Science.gov

Sample records for eiscat heating facility

  1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H. Y.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF) radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS) in the SEE spectrum. Such narrowband SEE spectral lines have not been reported using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) heater facility before. This work reports the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compares them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data shows observations of emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as SBS, during the 2012 July EISCAT campaign. Experimental results indicate that SBS strengthens as the pump frequency approaches the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping is suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakens as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations are generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.

  2. X-mode artificial optical emissions and attendant phenomena at EISCAT/Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly; Sergienko, Tima; Rietveld, Michael; Brandstrom, Urban; Senior, Andrew; Haggstrom, Ingemar; Kosch, Michael; Borisova, Tatiana; Yeoman, Tim

    We present the experimental evidence for the formation of the artificial optical emissions induced by the X-mode powerful HF radio waves injected towards the magnetic zenith (MZ) into the high latitude F region of the ionosphere. The experiments were conducted in the course of Russian EISCAT heating campaigns in October 2012 and October 2013 at the Heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The HF pump wave with the X-mode polarization was radiated at 7.1 or 6.2 MHz. The phased array 1, resulting in an ERP = 430 - 600 MW was used. Optical emissions at red (630 nm) and green (557 nm) lines were imaged from Tromsø site by the digital All-Sky Imager mark 2 (DASI - 2) and from a remote site at Abisco by the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) in Scandinavia. The intensities of X-mode emissions at red and green lines varied between about of 150 - 1000 R and 50 - 300 R above the background respectively in different experiments. The artificial optical emissions were accompanied by very strong HF-enhanced ion lines and HF induced plasma lines from the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar measurements and artificial small-scale field-aligned irregularities from CUTLASS (SuperDARN) HF coherent radar in Finland. The results obtained are discussed.

  3. Parametric instability induced by X-mode wave heating at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Moran; Honary, Farideh; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present results of parametric instability induced by X-mode wave heating observed by EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) radar at Tromsø, Norway. Three typical X-mode ionospheric heating experiments on 22 October 2013, 19 October 2012, and 21 February 2013 are investigated in details. Both parametric decay instability (PDI) and oscillating two-stream instability are observed during the X-mode heating period. We suggest that the full dispersion relationship of the Langmuir wave can be employed to analyze the X-mode parametric instability excitation. A modified kinetic electron distribution is proposed and analyzed, which is able to satisfy the matching condition of parametric instability excitation. Parallel electric field component of X-mode heating wave can also exceed the parametric instability excitation threshold under certain conditions.

  4. History of EISCAT - Part 4: On the German contribution to the early years of EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The decision of the Max Planck Society (MPG) to get involved in the establishment of an incoherent scatter radar in northern Europe was intimately linked to the future of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy (MPAe) in Katlenburg-Lindau. Delegates of the MPG played an important role in defining the rules for participation in EISCAT during the period from 1973 to 1975. The "technical" period from 1976 to 1981 was mainly devoted to the development of the UHF transmitter and the klystrons. The latter encountered great difficulties, causing substantial delays. During the same period the ionospheric heating facility was established by MPAe at Ramfjordmoen, Norway. The period following the inauguration in August 1981 saw a great number of changes in the leading personnel. In this context much attention had to be given to taxation rules. Besides continuing hardware problems with the UHF radar, severe problems arose with design and manufacturing of the VHF klystrons, requiring changes of the contractor. However, by fall of 1983 the UHF radar was able to reach the intended operational level. In 1984 important steps were made for archiving and for proper exploitation of the EISCAT data.

  5. A Statistical Study of Eiscat Electron and Ion Temperature Measurements In The E-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G.; Haldoupis, C.; Schlegel, K.; Bösinger, T.

    Motivated by the large EISCAT data base, which covers over 15 years of common programme operation, and previous statistical work with EISCAT data (e.g., C. Hal- doupis, K. Schlegel, and G. Hussey, Auroral E-region electron density gradients mea- sured with EISCAT, Ann. Geopshysicae, 18, 1172-1181, 2000), a detailed statistical analysis of electron and ion EISCAT temperature measurements has been undertaken. This study was specifically concerned with the statistical dependence of heating events with other ambient parameters such as the electric field and electron density. The re- sults showed previously reported dependences such as the electron temperature being directly correlated with the ambient electric field and inversely related to the electron density. However, these correlations were found to be also dependent upon altitude. There was also evidence of the so called "Schlegel effect" (K. Schlegel, Reduced effective recombination coefficient in the disturbed polar E-region, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 44, 183-185, 1982); that is, the heated electron gas leads to increases in elec- tron density through a reduction in the recombination rate. This paper will present the statistical heating results and attempt to offer physical explanations and interpretations of the findings.

  6. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  7. Comment on "Parametric Instability Induced by X-Mode Wave Heating at EISCAT" by Wang et al. (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    In their recent article Wang et al. (2016) analyzed observations from EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter) Scientific Association Russian X-mode heating experiments and claimed to explain the potential mechanisms for the parametric decay instability (PDI) and oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Wang et al. (2016) claim that they cannot separate the HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines excited by O or X mode in the EISCAT UHF radar spectra. Because of this they distinguished the parametric instability excited by O-/X-mode heating waves according to their different excitation heights. Their reflection heights were determined from ionosonde records, which provide a rough measure of excitation altitudes and cannot be used for the separation of the O- and X-mode effects. The serious limitation in their analysis is the use of a 30 s integration time of the UHF radar data. There are also serious disagreements between their analysis and the real observational facts. The fact is that it is the radical difference in the behavior of the X- and O-mode plasma and ion line spectra derived with a 5 s resolution, which provides the correct separation of the X- and O-mode effects. It is not discussed and explained how the parallel component of the electric field under X-mode heating is generated. Apart from the leakage to the O mode, results by Wang et al. (2016) do not explain the potential mechanisms for PDI and OTSI and add nothing to understanding the physical factors accounting for the parametric instability generated by an X-mode HF pump wave.

  8. Heater-induced altitude descent of the EISCAT UHF ion line enhancements: Observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, M.; Kosch, M. J.; Honary, F.

    2006-01-01

    On 12 November 2001, artificial optical annuli were produced using the EISCAT high-frequency (HF) ionospheric heating facility. This unusual phenomenon was induced using O-mode transmissions at 5.423 MHz with 550 MW effective isotropic radiated power and the pump beam dipped 9° south of the zenith. The pump frequency corresponds to the fourth electron gyroharmonic frequency at 215 km altitude. The EISCAT UHF radar observed a persistent pump-induced enhancement in the ion line backscatter power near the HF reflection altitude. The optical and radar signatures of HF pumping started at ˜230 km and descended to ˜220 km within ˜60 s. This effect has been modelled using the solution to differential equations describing pump-induced electron temperature and density perturbations. The decrease in altitude of the ion line by ˜10 km and changes in electron density have been modelled. The results show that a maximum electron temperature enhancement of up to ˜5700 K can be achieved on average, which is not sufficient to explain the observed optical emissions.

