5 mol dm-3 NaCl solution were investigated. XPS studies demonstrated that at the initial stage of corrosion on the surface of Zn-Co-Mo coating zinc hydroxide layer is formed. Hydroxyl groups react with chloride and carbonate ions which lead to the formation of zinc hydroxy carbonates and zinc hydroxy chlorides. The share of these compounds in the oxidation products is initially large. However, with time zinc hydroxy compounds slowly changes to zinc oxide, which is more stable corrosion product. It was estimated that after 24 h of exposure to NaCl solution nearly 60% of zinc detected on the surface of Zn-Co-Mo coating was present in the ZnO form, 18% in the form of zinc hydroxy chloride, and more than 21% as zinc hydroxy carbonate. XPS analyses revealed that the amount of zinc hydroxy chloride increases as the exposure time lengthens and it is significantly higher than at the surface of binary Zn-Co coating. The presence of crystalline zinc chloride hydroxide as a stable product of corrosion of ternary Zn-Co-Mo alloy coating in a 0.5 mol dm-3 NaCl solution was confirmed by XRD analysis. According to XRD and FTIR other zinc corrosion products like: ZnO, Zn(OH)2 and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 were also present. The results of XPS and EIS measurements allow us to assume that in the presence of Mo in the alloy, on the surface of ternary Zn-Co-Mo alloy (3.4 wt.% Co, 2.7 wt.% Mo) coating more zinc hydroxy chloride is formed, which favors higher corrosion resistance of this coating.

  3. The magnetic field investigation on Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Southwood, D. J.; Musmann, G.; Luhr, H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Riedler, W.; Heyn, M. F.; Acuna, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic field investigation of the Cluster four-spacecraft mission is designed to provide intercalibrated measurements of the B magnetic field vector. The instrumentation and data processing of the mission are discussed. The instrumentation is identical on the four spacecraft. It consists of two triaxial fluxgate sensors and of a failure tolerant data processing unit. The combined analysis of the four spacecraft data will yield such parameters as the current density vector, wave vectors, and the geometry and structure of discontinuities.

  4. Inlet flow field investigation. Part 1: Transonic flow field survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Salemann, V.; Sussman, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the local inlet flow field characteristics of an advanced tactical supersonic cruise airplane. A data base for the development and validation of analytical codes directed at the analysis of inlet flow fields for advanced supersonic airplanes was established. Testing was conducted at the NASA-Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel at freestream Mach numbers of 0.6 to 1.20 and angles of attack from 0.0 to 10.0 degrees. Inlet flow field surveys were made at locations representative of wing (upper and lower surface) and forebody mounted inlet concepts. Results are presented in the form of local inlet flow field angle of attack, sideflow angle, and Mach number contours. Wing surface pressure distributions supplement the flow field data.

  5. Synthetic turf field investigation in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy J; Bracker, Anne; Ginsberg, Gary; Toal, Brian; Golembiewski, Brian; Kurland, Tara; Hedman, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC), rubber-related chemicals such as benzothiazole (BZT) and nitrosamine, and particulate matter (PM(10)) in air at synthetic turf crumb rubber fields. Both new and older fields were evaluated under conditions of active use. Three types of fields were targeted: four outdoor crumb rubber fields, one indoor facility with crumb rubber turf, and an outdoor natural grass field. Background samples were collected at each field on grass. Personal air sampling was conducted for VOC, BZT, nitrosamines, and other chemicals. Stationary air samples were collected at different heights to assess the vertical profile of release. Air monitoring for PM(10) was conducted at one height. Bulk samples of turf grass and crumb rubber were analyzed, and meteorological data were recorded. Results showed that personal concentrations were higher than stationary concentrations and were higher on turf than in background samples for certain VOC. In some cases, personal VOC concentrations from natural grass fields were as high as those on turf. Naphthalene, BZT, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were detected in greater concentration at the indoor field compared to the outdoor fields. Nitrosamine air levels were below reporting levels. PM(10) air concentrations were not different between on-field and upwind locations. All bulk lead (Pb) samples were below the public health target of 400 ppm. More research is needed to better understand air quality at indoor facilities. These field investigation data were incorporated into a separate human health risk assessment.

  6. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Su, T. J. Kneafsey, T. A. Ghezzehei, B. D. Marshall, and P. J. Cook

    2006-01-15

    The ''Drift Shadow'' is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project they plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies they have an identified suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to develop the field scale tests.

  7. Polypyrrole nanostructures and their field emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpale, Kashmira; More, Mahendra A.; Koinkar, Pankaj M.; Patil, Sandip S.; Sonawane, Kishor M.

    2015-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) nanostructures have been synthesized on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) substrates by a facile electrochemical route employing cyclic voltammetry (CV) mode. The morphology of the PPy thin films was observed to be influenced by the monomer concentration. Furthermore, FTIR revealed formation of electrically conducting state of PPy. Field emission investigations of the PPy nanostructures were carried out at base pressure of 1×10-8mbar. The values of turn-on field, corresponding to emission current density of 1 μA/cm2 were observed to be 0.6, 1.0 and 1.2 V/μm for the PPy films characterized with rod-like, cauliflower and granular morphology, respectively. In case of PPy nanorods maximum current density of 1.2 mA/cm2 has been drawn at electric field of 1 V/μm. The low turn on field, extraction of very high emission current density at relatively lower applied field and good emission stability propose the PPy nanorods as a promising material for field emission based devices.

  8. OpenEIS Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  9. Planar dipolar polymer brush: field theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, Jyoti; Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby

    2015-03-01

    Physical properties of polymer brushes bearing monomers with permanent dipole moments and immersed in a polar solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). It is found that mismatch between the permanent dipole moments of the monomer and the solvent plays a significant role in determining the height of the polymer brush. Sign as well as magnitude of the mismatch determines the extent of collapse of the polymer brush. The mismatch in the dipole moments also affects the force-distance relations and interpenetration of polymers in opposing planar brushes. In particular, an attractive force between the opposing dipolar brushes is predicted for stronger mismatch parameter. Furthermore, effects of added monovalent salt on the structure of dipolar brushes will also be presented. This investigation highlights the significance of dipolar interactions in affecting the physical properties of polymer brushes. Csmd division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  10. Progress with field investigations at Stripa

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; Gale, J.E.

    1980-02-01

    It is generally agreed that the most practicable method of isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere is by deep burial in suitable geologic formations. Such burial achieves a high degree of physical isolation but raises questions concerning the rate at which some of these wastes may return to the biosphere through transport by groundwater. Any suitable repository site will be disturbed first by the excavation of the repository and second by the thermal pulse caused by the radioactive decay of the wastes. To assess the effectiveness of geologic isolation it is necessary to develop the capability of predicting the response of a rock mass to such a thermal pulse. Ultimately, this requires field measurements at depths below surface and in media representative of those likely to be encountered at an actual repository. Access to a granitic rock mass adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa in Sweden at a depth of about 350 m below surface has provided a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive suite of hydrological and thermo-mechanical experiments under such conditions virtually without delay. The results of these field tests have shown the importance of geologic structure and the functional dependence of the thermo-mechanical properties on temperature in developing a valid predictive model. The results have also demonstrated the vital importance of being able to carry out large scale investigations in a field test facility.

  11. Microfabricated EIS biosensor for detection of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taing, M.; Sweatman, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an EIS (electrolyte on insulator on Silicon) structure as a detection method for pathogenic DNA. Current rapid detection methods rely on fluorescent labeling to determine binding affinity. Fluorescent quenching is seen by a change in activity as opposed to non-quenched states. Sensitive optical equipment is required to detect and distinguish these colour changes because they cannot be seen by the naked eye. The disadvantages of this is (1) a portable, independent device cannot be made since samples have to be brought back to the benchtop and (2) the obvious cost of acquiring and maintaining these optical detection systems. A low cost, portable electrical detection method has been investigated. The EIS structure (Electrolyte on Insulator on Silicon) provides a novel, label-free and simple to fabricate way to make a small field effect DNA detection sensor. The sensor responds to fluctuating capacitances caused by a depletion layer thickness change at the surface of the silicon substrate as a result of DNA adsorption onto the dielectric oxide/APTES (Aminopropylthioxysilane) surface. As DNA molecules diffuse to the sensor surface, they are bound to their complimentary capture probes. The negative charge exhibited by the DNA forces negative charge carriers in the silicon substrate to move away from the surface. This causes a depletion layer in n-type substrate to thicken and for a p-type to thin and can be observed as a change in capacitance. A low ionic solution strength will ensure that counter-ions do not affect the sensor measurements. The EIS sensor is designed to be later integrated into a complete lab on chip solution. A full lab on chip can incorporate the sensor to perform DNA quantity based measurements. Nucleic acids can be amplified by the on chip PCR system and then fed into the sensor to work out the DNA concentration. The sensor surface contains capture probes that will bind to the pathogen. They are held onto the

  12. Hurricane Ike: Field Investigation Survey (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, L.

    2009-12-01

    Hurricane Ike made landfall at 2:10 a.m. on September 13, 2008, as a Category 2 hurricane. The eye of the hurricane crossed over the eastern end of Galveston Island and a large region of the Texas and Louisiana coast experienced extreme winds, waves and water levels, resulting in large impacts from overtopping, overwash, wind and wave forces and flooding. Major damage stretched from Freeport to the southwest and to Port Arthur to the northeast. The effects of the hurricane force winds were felt well inland in Texas and Louisiana and the storm continued to the interior of the US, causing more damage and loss of life. Through the support of the Coasts, Oceans, Ports and Rivers Institute (COPRI) of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) a team of 14 coastal scientists and engineers inspected the upper Texas coast in early October 2008. The COPRI team surveyed Hurricane Ike’s effects on coastal landforms, structures, marinas, shore protection systems, and other infrastructure. Damages ranges from very minor to complete destruction, depending upon location and elevation. Bolivar Peninsula, to the right of the hurricane path, experienced severe damage and three peninsula communities were completely destroyed. Significant flood and wave damage also was observed in Galveston Island and Brazoria County that were both on the left side of the hurricane path. Beach erosion and prominent overwash fans were observed throughout much of the field investigation area. The post-storm damage survey served to confirm expected performance under extreme conditions, as well as to evaluate recent development trends and conditions unique to each storm. Hurricane Ike confirmed many previously reported observations. One of the main conclusions from the inspection of buildings was that elevation was a key determinant for survival. Elevation is also a major factor in the stability and effectiveness of shore protection. The Galveston Seawall was high enough to provide protection from

  13. Doppler Imaging of EI Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washuettl, Albert; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew

    We present Doppler images of the rapidly rotating active close binary star EI Eridani. Several Doppler images have been produced since 1984 making use of different versions of the Doppler imaging technique. They all show high-latitude spots surrounding or covering the rotational pole as well as some smaller spots on lower latitudes. The high-latitude/polar spot seems to be long-lived (at least a decade) but changes its shape on comparatively short timescales (of the order of one month). From time to time spots along the stellar equator also occur, but their lifetimes tend to be relatively short (weeks). Furthermore, long-term photometric observations revealed the existence of a magnetic cycle which has been estimated to be around 11 years. We also present time-resolved Doppler images from EI Eri obtained at McMath/NSO in fall 1996 during 70 consecutive nights. The final aim of this program is to investigate the spot evolution over the whole activity cycle.

  14. The Electron Losses and Fields Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingley, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Caron, R.; Zarifian, A.; Miller, J.; Gildemeister, A.; Schoen, B.; Tsai, E.; Berger, S.; Zhang, F.; Subramanian, A.; Chung, M.; Runov, A.; Cruce, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Electron Losses and Fields Investigation (ELFIN), is a joint NASA/NSF funded project at the University of California, Los Angeles focusing on eliminating the current deficit in the understanding of the innate physical processes behind geomagnetic storms. Set to launch in 2017, the mission takes advantage of a 3U+ CubeSat design to reduce cost and complexity traditionally associated with a space weather mission of this kind. This mission seeks to quantify the precipitation of relativistic electrons from the radiation belts using a pair of energetic particle detectors (EPDs). The spacecraft will also fly a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) for determining the pitch angle distribution of the particles, which in conjunction with the EPDs will provide insight to the mechanisms responsible for their loss. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves are thought to be a significant contributor to the precipitation of electrons trapped in the magnetosphere; however without direct measurement to verify the exact energy range of the particles with high angular resolution, the precise role of these waves is as yet undetermined. ELFIN is unique as it is the first spacecraft that will perform direct pitch angle measurements of the high-energy electrons at the region in the ionosphere where the particles are being lost. Together with correlative measurements from THEMIS, Van Allen Probes and the upcoming ERG mission, ELFIN will provide a unique dataset of magnetospheric wave-particle interactions that will be able to contribute to a marked increase in the fidelity of current space weather models.

  15. The Giotto magnetic-field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Acuna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Franke, B.; Gramkow, B.; Mariani, F.; Musmann, G.; Ness, N. F.; Schmidt, H. U.; Terenzi, T.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Giotto magnetometer experiment are the investigation of the interaction between Comet Halley and the solar wind 0.9 AU from the Sun, to within 500 km of the cometary nucleus, and the study of the interplanetary magnetic field. The instrumentation consists of a triaxial and a separate biaxial system of fluxgate sensors of the ring-core type, the associated analog electronics and a digital processor. The measuring ranges of + or 1 16 up to + or - 65536 nT are digitized by a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. Memory modes allow the bridging of gaps in telemetry coverage of up to 10 days. Because of the dust hazard near closest approach, a magnetometer boom could not be included in the spacecraft design. The magnetic contamination problem was attacked by the use of two magnetometers and by a magnetic-cleanliness program. In-flight results show that the instrument is working flawlessly, though magnetic-contamination problems remain.

  16. Field Investigation of the Drift Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, G. W.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Marshall, B. D.; Cook, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming its existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and

  17. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey

    2006-02-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift

  18. Manus Water Isotope Investigation Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Jessica L; Cobb, Kim M; Noone, David

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this field campaign was to investigate climatic controls on the stable isotopic composition of water vapor, precipitation, and seawater in the western tropical Pacific. Simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopic composition of vapor and precipitation from April 28 to May 8, 2013, at the Manus Tropical Western Pacific Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site, provided several key insights into the nature of the climate signal archived in precipitation and vapor isotope ratios. We observed a large shift from lower to higher isotopic values in vapor and precipitation because of the passage of a mesoscale convective system west of the site and a transition from a regional stormy period into a more quiescent period. During the quiescent period, the stable isotopic composition of vapor and precipitation indicated the predominance of oceanic evaporation in determining the isotopic composition of boundary-layer vapor and local precipitation. There was not a consistent relationship between intra-event precipitation amount at the site and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation, thus challenging simplified assumptions about the isotopic “amount effect” in the tropics on the time scale of individual storms. However, some storms did show an amount effect, and deuterium excess values in precipitation had a significant relationship with several meteorological variables, including precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and cloud base height across all measured storms. The direction of these relationships points to condensation controls on precipitation deuterium excess values on intra-event time scales. The relationship between simultaneous measurements of vapor and precipitation isotope ratios during precipitation events indicates the ratio of precipitation-to-vapor isotope ratios can diagnose precipitation originating from a vapor source unique from boundary-layer vapor and rain re-evaporation.

  19. Field investigation of the drift shadow

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Grace W.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Cook, Paul J.

    2005-09-08

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an undergroundvoidthat, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rockmass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturatedrock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirmingits existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of driftshadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristicscould provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in thesubsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposednuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the fieldprogram that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadowand the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sandmine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch,California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it anexcellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. Themine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, anapproximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales,coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the minerequired the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other,driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. Thisconfiguration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rockmass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around theunderlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performedare described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radialpattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situwater content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test,water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel driftsand the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottomdrift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, andground penetrating radar may be

  20. Magnetic Field Investigations During ROSETTA's Steins Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.; Auster, H.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; RPC/ROMAP Teams

    2009-05-01

    During the recent Steins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft magnetic field measurements have been made with both, the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Steins different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing our measurements with simulation results show that Steins does not possess a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 1 mAm2/kg. This is significantly different from results at Braille and Gaspra.

  1. Field Studies of Human Systems: A Cooperative Learning Field Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbeck, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Advocates that geography teachers undertake field studies of human systems with their students. Describes a learning process in which teachers take students to a human system (supermarket, hotel) and guide them through exploration and analysis of the system with the goal of building skills that can transfer to other geographic tasks. (MJP)

  2. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  3. Some results of Moon's gravitational field investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigel, Y. I.; Zazulyak, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    The task of studying the gravitational field of the moon is important for long-term planning of its research using manned and robotic spacecrafts. Determination of harmonic expansion coefficients of selenopotential may not be reliable because of their construction based on different data and different methods of mathematical processing. With mutual comparative assessment of selenopotential models we can get some information about the reliability determination harmonic coefficients.

  4. Stream temperature investigations: field and analytic methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Alternative public domain stream and reservoir temperature models are contrasted with SNTEMP. A distinction is made between steady-flow and dynamic-flow models and their respective capabilities. Regression models are offered as an alternative approach for some situations, with appropriate mathematical formulas suggested. Appendices provide information on State and Federal agencies that are good data sources, vendors for field instrumentation, and small computer programs useful in data reduction.

  5. Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    University of Southern California for analysis of radon concentrations in air and soil gas (SG) samples; Chet Clarke of the Texas Commission on...foundation. Additional samples may be appropriate for larger structures. 1.4 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Spatial and temporal variability in volatile...organic compound (VOC) concentrations has a significant impact on vapor intrusion investigations. High spatial and long-term temporal variability in

  6. Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and

  7. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  8. 32 CFR 989.20 - Final EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.20 Final EIS. (a) If changes in the draft EIS are minor or... analysis is required. (b) The EPF processes all necessary supplements to EISs (40 CFR 1502.9) in the same way as the original Draft and Final EIS, except that a new scoping process is not required. (c)...

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of electric field fluctuations in a steady plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druetta, M. P.

    1971-01-01

    The electric fluctuations caused by plasma oscillations of a steady plasma were investigated. In order to observe this phenomenon electric field fluctuations are created in a helium plasma by an electron beam. Spectroscopic analysis reveals satellite lines disposed symmetrically in pairs about a forbidden atomic line and separated from it by the frequency of the electric field oscillations.

  10. Invited Reaction: Developing Emotional Intelligence (EI) Abilities through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimbach, Michael P.; Maringka, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The preceding article (Clarke, 2010) examines an important and interesting question; that is, under what conditions can learning contribute to the development of emotional intelligence (EI)? Despite the controversy surrounding the definition and construct of EI, its prevalence for the human resources development (HRD) field and its implications…

  11. Invited Reaction: Developing Emotional Intelligence (EI) Abilities through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimbach, Michael P.; Maringka, Jane

    2010-01-01

    The preceding article (Clarke, 2010) examines an important and interesting question; that is, under what conditions can learning contribute to the development of emotional intelligence (EI)? Despite the controversy surrounding the definition and construct of EI, its prevalence for the human resources development (HRD) field and its implications…

  12. Electric field response in bilayer graphene: Ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yutaro; Minamitani, Emi; Ando, Yasunobu; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Stimulated by quantum capacitance measurements, we have investigated the electric properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) with carrier doping under an external electric field using ab initio calculations. We found that the relative permittivity of BLG depends weakly on the applied electric field, and that the BLG can be regarded as a dielectric material rather than a pair of metallic films. We also found that carrier doping affects the band gap of BLG under electric fields, although carrier doping has a much smaller effect on the band gap and density of states than the application of electric fields.

  13. Field and laboratory investigations of selenium transformation. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-12-01

    This quarterly report discusses the preparation and results of a field investigation of a selected coal mine site in Oklahoma. The field investigation has been on-going since July 1990. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se mobility from a coal mine site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of reclaimed land. Also, included is the investigation and preliminary results of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption and desorption using different soil media, including coal mine spoils (overburden).

  14. Investigations of Magnetically Enhanced RIE Reactors with Rotating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2008-10-01

    In Magnetically Enhanced Reactive Ion Etching (MERIE) reactors, a magnetic field parallel to the substrate enables higher plasma densities and control of ion energy distributions. Since it is difficult to make the B-field uniform across the wafer, the B-field is often azimuthally rotated at a few Hz to average out non-uniformities. The rotation is slow enough that the plasma is in quasi-equilibrium with the instantaneous B-field. For the pressures (10's mTorr or less) and B-fields (10's - 100's G) of interest, electrons are magnetized whereas ions are usually not. The orientation and intersection of the B-field with the wafer are important, as intersecting field lines provide a low resistance path for electron current to the substrate. We report on a modeling study of plasma properties in MERIE reactors having rotating B-fields by investigating a series of quasi-steady states of B-field profiles. To resolve side-to-side variations, computations are performed in Cartesian coordinates. The model, nonPDPSIM, was improved with full tensor conductivities in the fluid portions of the code and v x B forces in the kinetic portions. Results are discussed while varying the orientation and strength of the B-field for electropositive (argon) and electronegative (Ar/CxFy, Ar/Cl2) gas mixtures.

  15. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  16. Investigation on Amari's dynamical neural field with global constant inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dequan; Peng, Jigen

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the properties of Amari's dynamical neural field with global constant inhibition induced by its kernel are investigated. Amari's dynamical neural field illustrates many neurophysiological phenomena successfully and has been applied to unsupervised learning like data clustering in recent years. In its applications, the stationary solution to Amari's dynamical neural field plays an important role that the underlying patterns being perceived are usually presented as the excited region in it. However, the type of stationary solution to dynamical neural field with typical kernel is often sensitive to parameters of its kernel that limits its range of application. Different from dynamical neural field with typical kernel that have been discussed a lot, there are few theoretical results on dynamical neural field with global constant inhibitory kernel that has already shown better performance in practice. In this paper, some important results on existence and stability of stationary solution to dynamical neural field with global constant inhibitory kernel are obtained. All of these results show that such kind of dynamical neural field has better potential for missions like data clustering than those with typical kernels, which provide a theoretical basis of its further extensive application.

  17. Barchan dune corridors: Field characterization and investigation of control parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbelrhiti, H.; Andreotti, B.; Claudin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of the barchan field located between Tarfaya and Laayoune (Atlantic Sahara, Morocco) is quantitatively investigated and compared to that in La Pampa de la Joya (Arequipa, Peru). On the basis of field measurements, we show how the volume, the velocity, and the output sand flux of a dune can be computed from the value of its body and horn widths. The dune size distribution is obtained from the analysis of aerial photographs. It shows that these fields are in a statistically homogeneous state along the wind direction and present a "corridor" structure in the transverse direction, in which the dunes have a rather well selected size. Investigating the possible external parameters controlling these corridors, we demonstrate that none among topography, granulometry, wind, and sand flux is relevant. We finally discuss the dynamical processes at work in these fields (collisions and wind fluctuations) and investigate the way they could regulate the size of the dunes. Furthermore, we show that the overall sand flux transported by a dune field is smaller than the maximum transport that could be reached in the absence of dunes, i.e., in saltation over the solid ground.

  18. Analytical and numerical investigations of bubble behavior in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorreiter, Janelle Orae

    The behavior of gas bubbles in liquids is important in a wide range of applications. This study is motivated by a desire to understand the motion of bubbles in the absence of gravity, as in many aerospace applications. Phase-change devices, cryogenic tanks and life-support systems are some of the applications where bubbles exist in space environments. One of the main difficulties in employing devices with bubbles in zero gravity environments is the absence of a buoyancy force. The use of an electric field is found to be an effective means of replacing the buoyancy force, improving the control of bubbles in space environments. In this study, analytical and numerical investigations of bubble behavior under the influence of electric fields are performed. The problem is a difficult one in that the physics of the liquid and the electric field need to be considered simultaneously to model the dynamics of the bubble. Simplifications are required to reduce the problem to a tractable form. In this work, for the liquid and the electric field, assumptions are made which reduce the problem to one requiring only the solution of potentials in the domain of interest. Analytical models are developed using a perturbation analysis applicable for small deviations from a spherical shape. Numerical investigations are performed using a boundary integral code. A number of configurations are found to be successful in promoting bubble motion by varying properties of the electric fields. In one configuration, the natural frequencies of a bubble are excited using time-varying electric and pressure fields. The applied electric field is spatially uniform with frequencies corresponding to shape modes of the bubble. The resulting bubble velocity is related to the strength of the electric field as well as the characteristics of the applied fields. In another configuration, static non-uniform fields are used to encourage bubble motion. The resulting motion is related to the degree of non

  19. Near-field investigations of nanoshell cylinder dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke

    2009-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are known to exhibit strong particle size dependent localized surface plasmon resonances due to their specific optical response described via the complex dielectric function. Using the two-dimensional finite element method, the near-field behavior of core-shell nanocylinder dimers with either a dielectric or a gold core and a silver shell was investigated. With a detailed analysis the positions of maximum field enhancement usable for highly sensitive spectroscopy were unveiled and the surface charge distributions of the different kinds of resonances were visualized. It is shown that the usual far-field spectra do not give reliable estimates of local electric field peaks. Furthermore one observes a distinct mode at the natural plasma frequency of the silver shell which is independent of the core material. This mode is identified as a volume plasmon mode.

  20. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Neubauer, Casey C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Sharma, Poorva; Akyol, Bora A.

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  1. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  2. Community fear of nonionizing radiation: a field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, M.L.; Morton, W.E.; Chartier, V.; Zajac, H.; Benitez, H.

    1985-03-01

    Four children from the same school class developed cancer. Because of concern in the community, a field study designed to document levels of environmental, nonionizing radiation was undertaken. Two school sites were investigated, the one with the cluster of cases and the other without known cases of cancer. The measured values of nonionizing radiation at both sites were not different and were well below existing exposure standards.

  3. Development of Emergency Intravehicular Spacesuit (EIS) assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A program was undertaken to develop and test two prototype pressure suits to operate at pressures up to 413 mm Hg (8.0 PSIG). The units were designated Emergency Intravehicular Spacesuits (EIS). Performance requirements, design evolution, testing performed, problems encountered, and final EIS configuration are reported.

  4. Geoengineering characterization of welded tuffs from laboratory and field investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Nimick, F.B.; Board, M.P.

    1984-12-31

    Welded tuff beneath Yucca Mountain adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is being considered for development as a high-level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Because access into Yucca Mountain has been limited to borehole explorations, early geoengineering materials characterizations have been derived from laboratory tests on cores from Yucca Mountain and from laboratory and field tests on welded tuffs located in G-Tunnel on the NTS. G-Tunnel contains welded tuffs that have similar properties and stress states to those at Yucca Mountain and has been the location for in situ rock mechanics testing. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geoengineering material property data obtained to date and to compare appropriate laboratory and field data from G-Tunnel to findings from Yucca Mountain. Geomechanical and thermal data are provided and are augmented by limited geological and hydrological data. A comparison of results of laboratory measurements on tuffs from Yucca Mountain and G-Tunnel indicates good agreement between the bulk densities, saturations, moduli of elasticity, Poisson`s ratios, and P-wave velocities. The G-Tunnel tuff has slightly lower thermal conductivity, tensile strength, compressive strength and slightly higher matrix permeability than does the welded tuff near the proposed repository horizon at Yucca Mountain. From a laboratory-to-field scaling perspective, the modulus of deformation shows the most sensitivity to field conditions because of the presence of joints found in the field. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Geoengineering characterization of welded tuffs from laboratory and field investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Nimick, F.B.; Board, M.P.

    1984-12-31

    Welded tuff beneath Yucca Mountain adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is being considered for development as a high-level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Because access into Yucca Mountain has been limited to borehole explorations, early geoengineering materials characterizations have been derived from laboratory tests on cores from Yucca Mountain and from laboratory and field tests on welded tuffs located in G-Tunnel on the NTS. G-Tunnel contains welded tuffs that have similar properties and stress states to those at Yucca Mountain and has been the location for in situ rock mechanics testing. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geoengineering material property data obtained to date and to compare appropriate laboratory and field data from G-Tunnel to findings from Yucca Mountain. Geomechanical and thermal data are provided and are augmented by limited geological and hydrological data. A comparison of results of laboratory measurements on tuffs from Yucca Mountain and G-Tunnel indicates good agreement between the bulk densities, saturations, moduli of elasticity, Poisson`s ratios, and P-wave velocities. The G-Tunnel tuff has slightly lower thermal conductivity, tensile strength, compressive strength and slightly higher matrix permeability than does the welded tuff near the proposed repository horizon at Yucca Mountain. From a laboratory-to-field scaling perspective, the modulus of deformation shows the most sensitivity to field conditions because of the presence of the joints found in the field. 14 references, 1 table.

  6. Field investigation to assess nutrient emission from paddy field to surface water in river catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    In order to maintain good river environment, it is remarkably important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Our former research dealing with nutrient emission analysis in the Tone River basin area in Japan, in addition to urban and industrial waste water, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. Japanese style agriculture produces large amount of rice and paddy field occupies large areas in Japanese river basin areas. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality by outflow of fertilizer, it is also suggested that paddy field has water purification function. As we carried out investigation in the Tone River Basin area, data were obtained which dissolved nitrogen concentration is lower in discharging water from paddy field than inflowing water into the field. Regarding to nutrient emission impact from paddy field, sufficient data are required to discuss quantitatively seasonal change of material behavior including flooding season and dry season, difference of climate condition, soil type, and rice species, to evaluate year round comprehensive impact from paddy field to the river system. In this research, field survey in paddy field and data collection relating rice production were carried out as a preliminary investigation to assess how Japanese style paddy field contributes year round on surface water quality. Study sites are three paddy fields located in upper reach of the Tone River basin area. The fields are flooded from June to September. In 2014, field investigations were carried out three times in flooding period and twice in dry period. To understand characteristics of each paddy field and seasonal tendency accompanying weather of agricultural event, short term investigations were conducted and we prepare for further long term investigation. Each study site has irrigation water inflow and outflow. Two sites have tile drainage system under the field and

  7. The Cluster magnetic field investigation: Scientific objectives and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dunlop, M. W.; Southwood, D. J.; Thomlinson, J. G.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Musmann, G.; Luehr, H.; Acuna, M. H.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Cluster magnetic field investigation is presented. Cluster represents a qualitatively new type of space mission which will provide, for the first time, a three dimensional view of small scale plasma processes and structures in the different regions in and around the Earth's magnetosphere. Concepts of data analysis needed to interpret the four spacecraft magnetic field data in terms of magnetospheric processes and structures are outlined. The instrument itself, a vital component of the scientific payload, follows a long tradition of fluxgate magnetometers on space missions, yet represents an evolution in terms of built in functions and reliability. A detailed description of the instrument is given with emphasis on those aspects that are unique to the mission.

  8. Investigation of flow fields within large scale hypersonic inlet models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnos, A. V.; Watson, E. C.; Seebaugh, W. R.; Sanator, R. J.; Decarlo, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations were conducted to determine the internal flow characteristics in model passages representative of hypersonic inlets for use at Mach numbers to about 12. The passages were large enough to permit measurements to be made in both the core flow and boundary layers. The analytical techniques for designing the internal contours and predicting the internal flow-field development accounted for coupling between the boundary layers and inviscid flow fields by means of a displacement-thickness correction. Three large-scale inlet models, each having a different internal compression ratio, were designed to provide high internal performance with an approximately uniform static-pressure distribution at the throat station. The models were tested in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 7.4 and a unit free-stream Reynolds number of 8.86 X one million per meter.

  9. Interpretation and communication of the results of medical field investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Singal, M

    1989-07-01

    Since the controversy over cytogenetic test results at the Love Canal in New York State, there has been increasing concern about the communication of medical test results to participants in field studies. To identify the range of issues that arise and to present examples of practices that might be useful for consideration, we have drawn from 15 years of experience in interpreting and communicating the results of medical field investigations by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The investigations were qualitatively characterized according to study type and design, substances involved, language used in the notification of results, and the nature of the efforts to put results in perspective. Based on this evaluation, the following recommendations are made: (1) provide a comprehensible consent form, (2) interpret results for study participants, (3) use clear language, (4) be explicit about uncertainty of findings, (5) where appropriate, indicate the need for medical follow-up, (6) provide results promptly, (7) provide overall study results, (8) evaluate the impact of the notification, (9) train investigators in the practice of communicating results.

  10. Investigation of moderately turbid suspensions by heterodyne near field scattering.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Sánchez, M A; Rojas-Ochoa, L F; Laurati, M; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-08-03

    Light scattering has proven to be a very powerful technique to characterize soft matter systems. However, many samples are turbid and hence suffer from multiple scattering which can affect the signal considerably. Multiple scattering can be reduced by diluting the sample or changing the solvent, but often this alters the sample and hence is precluded. Here we study the dynamics of a model system. In particular, we investigate the effects of moderate multiple scattering on small-angle heterodyne near field scattering (HNFS). Varying the particle concentration and size we change the degree of multiple scattering, which is quantified by the transmission of light. In dependence of the degree of multiple scattering, we analyze the statistical properties of the HNFS signal, which is the difference between two intensity patterns separated by a delay time. The distribution of intensity differences follows a Gaussian distribution if single scattering dominates and a Laplace distribution in the presence of extreme multiple scattering. We also investigate the effects of multiple scattering on the measured intermediate scattering function and the hydrodynamic radius of the particles. Reliable data are obtained for sample transmissions down to about 0.7. This is confirmed by a comparison with results from a far field cross-correlation instrument that suppresses multiple scattering contributions. Therefore, HNFS represents a technically simple but powerful method to investigate samples that are moderately multiple scattering.

  11. Application of EIS and SECM Studies for Investigation of Anticorrosion Properties of Epoxy Coatings Containing Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Mild Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, X. Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The effect of corrosion protection performance of epoxy coatings containing ZnO nanoparticle on mild steel in 3.5% NaCl solution was analyzed using scanning electrochemical microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Line profile and topographic image analysis were measured by applying -0.70 and +0.60 V as the tip potential for the cathodic and anodic reactions, respectively. The tip current at -0.70 V for the epoxy-coated sample with ZnO nanoparticles decreased rapidly, which is due to cathodic reduction in dissolved oxygen. The EIS measurements were taken in 3.5% NaCl after wet and dry cyclic corrosion test. The increase in the film resistance ( R f) and charge transfer resistance ( R ct) values was confirmed by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles in the epoxy coating. SEM/EDX analysis showed that complex oxide layer of zinc was enriched in corrosion products at a scratched area of the coated steel after corrosion testing. FIB-TEM analysis confirmed the presence of the nanoscale complex oxide layer of Zn in the rust of the steel that had a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance of coated steel by forming protective corrosion products in the wet/dry cyclic test.

  12. Investigations of turbulent scalar fields using probability density function approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng

    1991-01-01

    Scalar fields undergoing random advection have attracted much attention from researchers in both the theoretical and practical sectors. Research interest spans from the study of the small scale structures of turbulent scalar fields to the modeling and simulations of turbulent reacting flows. The probability density function (PDF) method is an effective tool in the study of turbulent scalar fields, especially for those which involve chemical reactions. It has been argued that a one-point, joint PDF approach is the one to choose from among many simulation and closure methods for turbulent combustion and chemically reacting flows based on its practical feasibility in the foreseeable future for multiple reactants. Instead of the multi-point PDF, the joint PDF of a scalar and its gradient which represents the roles of both scalar and scalar diffusion is introduced. A proper closure model for the molecular diffusion term in the PDF equation is investigated. Another direction in this research is to study the mapping closure method that has been recently proposed to deal with the PDF's in turbulent fields. This method seems to have captured the physics correctly when applied to diffusion problems. However, if the turbulent stretching is included, the amplitude mapping has to be supplemented by either adjusting the parameters representing turbulent stretching at each time step or by introducing the coordinate mapping. This technique is still under development and seems to be quite promising. The final objective of this project is to understand some fundamental properties of the turbulent scalar fields and to develop practical numerical schemes that are capable of handling turbulent reacting flows.

  13. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C. )

    1991-10-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important.

  14. Investigation of the effective field in magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, V.I.

    1986-07-01

    The authors describe investigations of the effective field caused by the orientational interaction between ferroparticles for magnetic fluids with a conducting and a nonconducting base. The magnetic susceptibility of four magnetic fluid specimens was investigated. Specimens consisted of a colloid solution of magnetite in kerosene, stabilized with oleic acid; mercury-based magnetic fluids, a colloid solution of finely dispersed iron particles in mercury, a solution of iron particles with a lower degree of dispersion, and a solution of cobalt particles. Figures show the temperature dependences of the magnetic suceptibility of the fluid specimens. It was shown that under certain conditions, it is possible that instabilities can arise and heterophase impurities can form in accordance with the mechanism proposed previously in both electrically conducting and nonconducting magnetic fluids.

  15. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Framework in the Selection of an Enterprise Integration (EI) Approach That Best Satisfies Organizational Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngeru, James

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, adoption of Enterprise Integration (EI) through initiatives such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has consistently dominated most of organizations' top strategic priorities. Additionally, the field of EI has generated a vast amount…

  16. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Framework in the Selection of an Enterprise Integration (EI) Approach That Best Satisfies Organizational Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngeru, James

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, adoption of Enterprise Integration (EI) through initiatives such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has consistently dominated most of organizations' top strategic priorities. Additionally, the field of EI has generated a vast amount…

  17. Investigation of drag effect using the field signature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Tian, Gui Yun; Cheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    The potential drop (PD) method is an established non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique. The monitoring of internal corrosion, erosion and cracks in piping systems, based on electrical field mapping or direct current potential drop array, is also known as the field signature method (FSM). The FSM has been applied in the field of submarine pipe monitoring and land-based oil and gas transmission pipes and containers. In the experimental studies, to detect and calculate the degree of pipe corrosion, the FSM analyses the relationships between the electrical resistance and pipe thickness using an electrode matrix. The relevant drag effect or trans-resistance will cause a large margin of error in the application of resistance arrays. It is the first time that the drag effect in the paper is investigated and analysed in resistance networks with the help of the FSM. Subsequently, a method to calculate the drag factors and eliminate its errors is proposed and presented. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental results show that the measurement accuracy can be improved by eliminating the errors caused by the drag effect.

  18. Mercury's Magnetic Field: Active, Thermoelectric, or Decaying Dynamo or Crustal Remanence? - The MESSENGER Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, D. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    The discovery of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field in 1974 by Mariner 10 was a surprise because the planet's size, thermal state, and angular momentum seemed to rule out the possibility of an active dynamo. Additional encounters of Mercury by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1975 confirmed the initial results and allowed the estimation of the planetary magnetic dipole moment to within perhaps a factor of two. This discovery prompted a variety of suggestions for the source of the intrinsic field. The presence of sufficient sulfur in the outer core would allow a thin fluid outer core to persist to the present and perhaps serve as host to a thin-shell dynamo. Recent dynamo simulations under conditions appropriate to Mercury support this possibility and point to aspects of the external field that may be observable from an orbiting spacecraft. Remanent magnetization of the crust and mantle by a now-dead core dynamo field was proposed as an alternative explanation of the Mariner 10 observations in 1976, but this suggestion has been questioned on the grounds that the characteristic time between polarity reversals of a core dynamo field is likely much less than the timescale for acquisition of thermoremanence by the cooling crust and upper mantle. The discovery by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in 1997 of an intensely magnetized Martian crust added fuel to this debate, because the Mariner 10 measurements can be reproduced if Mercury's crust is approximated by a magnetized shell having an intrinsic magnetization of the same order of magnitude as that suggested for Mars by the MGS measurements. The MESSENGER magnetic field investigation is designed to address this and other fundamental questions regarding the nature and origin of Mercury's internal field as well as the planet's thermal history. We present here a summary of the MESSENGER magnetic field investigation goals and an assessment of observations acquired during the spacecraft's Earth flyby on 2 August 2005.

  19. Investigation of the Arcjet near Field Plume Using Electrostatic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plume of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in.) and 15 cm (5.9 in.) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in.) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in.) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  20. Investigation of the arcjet plume near field using electrostatic probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plum of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in) and 15 cm (5.9 in) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  1. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  2. Investigation of a supersonic cruise fighter model flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.; Bare, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.

  3. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  4. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  5. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.62... issue an information supplement to a final EIS where RUS determines that the purposes of NEPA are...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.62 - Supplemental EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.62... issue an information supplement to a final EIS where RUS determines that the purposes of NEPA are...