  9. What Can We Learn About the Ionosphere Using the EISCAT Heating Facility?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    1970s to do both plasma physics and geophysical research. At present there are five operating facilities: HIPAS [1] and HAARP [2] in Alaska, Heating...1995: HAARP (Alaska) •2003: SPEAR (Svalbard) World overview 32 (8) 22 (16) 0.19 4-6 (2-3) 78.9 N 78.15 W SPEAR Spitsbergen Norway 150-280180-340...19.2 E 62.39 N 145.15W 65.0 N 147.0 W 18.3 N 66.8 W 40.18 N 104.73 E Geographic Coordinates SURA Russia Tromsø Norway HAARP Alaska USA HIPAS Alaska

  10. An overview of high-latitude hf induced aurora from EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M.; Gustavsson, B.; Rietveld, M.

    The EISCAT HF facility is capable of transmitting over 200 MW into the ionosphere below 5.423 MHz using the low-gain antenna array. Over 1000 MW above 5.423 MHz is available using the high-gain antenna array. During O-mode pumping in the hours after sunset, F-region electrons can be accelerated sufficiently to excite the oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules, resulting in observable optical emissions at 844.6 (O), 630 (O1D), 557.7 (O1S) and 427.8 (N2) nm above EISCAT. Initial success came in February 1999 with optical recordings by ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) from various Swedish locations south of EISCAT and DASI (Digital All-Sky Imager) from Skibotn, Norway, 50 km south-east of EISCAT. Several observations have features unique to high latitudes. Novel discoveries include: (1) Very large electron temperature enhancements of a few 1000 K, which maximise along the magnetic field line direction (2) Ion temperature enhancements of a few 100 K accompanied by large ion outflows, (3) The optical emission usually appears near the magnetic field line direction regardless of the HF transmitter beam pointing direction, (4) The optical emission appears below the HF pump reflection altitude as well as the upper-hybrid resonance height, (5) The optical emission and HF coherent radar backscatter disappears when pumping on the 3rd, 4th or 5th gyro-harmonic frequency, (6) The first artificial optical observations at 844.6 (O) and 427.8 (N2) nm and (7) Annular optical structures, which subsequently collapse into blobs.

  11. The forthcoming EISCAT_3D as an extra-terrestrial matter monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Kero, Johan; Häggström, Ingemar; Mann, Ingrid; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    It is important to monitor the extra-terrestrial dust flux in the Earth's environment and into the atmosphere. Meteoroids threaten the infrastructure in space as hypervelocity hits by micron-sized granules continuously degrade the solar panels and other satellite surfaces. Through their orbital elements meteoroids can be associated to the interplanetary dust cloud, comets, asteroids or the interstellar space. The ablation products of meteoroids participate in many physical and chemical processes at different layers in the atmosphere, many of them occurring in the polar regions. High-power large-aperture (HPLA) radars, such as the tristatic EISCAT UHF together with the EISCAT VHF, have been versatile instruments for studying many properties of the meteoroid population, even though they were not initially designed for this purpose. The future EISCAT_3D will comprise a phased-array transmitter and several phased-array receivers distributed in northern Scandinavia. These will work at 233 MHz centre frequency with power up to 10 MW and run advanced signal processing systems. The facility will in many aspects be superior to its predecessors as the first radar to combine volumetric-, aperture synthesis- and multistatic imaging as well as adaptive experiments. The technical design goals of the radar respond to the scientific requests from the user community. The VHF frequency and the volumetric imaging capacity will increase the collecting volume compared to the earlier UHF, the high transmitter power will increase the sensitivity of the radar, and the interferometry will improve the spatial resolution of the orbit estimates. The facility will be able to observe and define orbits to about 10% of the meteors from the established mass flux distribution that are large or fast enough to produce an ionization mantle around the impacting meteoroid within the collecting volume. The estimated annual mean of about 190 000 orbits per day with EISCAT_3D gives many orders of magnitude

  12. First observations of SPEAR-induced topside and bottomside sporadic E layer heating observed using the EISCAT Svalbard and SuperDARN radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddeley, L. J.; Haggstrøm, I.; Yeoman, T. K.; Rietveld, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observations of heater-induced simultaneous topside and bottomside sporadic E layer enhancements at very high latitudes (78.15°N) using the Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) heating facility and the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard Radar. During the experiment the SPEAR heating facility was transmitting with O-mode polarization in a field-aligned direction with a constant effective radiated power of ˜16 MW. Results show distinct heater-induced enhancements in both the ion and plasma line spectra. The plasma line enhancements are observed at the SPEAR heater frequency of 4.45 MHz. The plasma line observations represent the highest spatial resolution data (100 m) obtained of such heater-induced enhancements and indicate simultaneous enhancements at both the topside and bottomside of the layer, respectively (located at ˜107.5 and 109 km altitude, respectively). It is postulated that the results represent evidence of O- to Z-mode conversion of the heater wave occurring at the bottom of the E layer, allowing propagation through the layer resulting in simultaneous topside enhancements. The Z-mode enhancements are observed outside the Spitze angle, which is thought to be a result of field-aligned irregularities causing an increase in angular extent of the observations. Additional data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF Finland radar are also shown, which indicate that upon a thinning of the sporadic E layer, the heater beam propagated into the F region, where it induced artificial field-aligned irregularities.

  13. Simulations of Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar for the EISCAT_3D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Hoz, C.; Belyey, V.

    2012-12-01

    EISCAT_3D is a project to build the next generation of incoherent scatter radars endowed with multiple 3-dimensional capabilities that will replace the current EISCAT radars in Northern Scandinavia. Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) is one of the technologies adopted by the EISCAT_3D project to endow it with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. This ability will open new research opportunities to map small structures associated with non-homogeneous, unstable processes such as aurora, summer and winter polar radar echoes (PMSE and PMWE), Natural Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), structures excited by HF ionospheric heating, meteors, space debris, and others. To demonstrate the feasibility of the antenna configurations and the imaging inversion algorithms a simulation of synthetic incoherent scattering data has been performed. The simulation algorithm incorporates the ability to control the background plasma parameters with non-homogeneous, non-stationary components over an extended 3-dimensional space. Control over the positions of a number of separated receiving antennas, their signal-to-noise-ratios and arriving phases allows realistic simulation of a multi-baseline interferometric imaging radar system. The resulting simulated data is fed into various inversion algorithms. This simulation package is a powerful tool to evaluate various antenna configurations and inversion algorithms. Results applied to realistic design alternatives of EISCAT_3D will be described.

  14. EISCAT Aperture Synthesis Imaging (EASI _3D) for the EISCAT_3D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Hoz, Cesar; Belyey, Vasyl

    2012-07-01

    Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) is one of the technologies adopted by the EISCAT_3D project to endow it with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. This ability will open new research opportunities to map small structures associated with non-homogeneous, unstable processes such as aurora, summer and winter polar radar echoes (PMSE and PMWE), Natural Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), structures excited by HF ionospheric heating, meteors, space debris, and others. The underlying physico-mathematical principles of the technique are the same as the technique employed in radioastronomy to image stellar objects; both require sophisticated inversion techniques to obtain reliable images.

  15. Investigation of ELF/VLF waves created by a "beat-wave" HF ionospheric heating at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, Oleg; Tereshchenko, Evgeniy; Kasatkina, Elena; Gomonov, Alexandr

    2015-04-01

    The generation of extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) electromagnetic waves by modulated ionospheric high frequency (HF, 2-30 MHz) heating is one of the main directions of ionospheric modification experiments. In this work, we present observations of ELF waves generated during a "beat-wave" heating experiments at the EISCAT heating facility. ELF waves were registered with the ELF receiver located at Lovozero (68 N, 35 E), 660 km east from the EISCAT Tromso heating facility (69.6 N, 19.2 E). Frequency shifts between the generated beat-wave and received ELF waves were detected in all sessions. It is shown that the amplitudes of ELF waves depend on the auroral electrojet current strength. Our results showing a strong dependence of ELF signal intensities on the substorm development seem to support the conclusion that electrojet currents may affect the BW generation of ELF/VLF waves.

  16. Towards the Big Data Strategies for EISCAT-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häggström, I.; Chen, Y.; Hardisty, A.; Sipos, G.; Krakowian, M.; Ferreira, N. L.; Savolainen, V.

    2013-12-01

    solutions for: 1. Staging EISCAT-3D lower-level data (voltage data) into the large-scale e-Science storage, such as EGI or EUDAT; 2. Providing various processing and mining facilities such as, auto-correlation and spatial/temporal integration, to allow individual scientists to analyse data as their will; 3. Providing advanced searching facilities to enable individual scientists to search through all level of data and identify specific signatures, e.g., plasma features, meteors, space debris, astronomical features. The new data processing and searching strategy will offer more flexible way for EISCAT users to analyse and discover interesting data patterns which are not yet available. Space physicists will be able to make better use of the observation data and exploit the growing wealth of them. This will eventually lead to a new data-centric way of conceptualising, organising and carrying out research activities which could lead to an introduction of new approaches to solve problems that were previously considered extremely hard or, in some cases, impossible to solve and also lead to serendipitous discoveries and significant breakthrough [1]. [1] C. Thanos, S. Manegold and M. Kersten, 'Big Data', ERCIM Special Theme: Big Data, No. 89, Apr. 2012.

  17. ESRAD/EISCAT polar mesosphere winter echoes during MAGIC and ROMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, Sheila; Belova, Evgenia; Chilson, Philip; Dalin, Peter; Ekeberg, Jonas; Häggström, Ingemar; Osepian, Aleftina

    2005-08-01

    Both ESRAD and the EISCAT VHF radars were operated during January 2005 covering the times of both the MAGIC and ROMA sounding rocket campaigns at Esrange and Andøya, respectively. Thin layers of enhanced radar echoes (PMWE) were observed on several occasions with ESRAD, and on one occasion with EISCAT. The PMWE show very high horizontal scatterer travel speeds and high aspect sensitivity (ESRAD), and spectral widths indistinguishable from those caused by the background plasma (EISCAT). We propose that scatter from highly-damped ion-acoustic waves generated by partial reflection of infrasonic waves provides a reasonable explanation of PMWE characteristics.

  18. Further developments of EISCAT as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The principal capabilities of EISCAT as an MST radar were described. Since the VHF transmitter of the EISCAT system is not yet delivered, only the UHF system could be used for radar experiments. Considerable developments in the year 1983 have now strongly improved the reliability of the operations. Most of the experiments were and will be done to investigate the high latitude ionosphere and thermosphere, but some time was also devoted to observations of the lower and middle atmosphere, particularly during the MAP/WINE compaign.

  19. Novel artificial optical annular structures in the high latitude ionosphere over EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Rietveld, M. T.; Senior, A.; McCrea, I. W.; Kavanagh, A. J.; Isham, B.; Honary, F.

    2004-06-01

    The EISCAT low-gain HF facility has been used repeatedly to produce artificially stimulated optical emissions in the F-layer ionosphere over northern Scandinavia. On 12 November 2001, the high-gain HF facility was used for the first time. The pump beam zenith angle was moved in 3° steps along the north-south meridian from 3°N to 15°S, with one pump cycle per position. Only when pumping in the 9°S position were annular optical structures produced quite unexpectedly. The annuli were approximately centred on the pump beam but outside the -3 dB locus. The optical signature appears to form a cylinder, which was magnetic field-aligned, rising above the pump wave reflection altitude. The annulus always collapsed into the well-known optical blobs after ~60 s, whilst descending many km in altitude. All other pump beam directions produced optical blobs only. The EISCAT UHF radar, which was scanning from 3° to 15°S zenith angle, shows that enhanced ion-line backscatter persisted throughout the pump on period and followed the morphology of the optical signature. These observations provide the first experimental evidence that Langmuir turbulence can accelerate electrons sufficiently to produce the optical emissions at high latitudes. Why the optical annulus forms, and for only one zenith angle, remains unexplained.

  20. The aperture synthesis imaging capability of the EISCAT_3D radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Hoz, Cesar; Belyey, Vasyl

    2010-05-01

    The built-in Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) capabilities of the EISCAT_3D system, complemented with multiple beams and rapid beam scanning, is what will make the new radar truly three dimensional and justify its name. With the EISCAT_3D radars it will be possible to make investigations in 3-dimensions of several important phenomena such as Natural Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs), Polar Mesospheric Summer and Winter Echoes (PMSE and PMWE), meteors, space debris, atmospheric waves and turbulence in the mesosphere, upper troposphere and possibly the lower stratosphere. Of particular interest and novelty is the measurement of the structure in electron density created by aurora that produce incoherent scatter. With scale sizes of the order of tens of meters, the imaging of these structures will be conditioned only by the signal to noise ratio which is expected to be high during some of these events, since the electron density can be significantly enhanced. The electron density inhomogeneities and plasma structures excited by artificial ionospheric heating could conceivable be resolved by the radars provided that their variation during the integration time is not great.

  1. EISCAT observations during MAC/SINE and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hall, C.

    1989-01-01

    The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The VHF (224 MHz) radar operations during MAC/SINE yielded most interesting observations of strong coherent echoes from the mesopause region. Characteristic data of these polar mesospheric summer echoes are presented. The UHF (933 MHz) radar operations during MAC/Epsilon were done with 18 deg off zenith beam and allows the deduction of meridonal and horizontal wind components as well as radial velocity spectra in addition to the usual electron density profiles in the D and lower E regions. Some results from the VHF and UHF radars indicating the presence of gravity waves are examined.