  7. Human health risk assessment of synthetic turf fields based upon investigation of five fields in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary; Toal, Brian; Simcox, Nancy; Bracker, Anne; Golembiewski, Brian; Kurland, Tara; Hedman, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Questions have been raised regarding possible exposures when playing sports on synthetic turf fields cushioned with crumb rubber. Rubber is a complex mixture with some components possessing toxic and carcinogenic properties. Exposure is possible via inhalation, given that chemicals emitted from rubber might end up in the breathing zone of players and these players have high ventilation rates. Previous studies provide useful data but are limited with respect to the variety of fields and scenarios evaluated. The State of Connecticut investigated emissions associated with four outdoor and one indoor synthetic turf field under summer conditions. On-field and background locations were sampled using a variety of stationary and personal samplers. More than 20 chemicals of potential concern (COPC) were found to be above background and possibly field-related on both indoor and outdoor fields. These COPC were entered into separate risk assessments (1) for outdoor and indoor fields and (2) for children and adults. Exposure concentrations were prorated for time spent away from the fields and inhalation rates were adjusted for play activity and for children's greater ventilation than adults. Cancer and noncancer risk levels were at or below de minimis levels of concern. The scenario with the highest exposure was children playing on the indoor field. The acute hazard index (HI) for this scenario approached unity, suggesting a potential concern, although there was great uncertainty with this estimate. The main contributor was benzothiazole, a rubber-related semivolatile organic chemical (SVOC) that was 14-fold higher indoors than outdoors. Based upon these findings, outdoor and indoor synthetic turf fields are not associated with elevated adverse health risks. However, it would be prudent for building operators to provide adequate ventilation to prevent a buildup of rubber-related volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and SVOC at indoor fields. The current results are generally

  8. Continuous field investigation assessing nitrogen and phosphorus emission from irrigated paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In order to maintain good river environment, it is very important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Other than urban and industrial waste water, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. Rice is one of the staple products of Asia and paddy field occupies large areas in Asian countries. Rice is also widely cultivated in Japan. Paddy field occupies large areas in Japanese river basin areas. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality by discharging fertilizer, it is also suggested that paddy field has water purification function. Regarding to nutrient emission from paddy field, existing monitored data are insufficient so as to discuss quantitatively seasonal change of material behavior including flooding season and dry season and to evaluate year round comprehensive impact from paddy field to the river system. These are not sufficient data for discussion of material flow and emission impact quantitatively as well as qualitatively. We have carried out field investigation in paddy fields in middle reach of the Tone River Basin. The aim of the survey is understanding of water and nutrient balance in paddy field. In order to understand emission impact from paddy field to river system, all input and output flow are measured to calculate nutrient balance in paddy field. Therefore we observed quantity of water flow into/from paddy field, water quality change of inflow and outflow during flooding season. We set focus on a monitoring paddy field IM, and monitored continuously water and nutrient behavior. By measuring water quality and flow rate of inflow, outflow, infiltrating water, ground water and depth of flooding water, we tried to quantitatively understand N and P cycle around paddy field including seasonal tendency, change accompanying with rainy events and occurred according to agricultural events like fertilization. At the beginning of flooding season, we

  9. Investigation of the asymmetric distributions of RF transmission and reception fields at high static field.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    When radiofrequency (RF) transmission field represents B(1)(+), the reception field represents B(1)(-)*. The distribution of those maps demonstrates asymmetric features at high field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Both maps are in mirror symmetry to one another. Almost symmetric distribution of the B(1) field was expected on the laboratory frame in a symmetric sample loaded inside the RF coil designed to achieve a homogeneous B(1) field. Then, a simple change was made in the coordinate transformation equation of RF fields between the rotating and laboratory frames in both linear and quadrature modes to investigate the source of this feature of asymmetry. The magnitude of rotating frame components, B(1)(+) and B(1)(-), consists of the magnitude and the phase difference of the laboratory frame components. The rotating frame components differ in the sign of the sinusoidal phase difference. B(1)(+) is equal to B(1)(-) at lower field because phase changes that depend on position can be ignored. At higher fields, the magnitude component has a symmetric profile, and distribution in the phase component is antisymmetric. Thus, the distributions of B(1)(+) and B(1)(-) maps demonstrate mirror symmetry. Maps of magnitude and phase components were examined in the laboratory frame. Their maps were computed from B(1)(+) and B(1)(-) maps of the human brain and of a spherical saline phantom measured at 4.7T. It was concluded from these analytical and experimental results that the asymmetric and mirror symmetric distributions in B(1)(+) and B(1)(-) are derived from the phase difference in the laboratory frame.

  10. Incorporating a hybrid urease-carbon nanotubes sensitive nanofilm on capacitive field-effect sensors for urea detection.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José R; Molinnus, Denise; Beging, Stefan; Schöning, Michael J

    2014-06-03

    The ideal combination among biomolecules and nanomaterials is the key for reaching biosensing units with high sensitivity. The challenge, however, is to find out a stable and sensitive film architecture that can be incorporated on the sensor's surface. In this paper, we report on the benefits of incorporating a layer-by-layer (LbL) nanofilm of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) field-effect sensors for detecting urea. Three sensor arrangements were studied in order to investigate the adequate film architecture, involving the LbL film with the enzyme urease: (i) urease immobilized directly onto a bare EIS [EIS-urease] sensor; (ii) urease atop the LbL film over the EIS [EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease] sensor; and (iii) urease sandwiched between the LbL film and another CNT layer [EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease-CNT]. The surface morphology of all three urea-based EIS biosensors was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), while the biosensing abilities were studied by means of capacitance-voltage (C/V) and dynamic constant-capacitance (ConCap) measureaments at urea concentrations ranging from 0.1 mM to 100 mM. The EIS-urease and EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease sensors showed similar sensitivity (~18 mV/decade) and a nonregular signal behavior as the urea concentration increased. On the other hand, the EIS-(PAMAM/CNT)-urease-CNT sensor exhibited a superior output signal performance and higher sensitivity of about 33 mV/decade. The presence of the additional CNT layer was decisive to achieve a urea based EIS sensor with enhanced properties. Such sensitive architecture demonstrates that the incorporation of an adequate hybrid enzyme-nanofilm as sensing unit opens new prospects for biosensing applications using the field-effect sensor platform.

  11. Investigations on the Incompletely Developed Plane Diagonal-Tension Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1940-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.

  12. A Monte Carlo investigation of the Hamiltonian mean field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Andronico, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2005-04-01

    We present a Monte Carlo numerical investigation of the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model. We begin by discussing canonical Metropolis Monte Carlo calculations, in order to check the caloric curve of the HMF model and study finite size effects. In the second part of the paper, we present numerical simulations obtained by means of a modified Monte Carlo procedure with the aim to test the stability of those states at minimum temperature and zero magnetization (homogeneous Quasi stationary states), which exist in the condensed phase of the model just below the critical point. For energy densities smaller than the limiting value U∼0.68, we find that these states are unstable confirming a recent result on the Vlasov stability analysis applied to the HMF model.

  13. Investigation of crossed SAW fields by scanning acoustic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Behme, G; Hesjedal, T

    2001-07-01

    We used multimode scanning acoustic force microscopy (SAFM) for studying noncollinearly propagating Rayleigh and Love wave fields. By analyzing torsion and bending movement of SAFM cantilever, normal and in-plane wave oscillation components are accessible. The SAFM principle is the down-conversion of surface oscillations into cantilever vibrations caused by the nonlinearity of the tip-sample interaction. Through mixing of complementary oscillation components, phase velocities of crossed Rayleigh waves on GaAs and crossed Rayleigh and Love waves on the layered system SiO2/ST-cut quartz were obtained simultaneously. Now, it is possible to investigate elastic properties of submicron areas through multimode SAFM measurements. Finally, we present mixing experiments of four SAWs on GaAs and discuss the various influences on the measured SAFM amplitude and phase contrast.

  14. Criteria for electric field bioeffects investigations and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the research on biological effects of electric fields (EF) has been done with small rodents that have many physical and physiological attributes significantly different from those of man. In making extrapolations from animal data to man we must be particularly cognizant of the limitations and pitfalls in the use of animal experimentation data. Many factors must be considered in the design of experiments using organisms other than man as a test subject. These include the species, strain, sex, age of the animal, the methods of caring for the test animals, the animals' feeding patterns, the roles of seasonal and circadian rhythms, biological drifts, temperature and humidity. The reliability of laboratory studies using experimental animal models depends on the following considerations: (1) the selection of the animal model with consideration of its cognitive limits, (2) scaling factors associated with the nature of the field in the laboratory investigation of the biological processes using animal models, and (3) the methods by which the extrapolation of the data from the animal models relate to human studies.

  15. Scientific investigation plan for initial engineered barrier system field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wunan Lin

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) is to describe tests known as Initial Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (IEBSFT) and identified by Work Breakdown Structure as WBS 1.2.2.2.4. The IEBSFT are precursors to the Engineered Barrier System Field Test (EBSFT), WBS 1.2.2.2.4, to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The EBSFT and IEBSFT are designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers) and the surrounding rock mass, its vadose water, and infiltrated water. Heater assemblies will be installed in drifts or boreholes openings and heated to measure moisture movement during heat-up and subsequent cool-down of the rock mass. In some of the tests, infiltration of water into the heated rock mass will be studied. Throughout the heating and cooling cycle, instruments installed in the rock will monitor such parameters as temperature, moisture content, concentration of some chemical species, and stress and strain. Rock permeability measurements, rock and fluid (water and gas) sampling, and fracture pattern measurements will also be made before and after the test.

  16. 36 CFR 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 1010.9... Preparation of an EIS. (a) Notice of intent. When the Trust decides to prepare an EIS, it shall publish a... lengthy period between the Trust's decision to prepare an EIS and the time of actual preparation, then...

  17. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to meet the standards for an adequate statement for RUS proposed action, RUS may adopt all or a... agency's EIS is adequate, RUS shall adopt that agency's EIS as its final EIS. RUS and the applicant shall... its adequacy. (c) If the adopted EIS is generally available and meets RUS standards, RUS shall have a...

  18. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  19. A field investigation and numerical simulation of coastal fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, E. J.; Eadie, W. J.; Rogers, C. W.; Kocmond, W. C.; Pilie, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A field investigation of the microphysical and micrometeorological features of fogs occurring near Los Angeles and Vandenberg, California was conducted. Observations of wind speed and direction, temperature, dew point, vertical wind velocity, dew deposition, drop-size distribution, liquid water content, and haze and cloud nucleus concentration were obtained. These observations were initiated in late evening prior to fog formation and continued until the time of dissipation in both advection and radiation fogs. Data were also acquired in one valley fog and several dense haze situations. The behavior of these parameters prior to and during fog are discussed in detail. A two-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the formation and dissipation of advection fogs under the influence of horizontal variations in surface temperature. The model predicts the evolution of potential temperature, water vapor content, and liquid water content in a vertical plane as determined by vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection. Results are discussed from preliminary numerical experiments on the formation of warm-air advection fog and dissipation by natural and artificial heating from the surface.

  20. Flow field investigation in a bulb turbine diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M.; Duquesne, P.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2017-04-01

    An important drop in turbine performances has been measured in a bulb turbine model operated at overload. Previous investigations have correlated the performance drop with diffuser losses, and particularly to the flow separation zone at the diffuser wall. The flow has been investigated in the transition part of the diffuser using two LDV measurement sections. The transition part is a diffuser section that transforms from a circular to a rectangular section. The two measurement sections are at the inlet and outlet of the diffuser transition part. The turbine has been operated at three operating points, which are representative of different flow patterns at the diffuser exit at overload. In addition to the average velocity field, the analysis is conducted based on a backflow occurrence function and on the swirl level. Results reveal a counter-rotating zone in the diffuser, which intensifies with the guide vanes opening. The guide vanes opening induces a modification of the flow phenomena: from a central backflow recirculation zone at the lowest flowrate to a backflow zone induced by flow separation at the wall at the highest flowrate.

  1. First results of the MAVEN magnetic field investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Oliversen, R. J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J.; Mazelle, C.; Brain, D.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-11-01

    Two Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN magnetic field sensors sample the ambient magnetic field at the outer edge of each solar array. We characterized relatively minor spacecraft-generated magnetic fields using in-flight subsystem tests and spacecraft maneuvers. Dynamic spacecraft fields associated with the power subsystem (≤1 nT) are compensated for using spacecraft engineering telemetry to identify active solar array circuits and monitor their electrical current production. Static spacecraft magnetic fields are monitored using spacecraft roll maneuvers. Accuracy of measurement of the environmental magnetic field is demonstrated by comparison with field directions deduced from the symmetry properties of the electron distribution function measured by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer. We map the bow shock, magnetic pileup boundary, the V × B convection electric field and ubiquitous proton cyclotron, and 1 Hz waves in the ion foreshock region.

  2. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Philip, J.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass.

  3. Magnetic field profile analysis for gyrotron experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr.; Avramidis, Konstantinos A.; Gantenbein, Gerd; Rzesnicki, Tomasz; Samartsev, Andrey; Jelonnek, John

    2017-03-01

    The external applied magnetic field plays a main role on the gyrotron operation. Even if the gyrotron design is optimized for the nominal magnetic profile, it is possible the performance to be better for an alternative one. This unexpected result can happen for several reasons, such as the manufacturing imperfections, the misalignment issues, and several unknown factors in gyrotron theory and design. The systematic experimental investigation of the gyrotron in different magnetic profiles is very important for the optimization of the gyrotron operation and for the better understanding of the gyrotron behavior. In this sense, an analytical approach for the definition of the appropriate magnetic profiles based on the beam characteristics instead of the coil currents definition is proposed for a systematic experimental study. Using this technique, operational maps in the space of the important magnetic profile parameters are developed, which are very useful for the characterization of the gyrotron performance. For the demonstration of this idea, the operational maps of the short-pulse prototype of the 170 GHz, 1 MW European ITER gyrotron project are presented.

  4. Limited field investigation for the 200-UP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The operable unit is located adjacent to the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit and underlies a significant part of seven source operable units: 200-RO-1, 200-RO-2, 200-RO-3, 200-RO-4, 200-SS-2, 200-UP-2, and 200-UP-3. Remedial efforts in the 100-ZP-1 Operable Unit focus on addressing volatile organic contamination in the aquifer. The focus of the 200-UP-1 limited field investigation (LFI) is on contaminated aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, with the exception of uranium and technetium-99 plumes, which are addressed by an existing 200-UP-1 interim remedial measure (IRM). The LFI approach is driven by general and specific data needs required to refine the site conceptual model and conduct a risk assessment. Activities supporting the LFI include drilling, well construction, sampling and analysis, data validation, geologic and geophysical logging, aquifer testing, measuring depth to water, and evaluating geodetic survey and existing analytical data.

  5. Results of investigations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Goff, F.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Hanold, B.

    1990-04-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahuachapan. High-temperature downhole instruments, including a temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity spinner/temperature/pressure (STP), and fluid sampler, were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine if chemical deposits were present in well casings or liners and to investigate a suspected break in the casing in one well. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 80 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut-in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. The geochemical data obtained show a system configuration like that proposed by C. Laky and associates in 1989. Our data indicate recharge to the system from the volcanic highlands south of the field. Additionally, our data indicate encroachment of dilute fluids into deeper production zones because of overproduction. 17 refs., 50 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Electrophoretic field gradient focusing: an investigation of the experimental parameters.

    PubMed

    Tuñón, Pilar González; Wang, Yating; Myers, Peter; Bartle, Keith D; Bowhill, Larry; Ivory, Cornelius F; Ansell, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Electrophoretic field gradient focusing has been used to separate the two oxidation states of myoglobin (Mb), and to separate Mb from bromophenol blue (BPB). Polyacrylamide and Sephadex were shown to be suitable packing materials whilst silica led to band broadening with Mb. BPB and Mb could be simultaneously focused apart using either a fixed 21-electrode setup or a dynamic 6-electrode setup. Using a dynamic three-electrode setup either analyte could be focused but not both simultaneously. It was shown that a higher ionic strength buffer in the separation channel compared to the coolant channel enhanced focusing between electrodes due to a conductivity gradient. Different running buffers were investigated and it was found that using a pH 8.6 buffer containing N,N,N-tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) and phosphate ions the oxidation states of Mb could be separated but the separation of Mb from BPB was not as good as would be hoped for. Using a pH 8.6 buffer containing Tris, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-3-propanesulphonate and chloride ions as running buffer, BPB and Mb could be well separated but the two oxidation states of Mb merged.

  7. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Ernie R.

    2016-12-01

    The Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign, which deployed the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship Spirit as it ran its regular route between Los Angeles, California and Honolulu, Hawaii, measured properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, radiation, and atmospheric, meteorological, and oceanic conditions with the goal of obtaining statistics of these properties to achieve better understanding of the transition between stratocumulus and cumulus cloud regimes that occur in that region. This Sc-Cu transition is poorly represented in models, and a major reason for this is the lack of high-quality and comprehensive data that can be used to constrain, validate, and improve model representation of the transition. MAGIC consisted of 20 round trips between Los Angeles and Honolulu, and thus over three dozen transects through the transition, totaling nearly 200 days at sea between September, 2012 and October, 2013. During this time MAGIC collected a unique and unprecedented data set, including more than 550 successful radiosonde launches. An Intensive Observational Period (IOP) occurred in July, 2013 during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure were made. MAGIC was very successful in its operations and overcame numerous logistical and technological challenges, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of a marine AMF2 deployment and the ability to make accurate measurements of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and radiation while at sea.

  8. Theoretical investigation of bacteria polarizability under direct current electric fields.

    PubMed

    Dingari, Naga Neehar; Buie, Cullen R

    2014-04-22

    We present a theoretical model to investigate the influence of soft polyelectrolyte layers on bacteria polarizability. We resolve soft-layer electrokinetics by considering the pH-dependent dissociation of ionogenic groups and specific interactions of ionogenic groups with the bulk electrolyte to go beyond approximating soft-layer electrokinetics as surface conduction. We model the electrokinetics around a soft particle by modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) to account for the effects of ion transport in the soft layer and electric double layer. Fluid flow is modeled by modified Stokes equations accounting for soft-layer permeability. Two test cases are presented to demonstrate our model: fibrillated and unfibrillated Streptococcus salivarius bacteria. We show that electrolytic and pH conditions significantly influence the extent of soft-particle polarizability in dc fields. Comparison with an approximate analytical model based on Dukhin-Shilov theory for soft particles shows the importance of resolving soft-layer electrokinetics. Insights from this study can be useful in understanding the parameters that influence soft-particle dielectrophoresis in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  9. Experimental and field investigations on uprooting of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvani, Giulio; Francalanci, Simona; Solari, Luca; Gumiero, Bruna

    2017-04-01

    The morphology of a river reach is the result of many processes involving the motion of sediment (erosion, transport and deposition), the hydrological regime and the development and growth of vegetation. River evolution in the presence of vegetation depends on establishment of pioneer woody riparian seedlings on bars, and consequently on either their survival or death. Flooding events can cause young vegetation mortality by uprooting (Corenblit et al., 2007). These processes, despite their important implications on river morphodynamics, have been poorly investigated in the past. Most of previous research focused on the mechanism of root breakage and on measuring the vegetation resistance to uprooting in the vertical direction, while few works considered the effect of flow direction on the uprooting process (Bywater-Reyes et al., 2015). In this work, we focused on vegetation uprooting due to flow and to bed erosion. We considered two different types of vegetation: Avena Sativa, grown from seeds in external boxes, was used to investigate instantaneous uprooting, and Salix Purpurea, collected in the field, for delayed uprooting (namely type I and type II mechanisms, according to Edmaier et al., 2011). The experiments were carried out in a 5 m long flume in the Hydraulic Laboratory in Florence. A 2 m long mobile bed was build inside the flume, and vegetation was arranged according to several configurations on it. Both types of vegetation were subject to constant discharges to investigate the effects of a general bed degradation in modifying the occurrence of uprooting. We also performed some experiments with Avena Sativa located in a fixed bed and subjected to an increasing flow discharge in order to simulate instantaneous uprooting due to the action of hydrodynamic forces. We measured flow velocity, flow discharge and water depth and characterized vegetation by stem and root diameter, height and root length. The experimental results have been interpreted in terms of a

  10. Potent Inhibitors of Acetyltransferase Eis Overcome Kanamycin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-06-17

    A major cause of tuberculosis (TB) resistance to the aminoglycoside kanamycin (KAN) is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase Eis. Upregulation of this enzyme is responsible for inactivation of KAN through acetylation of its amino groups. A 123 000-compound high-throughput screen (HTS) yielded several small-molecule Eis inhibitors that share an isothiazole S,S-dioxide heterocyclic core. These were investigated for their structure-activity relationships. Crystal structures of Eis in complex with two potent inhibitors show that these molecules are bound in the conformationally adaptable aminoglycoside binding site of the enzyme, thereby obstructing binding of KAN for acetylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that several Eis inhibitors, when used in combination with KAN against resistant Mtb, efficiently overcome KAN resistance. This approach paves the way toward development of novel combination therapies against aminoglycoside-resistant TB.

  11. Near-field scanning optical microscopy investigations of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearo, Jessie Ann

    The Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) studies of novel, optically active, conjugated polymers are presented. NSOM is a relatively new technique which produces super resolution (˜50--100 nm) optical images simultaneously with topography. The conjugated polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and derivatives of PPV are organic semiconductor-like materials with interesting and unique optical properties. Derivatives of PPV have been used in LEDs and have potential in other optoelectronic devices. NSOM provides a tool for investigation of the photoluminescence, absorption/reflection, photo-dynamics and photoconductivity of films of PPV and PPV derivatives on the length scale that these properties are fundamentally defined. The NSOM experiments have revealed mesoscale domains (˜100 nm) of varying photoluminescence emission and average molecular order in drop cast films of PPV. NSOM of stretch-oriented PPV have shown domains of perpendicular molecular orientation with low photoluminescence emission. Near-field photoconductivity experiments of stretch-oriented PPV have correlated the mesoscale topography with the photoconductivity properties of the polymer. NSOM experiments of films of poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'-(ethyl(hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) have shown that there is mesoscale spatial inhomogeneity in the photo-oxidation process which reduces photoluminescence emission. NSOM has also been used to create nanoscale photo-patterning in MEH-PPV films. The NSOM experiments of blended films of MEH-PPV in polystyrene have shown mesoscale phase separation directly correlated to variations in the optical properties of the film. Derivatives of PPV, stretch-oriented in polyethylene, show photoluminescence intensity variations perpendicular and parallel to the stretch-direction correlated to topography features. As a complement to the NSOM studies of conjugated polymers, single polymer molecule experiments of MEH-PPV are also presented. The

  12. First Results of the MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Gruesbeck, J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J. S.; Mazelle, C. X.; Brain, D.; Jakosky, B. M.; Oliversen, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN spacecraft approaches the end of its first year in orbit, systematically mapping the interaction region about Mars with a focus on atmospheric escape. The comprehensive instrument suite aboard MAVEN has busied itself in mapping the magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magnetotail, and extended atmospheric corona in near-Mars space. MAVEN carries two magnetic field sensors (fluxgate magnetometers) as part of the particles and fields package (PFP); they sample the ambient magnetic field from a vantage point on at the outer edge of each solar array. We characterized relatively minor spacecraft-generated magnetic fields using a series of in-flight subsystem tests and spacecraft maneuvers. Dynamic spacecraft fields (≤ 1 nT) associated with the operation of specific solar array circuits are compensated for using spacecraft engineering telemetry to identify active circuits and monitor their electrical current production. Static spacecraft magnetic fields are monitored using spacecraft roll maneuvers. Accuracy of measurement of the environmental magnetic field is demonstrated by comparison with field directions deduced from the symmetry properties of the electron distribution function measured by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA). We compile magnetometer observations to characterize intense crustal magnetic fields, the solar wind interaction with Mars, and ubiquitous proton cyclotron and 1-Hz waves in the upstream solar wind (ion foreshock region). The figure below compiles observations of magnetic fluctuations obtained by MAVEN in near-Mars space. The map of magnetic fluctuations reveals the statistical extent of the magnetosheath, confined between the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up region.

  13. Field and Laboratory Investigations of Organic Photochemistry on Urban Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styler, S. A.; Baergen, A.; van Pinxteren, D.; Donaldson, D. J.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-12-01

    In polluted urban environments, windows and building surfaces rapidly become coated with a complex film of chemicals, which enhances the dry deposition of particles and the partitioning of semi-volatile organic species to the surface. Despite its high surface-to-volume ratio and direct exposure to sunlight, few studies have directly investigated the role that this "urban film" may play in promoting the photooxidative processing of semi-volatile organics contained within it. The present study represents a comprehensive field- and laboratory-based investigation of the film-phase photochemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), here used as proxies for light-absorbing semi-volatile organics present within the film. Urban film sampling was conducted using a custom-built three-stage sampler housing, which was deployed in a central, high-traffic area in Leipzig, Germany. The sampler itself employs small glass beads as surrogate window surfaces and is designed such that only its uppermost stage is exposed to sunlight. Each stage is subdivided into 16 compartments, which allows for the study of film formation and evolution. In the first phase of the study, the role of urban film as a photochemical sink for reactive organic species was determined by measuring total film PAH content and PAH abundance ratios as a function of atmospheric exposure time under both light and dark conditions. In the second, more general, phase of the study, the organic and inorganic composition of collected film samples was compared to that of co-located PM10 samples, and differences between the two sample types were used to gain insight into the relative importance of heterogeneous photochemical oxidation within the particle and film phases. In the third phase of the study, film samples grown under dark conditions were exposed to gas-phase ozone in an atmospheric-pressure flat-bed reactor, and the kinetics of ozone-induced PAH loss were studied under both dark and illuminated conditions

  14. Regional Ecorisk Field investigation, upper Clark Fork River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; LaTier, A.; Ginn, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Regional Ecorisk Field Investigation was conducted at the Clark Fork River Superfund Site (Montana) to evaluate the relationships between plant communities and tailings deposits in riparian habitats and to evaluate food-chain transfer of trace elements to selected wildlife species. Stations were selected to represent a range of vegetation biomass (or cover) values and apparent impact of trace elements, with some areas of lush vegetation, some areas of mostly unvegetated soil (e.g., < 30 percent plant cover), and a gradient in between. For the evaluation of risk to wildlife, bioaccumulation of metals was evaluated in native or naturalized plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reproductive effects in the deer mouse were evaluated by direct measurements. For other wildlife species, bioaccumulation data were interpreted in the context of food web exposure models. Total biomass and species richness of riparian plant communities are related to tailings content of soil as indicated by pH and metals concentrations. Risk to populations of omnivorous small mammals such as the deer mouse was not significant. Relative abundance and reproductive condition of the deer mouse were normal, even in areas of high metals enrichment. Based on exposure models and site-specific tissue residue data for dietary species, risk to local populations of predators such as red fox and American kestrel that feed on deer mice and terrestrial invertebrates is not significant. Risk to herbivores related to metals bioaccumulation in plant tissues is not significant. Population level effects in deer and other large wildlife are not expected because of the large home ranges of such species and compensatory demographic factors.

  15. Investigating DNA Migration in Pulsed Fields Using a Miniaturized Field Inversion Gel Electrophoresis System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojia; Ugaz, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a well-established technique for fractionation of DNA fragments ranging from kilobases to megabases in length. But many of these separations require an undesirable combination of long experiment times (often approaching tens of hours) and application of high voltages (often approaching tens of kV). Here we present a simple miniaturized field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) apparatus capable of separating DNA fragments up to 32.5 kb in length within 3 hours using a modest applied potential of 20 V. The device is small enough to be imaged under a fluorescence microscope, permitting the migrating DNA bands to be observed during the course of the separation run. We use this capability to investigate how separation performance is affected by parameters including the ratio of forward and backward voltage, pulse time, and temperature. We also characterize the dependence of DNA mobility on fragment size N, and observe a scaling in the vicinity of N−0.5 over the size range investigated. The high speed, low power consumption, and simple design of this system may help enable future studies of DNA migration in PFGE to be performed quickly and inexpensively. PMID:19053074

  16. Laboratory and field investigations of marsh edge erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter presents the laboratory experiments and field observations of marsh edge erosion. The marsh retreat rate in a field study site in Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana, was measured using GPS systems and aerial photographs. The wave environment was also measured in order to correlate the marsh edge...

  17. A first investigation of accuracy, precision and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astolfo, Alberto; Endrizzi, Marco; Kallon, Gibril; Millard, Thomas P.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) has attracted attention as a potentially significant improvement over widespread and established x-ray imaging. The key is its capability to access a new physical quantity (the ‘phase shift’), which can be complementary to x-ray absorption. One additional advantage of XPCI is its sensitivity to micro structural details through the refraction induced dark-field (DF). While DF is extensively mentioned and used for several applications, predicting the capability of an XPCI system to retrieve DF quantitatively is not straightforward. In this article, we evaluate the impact of different design options and algorithms on DF retrieval for the edge-illumination (EI) XPCI technique. Monte Carlo simulations, supported by experimental data, are used to measure the accuracy, precision and sensitivity of DF retrieval performed with several EI systems based on conventional x-ray sources. The introduced tools are easy to implement, and general enough to assess the DF performance of systems based on alternative (i.e. non-EI) XPCI approaches.

  18. Investigation of Spherical-Wave-Initiated Flow Fields Around Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Donald R.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity flow fields and vortex movements have been made about various simple blunt models undergoing spherical blast waves with a positive overpressure of 4 pounds per square inch. A bullet-optical method was used to determine flow velocities and is applied to velocity fields in which the gradients are largely normal to the free-stream direction. The velocity flow fields are shown at various flow times following passage of the blast front for different models. Vortex movements with time are compared for square-bar models of various aspect ratios. Corner sharpness had no discernible effect on the overall disturbed velocity fields or vortex movements for the square-box models used.

  19. Policy Forum: Studying Eyewitness Investigations in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Robyn; Jacoby, Larry L.; Kahneman, Daniel; Lempert, Richard; Roediger, Henry L.; Rosenthal, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article considers methodological issues arising from recent efforts to provide field tests of eyewitness identification procedures. We focus in particular on a field study (Mecklenburg 2006) that examined the “double blind, sequential” technique, and consider the implications of an acknowledged methodological confound in the study. We explain why the confound has severe consequences for assessing the real-world implications of this study. PMID:17610149

  20. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interested agencies at least 7 calendar days prior to publication of the Notice of Availability (NOA) in the... least 45 days starting from the publication date of the NOA of the draft EIS in the Federal Register... place no sooner than 15 days after the Federal Register publication of the NOA and at least 15...

  1. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interested agencies at least 7 calendar days prior to publication of the Notice of Availability (NOA) in the... least 45 days starting from the publication date of the NOA of the draft EIS in the Federal Register... place no sooner than 15 days after the Federal Register publication of the NOA and at least 15...

  2. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interested agencies at least 7 calendar days prior to publication of the Notice of Availability (NOA) in the... least 45 days starting from the publication date of the NOA of the draft EIS in the Federal Register... place no sooner than 15 days after the Federal Register publication of the NOA and at least 15...

  3. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interested agencies at least 7 calendar days prior to publication of the Notice of Availability (NOA) in the... least 45 days starting from the publication date of the NOA of the draft EIS in the Federal Register... place no sooner than 15 days after the Federal Register publication of the NOA and at least 15...

  4. 32 CFR 989.19 - Draft EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interested agencies at least 7 calendar days prior to publication of the Notice of Availability (NOA) in the... least 45 days starting from the publication date of the NOA of the draft EIS in the Federal Register... place no sooner than 15 days after the Federal Register publication of the NOA and at least 15...

  5. Investigation of Reddening in Fields of the SMASH Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juelfs, Elizabeth A.; Olsen, Knut A.; SMASH Team

    2016-01-01

    We present dust extinction maps derived from eight fields in the Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH), a survey that is imaging 480 deg^2 of the southern sky in DES-ugriz with the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope and the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). We derive the extinction due to dust using fits to the stellar locus of stars brighter than g=21 in color-color diagrams, and explore the spatial distribution of the extinction within each of the fields. We compare our results to the extinction map of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (1998), and find generally good agreement. We describe plans to measure the three-dimensional distribution of extinction in these fields using fainter stars and background galaxies as tracers. Juelfs was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  6. Magnetic field investigations during ROSETTA's 2867 Šteins flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auster, H. U.; Richter, I.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Berghofer, G.; Carr, C. M.; Motschmann, U.

    2010-07-01

    During the 2867 Šteins flyby of the ROSETTA spacecraft on September 5, 2008 magnetic field measurements have been made with both the RPC orbiter magnetometer and the ROMAP lander magnetometer. These combined magnetic field measurements allow a detailed examination of any magnetic signatures caused either directly by the asteroid or indirectly by Šteins' different modes of interaction with the solar wind. Comparing measurements with simulation results show that Šteins does not posses a significant remanent magnetization. The magnetization is estimated at less than 10 -3 A m 2/kg. This is significantly different from results at 9969 Braille and 951 Gaspra.

  7. Extending methods: using Bourdieu's field analysis to further investigate taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindel Dimick, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article Signs of taste for science, I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution of taste within science education classrooms. Nevertheless, because the authors' socially situated methodology draws upon Bourdieu's theories, it seems equally important to extend these methods to consider how and why students make particular distinctions within a relational context—a key aspect of Bourdieu's theory of cultural production. By situating the constitution of taste within Bourdieu's field analysis, researchers can explore the ways in which students' tastes and social positionings are established and transformed through time, space, place, and their ability to navigate the field. I describe the process of field analysis in relation to the authors' paper and suggest that combining the authors' methods with a field analysis can provide a strong methodological and analytical framework in which theory and methods combine to create a detailed understanding of students' interest in relation to their context.

  8. A Field Method for Investigating the Cultural Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parson, Helen E.; McKay, Ian A.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines a method for conducting a rural cultural-landscape field project. Notes that this activity is especially useful with students whose life experiences are primarily urban. Describes a cemetery survey, a small town reconnaissance, and rural land and building survey. Provides examples of student generated materials. (KO)

  9. Investigating completion strategies; Cormorant Field, U. K. North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.H. Jr. ); Valenti, N.P. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes studies that evaluate various completion strategies for new subsea wells in the Cormorant field, U.K. North Sea. These studies, which complement work done by the field operator, include detailed reservoir description work to define oil-in-place (OIP) and permeability distribution and a waterflood simulation for a representative reservoir cross section. Wellbore, flowline, and pipeline hydraulics for the complex production/injection system are included to model well rates more accurately. The results provide general insight into the nature of displacement during waterflooding of a stratified section with a limited number of wells. They also provide specific guidance on dual vs. single completions; perforating, testing, and stimulation sequence; and the benefits of partially perforating high-permeability sands.

  10. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional information...

  11. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional information...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional information...

  13. 12 CFR 1815.109 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 1815.109 Section 1815.109 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.109 Preparation of an EIS. (a) If the Fund determines that an EIS should...

  14. 12 CFR 1815.109 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 1815.109 Section 1815.109 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.109 Preparation of an EIS. (a) If the Fund determines that an EIS should...

  15. 12 CFR 1815.109 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 1815.109 Section 1815.109 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.109 Preparation of an EIS. (a) If the Fund determines that an EIS should...

  16. 7 CFR 1794.72 - Adoption of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adoption of an EIS. 1794.72 Section 1794.72... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Adoption of Environmental Documents § 1794.72 Adoption of an EIS. (a) Where RUS determines that an existing Federal EIS requires additional information...

  17. Joint Sealants for Airport Pavements. Phase 1. Laboratory Field Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Highway Research Board. Special Report 112: "Joint Sealing: A Glossary," Washington, DC, 1970. 9. D.A. Peterson. " Resealing Joints and Cracks in Rigid ...and Flexible Pavements," NCHRP-SHP 98, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, Dec 1982. 10. J.W. Bugler. " Rigid Pavement Joint Resealing : Field...tests. Special thanks to the following for their assistance and input during the airport site surveys: Atlanta Hartsfield International Mr. Mike Pack

  18. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James E; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  19. Echoes from the Field: An Ethnographic Investigation of Outdoor Science Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxerman, Jonathan Zvi

    2013-01-01

    As popular as field trips are, one might think they have been well-studied. Nonetheless, field trips have not been heavily studied, and little research has mapped what actually transpires during field trips. Accordingly, to address this research gap, I asked two related research questions. The first question is a descriptive one: What happens on…

  20. Echoes from the Field: An Ethnographic Investigation of Outdoor Science Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxerman, Jonathan Zvi

    2013-01-01

    As popular as field trips are, one might think they have been well-studied. Nonetheless, field trips have not been heavily studied, and little research has mapped what actually transpires during field trips. Accordingly, to address this research gap, I asked two related research questions. The first question is a descriptive one: What happens on…

  1. ASTEROSEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF KNOWN PLANET HOSTS IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Arentoft, T.; Frandsen, S.; Quirion, P.-O.; Brown, T. M.; Gilliland, R. L.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J. M.

    2010-04-20

    In addition to its great potential for characterizing extra-solar planetary systems, the Kepler Mission is providing unique data on stellar oscillations. A key aspect of Kepler asteroseismology is the application to solar-like oscillations of main-sequence stars. As an example, we here consider an initial analysis of data for three stars in the Kepler field for which planetary transits were known from ground-based observations. For one of these, HAT-P-7, we obtain a detailed frequency spectrum and hence strong constraints on the stellar properties. The remaining two stars show definite evidence for solar-like oscillations, yielding a preliminary estimate of their mean densities.

  2. Spectral investigation of nonlinear local field effects in Ag nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Rodrigo Takeda, Yoshihiko; Ohnuma, Masato; Oyoshi, Keiji

    2015-03-21

    The capability of Ag nanoparticles to modulate their optical resonance condition, by optical nonlinearity, without an external feedback system was experimentally demonstrated. These optical nonlinearities were studied in the vicinity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), using femtosecond pump-and-probe spectroscopy with a white-light continuum probe. Transient transmission changes ΔT/T exhibited strong photon energy and particle size dependence and showed a complex and non-monotonic change with increasing pump light intensity. Peak position and change of sign redshift with increasing pump light intensity demonstrate the modulation of the LSPR. These features are discussed in terms of the intrinsic feedback via local field enhancement.

  3. Investigation of nanogap localized field enhancement in gold plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debu, Desalegn Tadesse; Bauman, Stephen; Saylor, Cameron; Novak, Eric; French, David; Herzog, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Nanogaps between plasmonic structures allow confining the localized electric field with moreenhancements. Based on previously implemented two-step lithography process, we introducea nano-masking technique to fabricate nanostructrues and nanogaps for various geometrical patterns. This new method can fabricate gold nanostructures as well as nanogaps that are less than 10nm, below the limiting scale of lithography. Simulation from finite element method (FEM) shows strong gap dependence of optical properties and peak enhancement of these devices. The fabricated plasmonic nanostructure provides wide range of potential future application including highly sensitive optical antenna, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and biosensing.

  4. Echoes from the Field: An Ethnographic Investigation of Outdoor Science Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxerman, Jonathan Zvi

    As popular as field trips are, one might think they have been well-studied. Nonetheless, field trips have not been heavily studied, and little research has mapped what actually transpires during field trips. Accordingly, to address this research gap, I asked two related research questions. The first question is a descriptive one: What happens on field trips? The second question is explanatory: What field trip events are memorable and why? I employed design research and ethnographic methodologies to study learning in naturally occurring contexts. I collaborated with middle-school science teachers to design and implement more than a dozen field trips. The field trips were nested in particular biology and earth sciences focal units. Students were tasked with making scientific observations in the field and then analyzing this data during classroom activities. Audio and video recording devices captured what happened during the field trips, classroom activities and discussions, and the interviews. I conducted comparative microanalysis of videotaped interactions. I observed dozens of events during the field trips that reverberated across time and place. I characterize the features of these events and the objects that drew interest. Then, I trace the residue across contexts. This study suggests that field trips could be more than one-off experiences and have the potential to be resources to seed and enrich learning and to augment interest in the practice of science.

  5. A Field Course Investigation of a Pembrokeshire River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The river was investigated at six stations from source to estuary. Modifications of water quality and aquatic communities are related to man's activities in the river basin. The organization of the exercise and the method employed are described. (Author/BB)

  6. A Field Course Investigation of a Pembrokeshire River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The river was investigated at six stations from source to estuary. Modifications of water quality and aquatic communities are related to man's activities in the river basin. The organization of the exercise and the method employed are described. (Author/BB)

  7. The Impact of Engineering Integrated Science (EIS) Curricula on First-Year Technical High School Students' Attitudes toward Science and Perceptions of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Lee, Sun-Ju; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how engineering integrated science (EIS) curricula affect first-year technical high school students' attitudes toward science and perceptions of engineering. The effect of the EIS participation period on students' attitudes toward science was also investigated via experimental study design. Two engineering integrated…

  8. The Impact of Engineering Integrated Science (EIS) Curricula on First-Year Technical High School Students' Attitudes toward Science and Perceptions of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Lee, Sun-Ju; Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how engineering integrated science (EIS) curricula affect first-year technical high school students' attitudes toward science and perceptions of engineering. The effect of the EIS participation period on students' attitudes toward science was also investigated via experimental study design. Two engineering integrated…

  9. First Investigation on the Radiation Field of the Spherical Hohlraum.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xuefei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Ren, Guoli; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Yang, Dong; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Huang, Lizhen; Du, Kai; Zhao, Runchang; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Su, Jingqin; Ding, Yongkun; He, Xian-Tu; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-08

    The first spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished on the SGIII-prototype laser facility. In the experiment, the radiation temperature is measured by using an array of flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) through a laser entrance hole at four different angles. The radiation temperature and M-band fraction inside the hohlraum are determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental observations indicate that the radiation temperatures measured by the FXRDs depend on the observation angles and are related to the view field. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the vacuum spherical hohlraum is in the range from 60% to 80%. Although this conversion efficiency is less than the conversion efficiency of the near vacuum hohlraum on the National Ignition Facility, it is consistent with that of the cylindrical hohlraums used on the NOVA and the SGIII-prototype at the same energy scale.

  10. First Investigation on the Radiation Field of the Spherical Hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xuefei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Ren, Guoli; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Yang, Dong; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Huang, Lizhen; Du, Kai; Zhao, Runchang; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Su, Jingqin; Ding, Yongkun; He, Xian-Tu; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-01

    The first spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished on the SGIII-prototype laser facility. In the experiment, the radiation temperature is measured by using an array of flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) through a laser entrance hole at four different angles. The radiation temperature and M -band fraction inside the hohlraum are determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental observations indicate that the radiation temperatures measured by the FXRDs depend on the observation angles and are related to the view field. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the vacuum spherical hohlraum is in the range from 60% to 80%. Although this conversion efficiency is less than the conversion efficiency of the near vacuum hohlraum on the National Ignition Facility, it is consistent with that of the cylindrical hohlraums used on the NOVA and the SGIII-prototype at the same energy scale.

  11. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  12. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Style and Problem Posing: An Investigation with Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Aristoklis Andreas; Xistouri, Xenia

    2011-01-01

    Field dependence/independence cognitive style was found to relate to general academic achievement and specific areas of mathematics; in the majority of studies, field-independent students were found to be superior to field-dependent students. The present study investigated the relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive style and…

  13. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Style and Problem Posing: An Investigation with Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Aristoklis Andreas; Xistouri, Xenia

    2011-01-01

    Field dependence/independence cognitive style was found to relate to general academic achievement and specific areas of mathematics; in the majority of studies, field-independent students were found to be superior to field-dependent students. The present study investigated the relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive style and…

  14. Investigation of the temperature field in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Clayton; Hultmark, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    The scaling and evolution of a developing turbulent thermal boundary layer is investigated. By allowing the temperature differences in the fluid to remain small enough to treat temperature as a passive scalar, the analysis can be extended to any turbulent convection/diffusion problem. Mean temperature scaling is developed and analyzed by utilizing the ``Asymptotic Invariance Principle'' developed by George and Castillo (1997). Possible effects of the Reynolds and Prandtl number are discussed. The derived power law solution for the inner and outer scaling is then used to develop a ``heat transfer law'' for the wall heat flux, qw. Data collection is performed with a newly developed MEMS sensor, allowing improved performance and reduced spatial and temporal filtering of the signal. Integration with a PIV system will allow direct measurements of the turbulent heat flux - θv to investigate the extent of the overlap layer and validity of the proposed scaling laws. Temperature variance 1/2 θ2 will also be investigated, with a possible scaling proposed.