  2. High latitude artificial periodic irregularity observations with the upgraded EISCAT heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Kero, Antti; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2013-12-01

    We present a recently developed ionospheric modification experiment that produces artificial periodic irregularities in the ionosphere and uses them to make observations of the spatiotemporal behaviour of the irregularities. In addition, the method can be used to measure Faraday rotation and vertical velocities. We also introduce a novel experiment that allows monitoring the formation of the irregularities during heating, in addition to observing their decay after heating. The first measurements indicate, contrary to existing theory, that the amplitude of the radar echoes from the periodic irregularities grows faster than they decay. We focus on the API effects in the D- and E-region of the ionosphere.

  3. Thermospheric neutral density estimates from heater-induced ion up-flow at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, Michael; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Vickers, Hannah; Blagoveshchenskaya, Nataly

    We exploit a recently-developed technique to estimate the upper thermospheric neutral density using measurements of ionospheric plasma parameters made by the EISCAT UHF radar during ionospheric modification experiments. Heating the electrons changes the balance between upward plasma pressure gradient and downward gravity, resulting in ion up-flow up to ~200 m/s. This field-aligned flow is retarded by collisions, which is directly related to the neutral density. Whilst the ion up-flow is consistent with the plasma pressure gradient, the estimated thermospheric neutral density depends on the assumed composition, which varies with altitude. Results in the topside ionosphere are presented.

  4. Ionospheric electron number densities from CUTLASS dual-frequency velocity measurements using artificial backscatter over EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Kosch, Michael J.; Yeoman, Timothy; Rietveld, Michael; Nel, Amore'; Liemohn, Michael W.

    2016-08-01

    Using quasi-simultaneous line-of-sight velocity measurements at multiple frequencies from the Hankasalmi Cooperative UK Twin Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS) on the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), we calculate electron number densities using a derivation outlined in Gillies et al. (2010, 2012). Backscatter targets were generated using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) ionospheric modification facility at Tromsø, Norway. We use two methods on two case studies. The first approach is to use the dual-frequency capability on CUTLASS and compare line-of-sight velocities between frequencies with a MHz or greater difference. The other method used the kHz frequency shifts automatically made by the SuperDARN radar during routine operations. Using ray tracing to obtain the approximate altitude of the backscatter, we demonstrate that for both methods, SuperDARN significantly overestimates Ne compared to those obtained from the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar over the same time period. The discrepancy between the Ne measurements of both radars may be largely due to SuperDARN sensitivity to backscatter produced by localized density irregularities which obscure the background levels.

  5. Automated Heat-Flux-Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    Computer control speeds operation of equipment and processing of measurements. New heat-flux-calibration facility developed at Lewis Research Center. Used for fast-transient heat-transfer testing, durability testing, and calibration of heat-flux gauges. Calibrations performed at constant or transient heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 6 MW/m2 and at temperatures ranging from 80 K to melting temperatures of most materials. Facility developed because there is need to build and calibrate very-small heat-flux gauges for Space Shuttle main engine (SSME).Includes lamp head attached to side of service module, an argon-gas-recirculation module, reflector, heat exchanger, and high-speed positioning system. This type of automated heat-flux calibration facility installed in industrial plants for onsite calibration of heat-flux gauges measuring fluxes of heat in advanced gas-turbine and rocket engines.

  6. Recent Observations and Modeling of Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs at HAARP and EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W.; Mahmoudian, A.; Fu, H.; Bordikar, M. R.; Samimi, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Isham, B.

    2014-12-01

    There has been significant interest in so-called narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission SEE over the past several years due to recent discoveries at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP facility near Gakone, Alaska. Narrowband SEE (NSEE) has been defined as spectral features in the SEE spectrum typically within 1 kHz of the transmitter (or pump) frequency. SEE is due to nonlinear processes leading to re-radiation at frequencies other than the pump wave frequency during heating the ionospheric plasma with high power HF radio waves. Although NSEE exhibits a richly complex structure, it has now been shown after a substantial number of observations at HAARP, that NSEE can be grouped into two basic classes. The first are those spectral features, associated with Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS, which typically occur when the pump frequency is not close to electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. Typically, these spectral features are within roughly 50 Hz of the pump wave frequency where it is to be noted that the O+ ion gyro-frequency is roughly 50 Hz. The second class of spectral features corresponds to the case when the pump wave frequency is typically within roughly 10 kHz of electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. In this case, spectral features ordered by harmonics of ion gyro-frequencies are typically observed, and termed Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS. This presentation will first provide an overview of the recent NSEE experimental observations at HAARP. Both Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS observations will be discussed as well as their relationship to each other. Possible theoretical formulation in terms of parametric decay instabilities and computational modeling will be provided. Possible applications of NSEE will be pointed out including triggering diagnostics for artificial ionization layer formation, proton precipitation event diagnostics, electron temperature measurements in the heated

  7. Survey of conditions for artificial aurora experiments at EISCAT Tromsø using dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, T. T.; Rietveld, M. T.; Kosch, M. J.; Oyama, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Nozawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We report a brief survey on conditions for artificial aurora optical experiments in F region heating with O-mode at the EISCAT Tromsø site using dynasonde data from 2000 to 2017. The results obtained in our survey indicate the following: The possible conditions for conducting artificial aurora experiments are concentrated in twilight hours in both evening and morning, compared with late-night hours; the possible conditions appear in fall, winter, and spring, while there is no chance in summer, and the month-to-month variation among fall, winter, and spring is not clear. The year-to-year variation is well correlated with the solar cycle, and experiments during the solar minimum would be almost hopeless. These findings are useful for planning future artificial aurora optical experiments.

  8. EISCAT and ESRAD radars observations of polar mesosphere winter echoes during solar proton events on 11-12 November 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, E.; Kirkwood, S.; Sergienko, T.

    2013-07-01

    Polar mesosphere winter echoes (PMWE) were detected by two radars, ESRAD at 52 MHz located near Kiruna, Sweden, and EISCAT at 224 MHz located near Tromsø, Norway, during the strong solar proton event on 11-12 November 2004. PMWE maximum volume reflectivity was estimated to be 3 × 10-15 m-1 for ESRAD and 2 × 10-18 m-1 for EISCAT. It was found that the shape of the echo power spectrum is close to Gaussian inside the PMWE layers, and outside of them it is close to Lorentzian, as for the standard ion line of incoherent scatter (IS). The EISCAT PMWE spectral width is about 5-7 m s-1 at 64-67 km and 7-10 m s-1 at 68-70 km. At the lower altitudes the PMWE spectral widths are close to those for the IS ion line derived from the EISCAT data outside the layers. At the higher altitudes the PMWE spectra are broader by 2-4 m s-1 than those for the ion line. The ESRAD PMWE spectral widths at 67-72 km altitude are 3-5 m s-1, that is, 2-4 m s-1 larger than ion line spectral widths modelled for the ESRAD radar. The PMWE spectral widths for both EISCAT and ESRAD showed no dependence on the echo strength. It was found that all these facts cannot be explained by turbulent origin of the echoes. We suggested that evanescent perturbations in the electron gas generated by the incident infrasound waves may explain the observed PMWE spectral widths. However, a complete theory of radar scatter from this kind of disturbance needs to be developed before a full conclusion can be made.

  9. Influence of heating experiments on parameters of Schumann resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranat, Irina; Sivokon, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Recently the significant increase in intensity of researches in the field of the fissile impact on geophysical processes in various environments is noted. Special attention is paid to a research of impact on an ionosphere of a potent short-wave radio emission of heating stands. Today experiments on change of an ionosphere are made generally at stands HAARP, EISCAT in Tromse (Norway). Within the Russian campaign (Tomsk) EISCAT/heating (AARI_HFOX) made from October 19 to October 30, 2016 experiments on impact on an ionosphere F-layer by the radiation potent HF. For assessment of impact of these experiments on geophysical processes mathematical methods carried out the analysis of change of the parameters of the Schumann resonances received on the basis of data from the station of constant observation of the Schumann resonances in the city of Tomsk, the Tomsk State University (Russia).

  10. Studies of plasma irregularities and convection in the polar ionosphere using HILAT, SABRE and EISCAT. Interim report, 1 Feb 88-31 Mar 89

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.B.; Lester, M.; Wilkinson, A.J.

    A statistical study of the F-region main ionospheric trough has been undertaken with EISCAT common programme data to assess the possibility that the trough region is a perferential region for the generation of E-region irregularities. Three years of CP-3 data from EISCAT formed the basis of this study. Backscatter observed by the coherent radar, SABRE, was also utilized to study the occurrence of irregularities in the E-region. On 26 out of the 36 days when the trough was observed by EISCAT, SABRE observed coherent backscatter. Although this percentage seems high, there was no consistent relationship between the latitude of themore » trough minimum and the latitude of peak backscatter intensity. A case study involving a four day run of EISCAT in September 1986 indicates that the trough latitude can be affected by changes in the interplanetary magnetic field north-south components. On two days rapid decreases in the latitude of the trough were related to a southward turning of the IMF and the onset of backscatter. The high percentage of occurrence of backscatter is believed to be caused by enhanced convection.« less

  11. Determining the 630nm emission altitude using modelling and observations from a tristatic configuration of Fabry-Perot Interferometers and EISCAT radars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruliah, Anasuya; Kosch, Michael

    Anasuya Aruliah, a.aruliah@ucl.ac.uk University College London, London, United Kingdom Michael Kosch, m.kosch@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom Tristatic team Anasuya Aruliah,Ho-Ching Iris Yiu,Ian McWhirter, Michael Kosch,Kazuo Shiokawa,Shin-ichiro Oyama,Satonori Nozawa,Vikki Howells,Ian McCrea During early February 2010 a tristatic FPI-EISCAT experiment was run in order to investigate the peak emission altitude of the 630nm airglow and auroral emission in the region of the auroral oval. Two UCL Fabry-Perot Interferometers and a new STEL FPI have been located close to the three EISCAT radars at Tromsø, Kiruna and Sodankylü. The radars were pointed a at a common volume seen by all three FPIs, on assuming a peak emission height of 235km. This altitude is generally assumed to be fairly steady for FPI studies probing the behaviour of the upper atmosphere, though the height is a little different at other latitudes. The smoothing effect of the large viscosity of the upper thermosphere is invoked as a reason why the actual altitude is not too important, and there has been little investigation of the appropriateness of this assumption. However, mesoscale variability in the ionosphere has now been identified as producing a similar quantity of heating as does steady state convection; and FPIs and the CHAMP satellite have shown mesoscale structure in the high-latitude thermosphere. This indicates a need to revisit old assumptions that were based on the premise of thermospheric variability being large-scale. The STEL FPI at Ramfjord has a fully variable pointing direction mechanism and was programmed to point rapidly at successive volumes that would overlap the UCL KEOPS/Kiruna FPI look direction if the emission volume was 195km, 215km, 235km and 255km. Cross-correlation of the temperatures and intensity measurements would then identify the peak emission height. The EISCAT radar provided ionospheric parameters to model the 630nm emission profile

  12. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-01

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  13. Orbit characteristics of the tristatic EISCAT UHF meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szasz, C.; Kero, J.; Meisel, D. D.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Wannberg, G.; Westman, A.

    2008-07-01

    The tristatic EISCAT 930-MHz UHF system is used to determine the absolute geocentric velocities of meteors detected with all three receivers simultaneously at 96 km, the height of the common radar volume. The data used in this study were taken between 2002 and 2005, during four 24-h runs at summer/winter solstice and vernal/autumnal equinox to observe the largest seasonal difference. The observed velocities of 410 tristatic meteors are integrated back through the Earth atmosphere to find their atmospheric entry velocities using an ablation model. Orbit calculations are performed by taking zenith attraction, Earth rotation as well as obliquity of the ecliptic into account. The results are presented in the form of different orbital characteristics. None of the observed meteors appears to be of extrasolar or asteroidal origin; comets, particularly short-period (<200 yr) ones, may be the dominant source for the particles observed. About 40 per cent of the radiants can be associated with the north apex sporadic meteor source and 58 per cent of the orbits are retrograde. There is evidence of resonance gaps at semimajor axis values corresponding to commensurabilities with Jupiter, which may be the first convincing evidence of Jupiter's gravitational influence on the population of small sporadic meteoroids surveyed by radar. The geocentric velocity distribution is bimodal with a prograde population centred around 38 kms-1 and a retrograde population peaking at 59 kms-1. The EISCAT radar system is located close to the Arctic Circle, which means that the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) is near zenith once every 24 h, i.e. during each observational period. In this particular geometry, the local horizon coincides with the ecliptic plane. The meteoroid influx should therefore be directly comparable throughout the year.

  14. Imaging and EISCAT radar measurements of an auroral prebreakup event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safargaleev, V.; Turunen, T.; Lyatsky, W.; Manninen, J.; Kozlovsky, A.

    1996-11-01

    The results of coordinated EISCAT and TV-camera observations of a prebreakup event on 15 November 1993 have been considered. The variations of the luminosity of two parallel auroral arcs, plasma depletion on the poleward edge of one of these arcs as well as electron and ion temperatures in front of a westward travelling surge were studied. It was found that a short-lived brightening of a weak zenith arc before an auroral breakup was accompanied by fading of an equatorial arc and, vice versa. A plasma depletion in the E region was detected by the EISCAT radar on the poleward edge of the zenith arc just before the auroral breakup. The plasma depletion was associated with an enhancement of ion (at the altitudes of 150-200 km) and electron (in E region) temperatures. During its occurrence, the electric field in the E-region was extremely large (sim150 mV/m). A significant increase in ion temperature was also observed 1 min before the arrival of a westward travelling surge (WTS) at the radar zenith. This was interpreted as the existence of an extended area of enhanced electric field ahead of the WTS. Acknowledgements. The work done by P. Henelius and E. Vilenius in programme development is gratefully acknowledged. Topical Editor D. Alcayde thanks I. Pryse and A. Vallance-Jones for their help in evaluating this paper.-> Correspondence to: T. Nygrén->