  15. 78 FR 29120 - Notice of Intent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... of Intent (NOI) To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Proposed Establishment and... Airport, Portland, and Kingsley Field, Klamath Falls, OR AGENCY: Department of the Air Force; DOD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as...

  16. Soil water flow dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, Quebec: Field and laboratory investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotzhauer, Susanne M.; Price, Jonathan S.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper concerned with soil water dynamics in a managed cutover peat field, the microscale hydrological processes and parameters governing water flow and storage through variably saturated peat are investigated. An open water ditch-reservoir enhanced wetting of adjacent cutover peat, maintaining the water table depth above 43 cm during the summer, surface soil moisture above 45%, and water tension in the surface layer above -45 mbar. Desaturation of pores was noted in the -2 and -10 cm depths, but at -30 and -50 cm a decrease in moisture content of several percent was associated with compression of the peat as the water table dropped. Air entry occurred only at pressures below -15 mbar. Seasonal subsidence resulted in cumulative vertical displacement in excess of 10 cm during the study period. Typical settlements in the peat ranged between 11 and 23% of the lowering of the water table. Considerable hysteresis was observed, and vertical displacement was 5 times greater in response to water loss, compared to rewetting. The specific storage (Ss) in the 180 cm thick deposit averaged 9.4 × 10-4 cm-1 during drying periods but averaged only 2.6 × 10-4 cm-1 on rewetting.Ss was more important than specific yield (Sy) in the overall aquifer storativity. Transient hydraulic properties resulted from the shifting soil structure. The increase in peat bulk density caused by drying increased the water retention capacity and decreased hydraulic conductivity. Mean saturated hydraulic conductivity was 15 cm d-1 and decreased 2 orders of magnitude as the degree of saturation dropped from 1 to 0.4. The horizontal/vertical anisotropy ratio was 4. The changing surface elevation in response to seasonal subsidence had a profound influence on the nature of the storage changes and hydraulic parameters of the peat soil.

  17. Field investigation of FGD system chemistry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litherland, S.T.; Colley, J.D.; Glover, R.L.; Maller, G.; Behrens, G.P.

    1984-12-01

    Three full-scale wet limestone FGD systems were investigated to gain a better understanding of FGD system operation and chemistry. The three plants which participated in the program were South Mississippi Electric Power Association's R. D. Morrow Station, Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Craig Station, and Central Illinois Light Company's Duck Creek Station. Each FGD system was characterized with respect to SO/sub 2/ removal, liquid and solid phase chemistry, and calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate relative saturation. Mist eliminator chemistry and performance were documented at Morrow and Duck Creek. Solutions to severe mist eliminator scaling and pluggage were demonstrated at Duck Creek. A technical and econ

  18. Effective field theory investigations of the XYZ puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions, predicts several types of bound states. Among them are conventional mesons (qq̅) and baryons (qqq), which have been the only states observed in experiments for years. However, in the last decade, many states that do not fit this picture have been observed at B-factories (BaBar, Belle and CLEO), at τ-charm facilities (CLEO-c, BESIII) and also at proton-proton colliders (CDF, D0, LHCb, ATLAS, CMS). There is growing evidence that at least some of the new charmonium- and bottomonium-like states, the so-called XYZ mesons, are new forms of matter such as quark-gluon hybrids, mesonic molecules or different arrangements of tetraquarks, pentaquarks... Effective Field Theories (EFTs) have been constructed for heavy-quark-antiquark bound states, but a general study of the XYZ mesons within the same framework has not yet been done. The scope of this conference proceedings is to discuss the possibilities we have in developing novel EFTs that, characterizing the conventional quarkonium states, facilitate also the systematic and model-independent description of the new exotic matter, in particular, the hybrid mesons.

  19. Field and laboratory investigations of variably saturated, potential landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Michael S.

    Rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flows are calamitous natural hazards that are difficult to predict. Point measurement surveys of subsurface hydro-mechanical properties are often used alongside slope stability assessments to predict landslide occurrence. However, such surveys can be tedious and costly in the field scale, and invasive in the laboratory scale. Presented here are newly applied remote sensing techniques intended to improve slope stability characterization methods at a variety of scales. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to quickly estimate soil thickness over a steep (33--40°) zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range. After characterizing the hydroelectrical properties at the study site, Depth-to-bedrock was interpreted from the geophysical dataset with a root mean squared error of 27 cm compared to point measurements. In the laboratory scale, a particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to observe shear plane development and strain localization in a tabletop vertical cut slope simulator prior to slope failure. A vertical sliding trap door was gradually removed until the slope failed abruptly, and digital images were taken concurrently for the PIV analyses. Areas of maximum strain localization were found to coincide with the location of the eventual failure plane, showing the PIV technique can be used to detect developing shear planes in the soil. Furthermore, Culmann's Method, a commonly used two-dimensional critical height analysis, was extended to three dimensions and for use in unsaturated soils. Experimental failure heights agreed with the extended theory (within 14.3% relative error) for a range of soil moisture content and cut slope widths, compared to an 88.5% error without the three-dimensional correction. Using the extended theory, a theoretical threshold was also proposed and tested for sidewall width influence on laboratory cut slope failures.

  20. Investigating the Density of Isolated Field Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulgen, E. Kaan

    2016-02-01

    In this thesis, 215.590 elliptical galaxies with M(r) ≤ -21 in the CFHTLS-W1 field which is covering 72 sq. deg on the sky are examined . Criterion given by Smith et al. (2004) has been used to determine isolated elliptical galaxies. 118 isolated elliptical galaxies have been determined in total. By using g, r and i photometric bands, the true-colour images of candidates are produced and visually inspected. In order to have a clean list of IfEs some candidates are excluded from the final sample after visual inspection. The final sample consists of 60 IfEs which corresponds to the 0.027 per cent of the whole sample. In other words, IfE density in the W1 is 0.8 IfE / sq.deg. Since the formation of the ellipticals in the isolated regions is not known clearly, it is crucial to determine IfEs and compare their photometric and morphological properties to the normal or cluster ellipticals. When the (g-i) distributions of three different elliptical galaxy class are compared, it is found that they have almost the same colours. When the redshift distributions of the galaxies are considered, it can be seen that IfEs formed later than the cluster and normal ellipticals. The average redshift of IfEs is determined as zphot=0.284, while for normal and cluster ellipticals, it is, respectively, 0.410 and 0.732. In addition, when the effective radii of the three elliptical systems are considered, it is found that the IfEs are bigger than the other two elliptical classes.

  1. Field and Laboratory Investigations of Coastal Dune Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Maddux, T.; Kaminsky, G.; Palmsten, M.; Holman, R.; Cox, D.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal dunes are important features along many coastlines, owing to their role in sediment budgets, their use as ecologically unique habitat, and their ability to protect onshore resources from wave attack. Skillful predictions of the erosion and overtopping rates of these features are needed to quantify coastal vulnerability during major storm events. Knowledge of post-storm recovery and subsequent dune growth rates is critical to developing quantitative sediment budgets and ultimately for predicting future shoreline positions. We have been conducting both long-term field and large-scale laboratory studies to improve our understanding of dune morphodynamics and will present results of dune behavior, including various feedback mechanisms, at scales ranging from individual storm events to decadal trends. A large-scale physical model study of dune erosion was recently performed at Oregon State University's O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory producing a comprehensive, near prototype-scale data set of hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological evolution during extreme dune erosion events. The laboratory moveable bed beach/dune system was brought to equilibrium with pre-storm random wave conditions. It was subsequently subjected to attack from steadily increasing water levels and offshore wave heights simulating a natural storm surge hydrograph. Observations made include inner surf zone and swash free surface and velocities as well as wave-by-wave estimates of topographical change at high spatial resolution through the use of stereo video imagery. Initial results suggest strong feedbacks between the evolution of the foreshore profile during the storm and episodic dune slumping events. Beach topographic data have been collected quarterly along southwest Washington and northwest Oregon since 1997 resolving the seasonal to interannual morphological variability of a nearly 160-km long high-energy dissipative coastline. Major climate events (such as El Ninos

  2. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds Psychrometer Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R Michael; Lewis, Ernie

    2016-09-01

    One of the most critical measurements in the suite of meteorological measurements used for the calculation of evaporation and latent heat flux is the relative humidity (RH). In order to achieve an overall net flux uncertainty < 10 W/m2 (Bradley and Fairall, 2006), the RH must be accurate to < 2 %RH. Anyone experienced in shipboard meteorological measurements will recognize that this is a tough specification. During the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Marine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) experiment, the meteorological package used three different RH sensors. We found approximately 3-4 % differences between units. To arbitrate the differences and to track calibration drift over the months of exposure, we used a precision psychrometer. The Assmann Psychrometer, Model 430101 is a classic, mercury-in-glass instrument that gives a precise measure of the wet and dry bulb temperatures from which atmospheric humidity and RH are computed. On a regular basis, typically after each balloon launch, a technician took the psychrometer to an exposed location on the bridge roof. That was just below the instruments on the mast and high enough into the mixed layer that the difference is negligible.

  3. Development of Point Doppler Velocimetry for Flow Field Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavone, Angelo A.; Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2006-01-01

    A Point Doppler Velocimeter (pDv) has been developed using a vapor-limited iodine cell as the sensing medium. The iodine cell is utilized to directly measure the Doppler shift frequency of laser light scattered from submicron particles suspended within a fluid flow. The measured Doppler shift can then be used to compute the velocity of the particles, and hence the fluid. Since this approach does not require resolution of scattered light from individual particles, the potential exists to obtain temporally continuous signals that could be uniformly sampled in the manner as a hot wire anemometer. This leads to the possibility of obtaining flow turbulence power spectra without the limitations of fringe-type laser velocimetry. The development program consisted of a methodical investigation of the technology coupled with the solution of practical engineering problems to produce a usable measurement system. The paper outlines this development along with the evaluation of the resulting system as compared to primary standards and other measurement technologies.

  4. Van Allen Probes ECT/MagEIS Background Corrected Electron Flux Measurements: Methods and Initial Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Looper, M. D.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument, part ofthe Energetic Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) Suite, onboard the NASA Van AllenProbes spacecraft. The ECT/MagEIS instrument measures radiation belt electrons in the ~20-4000 keV energy range and protons in the ~60-1000 keV energy range, with high resolution inboth energy and pitch-angle. In addition, the MagEIS electron measurement technique allowsfor a full quantification of the source(s) of background contamination in the measurement.MagEIS is thus able to make clean, reliable electron flux observations in the presence of strongpenetrating backgrounds, for example, contamination from relativistic protons in the inner zoneand inner slot region. We summarize our background correction algorithm, describe the varioussources of background contamination, and present an overview of our initial findings using thebackground corrected data set. Understanding the causes and effects of backgroundcontamination in the MagEIS electron data set is crucial for the interpretation and proper use ofsuch data. The techniques described will facilitate new investigations into the dynamics of theEarth's electron radiation belts, which have thus far not been possible.

  5. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females.

  6. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  7. Monitoring solid phase synthesis reactions with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

    PubMed

    Hutton, Roger S; Adams, Joseph P; Trivedi, Harish S

    2003-01-01

    This work describes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a means to monitor solid phase synthesis on resin beads. EIS was used to track changes during the swelling of beads in various solvents, during three typical reactions and throughout cleavage of the final product from the bead. The impedance response was investigated in a chemical reactor and was found to be faintly sensitive to the resin swelling and solvent flow. The position of the electrode within the reactor was found to be critical as polystyrene based beads float or sink dependent upon the solvent used. However, by choosing electrode position it was possible to monitor reaction progress on beads or within the bulk reactant/product mixture. Of the three typical chemical reactions studied impedance spectroscopy successfully followed two. Fitting of the impedance data to an equivalent electrical circuit provided an estimate as to the relative contribution of capacitive and resistive components to the overall response. Kinetic data from two reactions were also modelled, in both cases complex kinetics was observed, in close agreement with other studies.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-17)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-09-13

    BPA proposes to partially fund the acquisition of 7,630 acres of shrub-steppe, riparian, and wetland habitat in northern Franklin County, Washington. Title to the land will be transferred initially to The Conservation Fund and ultimately for inclusion as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Passive management practices will take place on the land until an official management plan is developed and approved for the property. Some short-term control of invasive, exotic plant species may occur as necessary prior to the approval of a management plan. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Randy Hill with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia National Wildlife Refuge and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the fee-title purchase of the subject property. Mark Miller with the Eastern Washington Ecological Services Office of USFWS concurred with this finding on August 3, 2001. Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and USFWS, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. In accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) and USFWS policy, the addition of the Eagle Lakes property to the National Wildlife Refuge System does not constitute an undertaking as defined by the NHPA, or require compliance with Section 106 of the NHPA. Anan Raymond, Regional Archaeologist with USFWS Region 1 Cultural Resource Team, concurred with this finding on May 4, 2001. Compliance with NHPA, including cultural resources surveys, will be implemented, as necessary, once specific management

  9. Experimental investigation of the velocity field in buoyant diffusion flames using PIV and TPIV algorithm

    Treesearch

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S.M. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2005-01-01

    We investigated a simultaneous temporally and spatially resolved 2-D velocity field above a burning circular pan of alcohol using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results obtained from PIV were used to assess a thermal particle image velocimetry (TPIV) algorithm previously developed to approximate the velocity field using the temperature field, simultaneously...

  10. A Comparative Model of Field Investigations: Aligning School Science Inquiry with the Practices of Contemporary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Dvornich, Karen; Ryken, Amy E.; Tudor, Margaret; Koehler, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Field investigations are not characterized by randomized and manipulated control group experiments; however, most school science and high-stakes tests recognize only this paradigm of investigation. Scientists in astronomy, genetics, field biology, oceanography, geology, and meteorology routinely select naturally occurring events and conditions and…

  11. A Comparative Model of Field Investigations: Aligning School Science Inquiry with the Practices of Contemporary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Dvornich, Karen; Ryken, Amy E.; Tudor, Margaret; Koehler, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Field investigations are not characterized by randomized and manipulated control group experiments; however, most school science and high-stakes tests recognize only this paradigm of investigation. Scientists in astronomy, genetics, field biology, oceanography, geology, and meteorology routinely select naturally occurring events and conditions and…

  12. An Exploration of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Wendy; Hovey, Richard; Hodwitz, Kathryn; Zhang, Su

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) admissions process and the Bar-On EQ-i emotional intelligence (EI) instrument in order to investigate the potential for the EQ-i to serve as a proxy measure to the MMI. Participants were 196 health science candidates who completed both the MMI and the EQ-i as…

  13. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI's) for the treatment of visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations occur in various neurological diseases, but are most prominent in Lewy body dementia, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence of visual hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia is much more common than conventionally thought and ranges from 24% to 72%. Cortical acetylcholine (ACh) depletion has been associated with visual hallucinations; the level of depletion being related directly to the severity of the symptoms. Current understanding of neurobiological visual processing and research in diseases with reduced cholinergic function, suggests that AChEI's may prove beneficial in treating visual hallucinations. This offers the potential for targeted drug therapy of clinically symptomatic visual hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia using acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Methods A systematic review was carried out investigating the evidence for the effects of AChEI's in treating visual hallucinations in Schizophrenia. Results No evidence was found relating to the specific role of AChEI's in treating visual hallucinations in this patient group. Discussion Given the use of AChEI's in targeted, symptom specific treatment in other neuropsychiatric disorders, it is surprising to find no related literature in schizophrenia patients. The use of AChEI's in schizophrenia has investigated effects on cognition primarily with non cognitive effects measured more broadly. Conclusions We would suggest that more focused research into the effects of AChEI's on positive symptoms of schizophrenia, specifically visual hallucinations, is needed. PMID:20822517

  15. GRACE gravity field modeling with an investigation on correlation between nuisance parameters and gravity field coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin

    2011-05-01

    The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is

  16. Analysis and modelling of recurrent solar flares observed with Hinode/EIS on March 9, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Valori, G.; Pariat, E.; Mason, H. E.; Dudík, J.; Janvier, M.

    2017-05-01

    Three homologous C-class flares and one last M-class flare were observed by both the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) in the AR 11429 on March 9, 2012. All the recurrent flares occurred within a short interval of time (less than 4 h), showed very similar plasma morphology and were all confined, until the last one when a large-scale eruption occurred. The C-class flares are characterized by the appearance, at approximatively the same locations, of two bright and compact footpoint sources of ≈3-10 MK evaporating plasma, and a semi-circular ribbon. During all the flares, the continuous brightening of a spine-like hot plasma (≈10 MK) structure is also observed. Spectroscopic observations with Hinode/EIS are used to measure and compare the blueshift velocities in the Fe xxiii emission line and the electron number density at the flare footpoints for each flare. Similar velocities, of the order of 150-200 km s-1, are observed during the C2.0 and C4.7 confined flares, in agreement with the values reported by other authors in the study of the last M1.8 class flare. On the other hand, lower electron number densities and temperatures tend to be observed in flares with lower peak soft X-ray flux. In order to investigate the homologous nature of the flares, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of the 3D magnetic field configuration in the corona. The NLFFF extrapolation and the Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs) provide the magnetic field context which explains the location of the kernels, spine-like hot plasma and semi-circular brightenings observed in the (non-eruptive) flares. Given the absence of a coronal null point, we argue that the homologous flares were all generated by the continuous recurrence of bald patch reconnection. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  18. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  19. 36 CFR § 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....9 Section § 1010.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.... (c) Supplemental environmental impact statements. The Trust may supplement a draft or final EIS at... changes are proposed to an action analyzed in the draft or final EIS that are relevant to environmental...

  20. 36 CFR 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 1010.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.9...) Supplemental environmental impact statements. The Trust may supplement a draft or final EIS at any time. The... proposed to an action analyzed in the draft or final EIS that are relevant to environmental concerns; (2...

  1. 36 CFR 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1010.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.9...) Supplemental environmental impact statements. The Trust may supplement a draft or final EIS at any time. The... proposed to an action analyzed in the draft or final EIS that are relevant to environmental concerns; (2...

  2. 36 CFR 907.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 907.9... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.9 Preparation of an EIS. (a) Notice of intent. When PADC decides to prepare an... 40 CFR 1501.7 and 1508.22 of the CEQ Regulations. (b) Preparation. After determining that...

  3. 36 CFR 907.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 907.9... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.9 Preparation of an EIS. (a) Notice of intent. When PADC decides to prepare an... 40 CFR 1501.7 and 1508.22 of the CEQ Regulations. (b) Preparation. After determining that...

  4. DARHT -- an adequate EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    In April 1996 the US District Court in Albuquerque ruled that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office, US Department of Energy (DOE), was adequate. The DARHT EIS had been prepared in the face of a lawsuit in only 10 months, a third of the time usually allotted for a DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS, and for only a small fraction of the cost of a typical DOE EIS. It subject was the first major facility to be built in decades for the DOE nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. It was the first EIS to be prepared for a proposal at DOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1979, and the first ever prepared by the Los Alamos Area Office. Much of the subject matter was classified. The facility had been specially designed to minimize impacts to a nearby prehistoric Native American ruin, and extensive consultation with American Indian Pueblos was required. The week that the draft EIS was published Laboratory biologists identified a previously unknown pair of Mexican spotted owls in the immediate vicinity of the project, bringing into play the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act. In spite of these obstacles, the resultant DARHT EIS was reviewed by the court and found to meet all statutory and regulatory requirements; the court praised the treatment of the classified material which served as a basis for the environmental analysis.

  5. 36 CFR 907.7 - Determination of requirement for EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for EIS. 907.7 Section 907.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.7 Determination of requirement for EIS. Determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement is the first step in applying the NEPA process. In deciding whether...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.329 - Commenting on other Agencies' EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... matters. (c) Whenever a State Director has serious concerns over the acceptability of the anticipated... other Agencies' EIS's. (a) State Directors are authorized to comment directly on EIS's prepared by other...) Comments should concentrate on those matters of primary importance to FmHA or its successor agency under...

  7. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  8. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  9. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  10. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  11. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS. The...

  12. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS. The...

  13. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS. The...

  14. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS. The...

  15. 32 CFR 651.43 - Format of the EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Format of the EIS. 651.43 Section 651.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.43 Format of the EIS. The...

  16. Comparison of field-scale herbicide runoff and volatilization losses: an eight-year field investigation.

    PubMed

    Gish, Timothy J; Prueger, John H; Daughtry, Craig S T; Kustas, William P; McKee, Lynn G; Russ, Andrew L; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2011-01-01

    An 8-yr study was conducted to better understand factors influencing year-to-year variability in field-scale herbicide volatilization and surface runoff losses. The 21-ha research site is located at the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD. Site location, herbicide formulations, and agricultural management practices remained unchanged throughout the duration of the study. Metolachlor [2-chloro--(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)--(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl--(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] were coapplied as a surface broadcast spray. Herbicide runoff was monitored from a month before application through harvest. A flux gradient technique was used to compute volatilization fluxes for the first 5 d after application using herbicide concentration profiles and turbulent fluxes of heat and water vapor as determined from eddy covariance measurements. Results demonstrated that volatilization losses for these two herbicides were significantly greater than runoff losses ( < 0.007), even though both have relatively low vapor pressures. The largest annual runoff loss for metolachlor never exceeded 2.5%, whereas atrazine runoff never exceeded 3% of that applied. On the other hand, herbicide cumulative volatilization losses after 5 d ranged from about 5 to 63% of that applied for metolachlor and about 2 to 12% of that applied for atrazine. Additionally, daytime herbicide volatilization losses were significantly greater than nighttime vapor losses ( < 0.05). This research confirmed that vapor losses for some commonly used herbicides frequently exceeds runoff losses and herbicide vapor losses on the same site and with the same management practices can vary significantly year to year depending on local environmental conditions. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  18. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  19. Experimental investigations of the interaction between the ELF Earth electromagnetic fields and astrophysical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, L. V.; Efimov, V. A.; Isakevich, V. V.; Zakirov, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of the moon and solar tides, and their interaction with the electric field of the atmospheric boundary layer are possible both by means of using big data files and by using a method of spaced reception.

  20. Investigation of Nursery Rhymes According to the Classification of Semantic Fields and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinçel, Betül Keray

    2017-01-01

    Nursery rhymes are quite important in terms of developing children's language skills. It was observed that there is a paucity of research looking at semantic fields and value regarding nursery rhymes; therefore, this study was intended to fill that gap in the literature by investigating nursery rhymes in terms of semantic fields and value. In this…

  1. Hinode/EIS science planning and operations tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainnie, Jonn A.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design, implementation and maintenance of the suite of software enabling scientists to design and schedule Hinode/EIS1 operations. The total of this software is the EIS Science Planning Tools (EISPT), and is predominately written in IDL (Interactive Data Language), coupled with SolarSoft (SSW), an IDL library developed for solar missions. Hinode is a multi-instrument and wavelength mission designed to observe the Sun. It is a joint Japan/UK/US consortium (with ESA and Norwegian involvement). Launched in September 2006, its principal scientific goals are to study the Sun's variability and the causes of solar activity. Hinode operations are coordinated at ISAS (Tokyo, Japan). A daily Science Operations meeting is attended by the instrument teams and the spacecraft team. Nominally, science plan uploads cover periods of two or three days. When the forthcoming operations have been agreed, the necessary spacecraft operations parameters are created. These include scheduling for spacecraft pointing and ground stations. The Extreme UV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, led by the UK (the PI institute is MSSL), is designed to observe the emission spectral lines of the solar atmosphere. Observations are composed of reusable, hierarchical components, including lines lists (wavelengths of spectral lines), rasters (exposure times, line list, etc.) and studies (defines one or more rasters). Studies are the basic unit of "timeline" scheduling. They are a useful construct for generating more complex sequences of observations, reducing the planning burden. Instrument observations must first be validated. An initial requirement was that operations be shared equally by the 3 main EIS teams (Japan, UK and US). Hence, a major design focus of the software was "Remote Operations", whereby any scientist in any location can run the software, schedule a science plan and send it to the spacecraft commanding team. It would then be validated and combined with the science

  2. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  3. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  4. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  5. An inexpensive, versatile mosquito rearing chamber for field, laboratory, and classroom investigations.

    PubMed

    Dees, William H; Figueroa, Aaron P; Schultz, George W

    2011-03-01

    An inexpensive mosquito rearing chamber for field, laboratory, and classroom investigations is described. The rearing chamber is made from plastics recycled from peanut butter jars and room deodorizers. The top of the chamber requires mesh material and gluing. The cost for the rearing chamber is negligible. The design of the chamber allows for direct field collecting of larvae and for easy knock down/cold storage of emerged adults. In addition to its use in field and laboratory investigations, the chamber is an excellent device for classroom study of insect metamorphosis.

  6. Investigation of the effects of magnetic field exposure on human melatonin. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.; Cook, M.R.; Cohen, H.D.

    1994-08-01

    Several rodent studies have suggested that magnetic field exposure may alter the daily pattern of melatonin secretion. This study investigated melatonin levels in mean exposed overnight to magnetic fields of 10 mG and 200 mG. The study also assessed the potential effects of exposure on a number of performance and self-reported endpoints in the subjects. Investigation of this area is important, as altered diurnal melatonin cycles have been linked to a variety of endpoints, including reproductive outcome, neurobehavioral function, and carcinogenesis. The results of this investigation did not support the a priori hypothesis that exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields of 10 mG and 200 mG alters nighttime melatonin levels in a population of adult males. However, the data suggested the possibility of differential sensitivity to magnetic fields based on an individual`s baseline melatonin level.

  7. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  8. Investigations of Penetration Electric Fields and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances During Intense Geomagnetic Storms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    Rayleigh - Taylor instability process over a large longitudinal range. These plasma bubbles grow and merge to form a wide bubble...Investigations of penetration electric fields and low-latitude ionospheric disturbances during intense geomagnetic storms Principal Investigator: Dr. Sunanda... ionospheric dynamics during intense geomagnetic storms. Summary of Progress: We have

  9. Investigation of aberration characteristics of eyes at a peripheral visual field by individual eye model.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiqi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; Zhai, Yi; Fang, Hui

    2015-07-01

    We propose a method of constructing an individual eye model with a large visual field, and then investigate aberration characteristics of eyes in peripheral fields with constructed models. Twelve eyes of different aberrations are selected from 89 myopic eyes. It is shown that astigmatism increases as visual field in a quadratic manner. The variation tendency of defocus can be expressed by the cubic curve for 50% of eyes. For most of the eyes, the variation of spherical aberration shows a quadratic rule within ±24° visual field. Coma exhibits obvious individual differences. The impact of high-order aberrations on vision is mainly at a smaller visual field, and it becomes negligible beyond 24° visual field.

  10. Technology transfer opportunities: new development: computerized field manual provides valuable resource for hydrologic investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapel, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is known throughout the world for conducting quality scientific investigation is hydrologic environments. Proper and consistent field techniques have been an integral part of this good research. Over the past few decades, the USGS has developed and published detailed, standard protocols for conducting studies in most aspects of the hydrologic environment. These protocols have been published in a number of diverse documents. The wealth of information contained in these diverse documents can benefit other scientists in industry, government, and academia that are involved in conducting hydrologic studies. Scientists at the USGS have brought together many of the most important of the field protocols in a user-friendly, graphical-interfaced field manual that will be useful in both the field and in the office. This electronic field manual can assist hydrologists and other scientists in conducting and documenting their field activities in a manner that is recognized standard throughout the hydrologic community.

  11. Investigation of electric field distribution on FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2016-07-01

    One of the important parameters for establishing charge particle equilibrium (CPE) conditions of free-air ionization chamber is an electric field distribution. In this paper, electric field distribution inside the ionization chamber was investigated by finite element method. For this purpose, the effects of adding guard plate and guard strips on the electric field distribution in the ionization chamber were studied. it is necessary to apply a lead box around the ionization chamber body to avoid of scattered radiation effects on the ionization chamber operation, but the lead box changes the electric field distribution. In the following, the effect of lead box on the electric field distribution was studied. Finally, electric field distribution factor (kfield) was calculated by the simulation. The results of the simulation showed that presence of the guard plate and guard strips, and applying a suitable potential to lead box, a convergence of kfield to 1 was achieved.

  12. Numerically investigating near-field scattering for spatial enhancement of single irregular nano plasma particle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng Chung; Tsai, Din Ping

    2004-01-01

    Near-field scattering from a nano silver particle has been studied with an optical wave passing through it. The scattered field was found to be enhanced around the semisphere on which the incident wave impinges. Comparing it with the spherical particle, the irregular shape of a nanoparticle only changes the distribution of the scattered field. In this investigation, approached by finite difference time domain (FDTD), it was revealed that the peak value of the scattered field is proportional to the particle radius; this might be due to the fact that more plasmons could be excited. Furthermore, the highest enhancement occurred at the incident frequency close to plasma frequency of silver (approximately 2000 THz). Thus, the numerical results could give a guide for optimizing AgOx type super resolution near-field structure (RENS) applications. When the red light source can be replaced with shorter wavelength ones, or larger silver particles can be segregated, the near-field scattered enhancement might result.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Near-Field Plasma Flows in Magnetic Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Kamesh; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2009-01-01

    The development and application of a multidimensional numerical simulation code for investigating near-field plasma processes in magnetic nozzles are presented. The code calculates the time-dependent evolution of all three spatial components of both the magnetic field and velocity in a plasma flow, and includes physical models of relevant transport phenomena. It has been applied to an investigation of the behavior of plasma flows found in high-power thrusters, employing a realistic magnetic nozzle configuration. Simulation of a channel-flow case where the flow was super-Alfvenic has demonstrated that such a flow produces adequate back-emf to significantly alter the shape of the total magnetic field, preventing the flow from curving back to the magnetic field coil in the near-field region. Results from this simulation can be insightful in predicting far-field behavior and can be used as a set of self-consistent boundary conditions for far-field simulations. Future investigations will focus on cases where the inlet flow is sub-Alfvenic and where the flow is allowed to freely expand in the radial direction once it is downstream of the coil.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Effectiveness of Magnetic Field on Food Freezing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toru; Takeuchi, Yuri; Masuda, Kazunori; Watanabe, Manabu; Shirakashi, Ryo; Fukuda, Yutaka; Tsuruta, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Koga, Nobumitsu; Hiruma, Naoya; Ichioka, Jun; Takai, Kiyoshi

    Recently, several food refrigeration equipments that utilize magnetic field have attracted much attention from food production companies, consumers and mass media. However, the effectiveness of the freezers is not scientifically examined. Therefore, the effectiveness should be clarified by experiments or theoretical considerations. In this study, the effect of weak magnetic field (about 0.0005 T) on freezing process of several kinds of foods was investigated by using a specially designed freezer facilitated with magnetic field generator. The investigation included the comparison of freezing curves, drip amount, physicochemical evaluations on color and texture, observation of microstructure, and sensory evaluation. From the results of the control experiments, it can be concluded that weak magnetic field around 0.0005 T provided no significant difference on temperature history during freezing and on the qualities of frozen foods, within our experimental conditions.

  15. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  16. Investigation of Spatially Unresolved Magnetic Field Outside Sunspots Using Hinode/SOT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botygina, Olga; Gordovskyy, Mykola; Lozitsky, Vsevolod

    2017-06-01

    The structure of photospheric magnetic fields outside sunspots is investigated in three active regions using Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope(SOT) observations. We analyze Zeeman effect in FeI 6301.5 and FeI 6302.5 lines and determine the observed magnetic field value B eff for each of them. We find that the line ratio B eff(6301)/B eff(6302) is close to 1.3 in the range B eff < 0.2 kG, and close to 1.0 for 0.8 kG < B eff < 1.2 kG. We find that the observed magnetic field is formed by flux tubes with the magnetic field strengths 1.3 - 2.3 kG even in places with weak observed magnetic field fluxes. We also estimate the diameters of smallest magnetic flux tubes to be 15 - 20 km.

  17. An Investigation of Hall Currents Associated with Tripolar Magnetic Fields During Magnetospheric Kelvin Helmholtz Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturner, A. P.; Eriksson, S.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.; Gershman, D. J.; Plaschke, F.; Ergun, R.; Wilder, F. D.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic simulations and observations of magnetic reconnection suggest the Hall term of Ohm's Law is necessary for understanding fast reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During high (>1) guide field plasma conditions in the solar wind and in Earth's magnetopause, tripolar variations in the guide magnetic field are often observed during current sheet crossings, and have been linked to reconnection Hall magnetic fields. Two proposed mechanisms for these tripolar variations are the presence of multiple nearby X-lines and magnetic island coalescence. We present results of an investigation into the structure of the electron currents supporting tripolar guide magnetic field variations during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave current sheet crossings using the Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) Mission, and compare with bipolar magnetic field structures and with kinetic simulations to understand how these tripolar structures may be used as tracers for magnetic islands.

  18. Investigation on magnetic field dependent modulus of epoxidized natural rubber based magnetorheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Aziz, S. A. A.; Khairi, M. H. Ahmad; Wahab, N. A. A.; Shilan, S. T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as a matrix of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). Isotropic ENR-based MRE samples were synthesized by homogeneously mixed the ENR compound with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs). The microstructure of the sample was observed, and the magnetic field-dependent moduli were analyzed using rheometer. The influences of excitation frequency, CIPs content and magnetic field on the field-dependent moduli of ENR-based MREs were evaluated through dynamic shear test. The microstructure of MRE samples demonstrated the dispersed CIPs in the ENR matrix. The remarkable increment of storage and loss moduli of the ENR-based MREs has exhibited the magnetically controllable storage and loss moduli of the samples when exposed to the magnetic field. Consequently, the CIPs content, frequency and magnetic field were significantly influenced the dynamic moduli of the ENR-based MREs.

  19. Investigation of Spatial Distribution of Radiocesium in a Paddy Field as a Potential Sink

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium. PMID:24260481

  20. Investigation of Axial Electric Field Measurements with Grounded-Wire TEM Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan-nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Hou, Dong-yang

    2017-09-01

    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveying is often performed along the equatorial direction with its observation lines paralleling to the transmitting wire with a certain transmitter-receiver distance. However, such method takes into account only the equatorial component of the electromagnetic field, and a little effort has been made on incorporating the other major component along the transmitting wire, here denoted as axial field. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its fundamental characteristics and guide the designing of the corresponding observation system for reliable anomaly detection, this study for the first time investigates the axial electric field from three crucial aspects, including its decay curve, plane distribution, and anomaly sensitivity, through both synthetic modeling and real application to one major coal field in China. The results demonstrate a higher sensitivity to both high- and low-resistivity anomalies by the electric field in axial direction and confirm its great potentials for robust anomaly detection in the subsurface.

  1. Investigation of spatial distribution of radiocesium in a paddy field as a potential sink.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium.

  2. Investigation of different magnetic field configurations using an electrical, modular Zeeman slower

    SciTech Connect

    Ohayon, Ben; Ron, Guy

    2015-10-15

    We present a method of constructing an automatically reconfigurable, modular, electronic Zeeman slower, which is remotely controlled. This setup is used to investigate the ability of different magnetic field profiles to slow thermal atoms to the capture velocity of a magneto-optical-trap. We show that a simple numerical optimization process yields better results than the commonly used approach for deciding on the appropriate field and comes close to the optimum field, found by utilizing a fast feedback loop which uses a genetic algorithm. Our new numerical method is easily adaptable to a variety of existing slower designs and may be beneficial where feedback is unavailable.

  3. Investigation of brain potentials in sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, N N; Sulimov, A V; Sulimova, O P; Korotkovskaya, T I; Gailus, T

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was made of 8-hour EEG tracings of sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of a GSM-standard mobile phone. To analyze the EEG-patterns, manual scoring, nonlinear dynamics, and spectral analysis were employed. It was found that, when human beings were exposed to the electromagnetic field of a cellular phone, their cerebral cortex biopotentials revealed an increase in the alpha-range power density as compared to the placebo experiment. It was also found that the dimension of EEG correlation dynamics and the relation of sleep stages changed under the influence of the electromagnetic field of a mobile phone.

  4. Theoretical investigation of boundary contours of ground-state atoms in uniform electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hua; Zhao, Dong-Xia; Yang, Zhong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    The boundary contours were investigated for first 54 ground-state atoms of the periodic table when they are in uniform electric fields of strengths 106, 107 and 108 V/m. The atomic characteristic boundary model in combination with an ab-initio method was employed. Some regularities of the deformation of atoms, ΔR, in above electric fields are revealed. Furthermore, atomic polarisabilities of the first 54 elements of the periodic table are shown to correlate strongly with the mean variation rate of atomic radial size divided by the strength of the electric field F, ?, which provides a predictive method of calculating atomic polarisabilities of 54 atoms.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, C.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University was motivated by previous studies indicating that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50 when compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. Imposing an external electric field holds the promise to improve pool boiling heat transfer in low gravity, since a phase separation force other than gravity is introduced. The influence of electric fields on bubble formation has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically.

  6. Optical investigation of effective permeability of dilute magnetic dielectrics with magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Ananya Sarkar, A.

    2016-05-06

    The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the magnetic nature of dilute magnetic dielectrics (DMD) under variation of external magnetic field. The said variation is studied over developed nano-sized Gadolinium Oxide as a DMD system. The observed experimental field variation of the effective magnetic permeability is analyzed results of optical experiment. The experiment records the variation of Brewster angle of incident polarized LASER beam from the surface of developed DMD specimen with applied out of plane external magnetic field. The effective refractive index and hence relative magnetic permeability were estimated following electro-magnetic theory. The overall results obtained and agreement between theory and experiment are good.

  7. Investigation of different magnetic field configurations using an electrical, modular Zeeman slower.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Ben; Ron, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We present a method of constructing an automatically reconfigurable, modular, electronic Zeeman slower, which is remotely controlled. This setup is used to investigate the ability of different magnetic field profiles to slow thermal atoms to the capture velocity of a magneto-optical-trap. We show that a simple numerical optimization process yields better results than the commonly used approach for deciding on the appropriate field and comes close to the optimum field, found by utilizing a fast feedback loop which uses a genetic algorithm. Our new numerical method is easily adaptable to a variety of existing slower designs and may be beneficial where feedback is unavailable.

  8. An investigation of a flow field in one and half axial turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Martin; Jelínek, Tomáš; Milčák, Petr

    2017-09-01

    An investigation of one and half axial turbine stage configuration was carried out in a closed-loop wind tunnel. The investigation was addressed to that impact how the previous stage outlet flow field influences a flow structures in the next stator in steam multistage turbines. The detailed measurement behind the rotor and the second stator was performed with a pneumatic probes to gain a useful data for an impact analysis. Various rotor shroud clearances were also tested to capture the shroud outlet flow field influences.

  9. 36 CFR 1010.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... human environment. ...) Supplemental environmental impact statements. The Trust may supplement a draft or final EIS at any time. The... the proposed action or its impacts; or (3) Actions are proposed which relate to or are similar to...

  10. MO-G-BRF-09: Investigating Magnetic Field Dose Effects in Mice: A Monte Carlo Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A; Guindani, M; Followill, D; Melancon, A; Hazle, J; Court, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In MRI-linac treatments, radiation dose distributions are affected by magnetic fields, especially at high-density/low-density interfaces. Radiobiological consequences of magnetic field dose effects are presently unknown; therefore, preclinical studies are needed to ensure the safe clinical use of MRI-linacs. This study investigates the optimal combination of beam energy and magnetic field strength needed for preclinical murine studies. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 was used to simulate the effects of a magnetic field when irradiating a mouse-sized lung phantom with a 1.0cmx1.0cm photon beam. Magnetic field effects were examined using various beam energies (225kVp, 662keV[Cs-137], and 1.25MeV[Co-60]) and magnetic field strengths (0.75T, 1.5T, and 3T). The resulting dose distributions were compared to Monte Carlo results for humans with various field sizes and patient geometries using a 6MV/1.5T MRI-linac. Results: In human simulations, the addition of a 1.5T magnetic field caused an average dose increase of 49% (range:36%–60%) to lung at the soft tissue-to-lung interface and an average dose decrease of 30% (range:25%–36%) at the lung-to-soft tissue interface. In mouse simulations, the magnetic fields had no effect on the 225kVp dose distribution. The dose increases for the Cs-137 beam were 12%, 33%, and 49% for 0.75T, 1.5T, and 3.0T magnetic fields, respectively while the dose decreases were 7%, 23%, and 33%. For the Co-60 beam, the dose increases were 14%, 45%, and 41%, and the dose decreases were 18%, 35%, and 35%. Conclusion: The magnetic field dose effects observed in mouse phantoms using a Co-60 beam with 1.5T or 3T fields and a Cs-137 beam with a 3T field compare well with those seen in simulated human treatments with an MRI-linac. These irradiator/magnet combinations are suitable for preclinical studies investigating potential biological effects of delivering radiation therapy in the presence of a magnetic field. Partially funded by Elekta.

  11. Determining the Differential Emission Measure from EIS, XRT, and AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, H.P.; Schmelz, J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation determines the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), X Ray Telescope (XRT), and Atmospheric Imaging Array (AIA). Common observations with Fe, Si, and Ca EIS lines are shown along with observations with Al-mesh, Ti-poly Al-thick and Be-thick XRT filters. Results from these observations are shown to determine what lines and filters are important to better constrain the hot component.

  12. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Owji, Mahsa; Sauraian, Mohammad Ali; Naser Moghadasi, Abdorreza; Azimi, Amirreza

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient's lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness.

  13. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  14. An X-ray Investigation of the NGC 346 Field in the SMC (2): The Field Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naze, Y.; Hartwell, J. M.; Stevens, I. R.; Manfroid, J.; Marchenko. S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Skalkowski, G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra observation of the NGC 346 cluster, the ionizing source of N66, the most luminous H II region and the largest star formation region in the SMC. In the first part of this investigation, we have analysed the X-ray properties of the cluster itself and the remarkable star HD 5980. But the field contains additional objects of interest. In total, 79 X-ray point sources were detected in the Chandra observation and we investigate here their characteristics in details. The sources possess rather high HRs, and their cumulative luminosity function is steeper than the SMC's trend. Their absorption columns suggest that most of the sources belong to NGC 346. Using new UBVRI imaging with the ESO 2.2m telescope, we also discovered possible counterparts for 36 of these X-ray sources. Finally, some objects show X-ray and/or optical variability, and thus need further monitoring.

  15. Distinguishing among Declarative, Descriptive and Causal Questions to Guide Field Investigations and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare V.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers as well as students often have difficulty formulating good research questions because not all questions lend themselves to scientific investigation. The following is a guide for high-school and college life-science teachers to help students define question types central to biological field studies. The mayfly nymph was selected as the…

  16. Field Investigations of Lactate-Stimulated Bioreduction of Cr(VI) at Hanford 100H

    SciTech Connect

    T. C. Hazen; B. Faybishenko; D. Joyner; S. Borglin; E. Brodie; S. Hubbard; K. Williams; J. Peterson; J. Wan; T. Tokunaga; M. Firestone; P. E. Long; Resch, C.T.; Newcomer, D.; Koenigsberg, S.; Willet, A. C. T. Resch, and D. Newcomer , S. Koenigsberg and A. Willet Field Investigations of Lactate-Stimulated Bioreduction of Cr at Hanford 100H

    2005-04-20

    The overall objective of this paper is to carry out field investigations to assess the potential for immobilizing and detoxifying chromium-contaminated groundwater using lactate-stimulated bioreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at the Hanford 100H site.

  17. Distinguishing among Declarative, Descriptive and Causal Questions to Guide Field Investigations and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare V.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers as well as students often have difficulty formulating good research questions because not all questions lend themselves to scientific investigation. The following is a guide for high-school and college life-science teachers to help students define question types central to biological field studies. The mayfly nymph was selected as the…

  18. Effect of temperature on Acoustic Evaluation of standing trees and logs: Part 2: Field Investigation

    Treesearch

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Lihai Wang; R. Bruce Allison

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of seasonal temperature changes on acoustic velocity measured on standing trees and green logs and to develop models for compensating temperature differences because acoustic measurements are performed in different climates and seasons. Field testing was conducted on 20 red pine (Pinus resinosa...

  19. An X-ray Investigation of the NGC 346 Field in the SMC (2): The Field Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naze, Y.; Hartwell, J. M.; Stevens, I. R.; Manfroid, J.; Marchenko, S.; Corcoran, M. F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Skalkowski, G.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra observation of the NGC 346 cluster, which is the ionizing source of N66, the most luminous HII region and the largest star formation region in the SMC. In the first part of this investigation, we have analysed the X-ray properties of the cluster itself and the remarkable star HD 5980. But the field contains additional objects of interest. In total, 79 X-ray point sources were detected in the Chandra observation: this is more than five times the number of sources detected by previous X-ray surveys. We investigate here their characteristics in detail. The sources possess rather high hardness ratios, and their cumulative luminosity function is steeper than that for the rest of the SMC at higher .luminosities. Their absorption columns suggest that most of the sources belong to NGC346. Using new UBV RI imaging with the ESO 2.2m telescope, we also discovered possible counterparts for 36 of these X-ray sources and estimated a B spectral type for a large number of these counterparts. This tends to suggest that most of the X-ray sources in the field are in fact X-ray binaries. Finally, some objects show X-ray and/or optical variability, with a need for further monitoring.

  20. Investigation of flow and solute transport at the field scale through heterogeneous deformable porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2016-09-01

    This work describes an investigation of the spatial statistical structure of specific discharge field and solute transport process of a nonreactive solute at the field scale through a heterogeneous deformable porous medium. The flow field is driven by a vertical gradient in the excess pore water pressure induced by a step increase in load applied on the upper part of a finite-thickness aquifer. The non-stationary spectral representation is adopted to characterize the spatial covariance of the specific discharge field necessary for the development of the solute particle trajectory statistics using the Lagrangian formalism. We show that the statistics of the specific discharge and particle trajectory derived herein are non-stationary and functions of the coefficient of soil compressibility, μ. The effect of μ on the relative variation of specific discharge and the solute particle trajectory statistics are analyzed upon evaluating our expressions.

  1. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

  2. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... affecting the quality of the human environment. In the experience of ARS, an environmental impact statement...

  3. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... affecting the quality of the human environment. In the experience of ARS, an environmental impact...

  4. Biochemical and structural analysis of an Eis family aminoglycoside acetyltransferase from bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Green, Keith D; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance.

  5. 7 CFR 520.7 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... § 520.7 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Actions requiring EIS. An EIS will... affecting the quality of the human environment. In the experience of ARS, an environmental impact statement...

  6. An investigation into the induced electric fields from transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadimani, Ravi; Lee, Erik; Duffy, Walter; Waris, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Waquar; Islam, Faisal; Rajamani, Mahesh; Nathan, Ryan; Jiles, David; David C Jiles Team; Walter Duffy Collaboration

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising tool for noninvasive brain stimulation that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of major depressive disorder. To stimulate the brain, TMS uses large, transient pulses of magnetic field to induce an electric field in the head. This transient magnetic field is large enough to cause the depolarization of cortical neurons and initiate a synaptic signal transmission. For this study, 50 unique head models were created from MRI images. Previous simulation studies have primarily used a single head model, and thus give a limited image of the induced electric field from TMS. This study uses finite element analysis simulations on 50 unique, heterogeneous head models to better investigate the relationship between TMS and the electric field induced in brain tissues. Results showed a significant variation in the strength of the induced electric field in the brain, which can be reasonably predicted by the distance from the TMS coil to the stimulated brain. Further, it was seen that some models had high electric field intensities in over five times as much brain volume as other models.

  7. Action of combined magnetic fields on aqueous solution of glutamic acid: the further development of investigations.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Livio; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella; D'Emilia, Enrico; Bobkova, Natalia; Zhadin, Mikhail

    2008-01-25

    In the present work the results of the known investigation of the influence of combined static (40 microT) and alternating (amplitude of 40 nT) parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid, were successfully replicated. Fourteen experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed into a Plexiglas reaction vessel at application of static voltage to golden electrodes placed into the solution. Six experiments were carried out by the application of the combined magnetic fields to the solution placed in a Plexiglas reaction vessel, without electrodes, within an electric field, generated by means of a capacitor at the voltage of 27 mV. The frequency of the alternating field was scanned within the bounds of 1.0 Hz including the cyclotron frequency corresponding to a glutamic acid ion and to the applied static magnetic field. In this study the prominent peaks with half-width of approximately 0.5 Hz and with different heights (till 80 nA) were registered at the alternating magnetic field frequency equal to the cyclotron frequency (4.2 Hz). The general reproducibility of the investigated effects was 70% among the all solutions studied by us and they arose usually after 40-60 min. after preparation of the solution. In some made-up solutions the appearance of instability in the registered current was noted in 30-45 min after the solution preparation. This instability endured for 20-40 min. At the end of such instability period the effects of combined fields action appeared practically every time. The possible mechanisms of revealed effects were discussed on the basis of modern quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Investigation of field and diffusion time dependence of the diffusion-weighted signal at ultrahigh magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nicolas; Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Hüppi, Petra S; Gruetter, Rolf; van de Looij, Yohan

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of high-magnetic-field MRI magnets. However, the exact effect of a high magnetic field strength (B0 ) on diffusion-weighted MR signals is not yet fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of different high magnetic field strengths (9.4 T and 14.1 T) and diffusion times (9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 24 ms) on the diffusion-weighted signal in rat brain white matter. At a short diffusion time (9 ms), fractional anisotropy values were found to be lower at 14.1 T than at 9.4 T, but this difference disappeared at longer diffusion times. A simple two-pool model was used to explain these findings. The model describes the white matter as a first hindered compartment (often associated with the extra-axonal space), characterized by a faster orthogonal diffusion and a lower fractional anisotropy, and a second restricted compartment (often associated with the intra-axonal space), characterized by a slower orthogonal diffusion (i.e. orthogonal to the axon direction) and a higher fractional anisotropy. Apparent T2 relaxation time measurements of the hindered and restricted pools were performed. The shortening of the pseudo-T2 value from the restricted compartment with B0 is likely to be more pronounced than the apparent T2 changes in the hindered compartment. This study suggests that the observed differences in diffusion tensor imaging parameters between the two magnetic field strengths at short diffusion time may be related to differences in the apparent T2 values between the pools. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  10. Investigating an alternative ring design of transducer arrays for tumor treating fields (TTFields).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Mario; Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Fernandes, Sofia R; Miranda, Pedro C

    2016-08-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a therapy that inhibits cell proliferation and has been approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme. This anti-mitotic technique works non-invasively and regionally, and is associated with less toxicity and a better quality of life. Currently a device called Optune™ is clinically used which works with two perpendicular and alternating array pairs each consisting of 3×3 transducers. The aim of this study is to investigate a theoretical alternative array design which consists of two rings of 16 transducers and thus permits various field directions. A realistic human head model with isotropic tissues was used to simulate the electric field distribution induced by the two types of array layouts. One virtual tumour was modelled as a sphere in the white matter close to one lateral ventricle. Four alternative ring design directions were evaluated by activating arrays of 2×2 transducers on opposite sides of the head. The same amount of current was passed through active transducer arrays of the Optune system and the ring design. The electric field distribution in the brain differs for the various array configurations, with higher fields between activated transducer pairs and lower values in distant areas. Nonetheless, the average electric field strength values in the tumour are comparable for the various configurations. Values between 1.00 and 1.91 V/cm were recorded, which are above the threshold for effective treatment. Increasing the amount of field directions could possibly also increase treatment efficacy, because TTFields' effect on cancer cells is highest when the randomly distributed cell division axis is aligned with the field. The results further predict that slightly changing transducer positions only has a minor effect on the electric field. Thus patients might have some freedom to adjust array positions without major concern for treatment efficacy.

  11. Comparative Analysis of a Transition Region Bright Point with a Blinker and Coronal Bright Point Using Multiple EIS Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orange, N. Brice; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Chesny, David L.; Patel, Maulik; Hesterly, Katie; Preuss, Lauren; Neira, Chantale; Turner, Niescja E.

    2014-05-01

    Since their discovery 20 year ago, transition region bright points have never been observed spectroscopically. Bright point properties have not been compared with similar transition region and coronal structures. In this work we have investigated three transient quiet Sun brightenings including a transition region bright point (TR BP), a coronal bright point (CBP) and a blinker. We use time-series observations of the extreme-ultraviolet emission lines of a wide range of temperature T (log T=5.3 - 6.4) from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard the Hinode satellite. We present the EIS temperature maps and Doppler maps, which are compared with magnetograms from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the SOHO satellite. Doppler velocities of the TR BP and blinker are ≤ 25 km s-1, which is typical of transient TR phenomena. The Doppler velocities of the CBP were found to be ≤ 20 km s-1 with exception of those measured at log T=6.2 where a distinct bi-directional jet is observed. From an EM loci analysis we find evidence of single and double isothermal components in the TR BP and CBP, respectively. TR BP and CBP loci curves are characterized by broad distributions suggesting the existence of unresolved structure. By comparing and contrasting the physical characteristics of the events we find that the BP phenomena are an indication of multi-scaled self-similarity, given the similarities in both their underlying magnetic field configuration and evolution in relation to EUV flux changes. In contrast, the blinker phenomena and the TR BP are sufficiently dissimilar in their observed properties as to constitute different event classes. Our work is an indication that the measurement of similar characteristics across multiple event types holds class-predictive power, and is a significant step towards automated solar atmospheric multi-class classification of unresolved transient EUV sources. Finally, the analysis performed here establishes a connection between solar

  12. Coupling RTD and EIS modelling to characterize operating non-uniformities on PEM cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseure, Jonathan

    Large PEM cells will be used in future proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power plants and appropriate tools are therefore be needed to study their behaviour. One approach to understanding single cell behaviour involves using mathematical models. The numerous techniques used in this work to describe PEM electrode behaviour require different scientific disciplines: chemical engineering and electrochemistry. This study proposes combining residence time distribution (RTD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The investigation focuses on cathodic DC and AC responses where over-voltage is critical. Results demonstrate that although gas distribution does not cause additional loops on impedance diagrams, it is strongly related to both the shape and amplitude of these diagrams. The simulations have drawn attention to operating conditions that can threaten the life of the PEM cell: under these setting points EIS method is not sufficient to detect this risk.

  13. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  14. The magnetic field investigation on the Ulysses mission - Instrumentation and preliminary scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, A.; Beek, T. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Hedgecock, P. C.; Marquedant, R. J.; Smith, E. J.; Southwood, D. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the heliosphere is the three-dimensional structure of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetic field investigation on Ulysses, the first space probe to explore the out-of-ecliptic and polar heliosphere, aims at determining the large-scale features and gradients of the field, as well as the heliolatitude dependence of interplanetary phenomena so far only observed near the ecliptic plane. The Ulysses magnetometer uses two sensors, one a Vector Helium Magnetometer, the other a Fluxgate Magnetometer. Onboard data processing yields measurements of the magnetic field vector with a time resolution up to 2 vectors/second and a sensitivity of about 10 pT. Since the switch-on of the instrument in flight on 25 October 1990, a steady stream of observations has been made, indicating that at this phase of the solar cycle the field is generally disturbed: several shock waves and a large number of discontinuities have been observed, as well as several periods with apparently intense wave activity. The paper gives a brief summary of the scientific objectives of the investigation, followed by a detailed description of the instrument and its characteristics. Examples of wave bursts, interplanetary shocks and crossings of the heliospheric current sheet are given to illustrate the observations made with the instrument.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI's) for the treatment of visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are commonly seen in various neurological and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Current models of visual processing and studies in diseases including Parkinsons Disease and Lewy Body Dementia propose that Acetylcholine (Ach) plays a pivotal role in our ability to accurately interpret visual stimuli. Depletion of Ach is thought to be associated with visual hallucination generation. AchEI's have been used in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in dementia and Parkinson's Disease patients. In Schizophrenia, it is thought that a similar Ach depletion leads to visual hallucinations and may provide a target for drug treatment Case Presentation We present a case of a patient with Schizophrenia presenting with treatment resistant and significantly distressing visual hallucinations. After optimising treatment for schizophrenia we used Rivastigmine, an AchEI, as an adjunct to treat her symptoms successfully. Conclusions This case is the first to illustrate this novel use of an AchEI in the targeted treatment of visual hallucinations in a patient with Schizophrenia. Targeted therapy of this kind can be considered in challenging cases although more evidence is required in this field. PMID:20822516

  16. Epidemiologic Responses to Anthrax Outbreaks: A Review of Field Investigations, 1950–2001

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michael E.; Brachman, Philip S.; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Klatsky, Peter C.; Ashford, David A.

    2002-01-01

    We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings. PMID:12396934

  17. Aqueous foams: a field of investigation at the frontier between chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Dominique

    2008-03-14

    This paper reviews the properties of aqueous foams. The current state of knowledge is summarized briefly and the interdisciplinary aspects of this field of investigation are emphasized. Many phenomena are controlled by physical laws, but they are highly dependent upon the chemicals used as foam stabilizers: surfactants, polymers, particles. Most of the existing work is related to surfactants and polymer foams, and little is known yet for particle foams although research in this field is becoming popular. This article presents the general concepts used to describe the monolayers and the films and also some of the recent advances being made in this area.

  18. Investigation of mechanosensation in C. elegans using light field calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael; Elmi, Muna; Pawar, Vijay; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new experimental approach to investigate touch sensation in the model organism C. elegans using light field deconvolution microscopy. By combining fast volumetric image acquisition with controlled indentation of the organism using a high sensitivity force transducer, we are able to simultaneously measure activity in multiple touch receptor neurons expressing the calcium ion indicator GCaMP6s. By varying the applied mechanical stimulus we show how this method can be used to quantify touch sensitivity in C. elegans. We describe some of the challenges of performing light field calcium imaging in moving samples and demonstrate that they can be overcome by simple data processing.

  19. Investigation of mechanosensation in C. elegans using light field calcium imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Michael; Elmi, Muna; Pawar, Vijay; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new experimental approach to investigate touch sensation in the model organism C. elegans using light field deconvolution microscopy. By combining fast volumetric image acquisition with controlled indentation of the organism using a high sensitivity force transducer, we are able to simultaneously measure activity in multiple touch receptor neurons expressing the calcium ion indicator GCaMP6s. By varying the applied mechanical stimulus we show how this method can be used to quantify touch sensitivity in C. elegans. We describe some of the challenges of performing light field calcium imaging in moving samples and demonstrate that they can be overcome by simple data processing. PMID:27446713

  20. Determination of satellite valley position in GaN emitter from photoexcited field emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, M.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Argon plasma etched GaN field-emitter rods with nanometer-scale diameter were fabricated on GaN grown on an n+-GaN substrate. Their electron field emission properties were investigated both without and under illumination by using light sources with various wavelengths. The Fowler-Nordheim current-voltage characteristics of the cathodes show a change in slope for illuminated cathodes. The electron affinity difference ΔE between the different valleys in the conduction band has been ascertained and is in the range from 1.18 up to 1.21 eV.

  1. Investigation of turbulence in reversed field pinch plasma by using microwave imaging reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Z. B.; Nagayama, Y.; Hamada, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Michael, C. A.; Yambe, K.

    2011-10-15

    Turbulence in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma has been investigated by using the microwave imaging reflectometry in the toroidal pinch experiment RX (TPE-RX). In conventional RFP plasma, the fluctuations are dominated by the intermittent blob-like structures. These structures are accompanied with the generation of magnetic field, the strong turbulence, and high nonlinear coupling among the high and low k modes. The pulsed poloidal current drive operation, which improves the plasma confinement significantly, suppresses the dynamo, the turbulence, and the blob-like structures.

  2. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Baedecker, P.A. ); Reddy, M.M. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. It can serve as the basis for an undergraduate (or pre college) experiment in environmental chemistry. Recent field investigations are described that provide measurements of carbonate stone dissolution and mechanical erosion under weathering conditions that are prevalent in the eastern US. The purpose of the laboratory work is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that were difficult to resolve on the basis of field experiments alone.

  3. An Investigation of Transonic Flow Fields Surrounding Hot and Cold Sonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1961-01-01

    An investigation at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.90 t o 1.10 was made to determine (1) the jet boundaries and the flow fields around hot and cold jets, and (2) whether a cold-gas jet could adequately simulate the boundary and flow field of hot-gas jet. Schlieren photographs and static-pressure surveys were taken in the vacinity of a sonic jet which was operated over a range of jet pressure ratios of 1 to 6, specific heat ratios at the nozzle exit of 1.29 and 1.40, and jet temperatures up to 2600 R.

  4. Simultaneous investigation of ultrafast structural dynamics and transient electric field by sub-picosecond electron pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Run-Ze; Zhu, Pengfei; Chen, Long; Chen, Jie E-mail: jzhang1@sjtu.edu.cn; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie E-mail: jzhang1@sjtu.edu.cn; Cao, Jianming

    2014-05-14

    The ultrafast structure dynamics and surface transient electric field, which are concurrently induced by laser excited electrons of an aluminum nanofilm, have been investigated simultaneously by the same transmission electron diffraction patterns. These two processes are found to be significantly different and distinguishable by tracing the time dependent changes of electron diffraction and deflection angles, respectively. This study also provides a practical means to evaluate simultaneously the effect of transient electric field during the study of structural dynamics under low pump fluence by transmission ultrafast electron diffraction.

  5. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: field investigations and reconstruction effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.; Eckel, Edwin B.; Schaem, William E.; Lyle, Robert E.; George, Warren; Chance, Genie

    1966-01-01

    One of the greatest geotectonic events of our time occurred in southern Alaska late in the afternoon of March 27, 1964. Beneath a leaden sky, the chill of evening was just settling over the Alaskan countryside. Light snow was falling on some communities. It was Good Friday, schools were closed, and the business day was ending. Suddenly without warning half of Alaska was rocked and jarred by the most violent earthquake to occur in North America this century. The descriptive summary that follows is based on the work of many investigators. A large and still-growing scientific literature has accumulated since the earthquake, and this literature has been freely drawn upon here. In particular, the writers have relied upon the findings of their colleagues in the Geological Survey. Some of these findings have been published, but some are still being prepared for publication. Moreover, some field investigations are still in progress. This is the first in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 541, in 1 part, describes Field Investigations and Reconstruction Effort.

  6. Laboratory experiments investigating magnetic field production via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Channing; Fiuza, Frederico; Ross, James Steven; Zylstra, Alex; Pollock, Brad; Drake, R. Paul; Froula, Dustin; Gregori, Gianluca; Kugland, Nathan; Kuranz, Carolyn; Levy, Matthew; Li, Chikang; Meinecke, Jena; Petrasso, Richard; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Sakawa, Youichi; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Takabe, Hideke; Turnbull, David; Park, Hye-Sook

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are often associated with the presence of strong magnetic fields in a plasma flow. The magnetic fields required for shock formation may either be initially present, for example in supernova remnants or young galaxies, or they may be self-generated in systems such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In the case of GRB outflows, the intense magnetic fields are greater than those seeded by the GRB progenitor or produced by misaligned density and temperature gradients in the plasma flow (the Biermann-battery effect). The Weibel instability is one candidate mechanism for the generation of sufficiently strong fields to create a collisionless shock. Despite their crucial role in astrophysical systems, observation of the magnetic fields produced by Weibel instabilities in experiments has been challenging. Using a proton probe to directly image electromagnetic fields, we present evidence of Weibel-generated magnetic fields that grow in opposing, initially unmagnetized plasma flows from laser-driven laboratory experiments. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the instability efficiently extracts energy from the plasma flows, and that the self-generated magnetic energy reaches a few percent of the total energy in the system. This result demonstrates an experimental platform suitable for the investigation of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock formation in supernova remnants, large-scale magnetic field amplification, and the radiation signature from gamma-ray bursts.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Numerical Simulations and Accompanying Experimental Investigations of Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters with Coaxial Applied Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Daniel; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Fertig, Markus; Herdrich, Georg

    An overview is given on a numerical simulation program for applied field magnetoplasmadynamic (AF-MPD) thrusters, which is currently under development at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS). The program allows the simulation of argon plasma flows in thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. The code is based on an axisymmetric finite volume method on unstructured, adaptive meshes. An externally applied magnetic field can be taken into account employing the vector potential formulation. Azimuthal velocity and magnetic field are handled by a quasi three-dimensional approach with vanishing azimuthal derivatives. Additionally, a laboratory AF-MPD thruster for the power range of 10-20 kW has been built up at IRS. The goal of the experimental investigations is the characterization of the operation and performance parameters of the thruster.

  8. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence

  9. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Liebrecht, C.; Martin, S.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Fourre, R.; McCarthy, M.; Maynard, N.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Steigies, C.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence

  10. International Field Research with Undergraduate Students: Investigating Active Tectonics of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past eight years, 18 undergraduate students from 12 U.S. and Costa Rican universities and colleges have participated in field research projects investigating coastal tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. These projects have been organized around two different models: 1) a month-long "field camp" with 10 students and 5 project faculty (Keck Geology Consortium Project, 1998), and 2) several two-week field projects with 1-3 students and one faculty advisor (Cal Poly Pomona University and Trinity University). Under the direction of the authors, each of these projects has been carefully designed to provide a new piece to a larger research puzzle. The Nicoya Peninsula lies along Costa Rica's northern Pacific coast inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos and Caribbean plates converge at 10 cm/yr. In 1950, the peninsula was shaken by a ~M 7.7 subduction earthquake that produced widespread damage and 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic coastal uplift. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is viewed as a high-potential seismic gap. Field study of uplifted Quaternary marine terraces along the Nicoya coastline provides undergraduate students with a unique opportunity to examine rapid forearc deformation related to large subduction earthquakes. The field research conducted by each of these students provides the basis for a senior thesis at their home institution. In most cases, the students have focused their individual work on separate, but adjacent field areas. Collectively, each of these projects has generated significant data that contribute toward of an ongoing investigation of fore arc tectonics and subduction cycle earthquakes along the Costa Rican Pacific margin.

  11. Investigation of Phototriangulation Accuracy with Using of Various Techniques Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibunichev, A. G.; Kurkov, V. M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Govorov, A. V.; Mikhalin, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, aerial survey technology using aerial systems based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) becomes more popular. UAVs physically can not carry professional aerocameras. Consumer digital cameras are used instead. Such cameras usually have rolling, lamellar or global shutter. Quite often manufacturers and users of such aerial systems do not use camera calibration. In this case self-calibration techniques are used. However such approach is not confirmed by extensive theoretical and practical research. In this paper we compare results of phototriangulation based on laboratory, test-field or self-calibration. For investigations we use Zaoksky test area as an experimental field provided dense network of target and natural control points. Racurs PHOTOMOD and Agisoft PhotoScan software were used in evaluation. The results of investigations, conclusions and practical recommendations are presented in this article.

  12. A balloon-borne experiment to investigate the Martian magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Feldhofer, H.; Koren, W.; Jernej, I.; Stachel, M.; Riedler, W.; Slamanig, H.; Auster, H.-U.; Rustenbach, J.; Fornacon, H. K.; Schenk, H. J.; Hillenmaier, O.; Haerendel, G.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Styashkin, V.; Zaroutzky, A.; Best, A.; Scholz, G.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J.; Pierce, D.; Luhmann, J. G.

    1996-03-01

    The Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy, of Sciences (Graz, Austria) in cooperation with MPE (Berlin, Germany), GFZ Potsdam (Obs. Niemegk, Germany) IZMIRAN/IOFAN (Moscow, Russian) and IGPP/UCLA (Los Angeles, USA) is designing the magnetic field experiment MAGIBAL (MAGnetic field experiment aboard a martian BALloon) to investigate the magnetic field on the surface of Mars. The dual sensor fluxgate magnetometer is part of the MARS-98/MARS-TOGETHER balloon payload. During a ten days period the balloon will float over a distance of about 2000 km at altitudes between 0 and 4 km. Due to the limited power and telemetry allocation the magnetometer can transmit only one vector per ten seconds and spectral information in the frequency range from 2 - 25 Hz. The dynamic range is +/- 2000 nT. The main scientific objectives of the experiment are: • Determination of the magnetism of the Martian rocks • Investigation of the leakage of the solar wind induced magnetosphere using the correlation between orbiter and balloon observations • Measurement of the magnetic field profile between the orbiter and the surface of Mars during the descent phase of the balloon. Terrestrial test flights with a hot air balloon were performed in order to test the original MAGIBAL equipment under balloon flight conditions.

  13. Investigation of possible horizontal gene transfer from transgenic rice to soil microorganisms in paddy rice field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Moon, Jae Sun; Kim, Jung Kyu; Choi, Won Sik; Lee, Sang Han; Kim, Sung Uk

    2010-01-01

    In order to monitor the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between transgenic rice and microorganisms in paddy rice field, the gene flow from bifunctional fusion (TPSP) rice containing trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase to microorganisms in soils was investigated. The soil samples collected every month from the paddy rice field during June, 2004 to March, 2006 were investigated by multiplex PCR, Southern hybridization, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The TPSP gene from soil genomics DNAs was not detected by PCR. Soil genomic DNAs were not shown its homologies on the Southern blotting data, indicating that gene-transfer did not occur during the last two years in paddy rice field. In addition, the AFLP band patterns produced by both soil genomic DNAs extracted from transgenic and non-transgenic rice field appeared similar to each other when analyzed by NTSYSpc program. Thus, these data suggest that transgenic rice does not give a significant impact on the communities of soil microorganisms although long-term observation may be needed.

  14. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated. PMID:23651921

  15. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  16. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  17. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 2, Appendix A: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  18. Experimental investigation on the near flow field of dual stream nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, S.; Karthikeyan, N.; Ashwin Kumar, S.

    2017-04-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to investigate the effect of beveling of primary nozzle exit in the near field of a dual stream nozzle flow. Two exit geometry configurations of primary stream nozzle viz., (a) circular (b) bevel along with one exit geometry of the secondary stream-circular, were studied. Experiments were carried out at both subsonic and supersonic primary nozzle operating conditions Mp=0.96 and 1.2. The secondary nozzle exit Mach number was maintained at 0.65 and 0.85 respectively to maintain the velocity ratio of 0.7 between the primary and secondary jet. The by-pass ratio for this investigation is maintained at 2.0. Flow visualization using retro-reflective shadowgraph technique was used for the qualitative visualization of the near flow field at the Mach number of 1.2. The mean and turbulent quantities in near flow field were obtained using particle image Velocimetry (2D-PIV). The flow visualization and PIV investigations show significant change in mean and turbulent quantities brought about in the near field due to the beveling of the primary nozzle. PIV results show increase in the potential core length and reduction in turbulence levels in the potential core by the secondary flow regardless of the jet exit geometry. A differential trend is seen in the shear layer growth and the turbulence characteristics between the shorter and longer lips sides of the beveled nozzle. In the dual stream configurations, bevel nozzle shows lower Reynolds stress values than the circular one except in the shorter lip side at the larger downstream locations.

  19. Investigation of Acoustic Fields Generated by Eddy Currents Using an Atomic Force Microscope (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0230 INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC FIELDS GENERATED BY EDDY CURRENTS USING AN ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE (POSTPRINT) V...Institute of Physics AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR... FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in

  20. Archeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico. Volume 3. 1976-1977 Field Seasons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    animals (woodrat, gopher , land- snail and mouse) may have been intrusive. The types of Direct evidence of food resources procured and con- individuals... Pocket Gopher ) represented one adult. There was one Eight lithics were recovered from the surface of LA unidentified fragment. One bone from a rabbit...Investigator; John B. Broster, who served as Project Director and Field Supervisor during The wearisome job of typing (and retyping) the mul- the first

  1. Sixth grade students' perceptions of science and scientists following a field-based science investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielborn, Terrie Leigh

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the influences of field-based investigations on sixth graders' perceptions of science and scientists. I chose to do this study due to my desire for middle grade students to have the opportunity to learn science as scientists, to increase their interest in science, and to create a positive attitude about science at the middle school level. The implications of the findings are directed toward the future of middle school science education. Thirty-five students from two sixth grade classes drew their perceptions of a scientist using the Draw-A-Scientists Test (DAST), before and after their participation in a field-based science investigation. Three students were interviewed prior to, between each, and after the field-based investigations. Using the pre-DAST and post-DAST drawings along with the conversations of the students, I found three significant differences that indicated a change in the students' perception of scientists: (1) youth; (2) outdoors; and (3) symbols of research. Prior to the study, 74% of the sixth graders viewed scientists as middle-aged or elderly as compared to 43% after the stream investigations. The stream as "the site" for the field-based investigations, influenced 57% of the students to include the outdoors in their post-DAST drawings as compared to 26% in the pre-DAST. Students drew symbols of research 43% on the pre-DAST but increased to 69% on the post-DAST. Many of the drawings and conversations from the confirm the notion that these sixth graders preferred to learn science outside and using scientific tools. These students felt that they were doing real science, and real science is what scientists do. By using field-based science investigations regularly, I believe there is the potential for putting students on the frontier of science. This goal aligns with the National Science Education Standards that call for students to have opportunities for "inquiry into authentic questions

  2. Retrospective investigation of geomagnetic field time-series during the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masci, Fabrizio; Di Persio, Manuele

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the analyses of ULF (Ultra-Low-Frequency) geomagnetic field observations coming from the Geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila during the period 2008-2009. This period includes the L'Aquila 2009 seismic sequence, where the main shock of 6 April heavily damaged the medieval centre of the town and its surrounding area, causing 308 deaths, more than 1000 injuries and about 60,000 displaced people. Recently, several publications have documented the observation of precursory signals which occurred before the 6 April earthquake (e.g. Eftaxias et al., 2009, 2010), while others do not find any pre-earthquake anomaly (e.g. Villante et al., 2010; Di Lorenzo et al., 2011). In light of this, the goal of this study is to carry out further retrospective investigations. ULF magnetic field data are investigated by means of conventional analyses of magnetic polarization ratio, improved magnetic polarization ratio, and fractal analysis. In addition, total geomagnetic field data coming from the INGV Central Italy tectonomagnetic network have also been investigated, using the simple inter-station differentiation method. Within the limits of these methods, no magnetic anomalous signal which may be reasonably characterized as a precursor of the L'Aquila earthquakes has been found.

  3. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. ); Medina, V. . Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Porous-floor Effects on Cavity Flow Fields at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a passive-venting system to modify the flow field characteristics of a rectangular-box cavity at supersonic speeds. The passive-venting system consists of a porous floor with a vent chamber beneath the floor. For certain cavity length-to-height ratios, this configuration allowed high-pressure air at the rear of the cavity to vent to the forward part of the cavity, thereby modifying the cavity flow field. The wind-tunnel model consisted of a flat plate that housed a cavity mounted on a balance such that only the cavity drag was measured. The cavity height remained constant, and the length varied with rectangular-block inserts. Both solid-and porous-floor cavities were tested for comparison at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, 2.16, and 2.86. These results showed that the passive-venting system did modify the cavity flow field. In order to determine the type flow field which existed for the porous-floor configuration, pressures were measured inside the cavity at the same conditions and for the same configurations as those used in the drag tests. Pressure data were also obtained with stores mounted in the cavity. These results, along with Schlieren photographs and the tabulated data, are presented to document the porous-floor cavity flow field.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of fast (ns) magnetic field penetration in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfaty, M.; Shpitalnik, R.; Arad, R.; Weingarten, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Fruchtman, A.; Maron, Y.

    1995-06-01

    The time-dependent magnetic field spatial distribution in a coaxial positive-polarity plasma opening switch (POS) carrying a current ≂135 kA during ≂100 ns, was investigated by two methods. In the first, ionic line emission was observed simultaneously for two polarizations to yield the Doppler and Zeeman contributions to the line profiles. In the second method, the axial velocity distribution of ions was determined, giving the magnetic field through the ion equation of motion. This method requires knowledge of the electron density, here obtained from the observed particle ionization times. To this end, a lower bound for the electron kinetic energy was determined using various line intensities and time-dependent collisional-radiative calculations. An important necessity for POS studies is the locality of all measurements in r, z, and θ. This was achieved by using laser evaporation to seed the plasma nonperturbingly with the species desired for the various measurements. The Zeeman splitting and the ion motion showed magnetic field penetration through the 3.5 cm long plasma at a velocity ≂108 cm/s. The current density was found to be relatively high at the load-side edge of the switch plasma. It is suggested that this may cause plasma acceleration into the vacuum section toward the load, which is supported by charge-collector measurements. The fast magnetic field penetration agrees with estimates based on the Hall-field mechanism.

  6. Effect of synthesis parameters on morphology of polyaniline (PANI) and field emission investigation of PANI nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankar, Prashant K.; Patil, Sandip S.; More, Mahendra A.

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures have been synthesized by simple chemical oxidation route at different monomer concentration along with variation in synthesis temperature. The effect of variation of synthesis parameters has been revealed using different characterization techniques. The structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized PANI nanostructures was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been used to reveal the chemical properties. With the variation in the synthesis temperature and monomer concentration, various morphologies characterized by formation of PANI nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes and nanospheres, are revealed from the SEM analysis. The FTIR analysis reveals the formation of conducting state of PANI under prevailing experimental conditions. The field emission investigation of the conducting PANI nanotubes was performed in all metal UHV system at base pressure of 1x10-8 mbar. The turn on field required to draw emission of 1 nA current was observed to be ˜ 2.2 V/μm and threshold field (corresponding to emission current density of 1 µA/cm2) was found to be 3.2 V/μm. The emission current was observed to be stable for more than three hours at a preset value 1 µA. The simple synthesis route and good field emission characteristics indicate potential of PANI nanofibres as a promising emitter for field emission based micro/nano devices.

  7. Investigation of air-assisted sprays submitted to high frequency transverse acoustic fields: Droplet clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficuciello, A.; Blaisot, J. B.; Richard, C.; Baillot, F.

    2017-06-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of a high amplitude transverse acoustic field on coaxial jets is presented in this paper. Water and air are used as working fluids at ambient pressure. The coaxial injectors are placed on the top of a semi-open resonant cavity where the acoustic pressure fluctuations of the standing wave can reach a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 12 kPa at the forcing frequency of 1 kHz. Several test conditions are considered in order to quantify the influence of injection conditions, acoustic field amplitude, and injector position with respect to the standing wave acoustic field. A high speed back-light visualization technique is used to characterize the jet response. Image processing is used to obtain valuable information about the jet behavior. It is shown that the acoustic field drastically affects the atomization process for all atomization regimes. The position of the injector in the acoustic field determines the jet response, and a droplet-clustering phenomenon is highlighted in multi-point injection conditions and quantified by determining discrete droplet location distributions. A theoretical model based on nonlinear acoustics related to the spatial distribution of the radiation pressure exerted on an object explains the behavior observed.

  8. Effect of synthesis parameters on morphology of polyaniline (PANI) and field emission investigation of PANI nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bankar, Prashant K.; More, Mahendra A.; Patil, Sandip S.

    2015-06-24

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures have been synthesized by simple chemical oxidation route at different monomer concentration along with variation in synthesis temperature. The effect of variation of synthesis parameters has been revealed using different characterization techniques. The structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized PANI nanostructures was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been used to reveal the chemical properties. With the variation in the synthesis temperature and monomer concentration, various morphologies characterized by formation of PANI nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes and nanospheres, are revealed from the SEM analysis. The FTIR analysis reveals the formation of conducting state of PANI under prevailing experimental conditions. The field emission investigation of the conducting PANI nanotubes was performed in all metal UHV system at base pressure of 1x10{sup −8} mbar. The turn on field required to draw emission of 1 nA current was observed to be ∼ 2.2 V/μm and threshold field (corresponding to emission current density of 1 µA/cm2) was found to be 3.2 V/μm. The emission current was observed to be stable for more than three hours at a preset value 1 µA. The simple synthesis route and good field emission characteristics indicate potential of PANI nanofibres as a promising emitter for field emission based micro/nano devices.

  9. High spatial resolution impedance measurement of EIS sensors for light addressable cell adhesion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qingjun; Zhang, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, impedance measurement of electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure with high spatial resolution was proposed to monitor cell adhesion. The light addressing ability of this work overcomes the geometrical restrict of cell culture on conventional impedance detection devices such as interdigitated electrode (IDE) and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Instead of studying cells on predetermined sites of IDE and ECIS, cells cultured anywhere on EIS sensor surface can be addressed and selected as target cells. Principle and primary models for high resolution impedance detection were described and tested by experiments. The EIS sensor was investigated in terms of its intrinsic characteristics, like impedance behavior, voltage characteristic, frequency dependency and photovoltaic effect. Optimized working condition was studied for cell experiments. Cell adhesion under treatment of 0.1% Triton X-100 was monitored using rat kidney cells as the source. Results showed good sensitivity (10% change of impedance) and resolution (40 μm) for cell adhesion impedance detection and suggested this work should be suitable for monitoring cell impedance. Further improvements on sensitivity, spatial resolution were discussed as well as the further applications for single cell monitoring and cell adhesion imaging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A methodology for post-EIS (environmental impact statement) monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Linda Graves

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for monitoring the impacts predicted in environmental impact statements (EIS's) was developed using the EIS on phosphate development in southeastern Idaho as a case study. A monitoring system based on this methodology: (1) coordinates a comprehensive, intergovernmental monitoring effort; (2) documents the major impacts that result, thereby improving the accuracy of impact predictions in future EIS's; (3) helps agencies control impacts by warning them when critical impact levels are reached and by providing feedback on the success of mitigating measures; and (4) limits monitoring data to the essential information that agencies need to carry out their regulatory and environmental protection responsibilities. The methodology is presented as flow charts accompanied by tables that describe the objectives, tasks, and products for each work element in the flow chart.

  11. Investigations of thermal conductivity of metals in the field of centrifugal and vibration accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepeshkin, A. R.; Vaganov, P. A.

    2016-11-01

    The methods of investigations of a thermal conductivity of materials in the field of centrifugal radial and circumferential and vibration accelerations have been developed. The setup for investigation of thermophysical characteristics properties of materials on a spin rig, using a vacuum chamber, under the influence of centrifugal radial and circumferential accelerations and on a vibration rig under the influence of vibration accelerations have been proposed. The results of the investigations of an unsteady thermal state of heat-conductors (metal samples) in the field of centrifugal and vibration accelerations are given. From the analysis of the results of experimental investigations one can conclude that the thermal conductivity of the heat-conductors increases significantly by increasing the rotation frequency or amplitude of oscillations in comparison with a steady state. Thus, this increase of the thermal conductivity is associated with an increase of the electron drift velocity under the influence of centrifugal and vibration accelerations according to Wiedemann-Franz law. The results obtained are of practical importance for the calculations of the thermal state of the rotating parts of aircraft engines and other energy turbomachines.

  12. Investigation of Particle Sampling Bias in the Shear Flow Field Downstream of a Backward Facing Step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Hepner, Timothy E.

    1990-01-01

    The flow field about a backward facing step was investigated to determine the characteristics of particle sampling bias in the various flow phenomena. The investigation used the calculation of the velocity:data rate correlation coefficient as a measure of statistical dependence and thus the degree of velocity bias. While the investigation found negligible dependence within the free stream region, increased dependence was found within the boundary and shear layers. Full classic correction techniques over-compensated the data since the dependence was weak, even in the boundary layer and shear regions. The paper emphasizes the necessity to determine the degree of particle sampling bias for each measurement ensemble and not use generalized assumptions to correct the data. Further, it recommends the calculation of the velocity:data rate correlation coefficient become a standard statistical calculation in the analysis of all laser velocimeter data.