  15. First observation of the anomalous electric field in the topside ionosphere by ionospheric modification over EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Vickers, H.; Ogawa, Y.; Senior, A.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an active ground-based technique to estimate the steady state field-aligned anomalous electric field (E*) in the topside ionosphere, up to ~600 km, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) ionospheric modification facility and UHF incoherent scatter radar. When pumping the ionosphere with high-power high-frequency radio waves, the F region electron temperature is significantly raised, increasing the plasma pressure gradient in the topside ionosphere, resulting in ion upflow along the magnetic field line. We estimate E* using a modified ion momentum equation and the Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter model. From an experiment on 23 October 2013, E* points downward with an average amplitude of ~1.6 μV/m, becoming weaker at higher altitudes. The mechanism for anomalous resistivity is thought to be low-frequency ion acoustic waves generated by the pump-induced flux of suprathermal electrons. These high-energy electrons are produced near the pump wave reflection altitude by plasma resonance and also result in observed artificially induced optical emissions.

  16. Electron diffusion deduced from eiscat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettger, J.; Fukao, S.

    The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) operates on 500 MHz; collocated with it is the SOUSY Svalbard Radar (SSR), which operates on 53.5 MHz. We have used both radars during Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) coherent scatter conditions, where the ESR can also detect incoherent scatter and thus allows to estimate the electron density. We describe obser-vations during two observing periods in summer 1999 and 2000. Well calibrated sig-nal power was obtained with both radars, from which we deduced the radar reflec-tivity. Estimating the turbulence dissipation rate from the narrow beam observations of PMSE with the ESR, using the estimate of the electron density and the radar reflec-tivity on both frequencies we can obtain estimates of the Schmidt number by compar-ing our observational results with the model of Cho and Kelley (1993). Schmidt num-bers of at least 100 are necessary to obtain the measured radar reflectivities, which ba-sically support the model of Cho and Kelley claiming that the inertial-viscous subrange in the electron gas can extend down to small scales of some ten centimeters (namely, the Bragg scale of the ESR).

  17. Advanced Gradient Heating Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) is a European Space Agency (ESA) developed hardware. The AGHF was flown on STS-78, which featured four European PI's and two NASA PI's. The AGHFsupports the production of advanced semiconductor materials and alloys using the directional process, which depends on establishing a hot side and a cold side in the sample.

  18. Comparison of the effects induced by the ordinary (O-mode) and extraordinary (X-mode) polarized powerful HF radio waves in the high-latitude ionospheric F region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kalishin, A. S.; Kayatkin, V. N.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2018-01-01

    Using the results of coordinated experiments on the modification of the high-latitude ionosphere by powerful HF radio emission of the EISCAT/Heating facility, effects of the impact of powerful HF radio waves of the ordinary (O-mode) and extraordinary (X-mode) polarization on the high-latitude ionospheric F region have been compared. During the experiments, a powerful HF radio wave was emitted in the magnetic zenith direction at frequencies within the 4.5-7.9 MHz range. The effective power of the emission was 150-650 MW. The behavior and characteristics of small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities (SAIIs) during O- and X-heating at low and high frequencies are considered in detail. A principal difference has been found in the development of the Langmuir and ion-acoustic turbulence (intensified by the heating of the plasma and ion-acoustic lines in the spectrum of the EISCAT radar of incoherent scatter of radio waves) in the O- and X-heating cycles after switching on the heating facility. It has been shown that, under the influence on the ionospheric plasma of a powerful HF radio wave of the X-polarization, intense spectral components in the spectrum of the narrow-band artificial ionospheric radio emission (ARI) were registered at distances on the order of 1200 km from the heating facility.

  19. A Heated Tube Facility for Rocket Coolant Channel Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Pease, Gary M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The capabilities of a heated tube facility used for testing rocket engine coolant channels at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The facility uses high current, low voltage power supplies to resistively heat a test section to outer wall temperatures as high as 730 C (1350 F). Liquid or gaseous nitrogen, gaseous helium, or combustible liquids can be used as the test section coolant. The test section is enclosed in a vacuum chamber to minimize heat loss to the surrounding system. Test section geometry, size, and material; coolant properties; and heating levels can be varied to generate heat transfer and coolant performance data bases.

  20. Recent Advances in Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission NSEE Investigations at HAARP and EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, High Frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980's. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE (WSEE) which exists in a frequency band of ±100 KHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities (i.e. HAARP and EISCAT) have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these active experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. NSEE investigation has opened the door for a potentially powerful tool for aeronomy investigations as well. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed in this presentation, including observations, theory, computational modeling, as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  1. Development of a radiative heating facility for studying flow and heat transfer in hydrocarbon-cooled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Da; Lu, Yang; Yuan, Yueming; Fan, Xuejun

    2018-06-01

    An experimental facility was designed to simulate the heat exchange between the hot gas and the fuel-cooled wall in a scramjet combustor. Thermal radiation from an electrically heated graphite plate is employed to unilaterally heat up a multi-channeled cooling plate. A maximum heat flux of over 0.8 MW/m2 was achieved for an effective heating area up to 1000 mm × 40 mm. Precise control of the back pressure of a coolant (up to 5 MPa) in a unique way was also demonstrated. With this facility, studies of flow and heat transfer in hydrocarbon-cooled structures can be performed under a well-controlled manner.

  2. The EISCAT_3D Project in Norway: E3DN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Hoz, C.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-12-01

    EISCAT_3D (E3D) is a project to build the next generation of incoherent scatter radars endowed with 3-dimensional scalar and vector capabilities that will replace the current EISCAT radars in Northern Scandinavia. One active (transmitting) site in Norway and four passive (receiving) sites in the Nordic countries will provide 3-D vector imaging capabilities by rapid scanning and multi-beam forming. The unprecedented flexibility of the solid-state transmitter with high duty-cycle, arbitrary wave-forming and polarisation and its pulsed power of 10 MW will provide unrivalled experimental capabilities to investigate the highly non-stationary and non-homogeneous state of the polar upper atmosphere. Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) will to endow E3D with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. The Norwegian scientific programme is inspired by the pioneer polar scientist Kristian Birkeland (picture) and includes pressing questions on polar upper atmospheric research, among others: (Q1) How to proceed beyond the present simplistic, static, stationary and homogeneous analysis of upper atmospheric and ionospheric processes? (Q2) How does space weather affect ionospheric processes and how to support modelling and space weather services? (Q3) How to advance fundamental plasma physics by employing the ionosphere as a natural plasma physics laboratory? (Q4) How does the influx of extraterrestrial material interact with the upper atmosphere and where does the material originate from? (Q5) How does solar activity couple from geospace into the lower atmosphere and climate system, and does this energy change the wave forcing of geospace from below? Kristian Birkeland, Norwegian scientist and pioneer in polar and auroral research.