  13. Redesign of substrate specificity and identification of aminoglycoside binding residues of Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Benjamin C.; Labby, Kristin J.; Green, Keith D.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The upsurge of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is an emerging global problem. Increased expression of the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein is responsible for clinical resistance to aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eis from M. tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) and from M. smegmatis (Eis_Msm) both function as acetyltransferases capable of acetylating multiple amines of many AGs; however, these Eis homologs differ in AG substrate preference and number of acetylated amine groups per AG. The AG binding cavity of Eis_Mtb is divided into two narrow channels, whereas Eis_Msm contains one large cavity. Five bulky residues lining one of the AG binding channels of Eis_Mtb, His119, Ile268, Trp289, Gln291, and Glu401, have significantly smaller counterparts in Eis_Msm, Thr119, Gly266, Ala287, Ala289, and Gly401, respectively. To identify the residue(s) responsible for AG binding in Eis_Mtb and functional differences from Eis_Msm, we have generated single, double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple mutants of these residues in Eis_Mtb into their Eis_Msm counterparts and tested their acetylation activity with three structurally diverse AGs: kanamycin A (KAN), paromomyin (PAR), and apramycin (APR). We show that the penultimate C-terminal residue Glu401 plays a critical role in the overall activity of Eis_Mtb. We also demonstrate that the identities of residues Ile268, Trp289, and Gln291 (in Eis_Mtb nomenclature) dictate the differences between acetylation efficiencies of Eis_Mtb and Eis_Msm for KAN and PAR. Finally, we show that the mutation of Trp289 in Eis_Mtb into Ala plays a role in APR acetylation. PMID:23837529

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-36)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-10

    The compliance checklist for this project was originally completed by the Burns Paiute Tribe in 2000, and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD), as well as the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Logan Valley Wildlife Mitigation Plan, now being implemented, continues to be consistent with the above mentioned EISs and RODs. Pursuant to its obligations under the Endangered Species Act, BPA has made a determination of whether its proposed project will have any effects on any listed species under the jurisdiction of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). A species list was obtained from USFWS on June 12, 2003, identifying bald eagles, Canada lynx, and bull trout as potentially occurring in the project area. A site assessment was conducted on July 15, 2003 to determine if these species were present and the potential effects of project activities. A ''No Effect'' determination was made for all ESA-listed species. There were no listed species under the jurisdiction of NOAA Fisheries present in the project area. As management activities proceed in the future, BPA will annually re-assess potential effects of planned activities on listed species. The Burns-Paiute Tribe conducted a literature search for historic and archaeological sites on the property on January 11, 1999. No known sites were identified. Further site-specific surveys will be conducted for individual ground disturbing activities. The results of these surveys will be sent to the Oregon State Historic Preservation Office and BPA. BPA will annually summarize and submit a report to the State Historic Preservation Office. On December 29, 1999, Fred Walasavage of BPA completed a Phase I Site Assessment and concluded that the site did not reveal any environmental factors that would pose a significant liability for remedial action or cleanup

  15. Investigations of Non-Thermal Interactions Between Microwave Fields and Ionic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Samuel Anthony

    Reports of enhanced mass transport and solid-state reaction rates during microwave processing have been reported in the literature for a variety of ceramic, glass, and polymer materials. These empirical observations of microwave enhancements have been broadly called the "microwave effect," even though no satisfactory theory existed to explain them. This dissertation describes a series of theoretical and experimental investigations of possible causes for enhanced mass transport in ceramic materials heated in microwave furnaces. The scientific method followed was to examine many of the assumptions used (either implicitly or explicitly) in the models and rate equations of mass transport processes and to challenge some of these assumptions in light of the conditions existing in microwave-heated materials. the investigations fall into two categories: (1) studies of enhanced mass transport coefficients; and (2) studies of enhanced driving forces. The investigations of increased transport coefficients first considered two temperature issues. Temperature measurement of a microwave-heated object is nontrivial, and so some consideration of temperature mismeasurement effects is described. Furthermore, the average thermal energy may not be completely related to the probability of high-energy diffusion events; therefore the possibility of athermal energy distributions is examined. Finally, the microwave field effects on activation energy barriers (and therefore diffusion probabilities) is considered. Experimental investigations of these effects using ionic current measurements is also described. Both the theoretical an experimental results indicate that transport coefficients are not affected by microwave heating, although temperature mismeasurement can account for some apparent enhancement. For microwave-enhanced driving forces, transport driven by temperature gradients in microwave-heated bodies is first examined and found to be unimportant. However, a new model for a

  16. Original Size of the Sudbury Structure: Evidence from Field Investigations and Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowmman, Paul D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of continuing studies of the original size of the Sudbury impact structure, including imaging radar and field investigations of supposed "Sudbury breccia" north of the Sudbury Igneous Comples (SIC). Imaging radar acquired from Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) aircraft, European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1), and RADARSAT shows no evidence of outer rings concentric with the North Range. Illumination directions are such that these rings, presumably extension fractures, would be conspicuous by look azimuth highlighting if they existed. Field mapping supports this interpretation, showing that supposed ring fractures occupied by Huronian sediments are essentially synclines older than the 1850 Ma impact and are not related to the impact. Field investigations of "Sudbury breccia" north of the SIC shows that most if not all of it is inside or along contacts with diabase dykes of the Sudbury Swarm (ca. 1238 Ma), and hence is far too young to be related to the impact. A recently-discovered occurrence of "Sudbury breccia" south of the SIC, near Creighton, is similarly associated with a NW-trending diabase dyke cutting the SIC, supporting the post-impact age of the breccia. It is concluded that the original north rim of the Sudbury crater was not more than 5 to 10 km north of the present North Range SIC contact, and that published estimates of the crater size (ca 200 km diameter) are incorrect.

  17. Investigation of the three-dimensional flow field within a transonic fan rotor: Experiment and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierzga, M. J.; Wood, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the three dimensional flow field through a low aspect ratio, transonic, axial flow fan rotor has been conducted using an advanced laser anemometer (LA) system. Laser velocimeter measurements of the rotor flow field at the design operating speed and over a range of through flow conditions are compared to analytical solutions. The numerical technique used herein yields the solution to the full, three dimensional, unsteady Euler equations using an explicit time marching, finite volume approach. The numerical analysis, when coupled with a simplified boundary layer calculation, generally yields good agreement with the experimental data. The test rotor has an aspect ratio of 1.56, a design total pressure ratio of 1.629 and a tip relative Mach number of 1.38. The high spatial resolution of the LA data matrix (9 radial by 30 axial by 50 blade to blade) permits details of the transonic flow field such as shock location, turning distribution and blade loading levels to be investigated and compared to analytical results.

  18. Stud arc welding in a magnetic field - Investigation of the influences on the arc motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartz-Behrend, K.; Marqués, J. L.; Forster, G.; Jenicek, A.; Müller, M.; Cramer, H.; Jilg, A.; Soyer, H.; Schein, J.

    2014-11-01

    Stud arc welding is widely used in the construction industry. For welding of studs with a diameter larger than 14 mm a ceramic ferrule is usually necessary in order to protect the weld pool. Disadvantages of using such a ferrule are that more metal is molten than necessary for a high quality welded joint and that the ferrule is a consumable generally thrown away after the welding operation. Investigations show that the ferrule can be omitted when the welding is carried out in a radially symmetric magnetic field within a shielding gas atmosphere. Due to the Lorentz force the arc is laterally shifted so that a very uniform and controlled melting of the stud contact surface as well as of the work piece can be achieved. In this paper a simplified physical model is presented describing how the parameters welding current, flux density of the magnetic field, radius of the arc and mass density of the shielding gas influence the velocity of the arc motion. The resulting equation is subsequently verified by comparing it to optical measurements of the arc motion. The proposed model can be used to optimize the required field distribution for the magnetic field stud welding process.

  19. An Investigation of the Effects of Inhomogenous Electric Fields on Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ming; Dimofte, Andreea; Bleiweiss, Michael; Saygi, Salih; Vargas, Jose; Datta, Timir

    2000-04-01

    Despite a flurry of measurements of Newton’s gravitational constant, G, that took place in the last decade, the relative standard uncertainty of the present CODATA value of G is 12 times larger than it was in the late eighties. Vargas and Torr have suggested that these discrepancies may be due to the influence of electric fields (Found. Phys. 29, 145, 1999) associated with the experiments. They predict measurable deformations of the spacetime structure (STS), i.e. gravitational forces, to be produced by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields additional to those previously known. This effect, if present, is unlikely to have been serendipitously discovered. To test the possibility of affecting the local STS by nonuniform electromagnetic fields, we are investigating the weight force of test probes with a system having a weight resolution of 100ppb (A. Dimofte, M.S. thesis, USC 1999). Different field geometries and test mass compisition are tested. The apparatus and analysis are designed to sort out the electrostatic contributions from any possible gravito-electric effects. Further work to improve the quality and reproducibilty of the signal is in progress. The results from this work will be presented.

  20. Investigating Non-Equilibrium Fluctuations of Nanocolloids in a Magnetic Field Using Direct Imaging Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ashley; Oprisan, Ana; Oprisan, Sorinel; Rice-Oprisan College of Charleston Team

    Nanoparticles of iron oxide have a high surface area and can be controlled by an external magnetic field. Since they have a fast response to the applied magnetic field, these systems have been used for numerous in vivo applications, such as MRI contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery, and cell separation. We performed three direct imaging experiments in order to investigate the concentration-driven fluctuations using magnetic nanoparticles in the absence and in the presence of magnetic field. Our direct imaging experimental setup involved a glass cell filled with magnetic nanocolloidal suspension and water with the concentration gradient oriented against the gravitational field and a superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. Nonequilibrium concentration-driven fluctuations were recorded using a direct imaging technique. We used a dynamic structure factor algorithm for image processing in order to compute the structure factor and to find the power law exponents. We saw evidence of large concentration fluctuations and permanent magnetism. Further research will use the correlation time to approximate the diffusion coefficient for the free diffusion experiment. Funded by College of Charleston Department of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities SURF grant.

  1. Pulsed magnetic field measurement system based on colossal magnetoresistance-B-scalar sensors for railgun investigation.

    PubMed

    Stankevič, T; Medišauskas, L; Stankevič, V; Balevičius, S; Żurauskienė, N; Liebfried, O; Schneider, M

    2014-04-01

    A high pulsed magnetic field measurement system based on the use of CMR-B-scalar sensors was developed for the investigations of the electrodynamic processes in electromagnetic launchers. The system consists of four independent modules (channels) which are controlled by a personal computer. Each channel is equipped with a CMR-B-scalar sensor connected to the measurement device-B-scalar meter. The system is able to measure the magnitude of pulsed magnetic fields from 0.3 T to 20 T in the range from DC up to 20 kHz independently of the magnetic field direction. The measurement equipment circuit is electrically separated from the ground and shielded against low and high frequency electromagnetic noise. The B-scalar meters can be operated in the presence of ambient pulsed magnetic fields with amplitudes up to 0.2 T and frequencies higher than 1 kHz. The recorded signals can be transmitted to a personal computer in a distance of 25 m by means of a fiber optic link. The system was tested using the electromagnetic railgun RAFIRA installed at the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis, France.

  2. Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VAWT in a windfarm array

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.T.; Buck, J.W.; Germain, A.C.; Hinchee, M.E.; Solt, T.S.; LeRoy, G.M.; Srnsky, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m VAWT were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind windfarm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. The field experiment was conducted within a VAWT array consisting of more than nine VAWTs with separations 3D crosswised by 8D downwind (where D is the turbine diameter) in a staggered configuration. The array is the upwind three rows of VAWTS in a total of six rows that are on top of the Cameron Ridge plateau. The terrain features in the vicinity are reasonably regular, with an upslope of 7 deg on the average; however, several local irregularities are present. The annual hourly averaged wind speed exceeds 8 m/s at the site. The wind field and the power-outputs of nine turbines within the array were measured with wind sensors and power transducers. Nine Gill propeller and 18 Maximum cup anemometers and one direction sensor were mounted on portable and stack-up towers installed upwind and within the turbine array. From the field measurements, the velocity and power/energy deficits were derived under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. Recommendations are made for optimizing windfarm design and operations as well as for wind energy management.

  3. Experimental investigation of magnetic-field-induced aggregation kinetics in nonaqueous ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Junaid M; Philip, John; Raj, Baldev

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the influence of field ramp rate on the kinetics of magnetic dipole-dipole induced chainlike structure formation in a nonaqueous nanoparticle dispersion using light scattering studies. With increase in magnetic field, at a constant ramp rate, the transmitted light intensity diminishes and the transmitted light spot is transformed to a diffused ring due to scattering from the self-assembled linear aggregates. The decay rate of transmitted intensity increases up to an optimum ramp rate, above which the trend becomes reverse. At an optimum ramp rate, the minimum time for initial aggregation coincides with the exposure time where the intensity decay is fastest. The variation of transmitted intensity at different ramp rate is explained on the basis of initial aggregation time that depends on Brownian motion, dipolar magnetic attraction and multibody hydrodynamic interactions. The slope of the transmitted light intensity after the removal of magnetic field depends on the time required for dissociation of ordered linear structures. Disappearance of the ring pattern and the reappearance of original light spot, upon removal of the magnetic field, confirm the perfect reversibility of the linear aggregates. The observed concentration dependant decay rates are in good agreement with aggregation theory.

  4. Design and implementation of epidemiological field investigation method based on mobile collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lihui; Wang, Dongchuan; Huang, Mingxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Fang, Liqun; Cao, Wuchun

    2008-10-01

    With the development of mobile technologies and the integration with the spatial information technologies, it becomes possible to provide a potential to develop new techno-support solutions to Epidemiological Field Investigation especially for the disposal of emergent public health events. Based on mobile technologies and virtual geographic environment, the authors have designed a model for collaborative work in four communication patterns, namely, S2S (Static to Static), M2S (Mobile to Static), S2M (Static to Mobile), and M2M (Mobile to Mobile). Based on the model mentioned above, this paper stresses to explore mobile online mapping regarding mobile collaboration and conducts an experimental case study of HFRS (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome) fieldwork, and then develops a prototype system of emergent response disposition information system to test the effectiveness and usefulness of field survey based on mobile collaboration.

  5. Investigation of the flow field surrounding circular-arc boattail nozzles at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeyounis, W. K.; Putnam, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of jet exhaust on the subsonic flow field surrounding boattail nozzles with attached and separated boundary layers were investigated. Measurements of local Mach numbers and flow angles were made at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.80 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. Jet exhaust flow was simulated with a solid cylindrical sting and with high pressure air at jet-nozzle total pressure ratios of 2.9 and 5.0. Results show strong effects of the jet-wave structure on the external flow field. The predicted local Mach numbers and flow angles for attached-flow nozzles with solid jet simulators obtained by using subsonic inviscid/viscous-flow theory are in good agreement with experimental data. Prediction of nozzle surface pressure distributions which include jet-entrainment effects also agree with experimental data for attached-flow nozzles with high pressure air jets.

  6. Russian investigations in the field of atmospheric radiation in 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Yu. M.; Shul'gina, E. M.

    2016-09-01

    A short survey prepared by the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation contains the most significant results of work in the field of atmospheric-radiation studies performed in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences prepared for the International Association on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS)1. During this period, the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation, jointly with the concerned departments and organizations, organized two International Symposiums on Radiation and Dynamics (ISARD-2011 and ISARD-2013). At these conferences, the central problems in modern atmospheric physics were discussed: radiative transfer (RT) and atmospheric optics; greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols; remote methods of measurements; and new measurement data. This survey presents six directions covering the whole spectrum of investigations performed in the field of atmospheric radiation.

  7. Russian investigations in the field of atmospheric radiation in 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Yu. M.; Shul'gina, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    A short survey prepared by the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation contains the most significant results of works in the field of atmospheric-radiation studies performed in 2007-2010. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences prepared for the International Association on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). During this period, the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation, jointly with concerned departments and organizations, ran the conference "Physics and Education," dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Department of Physics at St. Petersburg State University (2007); the International Symposium of CIS Countries "Atmospheric Radiation and Dynamics" (2009); and the 5th International Conference "Atmospheric Physics, Climate, and Environment" (2010). At the conferences, central problems in modern atmosphere physics were discussed: radiative transfer and atmospheric optics; greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols; remote methods of measurements; and new measurement data. This survey presents five directions covering the whole spectrum of investigations performed in the field of atmospheric radiation.

  8. Investigating the impact of electromagnetic fields on human cells: A thermodynamic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto; Ponzetto, Antonio; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

    2016-02-01

    The consequences of the interactions of electromagnetic waves, as used in conventional MRI technology, with human cells are not fully understood. To analyze these interactions, a novel thermodynamic approach is presented that is based on the relationship between electromagnetic and thermodynamic quantities. The theoretical results indicate that the waves' impact is largest at high magnetic field strengths and at low frequencies. This is the first step towards a clinically useful framework to quantitatively assess MRI impact including a potential trade-off between the desired increase in spatial resolution that higher magnetic field strengths yield for diagnostic purposes and the danger this may pose for cell membranes, and by extension, for the tissues investigated.

  9. Ground-based complex for detection and investigation of fast optical transients in wide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Emilio; Beskin, Grigory; Bondar, Sergey; Karpov, Sergey; Plokhotnichenko, Vladimir; de-Bur, Vjacheslav; Greco, Guiseppe; Bartolini, Corrado; Guarnieri, Adriano; Piccioni, Adalberto

    2008-07-01

    To study short stochastic optical flares of different objects (GRBs, SNs, etc) of unknown localizations as well as NEOs it is necessary to monitor large regions of sky with high time resolution. We developed a system which consists of wide-field camera (FOW is 400-600 sq.deg.) using TV-CCD with time resolution of 0.13 s to record and classify optical transients, and a fast robotic telescope aimed to perform their spectroscopic and photometric investigation just after detection. Such two telescope complex TORTOREM combining wide-field camera TORTORA and robotic telescope REM operated from May 2006 at La Silla ESO observatory. Some results of its operation, including first fast time resolution study of optical transient accompanying GRB and discovery of its fine time structure, are presented. Prospects for improving the complex efficiency are given.

  10. An investigation of magnetic field effects on plume density and temperature profiles of an applied-field MPD thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, S. Ray; Myers, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance is below levels required for primary propulsion missions. While MPD thruster performance has been found to increase with the magnitude of the applied-field strength, there is currently little understanding of the impact of applied-field shape on thruster performance. The results of a study in which a single applied-field thruster was operated using three solenoidal magnets with diameters of 12.7, 15.2, and 30.4-cm are presented. Thruster voltage and anode power deposition were measured for each applied field shape over a range of field strengths. Plume electron number density and temperature distributions were measured using a Langmuir probe in an effort to determine the effect of field shape on plume confinement by the diverging magnetic-field for each of the three magnetic field shapes. Results show that the dependence of the measured thruster characteristics on field shape were non-monotonic and that the field shape had a significant effect on the plume density and temperature profiles.

  11. Experimental investigation of a simulated LOX injector flow field and other nonintrusive measurement efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Efforts to improve the characteristics of fuel-oxidizer mixing in liquid rocket combustors have lead to a swirl element design for a liquid oxygen injector which is being considered for use on the STME. For the design which is the subject of this investigation, the oxygen enters the injector element perpendicular to the injector axis and nearly tangent to the circular injector wall. This swirl element is at one end of a tube and the injector exit is at the other. This geometric configuration creates a plume in the shape of a conical sheet. This sheet is either primarily contiguous liquid or droplets depending on the pressure drop in the injector and the distance from the injector exit. Probe-based devices such as two-dimensional grid patternators have been used to investigate simulated LOX injector flow fields (Hulka). The primary work described herein is an effort to use optical techniques to investigate the plume of a swirl injector element. For this investigation, a high pressure (500 psig) cold flow test facility was constructed. Water was used as the LOX simulate and air pressure was used to drive the injector flow field. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from dye seeded into the water was used to obtain quantitative measurements of the time-averaged water concentration distribution in the plume. Scattered laser light and LIF were used for time averaged plume visualization and scattered light from a strobe with a 1 microsecond pulse was used for time-resolved plume visualization. During the Summer Faculty Fellowship for which this report was developed, an additional effort, unrelated to the swirl injector investigation, was made to resolve fluctuations in the combustion product composition in the exhaust of a hybrid rocket motor. A brief description of this effort is included herein.

  12. Field investigation of advanced filtration for phosphorus removal from constructed treatment wetland effluents.

    PubMed

    Calder, N; Anderson, B C; Martin, D G

    2006-10-01

    Three sorptive media, blast furnace slag, cement clinker, and gravel were investigated for their capacity to remove phosphorus in a subsurface flow constructed treatment wetland post-treatment filter. Three filters were designed: two containing a mixture of either slag and gravel or clinker and gravel, and one with gravel only as the control filter. They were installed as a demonstration polishing treatment step to a constructed treatment wetland treating residential wastewater collected from 137 mobile home units at the Sunny Creek Estates Mobile Home Park. The filters were commissioned during the summer of the field season, with the data gathering taking place over a period of one year. The slag filter consistently had the lowest outflow dissolved phosphorus concentrations (0.27 +/- 0.08 mg l(-1), n=21), whereas the clinker filter had the highest outflow dissolved phosphorus concentrations (0.72 +/- 0.20 mg l(-1), n=23). The clinker filter performed well below expectations based on previous laboratory investigations, possibly due to lower pH conditions encountered in the field study. All of the filters maintained relatively constant outflow concentrations of phosphorus below 1 mg l(-1), despite varying input conditions and environmental factors such as temperature and phosphorus loading, and the occurrence of net export of phosphorus from the wetland. Net export of phosphorus from the filters occurred in the winter months, which was attributed to the decrease in input phosphorus concentrations below the maintained outflow concentrations (leading to phosphorus desorption), rather than cold temperatures or failure of the filter. Although the exact mechanisms of phosphorus removal are still under investigation, the results from this field study allowed for recommendations to be made for improving phosphorus removal at the Sunny Creek Estates constructed treatment wetland, in addition to providing valuable information for new and existing constructed treatment

  13. Investigation of various cavity configurations for metamaterial-enhanced field-localizing wireless power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Huu Nguyen; Pham, Thanh Son; Ngo, Viet; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Controlling power to an unintended area is an important issue for enabling wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. The control allows us to enhance efficiency as well as suppress unnecessary flux leakage. The flux leakage from WPT can be reduced effectively via selective field localization. To realize field localization, we propose the use of cavities formed on a single metamaterial slab that acts as a defected metasurface. The cavity is formed by strong field confinement using a hybridization bandgap (HBG), which is created by wave interaction with a two-dimensional array of local resonators on the metasurface. This approach using an HBG demonstrates strong field localization around the cavity regions. Motivated by this result, we further investigate various cavity configurations for different sizes of the transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) resonators. Experiments show that the area of field localization increases with the number of cavities, confirming the successful control of different cavity configurations on the metasurface. Transmission measurements of different cavities show that the number of cavities is an important parameter for efficiency, and excess cavities do not enhance the efficiency but increase unnecessary power leakage. Thus, there exists an optimum number of cavities for a given size ratio between the Tx and Rx resonators. For a 6:1 size ratio, this approach achieves efficiency improvements of 3.69× and 1.59× compared to free space and a uniform metasurface, respectively. For 10:1 and 10:2 size ratios, the efficiency improvements are 3.26× and 1.98× compared to free space and a uniform metasurface, respectively.

  14. Using SAR and LAM Wind Fields to Investigate the Effects of Land/Atmosphere Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchetto, Stefano; De Biasio, Francesco; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Biamino, Walter

    2010-12-01

    Modern satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images provide datasets at exceptionally high spatial resolutions, appropriate for investigating the mesoscale phenomena in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Due to the still unsolved problems in the methodologies of wind field retrieval, and the poor temporal coverage at mid-latitudes offered by present SARs, the use of such wind fields is still limited. A fruitful application concerns the combined use of SAR and the hindcasts provided by limited area models, to study the effects of the land/atmosphere interaction. This has been carried out over an area, about 400 km by 400 km wide, around the Crete island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, a region subject to complex wind patterns, due to the interaction of the almost steady northerly Etesian wind with the orography of the many islands in the region. The Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model has been used to hindcast the wind field at a horizontal resolution of 1 km over the area imaged by an Envisat ASAR image, from which the wind field has been extracted using a methodology based on the two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. The 10 m wind fields resulting from the numerical simulations, carried out using different diffusion and boundary layer parameterization schemes, have been compared to the SAR-derived one, in order to select the most appropriate scheme, to analyze the correspondence of the observed and the simulated wind structures, and to evaluate the differences in direction and speed. Such a comparison has shown the possible benefits for both the modelling and SAR-wind extraction activities.

  15. Electric Field-Induced Changes in Lipids Investigated by Modulated Excitation FTIR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzott, Michael; Lasch, Peter; Baurecht, Dieter; Naumann, Dieter; Fringeli, Urs Peter

    2004-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on dry oriented multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was investigated by transmission Fourier transform infrared electric field modulated excitation (E-ME) spectroscopy. A periodic rectangular electric potential (0–150 V, 1.25 Hz, 28.4°C ± 0.2°C) was applied across the sample. To discriminate electric field-induced effects from possible temperature-induced effects resulting from a current flow (<1 pA) across the sample, corresponding temperature-modulated excitation (T-ME) measurements within the temperature uncertainty limits of ±0.2°C at 28.4°C were performed. T-ME induced reversible gauche defects in the hydrocarbon chains, whereas E-ME resulted in reversible compression of dry DMPC bilayers. Periodic variation of the tilt angle of the hydrocarbon chains is suggested. The degree of absorbance modulation in the CH-stretching region was found to be in the order of 1:700, corresponding to a variation of the bilayer thickness of Δz = 0.0054 nm. Using a series connection of capacitors as equivalent circuit of the cell resulted in E = (1.2 ± 0.7) × 107 V/m for the electric field in DMPC. Young's elasticity modulus of DMPC could be calculated to be E⊥ = 2.2 × 106 Pa ± 1.8 × 106 Pa, which is in good agreement with published data obtained by electric field-dependent capacitance measurements. PMID:14695270

  16. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} (0.59 mi{sup 2}) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation.

  17. Contactless electromodulation investigations of surface/interface electric fields in semiconductor microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Pollak, F.H.

    1993-07-01

    This article reviews some recent experiments using contactless electromodulation techniques, i.e., photoreflectance and contactless electroreflectance, to investigate the surface/interface electric fields in (a) pseudomorphic GaAlAs/InGaAs/GaAs modulation-doped quantum well structures (including the determination of the two-dimensional electron gas density) and (b) Fermi-level pinning on n- and p-type GaAs (001) surfaces. Evidence for the reduced surface state density on p-type material will be presented from both prior and new experiments. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Laser Transmission Welding of Thermoplastics with Part-Adapted Temperature Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devrient, M.; Kern, M.; Jaeschke, P.; Stute, U.; Haferkamp, H.; Schmidt, M.

    Laser transmission welding is known for high flexibility, extraordinary potential for process automation and outstanding weld seam properties. Problems may occur due to the poor gap-bridging capability of contour welding. Gaps of a few tens of microns can lead to processing issues such as welding failures, poor achievable process speed or low weld seam strengths. To overcome this, laser transmission welding with part-adapted temperature fields was developed, and is experimentally investigated here. Results concerning the process behavior, dependent on several oscillation types of the laser beam, as well as achieved tensile shear strengths and the monitored gap-bridging capability are presented.

  19. Investigation of defect-induced abnormal body current in fin field-effect-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuan-Ju; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Yang, Ren-Ya; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung

    2015-08-24

    This letter investigates the mechanism of abnormal body current at the linear region in n-channel high-k/metal gate stack fin field effect transistors. Unlike body current, which is generated by impact ionization at high drain voltages, abnormal body current was found to increase with decreasing drain voltages. Notably, the unusual body leakage only occurs in three-dimensional structure devices. Based on measurements under different operation conditions, the abnormal body current can be attributed to fin surface defect-induced leakage current, and the mechanism is electron tunneling to the fin via the defects, resulting in holes left at the body terminal.

  20. Investigation of Molecular Exchange Using DEXSY with Ultra-High Pulsed Field Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Gratz, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2008-12-05

    Diffusion exchange spectroscopy has been employed for the investigation of water exchange between different regions of a cosmetic lotion as well as for the exchange of n-pentane between the inter- and intra-crystalline space in zeolite NaX. We successfully combined this two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiment with methods for the application of ultra-high pulsed field gradients of up to 35 T/m, resulting in observation times and mixing times as short as 2 ms and 2.8 ms, respectively.

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 2, Field Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila

    1996-01-01

    compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. Imposing an external electric field holds the promise to improve pool boiling heat transfer in low gravity, since a phase separation force other than gravity is introduced. The goal of our research is to experimentally investigate the potential of EHD and the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions.

  3. 14 CFR 1216.306 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a space flight project/program which would return samples to Earth from solar system bodies (such as... an EIS include: (1) Development and operation of new launch vehicles or space transportation systems... nuclear reactor or radioisotope power systems and devices using a total quantity of radioactive material...

  4. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles.

  5. 36 CFR 907.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.9 Preparation of an EIS. (a) Notice of intent. When PADC decides to prepare an environmental impact statement, it shall publish a notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with... environmental impact statement will be prepared and publishing the notice of intent, PADC will begin to prepare...

  6. 36 CFR § 907.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.9 Preparation of an EIS. (a) Notice of intent. When PADC decides to prepare an environmental impact statement, it shall publish a notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with... environmental impact statement will be prepared and publishing the notice of intent, PADC will begin to prepare...

  7. 36 CFR 907.7 - Determination of requirement for EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.7 Determination of requirement for EIS. Determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement is the first step in applying the NEPA process. In deciding whether to prepare an environmental impact statement, the responsible Corporation official will determine...

  8. 36 CFR 907.9 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.9 Preparation of an EIS. (a) Notice of intent. When PADC decides to prepare an environmental impact statement, it shall publish a notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with... environmental impact statement will be prepared and publishing the notice of intent, PADC will begin to prepare...

  9. 36 CFR 907.7 - Determination of requirement for EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.7 Determination of requirement for EIS. Determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement is the first step in applying the NEPA process. In deciding whether to prepare an environmental impact statement, the responsible Corporation official will determine...

  10. Forestry Herbicide Environmental Risks--An EIS Perspective

    Treesearch

    D.G. Neary

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service is in the process of completing Environmental Impact Statements (EIS's) on vegetation management for three physiographic regions of the South. This includes all forestry activities involving manipulation of plants in national forests and grasslands of the Coastal Plain-Piedmont, Appalachian Mountains, and the Ozark/Ouachita Mountains. These...

  11. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS. 230.6 Section 230.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and...

  12. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS. 230.6 Section 230.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and...

  13. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... normally requiring an EIS are: (a) Feasibility reports for authorization and construction of major projects... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and coordination show that a particular action is not likely to have a significant impact on the quality of the...

  14. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... normally requiring an EIS are: (a) Feasibility reports for authorization and construction of major projects... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and coordination show that a particular action is not likely to have a significant impact on the quality of the...

  15. What Can OpenEI Do For You?

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Open Energy Information (OpenEI) is an open source web platform—similar to the one used by Wikipedia—developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to make the large amounts of energy-related data and information more easily searched, accessed, and used both by people and automated machine processes. Built utilizing the standards and practices of the Linked Open Data community, the OpenEI platform is much more robust and powerful than typical web sites and databases. As an open platform, all users can search, edit, add, and access data in OpenEI for free. The user community contributes the content and ensures its accuracy and relevance; as the community expands, so does the content's comprehensiveness and quality. The data are structured and tagged with descriptors to enable cross-linking among related data sets, advanced search functionality, and consistent, usable formatting. Data input protocols and quality standards help ensure the content is structured and described properly and derived from a credible source. Although DOE/NREL is developing OpenEI and seeding it with initial data, it is designed to become a true community model with millions of users, a large core of active contributors, and numerous sponsors.

  16. 43 CFR 10010.60 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EIS: (1) Establishment of major new refuges or wildlife management areas, fish hatcheries, and major additions to such installations. (2) Master development and/or management plans for major new installations. (3) Management plans for established installations where major new developments or...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.60 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EIS: (1) Establishment of major new refuges or wildlife management areas, fish hatcheries, and major additions to such installations. (2) Master development and/or management plans for major new installations. (3) Management plans for established installations where major new developments or...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.60 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EIS: (1) Establishment of major new refuges or wildlife management areas, fish hatcheries, and major additions to such installations. (2) Master development and/or management plans for major new installations. (3) Management plans for established installations where major new developments or...

  19. 43 CFR 10010.60 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EIS: (1) Establishment of major new refuges or wildlife management areas, fish hatcheries, and major additions to such installations. (2) Master development and/or management plans for major new installations. (3) Management plans for established installations where major new developments or...

  20. 7 CFR 1794.25 - Proposals normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (nameplate rating) other than fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generators. All new... 1794.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... EIS. The environmental review process, as described in this part, shall be used to identify those...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.25 - Proposals normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (nameplate rating) other than fuel cell, combustion turbine, combined cycle, or diesel generators. All new... 1794.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... EIS. The environmental review process, as described in this part, shall be used to identify those...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.321 - Use of completed EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... final EIS will be a major factor in the Agency's final decision. Agency staff making recommendations on... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.42...

  4. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.41...

  5. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.42...

  6. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.41...

  7. 32 CFR 651.41 - Conditions requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Conditions requiring an EIS. 651.41 Section 651.41 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.41...

  8. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.42...

  9. 12 CFR 1815.109 - Preparation of an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of an EIS. 1815.109 Section 1815.109 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... prepared, it shall publish a notice of intent in the Federal Register in accordance with 40 CFR 1501.7 and...

  10. What Can OpenEI Do For You?

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Open Energy Information (OpenEI) is an open source web platform—similar to the one used by Wikipedia—developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to make the large amounts of energy-related data and information more easily searched, accessed, and used both by people and automated machine processes. Built utilizing the standards and practices of the Linked Open Data community, the OpenEI platform is much more robust and powerful than typical web sites and databases. As an open platform, all users can search, edit, add, and access data in OpenEI for free. The user community contributes the content and ensures its accuracy and relevance; as the community expands, so does the content's comprehensiveness and quality. The data are structured and tagged with descriptors to enable cross-linking among related data sets, advanced search functionality, and consistent, usable formatting. Data input protocols and quality standards help ensure the content is structured and described properly and derived from a credible source. Although DOE/NREL is developing OpenEI and seeding it with initial data, it is designed to become a true community model with millions of users, a large core of active contributors, and numerous sponsors.

  11. 32 CFR 651.42 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Actions normally requiring an EIS. 651.42 Section 651.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement §...

  12. Flux-gate magnetic field sensor based on yttrium iron garnet films for magnetocardiography investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetoshko, P. M.; Gusev, N. A.; Chepurnova, D. A.; Samoilova, E. V.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Syvorotka, I. M.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Korotaeva, A. A.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    A new type of f lux-gate vector magnetometer based on epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films has been developed and constructed for magnetocardiography (MCG) investigations. The magnetic field sensor can operate at room temperature and measure MCG signals at a distance of about 1 mm from the thoracic cage. The high sensitivity of the sensor, better than 100 fT/Hz1/2, is demonstrated by the results of MCG measurements on rats. The main MCG pattern details and R-peak on a level of 10 pT are observed without temporal averaging, which allows heart rate anomalies to be studied. The proposed magnetic sensors can be effectively used in MCG investigations.

  13. Laser welding assembling of an implantable bio-medical device: investigation of temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yaomin; Jiang, Guangqiang; Calderon, Joseph L.

    2011-03-01

    Laser welding is a commonly used process to assemble medical devices. The heat produced during the laser welding process may have an adverse effect on the mechanical integrity of the case assembly and the functionality of heat sensitive electronic components. In order to maintain the mechanical integrity of the case assembly and to protect the subcomponents, it is important to control the temperature in the assembling process, the investigation of the temperature distribution in the assembly during laser welding is thus necessary. In this paper, we report an experimental method and a numerical simulation for the investigation of the temperature field in the process of laser welding the eyelet to the case subassembly of the Functional Electrical Battery Powered Microstimulator (FEBPM). A pulsed 1064nm Nd:YAG laser is used as an example in this paper.

  14. Investigation of Fully Three-Dimensional Helical RF Field Effects on TWT Beam/Circuit Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, helical traveling wave-tube (TWT) interaction model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAFIA. The model includes a short section of helical slow-wave circuit with excitation fed by RF input/output couplers, and electron beam contained by periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing. All components of the model are simulated in three dimensions allowing the effects of the fully 3D helical fields on RF circuit/beam interaction to be investigated for the first time. The development of the interaction model is presented, and predicted TWT performance using 2.5D and 3D models is compared to investigate the effect of conventional approximations used in TWT analyses.

  15. Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's low-speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' three-dimensional viscous code. The experimental configuration consisted of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the impeller as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provided independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique. The results clearly document the development of the throughflow velocity wake that is characteristic of unshrouded centrifugal compressors.

  16. Field Investigation of an Air-Source Cold Climate Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S., there are approximately 2.6 million dwellings that use electricity for heating in cold and very cold regions with an annual energy consumption of 0.16 quads (0.17 EJ). A high performance cold climate heat pump (CCHP) would result in significant savings over current technologies (greater than 60% compared to electric resistance heating). We developed an air-source cold climate heat pump, which uses tandem compressors, with a single compressor rated for the building design cooling load, and running two compressors to provide, at -13 F (-25 C), 75% of rated heating capacity. The tandem compressors were optimized for heating operation and are able to tolerate discharge temperatures up to 280 F (138 C). A field investigation was conducted in the winter of 2015, in an occupied home in Ohio, USA. During the heating season, the seasonal COP was measured at 3.16, and the heat pump was able to operate down to -13 F (-25 C) and eliminate resistance heat use. The heat pump maintained an acceptable comfort level throughout the heating season. In comparison to a previous single-speed heat pump in the home, the CCHP demonstrated more than 40% energy savings in the peak heating load month. This paper illustrates the measured field performance, including compressor run time, frost/defrosting operations, distributions of building heating load and capacity delivery, comfort level, field measured COPs, etc.

  17. Radioactive waste storage in mined caverns in crystalline rock: results of field investigations at Stripa, Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    It is generally agreed that the most practicable method of isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere is by deep burial in suitable geologic formations. Such burial achieves a high degree of physical isolation but raises questions concerning the rate at which some of these wastes may return to the biosphere through transport by groundwater. Any suitable repository site will be disturbed first by excavation and second by the thermal pulse caused by the radioactive decay of the wastes. To assess the effectiveness of geologic isolation it is necessary to develop the capability of predicting the response of a rock mass to such a thermal pulse. Ultimately, this requires field measurements below the surface in media representative of those likely to be encountered at an actual repository. Access to a granitic rock mass adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden, at a depth of about 350 m below surface has provided a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive suite of hydrological and thermo-mechanical experiments under such conditions. The results of these field tests have shown the importance of geologic structure and the functional dependence of the thermo-mechanical properties on temperature in developing a valid predictive model. The results have also demonstrated the vital importance of carrying out large-scale investigations in a field test facility.

  18. Experimental investigation of the flow field and pollen trajectories/deposition around ovulate pine cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Neta-Lee; van Hout, René

    2014-11-01

    Particle deposition on bluff bodies is important both in industrial applications as well as in furthering our understanding of ecological networks. It has been hypothesized that plant structural morphology manipulates the flow field in order to enhance capturing of species-specific pollen and thereby increase fertilization chances. Here, the deposition mechanism of different pine pollen on freshly harvested ovulate pine cones (Pinus Halepensis/Brutia) was investigated using high speed, planar particle image velocimetry and holographic 3D technique enabling measurement of both Lagrangian particle tracks and instantaneous flow fields. Measurements were performed in a small blow-through windtunnel at Reynolds numbers ranging from Re = 174 to 767. The roughness on a pine cone is characterized by ``scales'' organized as Fibonacci spirals. Effects of this roughness on the flow field are compared to results for a smooth sphere at similar Re. Particle deposition results indicate that inertial deposition on the windward side of the cone is the main mechanism. However, at the lowest Reynolds numbers pollen with Stokes numbers less than one were entrained into the cone's near wake and advected towards the leeward side of the cone.

  19. Investigating the impact of visuohaptic simulations for the conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Uzma Abdul Sattar

    The present study assessed the benefits of a multisensory intervention on the conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges in engineering and technology undergraduate students. A novel visuohaptic intervention was proposed, which focused on exploring the forces around the different electric field configurations for distributed charges namely point, infinitely long line and uniformly charged ring. The before and after effects of the visuohaptic intervention are compared, wherein the intervention includes instructional scaffolding. Three single-group studies were conducted to investigate the effect among three different populations: (a) Undergraduate engineering students, (b) Undergraduate technology students and (c) Undergraduate engineering technology students from a different demographic setting. The findings from the three studies suggests that the haptic modality intervention provides beneficial effects by allowing students to improve their conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges, although students from groups (b) and (c) showed a statistically significant increase in the conceptual understanding. The findings also indicate a positive learning perception among all the three groups.

  20. Effective use of field screening techniques in environmental investigations: A multivariate geostatistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, M.R.; Rouhani, S.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental investigations typically entail broad data gathering efforts which include field screening surveys and laboratory analyses. Although usually collected extensively, data from field screening surveys are rarely used in the actual delineation of media contamination. On the other hand, laboratory analyses, which are used in the delineation, are minimized to avoid potentially high cost. Multivariate geostatistical techniques, such as indicator cokriging, were employed to incorporate volatile organic screening and laboratory data in order to better estimate soil contamination concentrations at an underground storage tank site. In this work, the direct and cross variographies are based on a multi-scale approach. The results indicate that soil gas measurements show good correlations with laboratory data at large scales. These correlations however, can be masked by poor correlations at micro-scale distances. Consequently, a classical direct correlation analysis between the two measured values is very likely to fail. In contrast, the presented multi-scale co-estimation procedure provides tools for a cost-effective and reliable assessment of soil contamination based on a combined use of laboratory and field screening data.

  1. Metabolic Investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Its Bacterial Cellulose Production under a Direct Current Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Zhong, Cheng; Zhang, Yu Ming; Xu, Ze Ming; Qiao, Chang Sheng; Jia, Shi Ru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a direct current (DC) electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC) production was promoted in 12 h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field). At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18-24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid, and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth.

  2. Motion of megabase deoxyribonucleic acid during field-inversion gel electrophoresis: Investigation by nonlocal Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Viovy, J. L.

    1992-06-01

    We give a detailed description of a new Monte Carlo method for the simulation of the forced dynamics of long chain polymers in a constrictive environment. The model is based on the reptation theory but admits, in addition, the possibility that loops of the chain (``hernias'') may escape laterally out of the tube. A discrete representation of the molecule, in which individual chain segments are either taut or slack, permits the extensional mode of the molecule within the tube to be taken into consideration. The dynamics is modeled by the nonlocal hopping of ``defects'' (regions of slack) along the chain, with Monte Carlo rules based on the stochastic equations of motion of the taut portions of the molecule. We use the technique to investigate the motion of long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, containing millions of base pairs, during field-inversion gel electrophoresis. For the pulse ratios most commonly used in practice, we find that the separation patterns display two regions of band-inversion. This anomalous behavior is linked to the strong transient response of the molecules when the field is reversed; sudden field inversion induces the formation of a chain configuration shaped like an extended V after an interval of time that increases linearly with the chain length. The DNA molecules that have the minimum and the maximum migration speeds are those whose transient response times are approximately equal to the forward and the reverse pulse time, respectively.