  3. A unique high heat flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Hot Gas Facility, a unique, reliable, and cost-effective high-heat-flux facility for testing hypersonic engine components developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Hot Gas Facility is capable of providing heat fluxes ranging from 200 Btu/sq ft per sec on flat surfaces up to 8000 Btu/sq ft per sec at a leading edge stagnation point. The usefulness of the Hot Gas Facility for the NASP community was demonstrated by testing hydrogen-cooled structures over a range of temperatures and pressures. Ranges of the Reynolds numbers, Prandtl numbers, enthalpy, and heat fluxes similar to those expected during hypersonic flights were achieved.

  4. Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.

  5. Heating facilities: Klamath Lutheran Church, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Klamath Lutheran Church is a masonry structure with cathedral ceiling containing approximately 5800 sq ft of floor area. This building is currently heated by two duct furnaces and a unit heater all of which are gas fired. An Educational Wing of approximately 6300 sq ft was added in 1958. This building, containing 2 assembly rooms and a number of classrooms is of uninsulated frame construction, with extensive glass area. A gas-fired boiler supplying finned tube radiators currently heats this wing. Four specific options for displacing all or part of the heating duty with geothermal were examined. These options are:more » case 1 - drilling a production and injection well on the property and using the resultant hot water (180/sup 0/F) to heat the entire facility; case 3 - using effluent from the Klamath Union High School to heat the entire facility; no well drilling required; case 2 - using effluent from the Klamath Union High School to heat only the church building; the present gas boiler would heat the Educational Wing; and case 4 - drilling a production and injection well on the property and using the resulting water (70/sup 0/F) to supply a water-to-water heat pump. Of the four cases examined, case 3 (heating of both the church building and educational wing with effluent from the Klamath Union High School) seems to offer the greatest potential and earliest simple payback period. (MHR)« less

  6. Using a constraint on the parallel velocity when determining electric fields with EISCAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudal, G.; Blanc, M.

    1988-01-01

    A method is proposed to determine the perpendicular components of the ion velocity vector (and hence the perpendicular electric field) from EISCAT tristatic measurements, in which one introduces an additional constraint on the parallel velocity, in order to take account of our knowledge that the parallel velocity of ions is small. This procedure removes some artificial features introduced when the tristatic geometry becomes too unfavorable. It is particularly well suited for the southernmost or northernmost positions of the tristatic measurements performed by meridian scan experiments (CP3 mode).

  7. Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

    DOE PAGES

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.; ...

    2015-04-21

    Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also subrelativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler mode wave-particle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Tromsø VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometermore » and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energetic electron precipitations during this period. During this period, the footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Considering the observed LBC waves and electrons, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions. This showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, which is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated by the inversion method using the EISCAT observations. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range simultaneously precipitate into the ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora, providing the evidence that pulsating auroras are caused by whistler chorus waves. We suggest that scattering by propagating whistler simultaneously causes both the precipitations of subrelativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.« less

  8. Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S.; Saito, S.

    Pulsating auroras show quasi-periodic intensity modulations caused by the precipitation of energetic electrons of the order of tens of keV. It is expected theoretically that not only these electrons but also subrelativistic/relativistic electrons precipitate simultaneously into the ionosphere owing to whistler mode wave-particle interactions. The height-resolved electron density profile was observed with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Tromsø VHF radar on 17 November 2012. Electron density enhancements were clearly identified at altitudes >68 km in association with the pulsating aurora, suggesting precipitation of electrons with a broadband energy range from ~10 keV up to at least 200 keV. The riometermore » and network of subionospheric radio wave observations also showed the energetic electron precipitations during this period. During this period, the footprint of the Van Allen Probe-A satellite was very close to Tromsø and the satellite observed rising tone emissions of the lower band chorus (LBC) waves near the equatorial plane. Considering the observed LBC waves and electrons, we conducted a computer simulation of the wave-particle interactions. This showed simultaneous precipitation of electrons at both tens of keV and a few hundred keV, which is consistent with the energy spectrum estimated by the inversion method using the EISCAT observations. This result revealed that electrons with a wide energy range simultaneously precipitate into the ionosphere in association with the pulsating aurora, providing the evidence that pulsating auroras are caused by whistler chorus waves. We suggest that scattering by propagating whistler simultaneously causes both the precipitations of subrelativistic electrons and the pulsating aurora.« less

  9. Aspect sensitive E- and F-region SPEAR-enhanced incoherent backscatter observed by the EISCAT Svalbard radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, R. S.; Robinson, T. R.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the aspect sensitivity of heater-enhanced incoherent radar backscatter in the high-latitude ionosphere have demonstrated the directional dependence of incoherent scatter signatures corresponding to artificially excited electrostatic waves, together with consistent field-aligned signatures that may be related to the presence of artificial field-aligned irregularities. These earlier high-latitude results have provided motivation for repeating the investigation in the different geophysical conditions that obtain in the polar cap ionosphere. The Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) facility is located within the polar cap and has provided observations of RF-enhanced ion and plasma line spectra recorded by the EISCAT Svalbard UHF incoherent scatter radar system (ESR), which is collocated with SPEAR. In this paper, we present observations of aspect sensitive E- and F-region SPEAR-induced ion and plasma line enhancements that indicate excitation of both the purely growing mode and the parametric decay instability, together with sporadic E-layer results that may indicate the presence of cavitons. We note consistent enhancements from field-aligned, vertical and also from 5° south of field-aligned. We attribute the prevalence of vertical scatter to the importance of the Spitze region, and of that from field-aligned to possible wave/irregularity coupling.

  10. Evaluating the heat pump alternative for heating enclosed wastewater treatment facilities in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, C. J.; Phetteplace, G. E.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents a five-step procedure for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using heat pumps to recover heat from treatment plant effluent. The procedure is meant to be used at the facility planning level by engineers who are unfamiliar with this technology. An example of the use of the procedure and general design information are provided. Also, the report reviews the operational experience with heat pumps at wastewater plants located in Fairbanks, Alaska, Madison, Wisconsin, and Wilton, Maine.

  11. Pulse mitigation and heat transfer enhancement techniques. Volume 3: Liquid sodium heat transfer facility and transient response of sodium heat pipe to pulse forward and reverse heat load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, L. C.; Hahn, O. J.; Nguyen, H. X.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the description of a liquid sodium heat transfer facility (sodium loop) constructed to support the study of transient response of heat pipes. The facility, consisting of the loop itself, a safety system, and a data acquisition system, can be safely operated over a wide range of temperature and sodium flow rate. The transient response of a heat pipe to pulse heat load at the condenser section was experimentally investigated. A 0.457 m screen wick, sodium heat pipe with an outer diameter of 0.127 m was tested under different heat loading conditions. A major finding was that the heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time of reversal was approximately 15 to 25 seconds. The startup of the heat pipe from frozen state was also studied. It was found that during the startup process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all of the working fluid in the heat pipe was molten.