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation of implantable cardiac pacemaker exposed to low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Babouri, A; Hedjeidj, A; Guendouz, L

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents in vitro investigation of an implantable cardiac pacemaker exposed to low frequency magnetic fields. The method used in this study is based on the interaction by inductive coupling through the loop formed by the pacemaker and its loads and the surrounding medium. This interaction results in an induced electromotive force between the terminals of the pacemaker, which can potentially disturb its operation. The studied frequencies are 50/60 Hz and 10/25 kHz. The experimental tests were carried out on several cardiac pacemakers, single chamber, and dual chamber. The results show a window effect of the detection circuits of cardiac pacemakers for the four studied frequencies. The modelling of the test bed requires studying the effects of the induced currents generated by the application of a magnetic field. Analytical calculations and Numerical simulations were carried out. We modelled the interactions of the magnetic field with a simplified representation of pacemaker embedded in the medium. The comparison of the results in the air and in vitro enabled us to make an equivalent electric model. The results obtained in experimental and theoretical studies allowed us to validate the test bed. The method applied is valid for other medical implants such as cardiac defibrillators, implant hearing aids system...etc.

  4. Investigation of the flow field inside flat-plate collector tube using PIV technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sookdeo, Steven; Siddiqui, Kamran

    2010-06-15

    The thermofluid process inside the tube of flat-plate collectors is complex because the non-uniform heating of the tube results in the formation of stably and unstably stratified layers of fluid that interact with each other. The measurement and investigation of the flow behaviour inside the collector tube is very challenging. We report on a novel application of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to remotely measure the velocity field inside the collector tube. The two-dimensional velocity fields were measured in the midplane of a collector tube for the Reynolds number range of 150-900 at unheated and four different heating conditions. We have presented and discussed in detail the technique implementation and the associated challenges. The results have shown that the collector heating significantly alters the structure and magnitude of the mean velocity field and influences the heat transfer to the fluid. It is observed that the collector heating causes a significant asymmetry in the mean velocity profiles over the given range of Reynolds numbers and heating conditions. (author)

  5. Investigation of smoothness-increasing accuracy-conserving filters for improving streamline integration through discontinuous fields.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Michael; Curtis, Sean; Kirby, Robert M; Ryan, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    Streamline integration of fields produced by computational fluid mechanics simulations is a commonly used tool for the investigation and analysis of fluid flow phenomena. Integration is often accomplished through the application of ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrators--integrators whose error characteristics are predicated on the smoothness of the field through which the streamline is being integrated--smoothness which is not available at the inter-element level of finite volume and finite element data. Adaptive error control techniques are often used to ameliorate the challenge posed by inter-element discontinuities. As the root of the difficulties is the discontinuous nature of the data, we present a complementary approach of applying smoothness-enhancing accuracy-conserving filters to the data prior to streamline integration. We investigate whether such an approach applied to uniform quadrilateral discontinuous Galerkin (high-order finite volume) data can be used to augment current adaptive error control approaches. We discuss and demonstrate through numerical example the computational trade-offs exhibited when one applies such a strategy.

  6. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 4, Appendixes E and F: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  7. An investigation into field effects of consciousness from the perspectives of Maharishi's Vedic Science and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschnitz, Kurt Warren

    1997-05-01

    A long-range field effect of consciousness has been reported repeatedly in the scientific literature over the past twenty years. This phenomenon is called the Maharishi Effect, after Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the first to predict it. The Maharishi Effect is the phenomenon of improved societal trends resulting from the practice of the Transcendental Meditationoler program or group practice of the TM-Sidhioler program by a small fraction of a population. The Maharishi Effect is fundamentally a phenomenon of radiation of evolutionary influence arising from the enlivenment of pure consciousness, the unified field of natural law, in the perspective of Maharishi's Vedic Science. This perspective is corroborated by forty-three published or presented papers reporting on results of Maharishi Effect interventions world-wide at city, national, international, and global scales. Present day standard- model physics and physiology do not account for the outcomes of the research on the Maharishi Effect. Because the observed societal impact of the Maharishi Effect influence must be based in an impact on the individual, and investigators report detection of the effect in individual physiological measurements, a simple robust indicator for the effect might aid physiologists and physicists in the effort to extend their sciences to include such field effects of consciousness. Thus, this dissertation reports on two experiments investigating simple, robust, objective indicators for the effect. The dissertation concludes on a practical note with a description of the promise, available through concerted utilization of the knowledge and technologies of consciousness in Maharishi's Vedic Science, for enhanced national and global security in the face of unprecedented nuclear, biological, and genetic threats for which the modern sciences offer few sensible solutions. ftnolerTranscendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi are service marks registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office

  8. Investigation of fault structures from microseismicity in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongchan; Boese, Carolin; Andrews, Jennifer; Sepulveda, Favian; Archer, Rosalind; Malin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Wairakei geothermal field is located in the centre of a NNE-trending rifting arc, called the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand. In 1958, commercial production of electricity started at the Wairakei field, which currently holds the largest installed capacity of the TVZ (~375 MWe). For some operational reasons, large scale infield re-injection started in the mid 1990's (Otupu area; east of Wairakei) and further extended to the south (Karapiti area) in August 2011. Small scale re-injection trials have been also being conducted since 2012 (West of Wairakei). In total, 13 borehole seismometers have been installed in the Wairakei geothermal field since 2009 to support reservoir management and drilling strategies, and observe the reservoir response to production and injection. The range of installation depths is 65 m to 1,200 m. About 97% of the 7049 events recorded have magnitude ≤2, in the so-called micro-earthquake range, and locate above 6 km depth. The micro-seismicity distribution tends to be diffuse. Although some correlation with geological units and faults can be made, identification of distinct fractures is challenging. In this study, we investigate active fault structures from micro-seismic events occurring in the geothermal field between March 2009 and June 2013 using focal mechanism, clustering and double-difference relocation methods. We firstly calculate double-couple focal mechanism solutions from the micro-seismic data set using HASH. To reduce uncertainty of focal mechanism parameters, P-wave first motion polarities from 12 GeoNet stations installed in the vicinity of the Wairakei were combined with those of 13 Wairakei stations within the field. In total, 21 focal mechanisms with more than eight P-wave polarities have been computed. Most focal mechanisms are consistent in showing a NNE-trending nodal plane, and have normal or strike-slip mechanisms, coinciding well with the overall extensional tectonic regime and mapped active faults in the

  9. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Dynamic Effects in Soil Water Retention Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Yen-Huiang; Ye, Jiun-Yan

    2015-04-01

    The unsaturated soil is a multi-phase system and the embedded physical mechanisms and chemical reactions are very complicated. The characteristics of groundwater flow and mechanisms of mass transport are still ambiguous so far. In order to fully understand the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone, the soil water retention curve plays an important role in description of water flow. However, the measurements and calculations of soil water retention curve are usually obtained under the static condition or steady state (equilibrium), in which the dynamic effects (non-equilibrium) are not considered, and the obtained relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is skeptical. Therefore, the sandbox experiments and field tests will be conducted to discuss the dynamic effects in the soil water retention curve and hysteresis effect in this study. In the laboratory, the relations between capillary pressure, saturation, the rate of change of water content, and dynamic constant are evaluated through different setting of boundary conditions and different sizes of particles. In the field, the tests are conducted to describe the soil water retention curve through the rain simulator and artificial evaporation. Besides, the dynamic dewpoint potentiameter is used to analyze the hysteresis effect of soil samples, and its results are compared with the results obtained from sandbox and field experiments. Finally, through a series of experiments, the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation under the dynamic effects is established, and the associated theories and mechanisms are discussed. The works developed in this study can provide as reference tools for the hydrogeological investigation and contaminated site remediation in the future. Keywords: capillary pressure, saturation, soil water retention curve, hysteresis, sandbox experiment, field test

  10. Paleoglacial history of Dronning Maud Land: Numerical modeling guiding field investigations in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Bernales, Jorge; Häfliger, Tonio; Stroeven, Arjen; Harbor, Jonathan; Glasser, Neil; Fredin, Ola; Fabel, Derek; Hättestrand, Class

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing and predicting the response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to climate change is one of the major challenges facing the Earth Science community. Numerical models of ice sheets are a central component of work to address this challenge, and these models are tested and improved by comparing model predictions of past ice extents with field-based reconstructions (from geological and geomorphological data). However, there are critical gaps in our knowledge of past changes in ice elevation and extent in many regions of East Antarctica, including a large area of Dronning Maud Land. In addition, there exist significant uncertainties in regional climate history along the ice sheet margin due to remoteness of these areas from ice core locations where detailed reconstructions of past climate conditions have been performed. This leaves numerical models of regional glaciation history largely unconstrained. MAGIC-DML is a new Swedish-UK-US-Norwegian-German project that aims to reconstruct vertical changes in ice extent across Dronning Maud Land as the basis for constraining numerical models of ice sheet behavior. The focus of the two planned field seasons will be in areas that have been identified as being critical for differentiating between possible past ice sheet configuration and timing. Geological reconstruction will involve the identification, mapping, and dating of glacially sculpted bedrock, ice-marginal moraines, drift sheets and erratic boulders that provide evidence for past changes in ice levels over thousands to millions of years. Prior to the field investigations, the German team is performing a detailed high-resolution modeling of the paleoglacial history and identifying areas across Dronning Maud Land that are most sensitive to the uncertainties in regional climate history and the choice of model parameters. These modeling results will be used as a basis for planning and guiding the field campaigns in East Antarctica in 2015 and 2016.

  11. 78 FR 15039 - Extending Scoping Period To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Statement (EIS) for the Navajo Nation Integrated Weed Management Plan Within Coconino, Navajo, and Apache... the public scoping period to prepare an EIS for the Navajo Nation Integrated Weed Management Plan...

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-18)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-10-17

    BPA proposes to fund the acquisition and preservation of approximately 99 acres of native wet prairie and oak woodland habitat in Lane County, Oregon. Title to the land will be held by The Nature Conservancy, who will convey permanent mitigation rights to BPA in the form of a conservation easement. These newly acquired parcels will become part of the existing 330-acre Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Area. Passive management practices may take place on the land until a wildlife mitigation and management plan is developed and approved for the property. The compliance checklist for this project was completed by Cathy MacDonald with The Nature Conservancy and meets the standards and guidelines for the Wildlife Mitigation Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). A comprehensive wildlife mitigation and management plan will be prepared for the property after it is acquired and will follow the guidelines and mitigation measures detailed in the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS and ROD. No plant or animal species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) will be affected by the proposed acquisition of the subject property. Through contact with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Oregon Natural Heritage Program, staff from The Nature Conservancy identified a number of federal and state listed species that have the potential to occur at the project site. ESA Section 7 consultation will be conducted by BPA and The Nature Conservancy, as necessary, prior to the implementation of any restoration or enhancement activities on the site. A cultural resource survey was conducted at the Eugene Wetlands Phase II site on July 9, 2001. No prehistoric or historic cultural materials were observed during the survey and no landforms considered likely to be archaeological sites were noted. The nearest recorded archeological find consists of two prehistoric sites that are located within a mile of the project

  13. Application of nano-FIA-Direct-EI-MS to determine diethylene glycol in produced formation water discharges and seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Pierini, Elisabetta; Trufelli, Helga; Maggi, Chiara; Manfra, Loredana; Mannozzi, Michela

    2007-09-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is extensively used on offshore gas platforms to prevent the hydrate formation during the gas-water separation process and to inhibit corrosion events. This chemical might enter in the marine environment via the produced formation water (PFW) discharge. In this study, a new approach was applied to the investigation of the DEG content in PFW discharges and seawater samples from four gas installation platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). The method includes an off-line solid-phase extraction/pre-concentration technique, followed by a nanoscale flow injection/direct-electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometric analysis. Direct-EI is a novel and miniaturized interface for directly coupling a liquid chromatograph with an electron ionization mass spectrometer. The capability to acquire EI spectra, and to operate in selected ion monitoring mode during actual sample analyses, allowed a precise quantification of DEG with a method limit of detection of 31microg/l. In addition, a careful evaluation of the matrix effect showed that, as opposed to electrospray ionization, the response of the Direct-EI interface was not affected by sample interferences.

  14. Shape-based Particle Separation via Elasto-Inertia Pinched Flow Fractionation (eiPFF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinyu; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2015-11-01

    We report in this talk a continuous-flow shape-based separation of spherical and peanut-shaped rigid particles of equal volume via elasto-inertial pinched flow fractionation (eiPFF). This separation exploits the shape-dependence of the cross-stream particle migration induced by the elaso-inertial lift force in viscoelastic fluids. The parametric effects on this separation are systematically investigated in terms of dimensionless numbers. It is found that this separation is strongly affected by the Reynolds number, Weissenberg number and channel aspect ratio. Interestingly, the elasto-inertial deflection of peanut particles can be either greater or smaller than that of spherical particles.

  15. Hydraulic characterization of rocky subsurface using field infiltrometer measurements coupled with hydrogeophysical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, M. C.; de Carlo, L.; de Benedictis, F.; Vurro, M.

    2009-04-01

    The shallow and/or karstic and fractured aquifers are among the most important water resources. At the same time, they are particularly vulnerable to contamination. A detailed scientific knowledge of the behavior of these aquifers is essential for the development of sustainable groundwater management. Different investigation methods have been developed with the aim to characterize the subsurface and to monitor the flow and solute transport in these hydrogeology systems. This study presents the results of an investigation method, that combine large infiltrometer measurements with elettrical resistivity profiles, carried out in two different experimental sites characterized by different hydrogeology systems. One site, close to Altamura a city in the South of Italy, is represented from karstic and fractured limestone that overlays the deep aquifer. This area has been affected by sludge waste deposits derived from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The second site, close to San Pancrazio Salentino town in Southern Italy also, is represented from a quarry of calcarenite that has been used as a dump of sludge of mycelium producted from pharmaceutical industry. In both these cases the waste disposal have caused soil-subsoil contamination. Knowledge of the flow rate of the unsaturated zone percolation is needed to investigate the vertical migration of pollutants and the vulnerability of the aquifers. In this study, subsurface electrical resistivity measurements were used to visualize the infiltration of water in the subsoil due to unsaturated water flow. Simultaneously, the vertical flow was investigated by measuring water levels during infiltrometer tests carried out using a large adjustable ring infiltrometer, designed to be installed in the field directly on the outcrop of rock. In addition electrical resistivity azimuthal surveys have been conducted to detect principal fractures strike directions that cause preferential flow. The results obtained

  16. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila

    1999-01-01

    In boiling high heat fluxes are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences, which make its use increasingly attractive in aerospace applications. The objective of the research is to develop ways to overcome specific problems associated with boiling in the low gravity environment by substituting the buoyancy force with the electric force to enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50, as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. The goal of our research is to experimentally explore the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions, by visualizing the temperature distributions in the vicinity of the heated surface and around the bubble during boiling using real-time holographic interferometry (HI) combined with high-speed cinematography. In the first phase of the project the influence of the electric field on a single bubble is investigated. Pool boiling is simulated by injecting a single bubble through a nozzle into the subcooled liquid or into the thermal boundary layer developed along the flat heater surface. Since the exact location of bubble formation is known, the optical equipment can be aligned and focused accurately, which is an essential requirement for precision measurements of bubble shape, size and deformation, as well as the visualization of temperature fields by HI. The size of the bubble and the frequency of bubble departure can be controlled by suitable selection of nozzle diameter and mass flow rate of vapor. In this approach effects due to the presence of the electric field can be separated from effects caused by the temperature gradients in the thermal boundary layer. The influence of the thermal boundary layer can be investigated after activating the heater at a later stage of the research. For the visualization experiments a

  17. Investigation into the Horizontal Spatial Variability of Dew at Field-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Patton, J.; Russell, E.; Seier, K.; Spoth, K.

    2009-12-01

    The occurrence of free moisture on a crop canopy, whether in the form of intercepted precipitation or dew, has implications for both plant disease development and sensing of soil moisture by microwave remote sensing. In agriculture, the duration of leaf wetness can impact disease development, and with microwave remote sensing, free water on the canopy can influence the detection of soil moisture by increasing or decreasing the measured brightness temperature, depending on the canopy being investigated. Research has been conducted on the variability of dew vertically within a crop canopy; however the horizontal spatial variability of dew at the field scale had not yet been examined. We conducted a study in a maize field during the growing season of 2009 to investigate variations in dew duration and amount at 4 locations in a 1km2 with varying topography and soil characteristics. At each of the four sites, two leaf wetness sensors were installed at both 1/3- and 2/3-canopy height, providing insight into variations in dew duration between the four locations. Above canopy temperature and relative humidity were measured, in addition to in-canopy temperature and relative humidity, measured at half-canopy height. Soil moisture was measured continuously at each of the four locations. Physical samples were taken 11 times during the months of July and August, 2009. Sampling began at sunrise, and was conducted 3 times at each measurement location at both 1/3- and 2/3-canopy height. In addition to samples taken at sunrise, on three occasions, samples were taken at sunset, 11pm and 3am in order to monitor the progression of dew development. A sample at three of the locations occurred at the end of August to determine how dew varies at each location by taking simultaneous measurements. Leaf area index (LAI) was measured throughout the growing season at 1/3- and 2/3-canopy height at each measurement location. This information was utilized to investigate how dew measurements taken

  18. Development and application of color schlieren technique for investigation of three-dimensional concentration field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Atul

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes the development and application of rainbow schlieren deflectometry technique for the investigation of the three-dimensional concentration field around a crystal growing from its aqueous solution. The imaging technique employs a diverging beam of light to record the projection data of the concentration field. In contrast to the conventional schlieren methods, the present system makes use of a microscopic objective lens to act as the de-collimating lens for focusing the light beam onto the color filter to get the desired schlieren effect. In order to record the projection data of the concentration field from different view angles for tomographic reconstruction, the experiments are conducted in an octagonal growth cell. Detailed quantitative analysis of the schlieren images has then been carried out for each view angle to determine the path-integrated concentration distribution. Principles of tomography have been employed for the reconstruction of concentration field at select horizontal planes above the growing crystal. Results have been presented in the form of rainbow schlieren images of the convective field, path-averaged solute concentration distribution around the growing for each view angle and local concentration distribution at select horizontal planes above the crystal top surface. Recorded color schlieren images have been compared with those of the conventional monochrome schlieren and interferometric techniques for the same experimental conditions. The extent of color re-distribution as seen from the recorded rainbow schlieren images correlate well with the bright intensity regions of monochrome schlieren images and the extent of fringe deformation in the interferometric images. The comparison has been performed for a small as well as a comparatively larger-sized crystal. For small sized-crystal, the observed color redistribution is seen to be weak and restricted to the crystal vicinity only whereas the color changes are more

  19. 36 CFR 1010.6 - Determination of requirement for EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for EA or EIS. 1010.6 Section 1010.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.6 Determination of requirement for EA or EIS. In deciding whether to require the preparation of an EA or an EIS, the NEPA Compliance Coordinator will determine whether the proposal is...

  20. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  1. NMR investigation of field-induced magnetic order in barium manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Steve

    the triangular Mn5+ magnetic lattice of Ba3Mn2O8 coupled with interdimer interaction is predicted to result in incommensurate spin structure when the symmetry axis of Ba3Mn2O8 is aligned parallel to the field. Because of single ion anisotropy of the system, Ba3Mn 2O8 has phase diagram that depends on its alignment with respect to the external field[5]. This means that the microscopic spin structure is different depending on whether the material's symmetry axis is aligned parallel or perpendicular to the field. Also, since we are dealing with S = 1, we have potential to investigate spin-gap closure due to singlet and triplet states as well as triplet and quintet states if we are able to access high enough fields (15T to 30T). Measurements at National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), gives us a superficial taste of what it is like to be in the phase created by triplet and quintet gap closure. The temperature range allowed by the Oxford dilution refrigerator system at Brown Lab, UCLA is from 1K down to 30mK. The magnetic field range allowed by the superconducting magnet at Brown Lab, UCLA is from 0T up to 12T. This combination of temperature and field range allows us to investigate the first quantum critical point (Hc1) in detail with various NMR measurements. Normal state frequency shift as a function of temperature near Hc1 reveals behavior consistent with dilute hardcore bose gas. Analysis of the lineshapes of NMR spectra going into spin order BEC phase as a function of field, we directly observe incommensurate nature of spin order and deduce development of order parameter consistent with mean-field theory. Finally, we verify that the language of dilute 3D Bosons also applies to Ba3Mn2O8 through T1 measurements. From critical behavior inferred in T1 measurements, we complete phase boundary diagram at low temperatures and apply general concept of softening in Goldstone mode near Hc1 to describe our T 1 dependence as a function of temperature.

  2. Metabolic Investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Its Bacterial Cellulose Production under a Direct Current Electric Field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Zhong, Cheng; Zhang, Yu Ming; Xu, Ze Ming; Qiao, Chang Sheng; Jia, Shi Ru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a direct current (DC) electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC) production was promoted in 12 h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field). At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18–24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid, and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth. PMID:27014248

  3. Development of Electric Field Investigations for Future Missions in Japan: from Mercury, through Earth, toward Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa

    The electric field from DC to several 10s MHz is important for the clarification of global plasma dynamics, energetic processes, and wave-particle interactions in the planetary Magnetospheres by in-situ and remote sensing studies. We have developped the instruments for several missions, i.e., (1) BepiColombo Mercury Mag-netospheric Orbiter (MMO) to Mercury [just in FM development], (2) the small-sized radiation belt mission, ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace) [in EM design], (3) the cross-scale formation flight mission, SCOPE [in ceonceptual design], and (4) the future Jovian mission, EJSM, including JAXA Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) and other elementss [in con-ceptual design]. Those will prevail the universal plasma mechanism and processes in the space laboratory. The common purposes of electric field, plasma waves, and radio waves observa-tion in those missions are: (a) Examination of the theories of high-energy particle acceleration by plasma waves, (b) identification of the origin of electric fields in the magnetosphere asso-ciated with cross-scale coupling processes, (c) diagnosis of plasma density, temperature and composition, and (d) investigation of wave-particle interaction and mode conversion processes. In order to achieve those objectives, the instrument including rigid antenna, wire antenna, and integrated receiver systems are now in development. Some of them were already used on the sounding rocket experiments (S310-23 launched by ISAS/JAXA) in 2007, and will also be used soon. As the applications of those development, we also try to adopt them to the space interferometer and the radar sounder. In this paper, we will summarize the current plan and efforts for those future activities.

  4. PIXELS: Using field-based learning to investigate students' concepts of pixels and sense of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Tinigin, L.; Petcovic, H. L.; Ormand, C. J.; LaDue, N.

    2015-12-01

    Empirical work over the past decade supports the notion that a high level of spatial thinking skill is critical to success in the geosciences. Spatial thinking incorporates a host of sub-skills such as mentally rotating an object, imagining the inside of a 3D object based on outside patterns, unfolding a landscape, and disembedding critical patterns from background noise. In this study, we focus on sense of scale, which refers to how an individual quantified space, and is thought to develop through kinesthetic experiences. Remote sensing data are increasingly being used for wide-reaching and high impact research. A sense of scale is critical to many areas of the geosciences, including understanding and interpreting remotely sensed imagery. In this exploratory study, students (N=17) attending the Juneau Icefield Research Program participated in a 3-hour exercise designed to study how a field-based activity might impact their sense of scale and their conceptions of pixels in remotely sensed imagery. Prior to the activity, students had an introductory remote sensing lecture and completed the Sense of Scale inventory. Students walked and/or skied the perimeter of several pixel types, including a 1 m square (representing a WorldView sensor's pixel), a 30 m square (a Landsat pixel) and a 500 m square (a MODIS pixel). The group took reflectance measurements using a field radiometer as they physically traced out the pixel. The exercise was repeated in two different areas, one with homogenous reflectance, and another with heterogeneous reflectance. After the exercise, students again completed the Sense of Scale instrument and a demographic survey. This presentation will share the effects and efficacy of the field-based intervention to teach remote sensing concepts and to investigate potential relationships between students' concepts of pixels and sense of scale.

  5. A Geochemical Investigation of Volcanic Rocks from the San Rafael Volcanic Field, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebli, D. J.; Germa, A.; Connor, C.; Atlas, Z. D.

    2016-12-01

    A Geochemical Investigation of Volcanic Rocks from the San Rafael Volcanic Field, Utah Authors: Danielle Koebli, Dr. Aurelie Germa, Dr. Zackary Atlas, Dr. Charles Connor The San Rafael Volcanic Field (SRVF), Utah, is a 4Ma volcanic field located in the northwestern section of the Colorado Plateau. Alkaline magmas intruded into Jurassic sandstones , known as the Carmel, Entrada, Curtis and Summerville sandstone formations, and formed comagmatic dikes, sills and conduits that became uniquely well exposed as country rocks were eroded. The two rock types that formed from the melts are shonkinite (45.88 wt% SiO2) and syenite (50.84wt% SiO2); with dikes being predominantly shonkinite and sills exhibiting vertical alternation of shonkinite and syenite, a result of liquid immiscibility. The aim of this study is to determine magma temperatures, and mineral compositions which will be used for determining physical conditions for magma crystallization. Research is being conducted using an Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) for single crystal analysis, and data were plotted using PINGU software through VHub cyberinfrastructure. EPMA data supports hydrated magma theories due to the large amounts of biotite and hornblende mixed in with olivine, feldspar and pyroxene. The data is also indicative of a calcium-rich magma which is further supported by the amount of pyroxene and plagioclase in the sample. Moreover, there are trace amounts orthoclase, quartz and k-feldspar due to sandstone inclusions from the magma intruding into the country rocks. The olivine crystals present in the samples are all chemically similar, having high Mg (Fo80-Fo90), which, coupled with a lower Fe content indicate a hotter magma. Comparison of mineral and whole-rock compositions using MELTs program will allow us to calculate magma viscosity and density so that the physical conditions for magma crystallization can be determined.

  6. The 2014 eruption of Fogo volcano investigated by InSAR, modelling and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Thomas R.; Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Prats-Iraola, Pau; De Zeeuw van Dalfsen, Elske; Richter, Nicole; Levy, Judith; Pérez Rodriguez, Nemesio

    2015-04-01

    After 20 years of quiescence, Fogo volcano (Cape Verdes) initiated an eruption on 23 November 2014. The eruption had significant precursors, such as degassing and seismicity, and occurred at a similar location as in 1995. Lava flows rapidly propagated to inhabited regions, a significant part of the Islands' population has been replaced in the towns of Portela and Bangaeira. In an attempt to better understand the physics of this eruption, here we detail on ground deformation that is investigated using the synthetic aperture radar interferometry method. The data comes from the Sentinel-1 satellite, a new platform of the European Space Agency. Data acquired in ascending and descending orbit before and during the eruption, reveal significant displacements in the Cha das Caldeiras region. By using a Boundary Element Method we are able to model the data by applying a dike striking NE-SW, steeply dipping to the southeast. As the satellite data was acquired at different time increments we are furthermore able to image the location of the active dike changing in time and space. To explain this geometry, we compare the parameters of the dike to the topographic stress field and also discuss a possible reactivation of pre-existing structures. Field data allows to quantify the volume of the lava flow, which we then compare to the initial dike volume. This work demonstrates a scenario where a magma pathway is reused in two consecutive eruptions that are 20 years apart, with important implications of the general volcano-tectonic framework and stress field of the island.

  7. [Investigation in early intervention].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, F A

    2002-02-01

    Point out the importance of the research in early intervention (EI), its limitations, and peculiarities. After defender the importance of research in this applied field, its problems in EI are analysed from different perspectives. The idiosyncrasy of the intervention goals perfectly explain the concurrence of ethical and methodological limitations, which affect to the possible research designs. The diversity of possible needs of EI in the children lead to a great variability and heterogeneousity in the attended population and a great dispersion in the research purposes in this field. Centred in the interest by to improve the quality of the offered services, the actual situation of the research on the efficacy of the intervention in EI lead to reclaim insistently the development of multidimensional approaches. Evaluation of the intervention results, for example, must not exclusively centred in child developmental acquisitions, or at least not only in the classic aspects of motor, cognitive, language, etc.; quite the contrary, it must be take into account new areas and competencies, related both to the child and to his/her family. The evaluation of results or goals of the intervention must be only one dimensions more, which must be faced simultaneously to the evaluation of the characteristics of the child and his/her family and the characteristics of the programs itself. The accumulated experience after eight years of service of a Research Department in a Childhood Developmental and Early Intervention Centre permit point out that this type of initiatives are valid to promote the research in the EI field.

  8. Small estuarine fishes feed on large trematode cercariae: Lab and field investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaplan, A.T.; Rebhal, S.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, dense populations of snails can shed millions of digenean trematode cercariae every day. These short-lived, free-living larvae are rich in energy and present a potential resource for consumers. We investigated whether estuarine fishes eat cercariae shed by trematodes of the estuarine snail Cerithidea californica. In aquaria we presented cercariae from 10 native trematode species to 6 species of native estuarine fishes. Many of these fishes readily engorged on cercariae. To determine if fishes ate cercariae in the field, we collected the most common fish species, Fundulus parvipinnis (California killifish), from shallow water on rising tides when snails shed cercariae. Of 61 killifish, 3 had recognizable cercariae in their gut. Because cercariae are common in this estuary, they could be frequent sources of energy for small fishes. In turn, predation on cercariae by fishes (and other predators) could also reduce the transmission success of trematodes. ?? 2009 American Society of Parasitologists.

  9. Investigation of dyed human hair fibres using apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Formanek, F; DE Wilde, Y; Luengo, G S; Querleux, B

    2006-11-01

    We present the first studies of dyed human hair fibres performed with an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope. Samples consisted of 5-microm-thick cross-sections, the hair fibres being bleached and then dyed before being cut. Hair dyed with two molecular probes diffusing deep inside the fibre or mainly spreading at its periphery were investigated at a wavelength of 655 nm. An optical resolution of about 50 nm was achieved, well below the diffraction limit; the images exhibited different optical contrasts in the cuticle region, depending on the nature of the dye. Our results suggest that the dye that remains confined at the hair periphery is mainly located at its surface and in the endocuticle.

  10. Controlled doping of silicon nanocrystals investigated by solution-processed field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Gresback, Ryan; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Ding, Yi; Chen, Ting; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2014-06-24

    The doping of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), which is vital for the optimization of NC-based devices, remains a significant challenge. While gas-phase plasma approaches have been successful in incorporating dopant atoms into NCs, little is known about their electronic activation. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of doped silicon NC thin films cast from solution by field effect transistor analysis. We find that, analogous to bulk silicon, boron and phosphorus electronically dope Si NC thin films; however, the dopant activation efficiency is only ∼10(-2)-10(-4). We also show that surface doping of Si NCs is an effective way to alter the carrier concentrations in Si NC films.

  11. [Risk of neoplastic diseases in conditions of exposure to radio- and microwave fields--epidemiologic investigations].

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, Stanisław; Sobiczewska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The review presents current state of knowledge of cancer morbidity in persons exposed to radio- or microwave radiation in the environment or at working posts. The problem of cancer morbidity in persons exposed to microwaves was for many years limited to occupational medicine, but the introduction of mobile telephone system in the 1980s considerably increased the number of persons exposed to this radiation and raised concerns about cancer risks in the users of mobile phones. Cancer risks of microwaves are minor and doubtful, but there exist reliable epidemiologic investigations providing evidence that multiyear occupational exposure and intensive use of mobile phones for more than 10 years may cause the increased morbidity of certain types of neoplasms, mainly brain tumors, as well as hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies. Neverthelesscurrent state of knowledge does not allow, according to the IARC classification, to classify radio- and microwave fields as the carcinogenic factor.

  12. Toward scalable information processing with ultracold polar molecules in an electric field: A numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bomble, Laeetitia; Pellegrini, Philippe; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Desouter-Lecomte, Michele

    2010-12-15

    We numerically investigate the possibilities of driving quantum algorithms with laser pulses in a register of ultracold NaCs polar molecules in a static electric field. We focus on the possibilities of performing scalable logical operations by considering circuits that involve intermolecular gates (implemented on adjacent interacting molecules) to enable the transfer of information from one molecule to another during conditional laser-driven population inversions. We study the implementation of an arithmetic operation (the addition of 0 or 1 on a binary digit and a carry in) which requires population inversions only and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm which requires a control of the phases. Under typical experimental conditions, our simulations show that high-fidelity logical operations involving several qubits can be performed in a time scale of a few hundreds of microseconds, opening promising perspectives for the manipulation of a large number of qubits in these systems.

  13. LOSA-MS lidar for investigation of aerosol fields in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairashin, G. S.; Balin, Yurii S.; Ershov, Arkadii D.; Kokhanenko, Grigorii P.; Penner, I. E.

    2005-07-01

    The LOSA-MS combined small-sized single-wavelength backscatter lidar is described whose operation is based on the effects of Raman and elastic scattering. To extend the range of sounding, lidar returns are registered simultaneously in analog and photon counting regimes. A photodetector system for wavelength and polarization selection of lidar signals is described. The basic physical principles of laser sounding and methods of solving the lidar equation to retrieve information on the optical-physical state of examined objects are presented. Examples of using the LOSA-MS lidar for monitoring of spatiotemporal distribution of aerosol pollutants above an industrial center are given together with examples of investigation of the aerosol field structure under background atmospheric conditions.

  14. Investigation of drift effect on silicon nanowire field effect transistor based pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sihyun; Kwon, Dae Woong; Lee, Ryoongbin; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-06-01

    It is widely accepted that the operation mechanism of pH-sensitive ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) can be divided into three categories; reaction of surface sites, chemical modification of insulator surface, and ionic diffusion into the bulk of insulator. The first mechanism is considered as the main operation mechanism of pH sensors due to fast response, while the others with relatively slow responses disturb accurate pH detection. In this study, the slow responses (often called drift effects) are investigated in silicon nanowire (SiNW) pH-sensitive ISFETs. Based on the dependence on the channel type of SiNW, liquid gate bias, and pH, it is clearly revealed that the drift of n-type SiNW results from H+ diffusion into the insulator whereas that of p-type SiNW is caused by chemical modification (hydration) of the insulator.

  15. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  16. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.

  17. Investigation of CFRP in aerospace field and improvement of the molding accuracy by using autoclave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, Takunori

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) has come to be used in a wide range of industries such as sporting goods, fishing tackle and cars because it has a large number of advantages. In this situation, even the passenger aircraft industry also pays attention to the material. CFRP is an ideal material for airplanes because it has a lot of advantages such as light weight and strong, chemical resistance and corrosion resistance. Generally, autoclave is used for molding CFRP in the field of aerospace engineering. Autoclave is a machine that can mold a product by heating and pressurizing material in an evacuated bag. What is examined in this paper is an observation on handmade CFRP by a polarizing microscope. In addition, mechanical characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, an improvement of accuracy in CFRP molding using an autoclave is suggested from viewpoint of thermodynamics.

  18. Investigation of an Optimum Detection Scheme for a Star-Field Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, M. D.; Credeur, L.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the optimum detection scheme for a star-field mapping system that uses coded detection resulting from starlight shining through specially arranged multiple slits of a reticle. The computer solution of equations derived from a theoretical model showed that the greatest probability of detection for a given star and background intensity occurred with the use of a single transparent slit. However, use of multiple slits improved the system's ability to reject the detection of undesirable lower intensity stars, but only by decreasing the probability of detection for lower intensity stars to be mapped. Also, it was found that the coding arrangement affected the root-mean-square star-position error and that detection is possible with error in the system's detected spin rate, though at a reduced probability.

  19. Investigation of pulsed field deletions at the chromosome 16 TSC2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Brook-Carter, P.T.; Thompson, P.; Nellist, M.

    1994-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis loci map at 9q34 near to the Abelson oncogene, and at 16p13.3 in the candidate region for type 1 adult polycystic kidney disease (PKD1). Five TSC-associated pulsed field deletions were found in the gene-rich PKD1 candidate region at 16p13.3, leading to the cloning and characterization of the TSC2 gene. One deletion detected in a TSC patient with polycystic kidneys (WS-53) also involved a gene proximal and adjacent to the TSC2 gene. This gene has now been shown to be the causative gene in type 1 adult polycystic kidney disease. Polycystic reneal disease is well recognized in association with TSC. We are therefore investigating other TSC patients with this complication to determine whether mutations affecting both the TSC2 and PKD1 genes account for this phenotypic variant of TSC.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Formation and Detachment of Droplets from Pores in a Shear Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, Kathleen; Tanner, Franz X.; Windhab, Erich J.

    2010-09-01

    The formation and detachment behavior of droplets from a pore opening into a simple shear field within a channel gap is investigated using numerical simulations. The mathematical model consists of the governing equations for an incompressible two-phase flow problem with a moving contact line. These equations are numerically solved using the volume-of-fluid method implemented in the open source software OpenFOAM. A parameter study was performed to determine the effect of relevant dimensionless parameters on the formation and detachment behavior of the droplets. These dimensionless parameters involve the pore size, pore flow rate, gap shear rate, interfacial tension, and the viscosity and density of the two fluid phases. For the parameter range considered in this study, different degrees of jetting behavior were observed. Also, the sizes of the detached droplets were seen to decrease as the gap shear rate increased, and increase with the pore flow rate, with the gap shear rate having a larger effect.

  1. 3D-QSAR Investigation of Synthetic Antioxidant Chromone Derivatives by Molecular Field Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samee, Weerasak; Nunthanavanit, Patcharawee; Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn

    2008-01-01

    A series of 7-hydroxy, 8-hydroxy and 7,8-dihydroxy synthetic chromone derivatives was evaluated for their DPPH free radical scavenging activities. A training set of 30 synthetic chromone derivatives was subject to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using molecular field analysis (MFA). The substitutional requirements for favorable antioxidant activity were investigated and a predictive model that could be used for the design of novel antioxidants was derived. Regression analysis was carried out using genetic partial least squares (G/PLS) method. A highly predictive and statistically significant model was generated. The predictive ability of the developed model was assessed using a test set of 5 compounds (r2pred = 0.924). The analyzed MFA model demonstrated a good fit, having r2 value of 0.868 and cross-validated coefficient r2cv value of 0.771. PMID:19325746

  2. Investigation of the helimagnetic phases of holmium in a c -axis magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Tindall, D.A. ); Steinitz, M.O.; Kahrizi, M. ); Noakes, D.R. ); Ali, N. )

    1991-04-15

    Neutron diffraction measurements have been made in the ({ital h}0{ital l}) plane of holmium in a {ital c}-axis magnetic field of 3 T. Thermal expansivity measurements have also been made by capacitance dilatometry. The main focus of our investigation has been a region about 2 K wide near 96 K, where the helimagnetic structure locks into a commensurate state. We have also been able to observe the 2-{tau}'' satellites (at twice the fundamental magnetic ordering {ital q} vector) at temperatures as high as 3 K below the Neel transition. In the region between the lock-in transition and the Neel point, the intensities of these satellites show interesting behavior with temperature and may be showing effects due to the anomalies which have been identified in our magnetization measurements.

  3. Rapid arsenite oxidation by Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus: Field and laboratory investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gihring, T.M.; Druschel, G.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Hamers, R.J.; Banfield, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed conserved total arsenic transport and rapid arsenite oxidation occurring within the drainage channel. This environment was heavily colonized by Thermus aquaticus. In laboratory experiments, arsenite oxidation by cultures of Thermus aquaticus YT1 (previously isolated from Yellowstone National Park) and Thermus thermophilus HB8 was accelerated by a factor of over 100 relative to abiotic controls. Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus may therefore play a large and previously unrecognized role in determining arsenic speciation and bioavailability in thermal environments.

  4. Investigation of co-genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in vivo.

    PubMed

    Verschaeve, L; Heikkinen, P; Verheyen, G; Van Gorp, U; Boonen, F; Vander Plaetse, F; Maes, A; Kumlin, T; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Puranen, L; Juutilainen, J

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the possible combined genotoxic effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (900 MHz, amplitude modulated at 217 Hz, mobile phone signal) with the drinking water mutagen and carcinogen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX). Female rats were exposed to RF fields for a period of 2 years for 2 h per day, 5 days per week at average whole-body specific absorption rates of 0.3 or 0.9 W/kg. MX was given in the drinking water at a concentration of 19 microg/ml. Blood samples were taken at 3, 6 and 24 months of exposure and brain and liver samples were taken at the end of the study (24 months). DNA damage was assessed in all samples using the alkaline comet assay, and micronuclei were determined in erythrocytes. We did not find significant genotoxic activity of MX in blood and liver cells. However, MX induced DNA damage in rat brain. Co-exposures to MX and RF radiation did not significantly increase the response of blood, liver and brain cells compared to MX exposure only. In conclusion, this 2-year animal study involving long-term exposures to RF radiation and MX did not provide any evidence for enhanced genotoxicity in rats exposed to RF radiation.

  5. Numerical investigation of the dynamics of Janus magnetic particles in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hui Eun; Kim, Kyoungbeom; Ma, Tae Yeong; Kang, Tae Gon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the rotational dynamics of Janus magnetic particles suspended in a viscous liquid, in the presence of an externally applied rotating magnetic field. A previously developed two-dimensional direct simulation method, based on the finite element method and a fictitious domain method, is employed to solve the magnetic particulate flow. As for the magnetic problem, the two Maxwell equations are converted to a differential equation using the magnetic potential. The magnetic forces acting on the particles are treated by a Maxwell stress tensor formulation, enabling us to consider the magnetic interactions among the particles without any approximation. The dynamics of a single particle in the rotating field is studied to elucidate the effect of the Mason number and the magnetic susceptibility on the particle motions. Then, we extended our interest to a two-particle problem, focusing on the effect of the initial configuration of the particles on the particle motions. In three-particle interaction problems, the particle dynamics and the fluid flow induced by the particle motions are significantly affected by the particle configuration and the orientation of each particle.

  6. Experimental investigation of conical bubble structure and acoustic flow structure in ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojian; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu; Zhang, Mindi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transient conical bubble structure (CBS) and acoustic flow structure in ultrasonic field. In the experiment, the high-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used to measure the acoustic cavitation patterns, as well as the flow velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for a high power ultrasound with a frequency of 18kHz, and the range of the input power is from 50W to 250W. The results of the experiment show the input power significantly affects the structures of CBS, with the increase of input power, the cavity region of CBS and the velocity of bubbles increase evidently. For the transient motion of bubbles on radiating surface, two different types could be classified, namely the formation, aggregation and coalescence of cavitation bubbles, and the aggregation, shrink, expansion and collapse of bubble cluster. Furthermore, the thickness of turbulent boundary layer near the sonotrode region is found to be much thicker, and the turbulent intensities are much higher for relatively higher input power. The vorticity distribution is prominently affected by the spatial position and input power. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Calibration and Testing of the Energetic Particle Detector for the Electron Losses and Fields Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingley, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Caron, R.; Chung, M.; Runov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Electron Losses and Fields Investigation, (ELFIN), is a 3U+ CubeSat space weather mission in development at UCLA, preparing for a launch into low Earth orbit in late 2017. The goal of the ELFIN mission is to characterize the pitch-angle resolved energy distribution of relativistic particles as they precipitate from the radiation belts into Earth's atmosphere. This is achieved with the use of an Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) designed, developed, and tested by engineers and scientists at UCLA. The detector is equipped with two sensors, one for electrons and one for ions, and is capable of resolving particles with an energy range of 50 keV to >4 MeV (electrons) and 50 keV to >300 keV (ions). The uniqueness of the ELFIN EPD is due to this wide energy range coupled with a narrow field of view (<28°), along with its miniaturization into a 1U CubeSat form factor. With the instrument design complete, calibration and verification of the performance of the instrument is now being conducted using radioactive sources in air and in vacuum. This will prove readiness for a July 2017 ELFIN mission delivery for launch on a Delta II out of VAFB with NASA/IceSatII as its primary.

  8. Combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the gas bubble motion in an acoustic field.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojian; Xing, Tianyu; Huang, Biao; Li, Qiuhe; Yang, Yifei

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the combined experimental and theoretical method to investigate the various behaviors of gas bubbles in an acoustic field. In the experiments, high-speed video and ultrasonic processor are used to capture the transient evolution of gas bubble patterns, as well as velocity profiles. In the theoretical analysis, the theories of primary and secondary Bjerknes forces and buoyancy force are introduced to accurately demonstrate the variations of bubble volume and motion. Results are presented for gas bubbles with the radius of 1.4mm under an acoustic field with a frequency of 18kHz, for three cases, namely single bubble rising in a quiescent liquid, acoustic single bubble oscillation and two bubbles coalescence conditions. The results show that the fragments around the single gas bubble presents the periodical behaviors, namely, splitting, attraction, and secondary splitting motion. The centroid of the single gas bubble almost oscillates without motion upwards or downwards, because of the equilibrium of the primary Bjerknes force caused by acoustic waves and the effect of the buoyancy force. For the two coalescing bubbles, the resultant of buoyancy, primary and secondary Bjerknes forces acting on two bubbles are same in magnitude, but in opposite direction, which indicates that two gas bubbles attract each other and and coalesce into one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Acoustic Fields for the Cassini Spacecraft: Reverberant Versus Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Himelblau, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The characterization and understanding of the acoustic field within a launch vehicle's payload fairing (PLF) is critical to the qualification of a spacecraft and ultimately to the success of its mission. Acoustic measurements taken recently for the Cassini mission have allowed unique opportunities to advance the aerospace industry's knowledge in this field. Prior to its launch, the expected liftoff acoustic environment of the spacecraft was investigated in a full-scale acoustic test of a Titan IV PLF and Cassini simulator in a reverberant test chamber. A major goal of this acoustic ground test was to quantify and verify the noise reduction performance of special barrier blankets that were designed especially to reduce the Cassirii acoustic environment. This paper will describe both the ground test and flight measurements, and compare the Cassini acoustic environment measured during launch with that measured earlier in the ground test. Special emphasis will be given to the noise reduction performance of the barrier blankets and to the acoustic coherence measured within the PLF.

  10. Investigation of the Velocity Field and Flow Regime of David Glacier and Drygalski Ice Tongue, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, J.; Jezek, K. C.

    2005-12-01

    Recent observations of outlet glaciers in both Greenland and Antarctica show surprising and unexpectedly rapid changes in flow velocities. Outlet glaciers drain the majority of the polar ice sheets and consequently these changes threaten their stability and can lead to rising sea levels. It is therefore important to investigate their flow governing processes and document changes. We measured surface velocity over large portions of David Glacier and its floating seaward extension Drygalski Ice Tongue. This is the largest outlet glacier on the Scott Coast draining a section of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Ross Sea. Giant iceberg B15-A recently collided with the ice tongue and broke off a significant section. To obtain velocities we used combinations of intensity feature tracking, interferometric speckle tracking and phase interferometry using RADARSAT-1 images acquired during the AMM-1 and MAMM missions. We compare short term velocities, 3-year averaged velocities and earlier studies to analyze spatial and temporal variability of the surface velocity field. We use obtained velocities, in combination with isostatically derived ice thickness from ICESat data, to estimate basal melting along the glacier. Also we investigate the role of lateral drag through force-budget theory and determine the equilibrium profile of the ice tongue. Unlike for example the West Antarctic Ice Streams and Jakobshavn Isbrae, our data suggests that the David Glacier velocity field has remained relatively constant from about 1991 - 2000 and likely much longer. The pattern of melting and freezing along the base of the glacier is consistent with an ice pump mechanism. In the fjord lateral drag opposes approximately 90% of the driving stress; this gradually drops to the point where most resistance comes from longitudinal stress gradients. We find the modeled and ICESat derived profile agree favorably suggesting steady state conditions

  11. Field investigations of the interaction between debris flows and forest vegetation in two Alpine fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Tamara; Bettella, Francesco; D'Agostino, Vincenzo

    2017-02-01

    A key objective in debris-flow hazard mitigation is the reduction of the potential depositional area in the fan. From this point of view, forested areas are able to provide a protective function hindering the flow motion and promoting the surge deposition. Despite extensive research on Alpine forests and their protective functions, relatively few studies in the literature have quantitatively focused on the relationship between debris-flow depositional features and vegetation. In light of the above, our research investigates how vegetation characteristics in the fan area interact with debris-flow deposition. Field investigations were carried out in two Alpine fans where debris-flow events occurred in the summer of 2012. By recording the characteristics of 1567 involved trees and the associated deposit thicknesses, this paper provides a data set that contributes to the improvement of the knowledge of these interaction processes. The integration of literature findings and the analysis of the collected dataset adds insights into the relationships between tree characteristics and the dynamics of debris flow during the runout path. The main results prove the capacity of the forest of uniformly promoting flow-energy dissipation, presence of high species diversity in debris-flow deposits when comparing disturbed and undisturbed forest stands, tree mortality largely affecting small diameters < 10 cm in the upper/medium part of the cone, and deposit thicknesses depending on the trunk diameter only if the debris-flow regime was collisional. Based on the field results and their analysis, some criteria for the management of protection forests in alluvial fans are suggested.

  12. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses.

  13. Investigation on critical breakdown electric field of hot carbon dioxide for gas circuit breaker applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Murphy, Anthony B.; Zhang, Hantian

    2015-02-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is widely used in high-voltage circuit breakers, but due to its high global warming potential, substitutes are being sought. CO2 has been investigated as a candidate based on its arc interruption performance. The hot gas in the circuit breaker after current zero, with a complicated species composition caused by the dissociation and many other reactions, will lead to the electrical breakdown, which is one of the major concerns in assessing the arc interruption performance. Despite this, little research has been reported on the dielectric strength of hot CO2. In this paper, the dielectric properties of hot CO2 related to the dielectric recovery phase of the circuit breaker were investigated in the temperature range from 300 to 4000 K and in the pressure range from 0.01 to 1.0 MPa. Under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and local chemical equilibrium (LCE), the equilibrium compositions of hot CO2 were obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The cross sections for interactions between electrons and the species are presented. The critical reduced electric field strength of CO2 was determined by balancing electron generation and loss. These were evaluated using the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) derived from the two-term Boltzmann transport equation. The result indicates that unlike SF6 or air, in hot CO2 the reduced critical electric field strength does not change monotonically with increasing heavy-particle temperature from 300 to 4000 K. CO2 has a superior dielectric strength to pure SF6 above 2500 K at 0.5 MPa, which means it has the potential to improve the interruption performance of the circuit breakers, while reducing the global warming effect. Good agreement was found with published experimental results and calculations for CO2 at room temperature, and with previous calculations for hot CO2.

  14. Three-dimensional phase-field investigation of pore space cementation and permeability in quartz sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, N.; Ankit, K.; Selzer, M.; Nestler, B.; Schmidt, C.; Hilgers, C.

    2016-12-01

    Prediction of cement volumes is an integral part of reservoir modeling. Quantitative determination of petrophysical charateristics such as permeability and water saturation are essential in order to assess the sufficiency of hydrocarbons in pore space. Conventional techniques such as well-logging provide only a qualitative understanding of the cementation history and future pore evolution. Diffused modeling approach such as the phase-field method is a viable alternative that can be used to numerically simulate pore cementation under different boundary conditions in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. Here, we use a multiphase-field model to investigate the dynamics of polycrystalline quartz precipitation from supersaturated solution in porous rock. To begin with, we validate the faceted-type anisotropy formulations of the interfacial energy function that corresponds to monocrystalline quartz using the volume-preservation technique. Next, we numerically simulate the unitaxial evolution of quartz in a 2D open space and investigate the role of misorientations and c/a ratios in the formation of quartz cement that is extensively observed in nature. Based on this sensitivity analysis, we choose a realistic c/a ratio to computationally mimic the anisotropic sealing of pore space in sandstone. We observe a large deviation of 3D sealing kinetics as compared to 2D. The decrease in 3D pore space volume during cementation is found to be inversely dependent (non-linear) on the inter-nuclei distance. Using CFD analysis, we then derive the temporal evolution of permeability in partially sealed microstructures. Finally, we highlight the capabilities of the present numerical approaches in numerically simulating 3D reactive flow during progressive sealing in porous rocks based on innovative post-processing analyses and visualization techniques.

  15. Data use investigation for the magnetic field satellite (MAGSAT) mission: Geomagnetic field forecasting and fluid dynamics of the core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    MAGSAT data were used to construct a variety of spherical harmonic models of the main geomagnetic field emanating from Earth's liquid core at poch 1980. These models were used to: (1) accurately determine the radius of Earth's core by a magnetic method, (2) calculate estimates, of the long-term ange of variation of geomagnetic Gauss coefficients; (3) establish a preferred truncation level for current spherical harmonic models of the main geomagnetic field from the core; (4) evaluate a method for taking account of electrical conduction in the mantle when the magnetic field is downward continued to the core-mantle boundary; and (5) establish that upwelling and downwelling of fluid motion at the top of the core is probably detectable, observationally. A fluid dynamics forecast model was not produced because of insufficient data.

  16. Investigation of CO2 induced biogeochemical reactions and active microorganisms of two German gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoth, N.; Kassahun, A.; Seifert, J.; Krüger, M.; Bretschneider, H.; Gniese, C.; Frerichs, J.; Simon, A.; Simon, E.; Muschalle, T.

    2009-04-01

    The BMBF-Geotechnologien project "RECOBIO 2" continues the investigation of the long-term biogeochemical transformation of stored CO2. In addition to the Upper Carboniferous gas reservoir Schneeren (Westphalian C) the almost depleted Altmark gas field (Permian - Upper Rotliegend) is also investigated. Both sandstone reservoirs belong to the North German Basin and are operated by the GDF SUEZ E&P Germany (GDF SUEZ). The reservoirs differ in depth, initial and current fluid pressure as well as reservoir temperature, which is a biogeochemical important parameter. While the uplifted horst structure of Schneeren (approx. depth 2700 m) has a temperature level of 80 - 90 °C, the Altmark gas field (approx. depth 3300 m) shows temperatures around 120 °C. The Altmark site is known to be favourable for underground CO2-storage by enhanced gas recovery (EGR). This EGR process is operated by GDF SUEZ at the small and hydraulic isolated reservoir block "Altensalzwedel". This pilot test is accompanied by the scientific large-scale project CLEAN. In addition the RECOBIO2 project characterises the biogeochemical situation of the both large reservoir blocks of the Altmark gas field - „Salzwedel/ Peckensen" and „Heidberg/ Mellin". The produced formation waters of these reservoir blocks were sampled on different wellheads. The redox potentials are partly very low (Eh up to -300 mV) with slightly acidic pH-values (5,5 to 6). The high saline and (nearly) sulphate free formation waters of Na/Ca-Cl type have very high loads of Zn, Pb, Hg and As. In combination to the analysed DOC levels the talk discusses the importance of metal organic complexes. Also results of fluid geochemical calculations will be presented. Furthermore the diversity of bacteria and archaea of the formation waters as well as the potentials of CH4-, CO2-formation and sulphate reduction will be shown. Therefore the cultivation experiments were carried out with different substrates (H2/CO2, acetate, methanol). It

  17. An Improved Procedure for EI Nino Forecasting: Implications for Predictability.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Zebiak, S E; Busalacchi, A J; Cane, M A

    1995-09-22

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere data assimilation procedure yields improved forecasts of El Niño for the 1980s compared with previous forecasting procedures. As in earlier forecasts with the same model, no oceanic data were used, and only wind information was assimilated. The improvement is attributed to the explicit consideration of air-sea interaction in the initialization. These results suggest that EI Niño is more predictable than previously estimated, but that predictability may vary on decadal or longer time scales. This procedure also eliminates the well-known spring barrier to EI Niño prediction, which implies that it may not be intrinsic to the real climate system.

  18. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated.

  19. Field investigation of a vibration monitoring wireless sensor network on a huge cantilever structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. F.; Liu, J. L.; Ni, Y. Q.; Zhu, D. P.

    2011-04-01

    To advance wireless structural monitoring systems mature into a reliable substitute to wired structural monitoring systems, efforts should be paid to investigate their in-field performance on real civil structures, especially complex mega structures. This study carries out an investigation into a vibration monitoring wireless sensor network (WSN) for modal identification of a huge cantilever structure. The testbed under study is the New Headquarters of Shenzhen Stock Exchange (NHSSE). One outstanding feature of NHSSE is its huge floating platform, which is a steel truss structure with an overall plan dimension of 98x162 m and a total height of 24 m. It overhangs from the main tower 36 m along the long axis and 22 m along the short axis at a height of 36 m above the ground, making it the largest cantilever structure in the world. Recognizing the uniqueness of this floating platform, the performance of the WSN for ambient vibration measurement of this structure is examined. A preliminary two-point simultaneous acceleration measurement using the WSN is reported in this paper. The preliminary study demonstrates that the WSN is capable of measuring the ambient vibration and identifying the modal properties of a huge cantilever structure.

  20. Limited field investigation report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-BC-5 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-BC-5 Operable Unit is one of three operable units associated with the 100 B/C Area. Operable units 1 and 2 address contaminant sources while 100-BC-5 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of investigation used during this LFI was the installation of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and 10% of the subsequent rounds of data associated with the LFI were validated. The screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration constituents that were below background. Constituents considered nontoxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Inconsistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). Tritium and strontium-90 were identified as contaminants of concern at 100-BC-5 because the concentrations exceeded potential applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. The QRA determined that the risk is low for all of the site contaminants.

  1. Field investigation on severely damaged aseismic buildings in 2014 Ludian earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xuchuan; Zhang, Haoyu; Chen, Hongfu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Junqi

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 magnitude 6.5 Ludian earthquake caused a death toll of 617, many landslides and tens of thousands of collapsed buildings. A field investigation to evaluate the damage to buildings was carried out immediately after the occurrence of the earthquake. Severely damaged aseismic buildings, which were basically observed in the downtown of Longtoushan Town, were carefully examined one by one with the aim to improve design codes. This paper summarizes the damage observed to the investigated aseismic buildings in both the structural and local levels. A common failure mode was observed that most of the aseismic buildings, such as RC frame structures and confined masonry structures, were similarly destroyed by severe damage or complete collapse of the first story. The related strong ground motion, which was recorded at the nearby station, had a short duration of less than 20 s but a very large PGA up to 1.0 g. The RC frames based on the new design codes still failed to achieve the design target for "strong column, weak beam". Typical local failure details, which were related to the interaction between RC columns and infill walls and between constructional columns and masonry walls, are summarized with preliminary analyses.

  2. Remediation of dissolved BTEX through surface application: A prototype field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, K.E.; Barker, J.F.; Gillham, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of surface application for remediating monoaromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes--termed BTEX as a group) dissolved in ground water under field conditions was investigated at a sit within Canadian Forces Base, Borden, Ontario. The surface area was 25 m{sup 2} and underlain by 3 to 3.5 m of unsaturated sandy soil. For periods of at least 216 hours, between 43 and 72 cm/d of water containing BTEX at concentrations that averaged between 8 and 11 mg/L were continuously applied by drip irrigation. Nitrogen was added to the soil as a nutrient for the final third of the investigation. Before the applied water reached the water table, BTEX mass losses ranged from 65 to essentially 100 percent. Less than 6 percent of the BTEX mass losses could be attributed to volatilization from the unsaturated soil. The remaining BTEX mass losses were attributed to biodegradation, mostly in the top 50 cm of the soil, which contained more organic nitrogen and organic carbon than the deeper soil. Biodegradation rates increased with applied concentration, nitrogen addition, and exposure to BTEX. Benzene concentrations in ground water attained compliance with Canadian and American drinking water standards only after nitrogen application.

  3. An Investigation on the Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qiang; Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Yan, Jiayong; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    For this investigation, we studied the effects of extremely low frequency pulse electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on the human cardiac signal. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 22 healthy volunteers before and after a short duration of ELF-PEMF exposure were recorded. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The root mean square (RMS) value of the recorded data was considered as comparison criteria. We also measured and analysed four important ECG time intervals before and after ELF-PEMF exposure. Results revealed that the RMS value of the ECG recordings from 18 participants (81.8% of the total participants) increased with a mean value of 3.72%. The increase in ECG voltage levels was then verified by a second experimental protocol with a control exposure. In addition to this, we used hyperbolic T-distributions (HTD) in the analysis of ECG signals to verify the change in the RR interval. It was found that there were small shifts in the frequency-domain signal before and after EMF exposure. This shift has an influence on all frequency components of the ECG signals, as all spectrums were shifted. It is shown from this investigation that a short time exposure to ELF-PEMF can affect the properties of ECG signals. Further study is needed to consolidate this finding and discover more on the biological effects of ELF-PEMF on human physiological processes. PMID:27886102

  4. An experimental investigation of velocity fields in divergent glottal models of the human vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    In speech, sound production arises from fluid-structure interactions within the larynx as well as viscous flow phenomena that is most likely to occur during the divergent orientation of the vocal folds. Of particular interest are the flow mechanisms that influence the location of flow separation points on the vocal folds walls. Physiologically scaled pulsatile flow fields in 7.5 times real size static divergent glottal models were investigated. Three divergence angles were investigated using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV). The pulsatile glottal jet exhibited a bi-modal stability toward both glottal walls, although there was a significant amount of variance in the angle the jet deflected from the midline. The attachment of the Coanda effect to the glottal model walls occurred when the pulsatile velocity was a maximum, and the acceleration of the waveform was zero. The location of the separation and reattachment points of the flow from the glottal models was a function of the velocity waveform and divergence angle. Acoustic analogies show that a dipole sound source contribution arising from the fluid interaction (Coanda jet) with the vocal fold walls is expected. [Work funded by NIH Grant RO1 DC03577.

  5. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-08-12

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm(3) in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  6. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  7. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  8. Investigation of the dimensionality of charge transport in organic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Fabiano, Simone; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Ever since the first experimental investigations of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) the dimensionality of charge transport has alternately been described as two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D). More recently, researchers have turned to an analytical analysis of the temperature-dependent transfer characteristics to classify the dimensionality as either 2D or 3D as well as to determine the disorder of the system, thereby greatly simplifying dimensionality investigations. We applied said analytical analysis to the experimental results of our OFETs comprising molecularly well-defined polymeric layers as the active material as well as to results obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and found that it was not able to correctly distinguish between 2D and 3D transports or give meaningful values for the disorder and should only be used for quasiquantitative and comparative analysis. We conclude to show that the dimensionality of charge transport in OFETs is a function of the interplay between transistor physics and morphology of the organic material.

  9. Comparing field investigations with laboratory models to predict landfill leachate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H.

    2009-06-15

    Investigations into laboratory reactors and landfills are used for simulating and predicting emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. We examined water flow and solute transport through the same waste body for different volumetric scales (laboratory experiment: 0.08 m{sup 3}, landfill: 80,000 m{sup 3}), and assessed the differences in water flow and leachate emissions of chloride, total organic carbon and Kjeldahl nitrogen. The results indicate that, due to preferential pathways, the flow of water in field-scale landfills is less uniform than in laboratory reactors. Based on tracer experiments, it can be discerned that in laboratory-scale experiments around 40% of pore water participates in advective solute transport, whereas this fraction amounts to less than 0.2% in the investigated full-scale landfill. Consequences of the difference in water flow and moisture distribution are: (1) leachate emissions from full-scale landfills decrease faster than predicted by laboratory experiments, and (2) the stock of materials remaining in the landfill body, and thus the long-term emission potential, is likely to be underestimated by laboratory landfill simulations.

  10. Investigating short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields on reproductive capacity of invertebrates in the field situation.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Bolte, John F B; Evans, Tracy R; Tamis, Wil L M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the introduction of wireless networks that send information all over the world. In this study we examined the impact of exposure to the fields from mobile phone base stations (GSM 900 MHz) on the reproductive capacity of small, virgin, invertebrates. A field experiment was performed exposing four different invertebrate species at different distances from a radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) transmitter for a 48-h period. The control groups were isolated from EMF exposure by use of Faraday cages. The response variables as measured in the laboratory were fecundity and number of offspring. Results showed that distance was not an adequate proxy to explain dose-response regressions. No significant impact of the exposure matrices, measures of central tendency and temporal variability of EMF, on reproductive endpoints was found. Finding no impact on reproductive capacity does not fully exclude the existence of EMF impact, since mechanistically models hypothesizing non-thermal-induced biological effects from RF exposure are still to be developed. The exposure to RF EMF is ubiquitous and is still increasing rapidly over large areas. We plea for more attention toward the possible impacts of EMF on biodiversity.

  11. Exploiting EIS/Hinode Imaging Diagnostic Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, H. P.

    2009-05-01

    Using a wide slit, also called slot, the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, on-board Hinode, is capable of obtaining relatively fast (1-3 min) simultaneous monochromatic images of various spectral lines with different formation temperatures ranging 0.4-3 MK. This mode allows us to study morphology and dynamics of solar coronal and transition region structures across the temperature spectrum in a similar way to an EUV imager. This is achieved at the expense of spectral resolution. In this paper we investigate the plasma diagnostic capabilities of these spectrally pure images.Wide slit images can be interpreted as a superposition of simultaneous narrow slit spectra from adjacent solar positions. From the comparison of consecutive narrow slit rasters and wide slit images, we demonstrate that by making simple assumptions it is possible to extract the narrow slit spectra out of the slot images. This encouraging result opens up the door for plasma diagnostics, like electron density from spectral line ratios and differential emission measure analysis, for solar dynamic events. Various examples, as well as the limitations and validity of the assumptions, are discussed.

  12. Investigating microbial transformations of soil organic matter: synthesizing knowledge from disparate fields to guide new experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Tiemann, L. K.; Ballantyne, F., IV; Lehmeier, C. A.; Min, K.

    2015-04-01

    Discerning why some soil organic matter (SOM) leaves soil profiles relatively quickly while other compounds, especially at depth, can be retained for decades to millennia is challenging for a multitude of reasons. Simultaneous with soil-specific advances, multiple other disciplines have enhanced their knowledge bases in ways potentially useful for future investigations of SOM decay. In this article, we highlight observations highly relevant for those investigating SOM decay and retention but often emanating from disparate fields and residing in literature seldom cited in SOM research. We focus on recent work in two key areas. First, we turn to experimental approaches using natural and artificial aquatic environments to investigate patterns of microbially mediated OM transformations as environmental conditions change, and highlight how aquatic microbial responses to environmental change can reveal processes likely important to OM decay and retention in soils. Second, we emphasize the importance of establishing intrinsic patterns of decay kinetics for purified substrates commonly found in soils to develop baseline rates. These decay kinetics - which represent the upper limit of the reaction rates - can then be compared to substrate decay kinetics observed in natural samples, which integrate intrinsic decay reaction rates and edaphic factors essential to the site under study but absent in purified systems. That comparison permits the site-specific factors to be parsed from the fundamental decay kinetics, an important advance in our understanding of SOM decay (and thus persistence) in natural systems. We then suggest ways in which empirical observations from aquatic systems and purified substrate-enzyme reaction kinetics can be used to advance recent theoretical efforts in SOM-focused research. Finally, we suggest how the observations in aquatic and purified substrate-enzyme systems could be used to help unravel the puzzles presented by oft-observed patterns of SOM

  13. CT-Osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) - a new investigation technique in the field of mummy research.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Anna Christina; Hotz, Gerhard; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Zumstein, Valentin; Rühli, Frank J; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena

    2017-04-04

    Introduction: The scientific study of mummies provides an insight into the life of past populations. Using CT-Osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM), a noninvasive technique based on conventional CT-data sets, it is possible to visualize the mineral density distribution in the subchondral bone plate, representing the long-term loading conditions of the articulation surface. The objective of the current study was to investigate the applicability of CT-OAM on mummies for the load analysis of joints as a new investigation technique in the field of mummy research. Material and methods: In order to clarify if apparent malpositions of the spinal column have existed during lifetime or occurred post-mortem, we evaluated the long-term loading patterns within the thoracic and lumbar endplates of 8 mummies. Results: The implementation of CT-OAM on mummies for load analysis of joints was feasible. The mineral density distribution within the endplates was not homogenous but followed distinct distribution patterns. In all of the endplates investigated the marginal zones were higher and the central areas lower mineralized, whereby the areas of greatest density were found in the peripheral marginal zones. The vertebra columns without malposition showed within the thoracic endplates an almost even circular allocation of the density maxima, whereas within the lumbar endplates an increased localization of the density maxima dorsomedial, dorsolateral and ventral was observed. The thoracic endplates of the spines with kyphosis did not show an even circular allocation anymore but a concentration of the density maxima in the ventral area and the endplates of the spines with scoliosis exhibited a predominant localization of the density maxima on the concave side. The examined endplates showed characteristic reproducible density patterns consistent with the long-term loading conditions. Conclusions: With help of CT-OAM pathological load distributions can be visualized before macroscopical changes

  14. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced.

  15. Gating capacitive field-effect sensors by the charge of nanoparticle/molecule hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghossian, Arshak; Bäcker, Matthias; Mayer, Dirk; Schöning, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The semiconductor field-effect platform is a powerful tool for chemical and biological sensing with direct electrical readout. In this work, the field-effect capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure - the simplest field-effect (bio-)chemical sensor - modified with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been applied for a label-free electrostatic detection of charged molecules by their intrinsic molecular charge. The EIS sensor detects the charge changes in AuNP/molecule inorganic/organic hybrids induced by the molecular adsorption or binding events. The feasibility of the proposed detection scheme has been exemplarily demonstrated by realizing capacitive EIS sensors consisting of an Al-p-Si-SiO2-silane-AuNP structure for the label-free detection of positively charged cytochrome c and poly-d-lysine molecules as well as for monitoring the layer-by-layer formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), representing typical model examples of detecting small proteins and macromolecules and the consecutive adsorption of positively/negatively charged polyelectrolytes, respectively. For comparison, EIS sensors without AuNPs have been investigated, too. The adsorption of molecules on the surface of AuNPs has been verified via the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. In addition, a theoretical model of the functioning of the capacitive field-effect EIS sensor functionalized with AuNP/charged-molecule hybrids has been discussed.The semiconductor field-effect platform is a powerful tool for chemical and biological sensing with direct electrical readout. In this work, the field-effect capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure - the simplest field-effect (bio-)chemical sensor - modified with citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been applied for a label-free electrostatic detection of charged molecules by their intrinsic molecular charge. The EIS sensor

  16. DARHT - an `adequate` EIS: A NEPA case study

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides a case study that is interesting for many reasons. The EIS was prepared quickly, in the face of a lawsuit, for a project with unforeseen environmental impacts, for a facility that was deemed urgently essential to national security. Following judicial review the EIS was deemed to be {open_quotes}adequate.{close_quotes} DARHT is a facility now being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship program. DARHT will be used to evaluate the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons, evaluate conventional munitions and study high-velocity impact phenomena. DARHT will be equipped with two accelerator-driven, high-intensity X-ray machines to record images of materials driven by high explosives. DARHT will be used for a variety of hydrodynamic tests, and DOE plans to conduct some dynamic experiments using plutonium at DARHT as well.

  17. Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

  18. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  19. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J; Green, Keith D; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Posey, James E; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-12-08

    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28-37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.

  20. Sediment Delivery and Environmental Change in Asian Rivers: Linking Archives with Field Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgitt, David L.

    2010-05-01

    The sensitivity of sediment yields to changes in catchment land use has been demonstrated widely at restricted spatial scales, particularly in headwater catchments, but in larger river basins the link between land use change and sediment yield is less distinct. There are multiple sediment delivery processes operating which moderate overall catchment response. Seemingly simple questions about the downstream impact of environmental change or management interventions can be notoriously difficult to predict. In large river basins the spatial scale is challenging for field-based approaches. The paper considers examples from Asian monsoon-dominated river basins to examine the extent to which long term trends in sediment flux at the basin scale can be linked to information about changing erosion and sediment transport dynamics from constituent parts of the river basin. In part this reflects the counter-balancing impacts of increasing land degradation and sediment mobility versus the rapid development of water resources and reduction in sediment conveyance. In turn, changes in fluvial systems have implications for the functioning of the carbon cycle. We have approached the problem from three main angles. Firstly, attention to database assembly and multivariate analysis of within-catchment sediment yields, from which basin response to environmental change can be identified. Secondly, responsive field investigation can be planned to validate desk-top analysis, which in turn requires the development of rapid appraisal techniques and geoindicators. Thirdly, the empirical approach can be extended by constructing geomorphologically-informed predictive models of catchment disturbance on sediment yields. The prediction of longer-term sediment yield in large catchments, which may be critical to water resource management and continent-ocean nutrient fluxes, is sensitive to many aspects of sediment delivery.

  1. Field-scale transplantation experiment to investigate structures of soil bacterial communities at pioneering sites.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Anna; Gauer, Andreas; Zeyer, Josef

    2011-12-01

    Studies on the effect of environmental conditions on plants and microorganisms are a central issue in ecology, and they require an adequate experimental setup. A strategy often applied in geobotanical studies is based on the reciprocal transplantation of plant species at different sites. We adopted a similar approach as a field-based tool to investigate the relationships of soil bacterial communities with the environment. Soil samples from two different (calcareous and siliceous) unvegetated glacier forefields were reciprocally transplanted and incubated for 15 months between 2009 and 2010. Controls containing local soils were included. The sites were characterized over time in terms of geographical (bedrock, exposition, sunlight, temperature, and precipitation) and physicochemical (texture, water content, soluble and nutrients) features. The incubating local ("home") and transplanted ("away") soils were monitored for changes in extractable nutrients and in the bacterial community structure, defined through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene. Concentrations of soluble ions in most samples were more significantly affected by seasons than by the transplantation. For example, NO(3)(-) showed a seasonal pattern, increasing from 1 to 3 μg NO(3)(-) (g soil dry weight)(-1) after the melting of snow but decreasing to <1 μg NO(3)(-) (g soil dry weight)(-1) in autumn. Seasons, and in particular strong precipitation events occurring in the summer of 2010 (200 to 300 mm of rain monthly), were also related to changes of bacterial community structures. Our results show the suitability of this approach to compare responses of bacterial communities to different environmental conditions directly in the field.

  2. Investigation of a direct effect of nanosecond pulse electric fields on mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlack, Larry E.; Roth, Caleb C.; Cerna, Cesario Z.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    The unique cellular response to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) exposure, as compared to longer pulse exposure, has been theorized to be due to permeabilization of intracellular organelles including the mitochondria. In this investigation, we utilized a high-throughput oxygen and pH sensing system (Seahorse® XF24 extracellular flux analyzer) to assess the mitochondrial activity of Jurkat and U937 cells after nsPEF. The XF Analyzer uses a transient micro-chamber of only a few μL in specialized cell culture micro-plates to enable oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) to be monitored in real-time. We found that for nsPEF exposures of 10 pulses at 10-ns pulse width and at 50 kV/cm e-field, we were able to cause an increase in OCR in both U937 and Jurkat cells. We also found that high pulse numbers (>100) caused a significant decrease in OCR. Higher amplitude 150 kV/cm exposures had no effect on U937 cells and yet they had a deleterious effect on Jurkat cells, matching previously published 24 hour survival data. These results suggest that the exposures were modulating metabolic activity in cells possibly due to direct effects on the mitochondria themselves. To validate this hypothesis, we isolated mitochondria from U937 cells and exposed them similarly and found no significant change in metabolic activity for any pulse number. In a final experiment, we removed calcium from the buffer solution that the cells were exposed in and found that no significant enhancement in metabolic activity was observed. These results suggest that direct permeabilization of the mitochondria is unlikely a primary effect of nsPEF exposure and calcium-mediated intracellular pathway activation is likely responsible for observed pulse-induced mitochondrial effects.

  3. Compound specific isotope analysis to investigate pesticide degradation in lysimeter experiments at field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabenko, Evgenia; Elsner, Martin; Bakkour, Rani; Hofstetter, Thomas; Torrento, Clara; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The frequent detection of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, consumer care products or pharmaceuticals in water is an increasing concern for human and ecosystem health. Degradation analysis of these compounds can be challenging in complex systems due to the fact that metabolites are not always found and mass balances frequently cannot be closed. Many abiotic and biotic degradation pathways cause, however, distinct isotope fractionation, where light isotopes are transferred preferentially from the reactant to the product pool (normal isotope fractionation). Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of multiple elements is a particularly powerful method to evaluate organic micropollutant transformation, because it can even give pathway-specific isotope fractionation (1,2). Available CSIA field studies, however, have focused almost exclusively on volatile petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are present in high concentrations in the environment and can be extracted easily from water for GC-IRMS analysis. In the case of micropollutants, such as pesticides, CSIA in more challenging since it needs to be conducted at lower concentrations and requires pre-concentration, purification and high chromatographic performance (3). In this study we used lysimeters experiments to analyze transformation of atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor and chloridazone by studying associated isotope fractionation. The project combines a) analytical method development for CSIA, b) identification of pathways of micropollutant degradation and c) quantification of transformation processes under field condition. The pesticides were applied both, at the soil surface and below the top soil under field-relevant concentrations in May 2014. After typical irrigation of the lysimeters, seepage water was collected in 50L bottles and stored for further SPE and CSIA. Here we present the very first result of a) analytical method development, b) improvement of SPE methods for complex pesticide

  4. Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

    1996-05-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

  5. Investigating the Role of Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream Electric Field in Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Systemwide Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0028 Investigating the role of sub-auroral polarization stream electric field in coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere...failing to comply with a collection of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE...AND SUBTITLE Investigating the role of sub-auroral polarization stream electric field in coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere systemwide

  6. Aggregation Of Volcanic Particles: Physical Constraints Provided By Field And Numerical Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E.; Bagheri, G.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    The characterization and parameterization of both sedimentation and aggregation of volcanic particles is necessary for an accurate description of the sink term in numerical models of tephra dispersal used for the evaluation of tephra hazards. Nonetheless, our understanding of particle fallout in various eruptive and atmospheric conditions is still limited mostly due to the lack of direct observations. A comparative investigation of sedimentation and aggregation of volcanic particles is here presented based on field experiments and numerical simulations. Field experiments are based on detailed observations of particle fallout during Vulcanian explosions and ash emissions at Sakurajima volcano (Japan) on August 3, 2013. Column height was up to about 3 km above sea level and the cloud spread with average velocity of about 7 ms-1 toward southeast direction. Aggregates that fell at a distance of about 4 km from the vent were filmed with a high-speed and high-resolution camera before depositing on collection glasses. In order to preserve and analyze particle aggregates with the Scanning Electron Microscope, collecting glasses were covered with a special adhesive tape. Dedicated trays were also used to collect the depositing tephra at five-minute intervals to investigate both accumulation rate and particle size. CILAS grain size analysis showed that mode of particles deposited on the ground decreased with time from 550 μm to 250 μm at the reference location. Aggregate size ranged between 400 and 900 μm (based on video analysis) and they mostly consist of a single or multiple particles acting as nuclei with diameter between 200 and 800 μm coated with ash particles (<90 μm). Also aggregate size decreased with time during fallout and aggregate typology changed from mostly coated particles to ash clusters. Aggregation significantly affected particle residence time in the spreading cloud by changing the associated settling velocity. Based on numerical constraints

  7. Clinical consequences of the EI/MCS "diagnosis": two paths.

    PubMed

    Staudenmayer, H

    1996-08-01

    There are two distinct paths down which patients "diagnosed" with environmental illness/multiple chemical sensitivities (EI/MCS) can travel. Along the first path, beliefs about low-level, multiple chemical sensitivities as the cause of physical and psychological symptoms are instilled and reinforced by a host of factors including toxicogenic speculation, iatrogenic influence mediated by unsubstantiated diagnostic and treatment practices, patient support/advocacy networks, and social contagion. Intrapsychic factors also reinforce this path through the motivational mechanism of factitious malingering, or unconscious primary and secondary gain, mediated through psychological defenses, particularly projection of cause of illness onto the physical environment. The second path involves restructuring distorted beliefs about chemical sensitivities. Explanations of the placebo effect, the physiology of the stress response, and the symptoms of anxiety and panic facilitate the direction of EI/MCS patients onto this path. A decision model is presented to discriminate among toxicogenic and psychogenic explanations of the EI/MCS phenomenon, based on appraisal of reaction and physiologic and cognitive responses during provocation chamber challenges under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. These studies have been helpful therapeutically for some patients in selecting the path that leads to wellness. This paper suggests how various therapeutic techniques can be employed with difficult patients. Often, supportive psychotherapy establishes a therapeutic alliance which facilitates cognitive therapy to restructure distorted beliefs. In the process of finding alternative explanations to chemical sensitivities, the etiology of symptoms is related to stressful life events, including childhood experiences which may have disrupted normal personality development and coping capacity. Furthermore, biological and physiological sequelae stemming from early, chronic trauma have been

  8. Investigating microbial transformations of soil organic matter: synthesizing knowledge from disparate fields to guide new experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Tiemann, L. K.; Ballantyne, F., IV; Lehmeier, C.; Min, K.

    2014-12-01

    Investigators of soil organic matter (SOM) transformations struggle with a deceptively simple-sounding question: "Why does some SOM leave the soil profile relatively quickly, while other compounds, especially those at depth, appear to be retained on timescales ranging from the decadal to the millennial?" This question is important on both practical and academic levels, but addressing it is challenging for a multitude of reasons. Simultaneous with soil-specific advances, multiple other disciplines have enhanced their knowledge bases in ways potentially useful for future investigations of SOM decay. In this article, we highlight observations highly relevant for those investigating SOM decay and retention but often emanating from disparate fields and residing in literature seldom cited in SOM research. We focus on recent work in two key areas. First, we turn to experimental approaches using natural and artificial aquatic environments to investigate patterns of microbially-mediated OM transformations as environmental conditions change, and highlight how aquatic microbial responses to environmental change can reveal processes likely important to OM decay and retention in soils. Second, we emphasize the importance of establishing intrinsic patterns of decay kinetics for purified substrates commonly found in soils to develop baseline rates. These decay kinetics - which represent the upper limit of the reaction rates - can then be compared to substrate decay kinetics observed in natural samples, which integrate intrinsic decay reaction rates and edaphic factors essential to the site under study but absent in purified systems. That comparison permits the site-specific factors to be parsed from the fundamental decay kinetics, an important advance in our understanding of SOM decay (and thus persistence) in natural systems. We then suggest ways in which empirical observations from aquatic systems and purified enzyme-substrate reaction kinetics can be used to advance recent

  9. Full-field Strain Methods for Investigating Failure Mechanisms in Triaxial Braided Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials made with triaxial braid architecture and large tow size carbon fibers are beginning to be used in many applications, including composite aircraft and engine structures. Recent advancements in braiding technology have led to commercially viable manufacturing approaches for making large structures with complex shape. Although the large unit cell size of these materials is an advantage for manufacturing efficiency, the fiber architecture presents some challenges for materials characterization, design, and analysis. In some cases, the static load capability of structures made using these materials has been higher than expected based on material strength properties measured using standard coupon tests. A potential problem with using standard tests methods for these materials is that the unit cell size can be an unacceptably large fraction of the specimen dimensions. More detailed investigation of deformation and failure processes in large unit cell size triaxial braid composites is needed to evaluate the applicability of standard test methods for these materials and to develop alternative testing approaches. In recent years, commercial equipment has become available that enables digital image correlation to be used on a more routine basis for investigation of full field 3D deformation in materials and structures. In this paper, some new techniques that have been developed to investigate local deformation and failure using digital image correlation techniques are presented. The methods were used to measure both local and global strains during standard straight-sided coupon tensile tests on composite materials made with 12 and 24 k yarns and a 0/+60/-60 triaxial braid architecture. Local deformation and failure within fiber bundles was observed, and this local failure had a significant effect on global stiffness and strength. The matrix material had a large effect on local damage initiation for the two matrix materials used in this investigation

  10. A laboratory investigation of the variability of cloud reflected radiance fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, T. B.; Cox, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    A method to determine the radiative properties of complex cloud fields was developed. A Cloud field optical simulator (CFOS) was constructed to simulate the interaction of cloud fields with visible radiation. The CFOS was verified by comparing experimental results from it with calculations performed with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. A software library was developed to process, reduce, and display CFOS data. The CFSOS was utilized to study the reflected radiane patterns from simulated cloud fields.

  11. Experimental investigation of the critical magnetic fields of transition metal superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcevoy, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The isothermal magnetic transitions of a type 2 superconductor have been studied by AC susceptibility techniques as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the exciting field. The field variation of the complex susceptibility was used to determine the critical fields. The research was planned to clarify the determination (both experimentally and theoretically) of the maximum field at which the superconductive phase spontaneously nucleates in the bulk and on the surface of the metal.

  12. Field Investigation of a New Recharge Approach for ASR Projects in Near-Surface Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gaisheng; Knobbe, Steven; Reboulet, Edward C; Whittemore, Donald O; Händel, Falk; Butler, James J

    2016-05-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is the artificial recharge and temporary storage of water in an aquifer when water is abundant, and recovery of all or a portion of that water when it is needed. One key limiting factor that still hinders the effectiveness of ASR is the high costs of constructing, maintaining, and operating the artificial recharge systems. Here we investigate a new recharge method for ASR in near-surface unconsolidated aquifers that uses small-diameter, low-cost wells installed with direct-push (DP) technology. The effectiveness of a DP well for ASR recharge is compared with that of a surface infiltration basin at a field site in north-central Kansas. The performance of the surface basin was poor at the site due to the presence of a shallow continuous clay layer, identified with DP profiling methods, that constrained the downward movement of infiltrated water and significantly reduced the basin recharge capacity. The DP well penetrated through this clay layer and was able to recharge water by gravity alone at a much higher rate. Most importantly, the costs of the DP well, including both the construction and land costs, were only a small fraction of those for the infiltration basin. This low-cost approach could significantly expand the applicability of ASR as a water resources management tool to entities with limited fiscal resources, such as many small municipalities and rural communities. The results of this investigation demonstrate the great potential of DP wells as a new recharge option for ASR projects in near-surface unconsolidated aquifers. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  13. A real-scale field experiment of debris flow for investigating its deposition and entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, J.; Son, S.; Kim, T.; Kim, S.

    2012-12-01

    In mountain area debris flows typically mobilize from slides and entrain channel materials as they propagate down over the surface of hill slope and valley. Consequently, cross-sectional averaged discharge of debris flows may increases due to the entrainment of channel materials over steep slopes while decrease due to deposition of large material at mile slopes. In this work, the erosional and depositional patterns of debris flow have been investigated through a real-scale field experiment in a mountain basin in Gangwon, Korea. The experimental basin is about 800 m long and the channel width ranges between 8 m and 25 m. The angle of the channel slope varies from 38° near the upstream end to 5° at the downstream end where a check has been installed. In the experiment, 300 cubic meters of saturated solid-fluid mixture is suddenly released by opening a gate of a concrete reservoir installed at the upstream of the basin, along with additional 10.0 cubic meters of water per second for 30 seconds. We employ several sensors for measuring the speed, depth variation and total normal and fluid pore pressures at the channel bed as the debris flow propagates downslope. The velocity and depth of the debris flow are measured using ultrasonic sensors with a measuring range up to 10 m and video recording systems. A load cell and eight pore pressure transducers ranging up 30 psia are used to measure the total normal and pore-water pressures at the base of the debris flow. Through a quantitative analysis of these experimental measurements and high-resolution LiDAR topographic data we investigate the deposition and entrainment features of debris flow. We introduce the details of the full-scale experimental basin, facility, sensors and procedure, and provide some our experimental observations.

  14. Interface Charge Transport in Organic Transistors as Investigated by Field-Induced Electron Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2013-03-01

    Most of high-performance organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) as recently developed is attainable with non-doped, single-component π-conjugated materials that exhibit high layer crystallinity both for small-molecules and polymers. The layer crystallinity is quite suitable to compose channel transport layers of the OTFTs, although the main origin to hinder the charge transport or the intrinsic carrier mobility is still controversial; intra- or intermolecular electron-phonon coupling, polarization effects by the gate-dielectrics, or thermal or extrinsic disorder effects. Here we discuss the interface charge transport in the OTFTs, as investigated by field-induced electron spin resonance (FESR) technique that probes 1/2 spin of carriers induced by gate voltage. It is shown that the FESR technique is extremely useful especially for OTFTs, because of the fairly small spin-orbit interactions in organic materials as well as of the high layer crystallinity and the anisotropy. The following important aspects of the interface charge transport are presented and discussed: (1) Carrier motion in OTFTs can be understood in terms of the multiple trap-and-release (MTR) transport. The analyses of the motional narrowing effects allow us to estimate the average trap residence time that reaches about 1 ns. (2) Carriers are frozen at the respective trap sites at low temperature. The low-temperature spectral analyses allow us to obtain the distribution of trapped carriers over their degree of localization. (3) We also developed a unique technique to investigate the intra- and inter-domain transport in polycrystalline OTFTs by using anisotropic FESR measurements. The method allows us to evaluate the potential barrier height at the domain boundaries within the films.

  15. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated.

  16. The SERMON project: 48 new field Blazhko stars and an investigation of modulation-period distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Auer, R. F.; Prudil, Z.; Juráňová, A.; Sódor, Á.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We investigated 1234 fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars observed by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) to identify the Blazhko (BL) effect. A sample of 1547 BL stars from the literature was collected to compare the modulation-period distribution with stars newly identified in our sample. Methods: A classical frequency spectra analysis was performed using Period04 software. Data points from each star from the ASAS database were analysed individually to avoid confusion with artificial peaks and aliases. Statistical methods were used in the investigation of the modulation-period distribution. Results: Altogether we identified 87 BL stars (48 new detections), 7 candidate stars, and 22 stars showing long-term period variations. The distribution of modulation periods of newly identified BL stars corresponds well to the distribution of modulation periods of stars located in the Galactic field, Galactic bulge, Large Magellanic Cloud, and globular cluster M5 collected from the literature. As a very important by-product of this comparison, we found that pulsation periods of BL stars follow Gaussian distribution with the mean period of 0.54 ± 0.07 d, while the modulation periods show log-normal distribution with centre at log (Pm [d]) = 1.78 ± 0.30 dex. This means that 99.7% of all known modulated stars have BL periods between 7.6 and 478 days. We discuss the identification of long modulation periods and show, that a significant percentage of stars showing long-term period variations could be classified as BL stars.

  17. Investigation of protein detection parameters using nanofunctionalized organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hammock, Mallory L; Knopfmacher, Oren; Naab, Benjamin D; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-28

    Biodetection using organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is gaining increasing interest for applications as diverse as food security, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. However, there still lacks a comprehensive, empirical study on the fundamental limits of OFET sensors. In this paper, we present a thorough study of the various parameters affecting biosensing using an OFET decorated with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) binding sites. These parameters include the spacing between receptors, pH of the buffer, and ionic strength of the buffer. To this end, we employed the thrombin protein and its corresponding DNA binding aptamer to form our model detection system. We demonstrate a detection limit of 100 pM for this protein with high selectivity over other proteases in situ. We describe herein a feasible approach for protein detection with OFETs and a thorough investigation of parameters governing biodetection events using OFETs. Our obtained results should provide important guidelines to tailor the sensor's dynamic range to suit other desired OFET-based biodetection applications.

  18. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-10-01

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn't cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along <110> directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along <110> directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  19. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment.

  20. Investigation of dielectric pocket induced variations in tunnel field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upasana; Narang, Rakhi; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2016-04-01

    The performance of conventional Tunnel FETs struggling from ambipolar issues, insufficient on-current, lower transconductance value, higher delay and lower cut off frequency has been improved by introducing several material and device engineering concepts in past few years. Keeping this in view, another interesting and reliable option i.e. Dielectric Pocket TFET (featuring a dielectric pocket placement near tunneling junction) has been comprehensively and qualitatively demonstrated using ATLAS device simulator. The architecture has been explored in terms of various device electrostatic parameters such as potential, energy band profile, electron and hole concentration, electric field variation and band to band generation rate (GBTB) near the tunneling junction where the Dielectric Pocket (DP) has been introduced. Subsequently, a detailed investigation by changing the position and dielectric constant of pocket at respective junctions has been made where DP induced variations in drain current, transconductance and parasitic capacitance have been examined. The work highlights major improvements over conventional TFET in terms of lower subthreshold swing and threshold voltage, higher drain current and transconductance, improved on-to-off current ratio, suppressed ambipolar conduction and improved dynamic power dissipation issues for low voltage analog and digital applications.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Chuck

    2016-07-01

    Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  2. Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

    1992-01-01

    Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

  3. Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in Kenya: a field investigation into host specificity and behavioural alterations.

    PubMed

    Britton, J R; Jackson, M C; Harper, D M

    2009-09-01

    Within the distribution of Ligula intestinalis, a tapeworm affecting freshwater fishes, there are genetically distinct and well-separated phylogenetic clusters. East Africa is represented by a single monophyletic clade which is understudied compared with Euro-Mediterranean clades. The present field investigation in the Lake Baringo and Naivasha catchments, Kenya, revealed that this L. intestinalis clade was highly host-specific, present in only 2 of 12 fishes examined; Barbus paludinosus in Naivasha and Barbus lineomaculatus in Baringo. In infected fish, cestodes comprised up to 20% of body weight. Only 1 parasite was recorded per fish, a contrast to infected fishes in Europe where mixed infections are commonplace. In B. lineomaculatus in Baringo, only fish of greater than 64 mm in length were parasitized. The highest parasite prevalence was recorded in fish of 70-77 mm in length, and reduced for lengths of 78-84 mm. Parasitized fish were significantly associated with a particular type of habitat, occurring most frequently in shallow littoral areas, and being absent from open water and rocky shore habitats. Uninfected fish were present in all habitats. This relationship between spatial occupancy and parasite prevalence is suggested to arise from behavioural alterations induced by the parasite that promotes completion of the parasite life cycle.

  4. Numerical investigations on electric field characteristics with respect to capacitive detection of free-flying droplets.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Andreas; Mutschler, Klaus; Tanguy, Laurent; Paust, Nils; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a multi-disciplinary simulation of a capacitive droplet sensor based on an open plate capacitor as transducing element is presented. The numerical simulations are based on the finite volume method (FVM), including calculations of an electric field which changes according to the presence of a liquid droplet. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is applied for the simulation of the ejection process of a liquid droplet out of a dispenser nozzle. The simulations were realised using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CFD ACE+. The investigated capacitive sensing principle enables to determine the volume of a micro droplet passing the sensor capacitor due to the induced change in capacity. It could be found that single droplets in the considered volume range of 5 nL < V(drop) < 100 nL lead to a linear change of the capacity up to ΔQ < 30 fC. The sensitivity of the focused capacitor geometry was evaluated to be S(i) = 0.3 fC/nL. The simulation results are validated by experiments which exhibit good agreement.

  5. A field study investigating effects of landmarks on territory size and shape

    PubMed Central

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S.; Eason, Perri K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how landmarks affect territories' fundamental characteristics. In this field study, we investigated effects of landmarks on territory size, shape and location in a cichlid fish (Amatitlania siquia). We provided cans as breeding sites and used plastic plants as landmarks. During 10 min trials, we recorded locations where residents chased intruders and used those locations to outline and measure the territory. In two experiments, we observed pairs without landmarks and with either a point landmark (one plant) or linear landmark (four plants) placed near the nest can. We alternated which trial occurred first and performed the second trial 24 h after the first. Territories were approximately round without landmarks or with a point landmark but were significantly more elongated when we added a linear landmark. Without landmarks, nests were centrally located; however, with any landmark, pairs set territory boundaries closer to the landmark and thus the nest. Territory size was significantly reduced in the presence of any landmark. This reduction suggests that a smaller territory with well-defined boundaries has greater benefits than a larger territory with less well-defined borders. PMID:24759367

  6. A field study investigating effects of landmarks on territory size and shape.

    PubMed

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Eason, Perri K

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how landmarks affect territories' fundamental characteristics. In this field study, we investigated effects of landmarks on territory size, shape and location in a cichlid fish (Amatitlania siquia). We provided cans as breeding sites and used plastic plants as landmarks. During 10 min trials, we recorded locations where residents chased intruders and used those locations to outline and measure the territory. In two experiments, we observed pairs without landmarks and with either a point landmark (one plant) or linear landmark (four plants) placed near the nest can. We alternated which trial occurred first and performed the second trial 24 h after the first. Territories were approximately round without landmarks or with a point landmark but were significantly more elongated when we added a linear landmark. Without landmarks, nests were centrally located; however, with any landmark, pairs set territory boundaries closer to the landmark and thus the nest. Territory size was significantly reduced in the presence of any landmark. This reduction suggests that a smaller territory with well-defined boundaries has greater benefits than a larger territory with less well-defined borders.

  7. Investigation of mechanical field weakening of axial flux permanent magnet motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.; Syafiq Mohd, M.

    2015-12-01

    An investigation of axial flux permanent magnet motor (AFPM) characteristics was conducted with a proposed mechanical field weakening control mechanisms (by means of stator-rotor force manipulation) on the motor through modeling and experimentation. By varying the air gap between at least two bistable positions, the peak torque and top speed of the motor can be extended. The motor high efficiency region can also be extended to cover greater part of the motor operating points. An analytical model of the motor had been developed to study the correlation between the total attraction force (between the rotor and the stator) and the operating parameters of the motor. The test results shows that the motor output complies with the prediction of the research hypothesis and it is likely that a spring locking mechanism can be built to dynamically adjust the air gap of the motor to increase the operating range and could be applied in electric drivetrain applications to improve overall efficiency of electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Katharine T

    2016-03-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)-rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales-can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design-in bursts over macro timescales-ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

  9. Investigation of single- and double-Λ hypernuclei using a beyond-mean-field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ji-Wei; Zhou, Xian-Rong; Guo, Li-Xin; Schulze, Hans-Josef

    2017-02-01

    A beyond-mean-field approach consisting of angular momentum projection techniques and generator coordinate method based on Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations is employed to investigate single- and double-Λ hypernuclear systems. The density-dependent N Λ interactions derived from the Nijmegen soft-core potentials are used. Rotational energy spectra and electric-quadrupole transition strengths B (E 2 ) of the hypernuclei 13CΛ, 14CΛ Λ, 21Ne21Λ, and 22NeΛ Λ are presented and compared with those of the corresponding core nuclei 12C and 20Ne. The shrinkage effect of the Λ s is demonstrated by the B (E 2 ) values, the charge radii, and the shape deformation β of the nuclear core. It is found that the reduction of the B (E 2 ) values in 13CΛ and 14CΛΛ is mainly caused by the shrinkage of the charge radii of the nuclear cores, while the reduced shape deformations also play important roles; but the contrary is the case in Ne21Λ and 22NeΛΛ. Comparison between this and other theoretical models are made, and the differences between them are illuminated.

  10. Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

    1992-09-01

    Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

  11. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-07-08

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the for- mation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was devel- oped. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along $\\langle$110$\\rangle$ directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along $\\langle$110$\\rangle$ directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  12. A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation.

    PubMed

    Pericault, Youen; Risberg, Mikael; Vesterlund, Mattias; Viklander, Maria; Hedström, Annelie

    2017-07-01

    The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists of supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section. To this end, five heat tracing temperatures were tested and the corresponding sewer and water pipe temperatures were measured. The field experiment was also simulated with a two dimensional finite volume model. The study showed that, under the climatic conditions of the experiment, a heat tracing temperature of 25 °C allowed prevention of freezing of the pipes while keeping drinking water pipes in a safe temperature range at both cross sections. The other main result was that the developed finite volume model of the sections showed a good fitting to the experimental data.

  13. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research

    PubMed Central

    Bamberger, Katharine T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)—rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales—can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Especially when done as part of a multiple timescale design—in bursts over macro timescales, ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based (rather than family-based) interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM. PMID:26541560

  14. Investigation of the Influence of Magnetospheric Sources of Field-Aligned Currents on the Equatorial Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloushko, Konstantin; Knyazeva, Mariya

    The urgency of studying electrodynamic processes related to the influence of spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the electromagnetic field in the Earth's upper atmosphere to the functioning of modern technological systems , satellite navigation systems , radio propagation Fundamentally new is the use of various third-party electrodynamic models in the total open loop model of the atmosphere based on the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM) [1,2]. Performing calculations on model UAM using different spatial and temporal distributions of field-aligned currents and brands Lukianova and Papitashvili. A comparison of model results with data Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (Peru). References begin{enumerate} Namgaladze A.A., Korenkov Yu.N., Klimenko V.V., Karpov I.V., Bessarab F.S., Surotkin V.A., Gluschenko T.A., Naumova N.M. Global model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-protonosphere system. Pure and Applied Geophysics. № 2/3, 127, 219-254, 1988. Namgaladze A.A., Martynenko O.V., Namgaladze A.N. Global model of the upper atmosphere with variable latitudinal steps of numerical integration, IUGG XXI General Assembly, Boulder, 1995, Abstracts, GAB41F-6, B150, 1995, and (in Russian) Geamagn. Aeron., 36, 89-95, 1996a.

  15. Biochemical and Structural Analysis of an Eis Family Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Keith D.; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K.; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance.

  16. Combating Enhanced Intracellular Survival (Eis)-Mediated Kanamycin Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Novel Pyrrolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-Based Eis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J; Ngo, Huy X; Gajadeera, Chathurada S; Green, Keith D; Holbrook, Selina Y L; Hou, Caixia; Posey, James E; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2017-02-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Hence, the identification of highly effective antitubercular drugs with novel modes of action is crucial. In this paper, we report the discovery and development of pyrrolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-based analogues as highly potent inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase enhanced intracellular survival (Eis), whose up-regulation causes clinically observed resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN). We performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study to optimize these compounds as potent Eis inhibitors both against purified enzyme and in mycobacterial cells. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors reveals that the compound is bound to Eis in the AG binding pocket, serving as the structural basis for the SAR. These Eis inhibitors have no observed cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and are promising leads for the development of innovative AG adjuvant therapies against drug-resistant TB.

  17. Investigating the host galaxies of luminous AGN in the local universe with integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Rebecca; Croom, Scott; Husemann, Bernd; Close AGN Reference Survey; SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates how galaxies and their super massive black holes coevolve. We use integral field spectroscopy to search for evidence of AGN feedback and triggering. We demonstrate that outflows are ubiquitous among luminous local type 2 AGN using observations from the AAT's SPIRAL instrument. Using multiple component Gaussian emission line decomposition we are able to disentangle the kinematic and ionisation properties of these winds. This allows us to argue that the outflows from these AGN are directly impacting the surrounding ISM within the galaxies. We search for evidence of AGN triggering using data from The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). CARS aims to provide a detailed multi-wavelength view of 40 nearby (0.01 < z < 0.06) unobscured AGN to study the link between AGN and their host galaxies. The primary CARS observations come from the MUSE integral field unit on the VLT, and complementary multi-wavelength observations have been approved from SOFIA, Chandra, VLA, HST, and others. We compare the stellar kinematics of active galaxies from CARS to similar inactive galaxies. We then use kinemetry to estimate the degree of dynamical disturbance, to determine whether active nuclei are preferentially hosted in dynamically disturbed or merging systems. Finally, we highlight the discovery of an AGN that has changed spectral type not once, but twice. So called ‘changing look’ AGN are an uncommon phenomenon, but twice changed AGN are much rarer. This AGN first transitioned from a narrow line AGN (type 2) to a broad line AGN (type 1) in the 1980s. It was recently observed as part of CARS. Examination of the MUSE data for this particular source showed that it no longer had the spectral features typical of a type 1 AGN. The continuum emission from the accretion disk was no longer visible and the broad lines were dramatically diminished. In this talk we describe the possible reasons for this change, supported by analysis of multi-epoch optical photometry and

  18. A Further Investigation of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields on Alkaline Phosphatase and Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Silkstone, Gary; Wilson, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Using a custom build spectrophotometer equipped with Helmholtz coils and designed to study the effects of magnetic fields on enzyme reactions in real-time we have investigated the influence of fields, from 100 μT to 10 mT and at a variety of field frequencies, on the membrane bound enzymes alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholinesterase. We have also employed other methods to apply a magnetic field, e.g. Biostim. In contrast to earlier reports we have been unable to detect any field effects on these enzymes under any field/frequency regime. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between this and earlier work and note the particularly complex influence of small temperature changes that may confound analysis. PMID:26963611

  19. Investigation of the Three-Dimensional Structure of a Rotating Magnetic Field Driven Field-Reversed Configuration using Internal Magnetic Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velas, Katherine M.

    The Translation, Confinement, Sustainment Upgrade device (TCSU) used a rotating magnetic field (RMF) to form and sustain plasma in a field-reversed configuration (FRC). The physics of RMF current drive can be modeled in terms of the torque acting on the FRC. A fully translatable three-axis internal magnetic probe was built and used to generate a full r-z map of the magnetic field in the FRC and open field line region. Probe measurements are used to calculate the torques acting on the FRC formed using even-parity and odd-parity RMF antenna configurations. Odd-parity current drive was found to be more efficient and yields a plasma with lower resistivity than in even-parity current drive. An extrapolation method was developed to generate 3D magnetic field line plots which show that unlike in even-parity, field lines in odd-parity sustained FRCs make multiple transits of the FRC. Analysis using the three-axis probe data has greatly expanded our understanding of the physics of RMF driven FRCs.

  20. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation explores the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with beach exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, Glidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanoz V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure as Beach Corrosion Test Site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to three weeks. An examination of the variation of the Bode magnitude plots with atmospheric exposure revealed no clearly identifiable trend at this point that could distinguish between the good and the poor coatings. The test will be continued by including EIS measurements after six months and one year of atmospheric exposure.

  1. Evaluation of inorganic zinc-rich primers using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation explores the use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with beach exposure as a short term method for analyzing the performance of twenty-one zinc-rich primers. The twenty-one zinc-rich primers were: Carboline CZ-11, Ameron Devoe-Marine Catha-Coat 304, Briner V-65, Ameron D-21-9, Sherwin Williams Zinc Clad II, Carboline CZ-D7, Ameron D-4, Dupont Ganicin 347WB, Porter TQ-4374H, Inorganic Coatings IC-531, Subox Galvanox IV, Southern Coatings Chemtec 600, Glidden Glidzinc 5530, Byco SP-101, Tnemec 90E-75, Devoe Catha-Coat 302H, Glidden Glidzinc 5536, Koppers 701, Ameron D-21-5, Coronado 935-152, and Subox Galvanoz V. Data were also collected on galvanized steel for comparison purposes. A library of Bode magnitude plots was generated for each coating including curves for the initial time and after each week of atmospheric exposure as Beach Corrosion Test Site near the Space Shuttle launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center for up to three weeks. An examination of the variation of the Bode magnitude plots with atmospheric exposure revealed no clearly identifiable trend at this point that could distinguish between the good and the poor coatings. The test will be continued by including EIS measurements after six months and one year of atmospheric exposure.

  2. Analysis of cyanolipids from Sapindaceae seed oils by gas chromatography-EI-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa

    2014-04-01

    As a continuation of our investigation on unusual lipids, in the present work we describe a method based on GC-FID and GC-EI-MS to analyze the molecular composition of intact cyanolipids (CL) from selected Sapindaceae plants. We applied our method to the study of CL of type I (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl-prop-2-en-1-ol-diester) from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis and Allophylus dregeanus and CL type III (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethyl-prop-1-en-3-ol-diester) from A. natalensis and Nephelium lappaceum. Our analytical approach allowed us to obtain useful mass spectra to identify individual isomeric molecular species composing the CL mixtures and resulted in the very sensitive detection and identification of minor CL. Defined CL mass spectra resulted in suitable detection of these phytochemicals in complex plant oil mixtures containing acylglycerols. To the best of our knowledge GC-EI-MS spectra of cyanolipids have never been reported before. Moreover, this study improved previous knowledge of the lipid chemistry of Sapindaceae plants.

  3. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  4. Extensive lava flow fields on Venus: Preliminary investigation of source elevation and regional slope variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee-Roberts, K.; Head, James W., III; Lancaster, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    Large-volume lava flow fields have been identified on Venus, the most areally extensive of which are known as fluctus and have been subdivided into six morphologic types. Sheetlike flow fields (Type 1) lack the numerous, closely spaced, discrete lava flow lobes that characterize digitate flow fields. Transitional flow fields (Type 2) are similar to sheetlike flow fields but contain one or more broad flow lobes. Digitate flow fields are divided further into divergent (Types 3-5) and subparallel (Type 6) classes on the basis of variations in the amount of downstream flow divergence. As a result of our previous analysis of the detailed morphology, stratigraphy, and tectonic associations of Mylitta Fluctus, we have formulated a number of questions to apply to all large flow fields on Venus. In particular, we would like to address the following: (1) eruption conditions and style of flow emplacement (effusion rate, eruption duration), (2) the nature of magma storage zones (presence of neutral buoyancy zones, deep or shallow crustal magma chambers), (3) the origin of melt and possible link to mantle plumes, and (4) the importance of large flow fields in plains evolution. To answer these questions we have begun to examine variations in flow field dimension and morphology; the distribution of large flow fields in terms of elevation above the mean planetary radius; links to regional tectonic or volcanic structures (e.g., associations with large shield edifices, coronae, or rift zones); statigraphic relationships between large flow fields, volcanic plains, shields, and coronae; and various models of flow emplacement in order to estimate eruption parameters. In this particular study, we have examined the proximal elevations and topographic slopes of 16 of the most distinctive flow fields that represent each of the 6 morphologic types.

  5. Study of extreme-ultraviolet emission and properties of a coronal streamer from PROBA2/SWAP, HINODE/EIS and Mauna Loa Mk4 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Goryaev, F.; Slemzin, V.; Vainshtein, L.; Williams, David R.

    2014-02-01

    Wide-field extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) telescopes imaging in spectral bands sensitive to 1 MK plasma on the Sun often observe extended, ray-like coronal structures stretching radially from active regions to distances of 1.5-2 R {sub ☉}, which represent the EUV counterparts of white-light streamers. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the properties of a streamer observed on 2010 October 20 and 21, by the PROBA2/SWAP EUV telescope together with the Hinode/EIS (HOP 165) and the Mauna Loa Mk4 white-light coronagraph. In the SWAP 174 Å band comprising the Fe IX-Fe XI lines, the streamer was detected to a distance of 2 R {sub ☉}. We assume that the EUV emission is dominated by collisional excitation and resonant scattering of monochromatic radiation coming from the underlying corona. Below 1.2 R {sub ☉}, the plasma density and temperature were derived from the Hinode/EIS data by a line-ratio method. Plasma conditions in the streamer and in the background corona above 1.2 R {sub ☉} from the disk center were determined by forward-modeling the emission that best fit the observational data in both EUV and white light. It was found that the plasma in the streamer above 1.2 R {sub ☉} is nearly isothermal, with a temperature of T = 1.43 ± 0.08 MK. The hydrostatic scale-height temperature determined from the evaluated density distribution was significantly higher (1.72 ± 0.08 MK), which suggests the existence of outward plasma flow along the streamer. We conclude that, inside the streamer, collisional excitation provided more than 90% of the observed EUV emission, whereas, in the background corona, the contribution of resonance scattering became comparable with that of collisions at R ≳ 2 R {sub ☉}.

  6. Experimental investigation of the visual field dependency in the erect and supine positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, J. H.; Saucer, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The increasing utilization of simulators in many fields, in addition to aeronautics and space, requires the efficient use of these devices. It seemed that personnel highly influenced by the visual scene would make desirable subjects, particularly for those simulators without sufficient motion cues. In order to evaluate this concept, some measure of the degree of influence of the visual field on the subject in necessary. As part of this undertaking, 37 male and female subjects, including eight test pilots, were tested for their visual field dependency or independency. A version of Witkin's rod and frame apparatus was used for the tests. The results showed that nearly all the test subjects exhibited some degree of field dependency, the degree varying from very high field dependency to nearly zero field dependency in a normal distribution. The results for the test pilots were scattered throughout a range similar to the results for the bulk of male subjects. The few female subjects exhibited a higher field dependency than the male subjects. The male subjects exhibited a greater field dependency in the supine position than in the erect position, whereas the field dependency of the female subjects changed only slightly.

  7. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE INVESTIGATION 1945-1946. APPENDIX 4. REPORT ON FULL SCALE FIELD DRAINAGE TESTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HYDROLOGY, DRAINAGE ), (* DRAINAGE , TESTS), (*LANDING FIELDS, DRAINAGE ), SOIL MECHANICS, PARTICLE SIZE, POROSITY, PAVEMENTS, RUNWAYS, SIMULATION, CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, DESIGN, THICKNESS, PERMEABILITY, LAMINAR FLOW

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NEAR FIELDS ON THE CONICAL EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL ANTENNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERNS, *CONICAL ANTENNAS, * HELICAL ANTENNAS, ELECTRIC CURRENT, ELECTRIC FIELDS, HELIXES, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, MEASUREMENT, PHASE MEASUREMENT, SPIRAL ANTENNAS, STANDING WAVE RATIOS.

  9. Integrating Field Measurements and Numerical Modeling to Investigate Gully Network Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, F. K.; Tucker, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    With the advent of numerical modeling the exploration of landscape evolution has advanced from simple thought experiments to investigation of increasingly complex landforming processes. A common criticism of landscape evolution modeling, however, is the lack of model validation with actual field data. Here we present research that continues the advancement of landscape evolution theory by combining detailed field observations with numerical modeling. The focus of our investigation is gully networks on soft-rock strata, where rates of morphologic change are fast enough to measure on annual to decadal time scales. Our research focuses on a highly transient landscape on the high plains of eastern Colorado (40 miles east of Denver, CO) where convective thunderstorms drive ephemeral stream flow, resulting in incised gullies with vertical knickpoints. The site has yielded a comprehensive dataset of hydrology, topography, and geomorphic change. We are continuously monitoring several environmental parameters (including rainfall, overland flow, stream discharge, and soil moisture), and have explored the physical properties of the soil on the site through grain size analysis and infiltration measurements. In addition, time-lapse photography and repeat terrestrial lidar scanning make it possible to track knickpoint dynamics through time. The resulting dataset provides a case study for testing the ability of landscape evolution models to reproduce annual to decadal patterns of erosion and deposition. Knickpoint erosion is the largest contributor to landscape evolution and the controlling factor for gully migration rate. Average knickpoint retreat rates, based on historic aerial photographs and ongoing laser surveying, range between 0.1 and 2.5 m/yr. Knickpoint retreat appears to be driven by a combination of plunge-pool scour, large block failure, and grain-by-grain entrainment of sediment from the wall. Erosion is correlated with flash floods in the summer months. To test our

  10. Performance of New Pb-Bi Alloys for Pb-Acid Battery Applications: EIS and Polarization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Bortolozo, Ausdinir D.; Garcia, Amauri; Osório, Wislei R.

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is focused on the evaluation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization results, associated with resulting microstructural features of two distinct as-cast Pb-Bi alloys (i.e., 1 and 2.5 wt.% Bi). EIS, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and equivalent circuits are used to analyze the corrosion behavior. The electrochemical parameters show that the corrosion resistance increases when the matrix microstructure is characterized by coarser cells when compared with finer ones. However, when a coarse cellular array is associated with increase in Bi content caused by macrosegregation during casting, the corrosion resistance decreases significantly. Bismuth modifies the anode/cathode area ratio increasing drastically the corrosion action.

  11. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these

  12. Geophysical investigations of well fields to characterize fractured-bedrock aquifers in southern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Moore, Richard Bridge; Mack, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Bedrock-fracture zones near high-yield bedrock wells in southern New Hampshire well fields were located and characterized using seven surface and six borehole geophysical survey methods. Detailed surveys of six sites with various methods provide an opportunity to integrate and compare survey results. Borehole geophysical surveys were conducted at three of the sites to confirm subsurface features. Hydrogeologic settings, including a variety of bedrock and surface geologic materials, were sought to gain an insight into the usefulness of the methods in varied terrains. Results from 15 survey lines, 8 arrays, and 3 boreholes were processed and interpreted from the 6 sites. The surface geophysical methods used provided physical properties of fractured bedrock. Seismic refraction and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) primarily were used to characterize the overburden materials, but in a few cases indicated bedrock-fracture zones. Magnetometer surveys were used to obtain background information about the bedrock to compare with other results, and to search for magnetic lows, which may result from weathered fractured rock. Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys (EM) and very-low-frequency electromagnetic surveys (VLF) were used as rapid reconnaissance techniques with the primary purpose of identifying electrical anomalies, indicating potential fracture zones in bedrock. Direct-current (dc) resistivity methods were used to gather detailed subsurface information about fracture depth and orientation. Two-dimensional (2-D) dc-resistivity surveys using dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays located and characterized the overburden, bedrock, and bedrock-fracture zones through analysis of data inversions. Azimuthal square array dc-resistivity survey results indicated orientations of conductive steep-dipping bedrock-fracture zones that were located and characterized by previously applied geophysical methods. Various available data sets were used for site selection

  13. Field and laboratory rainfall simulation as a tool to investigate Quaternary badland geomorphic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Kasanin-Grubin, Milica; Yair, Aaron; Rorke, Brian; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Badlands are traditionally considered as natural analogue experiments of landscape development. Commonly, their morphology is linked to lithological properties of the bedrock. However, recent investigations indicate that the geomorphic development is sensitive to climate and in particular to precipitation characteristics. This sensitivity enables the combination of rainfall simulation experiments with numerical models to study the relevance of climate change for their long-term geomorphic development. In this study, the relevance of precipitation characteristics for the Quaternary landscape development in the Dinosaur Badlands in Alberta, Canada, and Zin Valley Badlands, Negev Desert, Israel is investigated. Runoff, erosion and weathering were simulated in the field and the laboratory to determine rates for modeling different precipitation regimes. Based on the results, a numerical model was developed and the effects of changing precipitation characteristics (rainfall, snow cover and melt) on long-term landscape development were simulated. In the Dinosoaur badlands, weathering and erosion experiments show that the balance between snowmelt induced weathering in the spring, summer rainfall, and erosion determines the rate of slope retreat. In the Zin Valley, on the other hand, the magnitude of the individual rainstorms determines whether a slope section is eroded or acts as a runoff and sediment sink. As a consequence, in the Zin Valley badland slopes experienced an auto-stabilization during the Quaternary. In the Dinosaur Badlands, on the other hand, Holocene climatic variations do not appear to have caused a permanent differentiation of patterns of erosion and deposition. Based on these results the reaction of badland slopes to changing precipitation characteristics was modeled. The model shows that both badland slope systems are currently fairly stable against climate change in the range of variations in rainfall characteristics experienced during the Holocene

  14. Advantages, problems and limitations of different field and laboratory approaches for investigating soil hydrophobicity switching patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Urbanek, E.; Shakesby, R. A.; Leighton-Boyce, G.; Doerr, S. H.; Ferreira, A. D. J.; Stoof, C.

    2009-04-01

    This poster presents the research approaches and early results of a programme of field and laboratory investigation to assess three-dimensional patterns of switching of soils between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states. It focuses on soils on terrain of burnt and unburnt eucalyptus, pine and scrub land-use in north-central Portugal. Although much is known about soil hydrophobicity, assessments of the overall hydrological and erosional significance of the soil property in any environmental situation are greatly hampered by a lack of knowledge on switching, mainly because of the destructive nature of methods of measuring the soil property, coupled with the often high local spatial variability of hydrophobicity within soils. In particular little is known about (i) three-dimensional patterns of change (are changes spatially progressive or near-simultaneous within soil profiles and across slopes), (ii) the speed and frequency of switching and (iii) the extent to which the degree of hydrophobicity at particular points change prior to becoming (and with increasing time since being) hydrophilic. Four complementary approaches are being adopted by the research programme reported here. 1) Statistical analysis of differences in the frequency distributions of degree of hydrophobicity of seasonal snapshot surveys of hydrophobicity (surface and subsurface) at four grid networks on unburned and burned eucalyptus terrain in a an area of schist lithology in northern Portugal; (2) A similar statistical analytical approach, but this time focussing on drying sequences provided by daily surveys following individual rainstorms of two grids on unburned and newly burned scrubland; (3) Daily three-dimensional surveys of hydrophobicity around root systems of eucalyptus globules seedlings using excavated pits before and after rainstorms; and (4) laboratory investigation of three-dimensional patterns of hydrophobicity at intervals during simulated wetting and drying phases for a range of

  15. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions.

    PubMed

    Flemmer, Michael M; Ham, Jason E; Wells, J R

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with alpha-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72 h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with alpha-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100 ppb (parts per 10(9)) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100 ppb (over 339 h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65 ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3 ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664 h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300 ml/min (over 548 h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02 ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03 ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/alpha-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  16. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  17. Investigating membrane nanoporation induced by bipolar pulsed electric fields via second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, E. K.; Ibey, B. L.; Beier, H. T.; Armani, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Electric pulses have become an effective tool for transporting cargo (DNA, drugs, etc.) across cell membranes. This enhanced transport is believed to occur through temporary pores formed in the plasma membrane. Traditionally, millisecond duration, monopolar (MP) pulses are used for electroporation, but bipolar (BP) pulses have proven equally effective as MP pulses with the added advantage of less cytotoxicity. With the goal of further reducing cytotoxic effects and inducing non-thermal, intra-cellular effects, researchers began investigating reduced pulse durations, pushing into the nanosecond regime. Cells exposed to these MP, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have shown increased repairable membrane permeability and selective channel activation. However, attempts to improve this further by moving to the BP pulse regime has proven unsuccessful. In the present work, we use second harmonic generation imaging to explore the structural effects of bipolar nsPEFs on the plasma membrane. By varying the temporal spacing between the pulse phases over several orders of magnitude and comparing the response to a single MP case, we systematically examine the disparity in cellular response. Our circuit-based model predicts that, as the temporal spacing increases several orders of magnitude, nanoporation increases and eventually exceeds the MP case. On the whole, our experimental data agree with this assertion; however, a detailed analysis of the data sets demonstrates that biological processes may play a larger role in the observed response than previously thought, dominating the effect for temporal spacing up to 5 μs. These findings could ultimately lead to understanding the biophysical mechanism underlying all electroporation.

  18. Fast and Simple Detection of Yersinia pestis Applicable to Field Investigation of Plague Foci

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Stéphanie; Demeure, Christian; Lamourette, Patricia; Filali, Sofia; Plaisance, Marc; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. There is now a convenient and effective test (F1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of Y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the F1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°C. The plasminogen activator (PLA), a key virulence factor encoded by a Y. pestis-specific plasmid, is synthesized both at 20°C and 37°C, making it a good candidate antigen for environmental detection of Y. pestis by immunological methods. A recombinant PLA protein from Y. pestis synthesized by an Escherichia coli strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). PLA-specific mAbs devoid of cross-reactions with other homologous proteins were further cloned. A pair of mAbs was selected based on its specificity, sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and ability to react with Y. pestis strains grown at different temperatures. These antibodies were used to develop a highly sensitive one-step PLA-enzyme immunoassay (PLA-EIA) and an immunostrip (PLA-dipstick), usable as a rapid test under field conditions. These two PLA-immunometric tests could be valuable, in addition to the F1-disptick, to confirm human plague diagnosis in non-endemic areas (WHO standard case definition). They have the supplementary advantage of allowing a rapid and easy detection of Y. pestis in environmental and flea samples, and would therefore be of great value for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of plague foci. Finally, they will be able to detect natural or genetically engineered F1-negative Y. pestis strains in human patients and environmental samples. PMID:23383008

  19. Fast and simple detection of Yersinia pestis applicable to field investigation of plague foci.

    PubMed

    Simon, Stéphanie; Demeure, Christian; Lamourette, Patricia; Filali, Sofia; Plaisance, Marc; Créminon, Christophe; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus, has a rodent-flea-rodent life cycle but can also persist in the environment for various periods of time. There is now a convenient and effective test (F1-dipstick) for the rapid identification of Y. pestis from human patient or rodent samples, but this test cannot be applied to environmental or flea materials because the F1 capsule is mostly produced at 37°C. The plasminogen activator (PLA), a key virulence factor encoded by a Y. pestis-specific plasmid, is synthesized both at 20°C and 37°C, making it a good candidate antigen for environmental detection of Y. pestis by immunological methods. A recombinant PLA protein from Y. pestis synthesized by an Escherichia coli strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). PLA-specific mAbs devoid of cross-reactions with other homologous proteins were further cloned. A pair of mAbs was selected based on its specificity, sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and ability to react with Y. pestis strains grown at different temperatures. These antibodies were used to develop a highly sensitive one-step PLA-enzyme immunoassay (PLA-EIA) and an immunostrip (PLA-dipstick), usable as a rapid test under field conditions. These two PLA-immunometric tests could be valuable, in addition to the F1-disptick, to confirm human plague diagnosis in non-endemic areas (WHO standard case definition). They have the supplementary advantage of allowing a rapid and easy detection of Y. pestis in environmental and flea samples, and would therefore be of great value for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of plague foci. Finally, they will be able to detect natural or genetically engineered F1-negative Y. pestis strains in human patients and environmental samples.

  20. Big Data in the SHELA Field: Investigating Galaxy Quenching at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Wold, Isak; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Sherman, Sydney; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Papovich, Casey J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Gawiser, Eric J.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Casey, Caitlin; Florez, Jonathan; HETDEX Team

    2017-06-01

    We present a measurement of the z ~ 4 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) rest-frame UV luminosity function to investigate the onset of quenching in the early universe. The bright-end of the galaxy luminosity function typically shows an exponential decline far steeper than that of the underlying halo mass function. This is typically attributed to negative feedback from past active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity as well as dust attenuation. Constraining the abundance of bright galaxies at early times (z > 3) can provide a key insight into the mechanisms regulating star formation in galaxies. However, existing studies suffer from low number statistics and/or the inability to robustly remove stellar and AGN contaminants. In this study we take advantage of the unprecedentedly large (24 deg^2) Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large Area (SHELA) field and its deep multi-wavelength photometry, which includes DECam ugriz, NEWFIRM K-band, Spitzer/IRAC, Herschel/SPIRE, and X-ray from XMM-Newton and Chandra. With SHELA’s deep imaging over a large area we are uniquely positioned to study statistically significant samples of massive galaxies at high redshifts (z > 3) when the first massive galaxies began quenching. We select our sample using photometric redshifts from the EAZY software package (Brammer et al. 2008) based on the optical and far-infrared imaging. We directly identify and remove stellar contaminants and AGN with IRAC colors and X-ray detections, respectively. By pinning down the exact shape of the bright-end of the z ~ 4 LBG luminosity function, we provide the deepest probe yet into the baryonic physics dominating star formation and quenching in the early universe.