  12. Geothermal heating facilities for Frontier Inn, Susanville, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A 38 unit motel composed of six major sections (coffee shop, A frame units, apartments, back units, two story units and office) was built over a number of years and exhibits widely varying types of construction. Space heating is provided by primarily electric resistance equipment with some propane use. Domestic hot water is provided primarily by propane with some electric resistance. The coffee shop uses fuel oil for both space and domestic hot water heating. A geothermal district heating system is being installed. Although the motel site is not located in the area of construction activity, it is expected that the pipeline will be extended. The potential of retrofitting the existing heating facilities at the inn to geothermal is studied.

  13. A radiant heating test facility for space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherborne, W. D.; Milhoan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A large scale radiant heating test facility was constructed so that thermal certification tests can be performed on the new generation of thermal protection systems developed for the space shuttle orbiter. This facility simulates surface thermal gradients, onorbit cold-soak temperatures down to 200 K, entry heating temperatures to 1710 K in an oxidizing environment, and the dynamic entry pressure environment. The capabilities of the facility and the development of new test equipment are presented.

  14. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces - an occupational health concern for women?

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=-2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ (2)=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ (2)=42.92, p=0.0005×10(-7)) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to empower women, avert further health risks, and

  15. Survey of conditions for artificial aurora experiments by the second electron gyro-harmonic at EISCAT Tromsø using dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, T. T.; Rietveld, M. T.; Kosch, M. J.; Oyama, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Hosokawa, K.; Nozawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Mizuno, A.

    2018-06-01

    We report a brief survey of matching conditions for artificial aurora optical experiments utilizing the second electron gyro-harmonic (2.7-MHz frequency) in F region heating with O-mode at the EISCAT Tromsø site using dynasonde data from 2000 to 2017. Our survey indicates the following: The possible conditions for successful artificial aurora experiments are concentrated on twilight hours in both evening and morning, compared with late night hours; the possible conditions appear in fall, winter, and spring, while there is no chance in summer, and the month-to-month variation among fall, winter, and spring is not so clear; the year-to-year variation is well correlated with the solar activity. These characteristics in the case of 2.7-MHz frequency are basically similar to those previously reported in the case of 4-MHz frequency. However, the number of days meeting the possible condition in the case of 2.7-MHz frequency is obviously large, compared with that in the case of 4-MHz frequency. In particular, unlike the 4-MHz frequency operation, the 2.7-MHz frequency operation can provide many chances for successful artificial aurora experiments even during the solar minimum.

  16. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  17. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  18. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  19. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  20. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying, blending, packaging, and heat..., blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities. (a) General. Processing rooms shall be... vacuum cleaned daily. (c) The heat treatment room shall be of an approved construction and be maintained...

  1. Observations of the structure and vertical transport of the polar upper ionosphere with the EISCAT VHF radar. I - Is EISCAT able to determine O(+) and H(+) polar wind characteristic? A simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Barakat, Abdullah R.; Fontanari, Jean; Alcayde, Denis; Blanc, Michel; Wu, Jian; Lathuillere, C.

    1992-01-01

    A method presented by Wu et al. (1992) for computing the H(+) vertical velocity from the main ionospheric parameters measured by the EISCAT VHF radar is tested in a fully controlled sequence which consists of generating an ideal ionospheric model by solving the coupled continuity and momentum equations for a two-ion plasma (O(+) and H(+)). Synthetic autocorrelation functions are generated from this model with the radar characteristics and used as actual measurements to compute the H(+) vertical velocities. Results of these simulations are shown and discussed for three cases of typical and low SNR and for low and increased mixing ratios. In most cases general agreement is found between computed H(+) velocities and generic ones with the altitude range considered, i.e., 200-1000 km. The method is shown to be reliable.

  2. Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR induced modifications of the high latitude (78°N) ionosphere observed by both coherent and incoherent radars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddeley, L. J.; Haggstrom, I.; Wright, D. M.; Isham, B.; Gallop, P.

    2010-12-01

    The SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) system, which is the newest operational heating facility, is located on Svalbard at 78°N (75° CGM) latitude and, as such, is the highest latitudinally located heating system. The unique geomagnetic location of SPEAR also allows it to be inside the Polar Cap at all local times. It is co-located with several facilities, including the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar. The system is also inside the fields of view of several SuperDARN Coherent Scatter Radars. An overview of the SPEAR system, specific operating modes, as well as data from new, currently undergoing and planned experiments conducted in 2010 will be presented and discussed. Procedures for any future collaborative experiments will also be presented.

  3. High Enthalpy Studies of Capsule Heating in an Expansion Tunnel Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Holden, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Measurements were made on an Orion heat shield model to demonstrate the capability of the new LENS-XX expansion tunnel facility to make high quality measurements of heat transfer distributions at flow velocities from 3 km/s (h(sub 0) = 5 MJ/kg) to 8.4 km/s (h(sub 0) = 36 MJ/kg). Thirty-nine heat transfer gauges, including both thin-film and thermocouple instruments, as well as four pressure gauges, and high-speed Schlieren were used to assess the aerothermal environment on the capsule heat shield. Only results from laminar boundary layer runs are reported. A major finding of this test series is that the high enthalpy, low-density flows displayed surface heating behavior that is observed to be consistent with some finite-rate recombination process occurring on the surface of the model. It is too early to speculate on the nature of the mechanism, but the response of the gages on the surface seems generally repeatable and consistent for a range of conditions. This result is an important milestone in developing and proving a capability to make measurements in a ground test environment and extrapolate them to flight for conditions with extreme non-equilibrium effects. Additionally, no significant, isolated stagnation point augmentation ("bump") was observed in the tests in this facility. Cases at higher Reynolds number seemed to show the greatest amount of overall increase in heating on the windward side of the model, which may in part be due to small-scale particulate.

  4. Design of an Experimental Facility for Passive Heat Removal in Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersano, Andrea

    With reference to innovative heat exchangers to be used in passive safety system of Gen- eration IV nuclear reactors and Small Modular Reactors it is necessary to study the natural circulation and the efficiency of heat removal systems. Especially in safety systems, as the decay heat removal system of many reactors, it is increasing the use of passive components in order to improve their availability and reliability during possible accidental scenarios, reducing the need of human intervention. Many of these systems are based on natural circulation, so they require an intense analysis due to the possible instability of the related phenomena. The aim of this thesis work is to build a scaled facility which can reproduce, in a simplified way, the decay heat removal system (DHR2) of the lead-cooled fast reactor ALFRED and, in particular, the bayonet heat exchanger, which transfers heat from lead to water. Given the thermal power to be removed, the natural circulation flow rate and the pressure drops will be studied both experimentally and numerically using the code RELAP5 3D. The first phase of preliminary analysis and project includes: the calculations to design the heat source and heat sink, the choice of materials and components and CAD drawings of the facility. After that, the numerical study is performed using the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5 3D in order to simulate the behavior of the system. The purpose is to run pretest simulations of the facility to optimize the dimensioning setting the operative parameters (temperature, pressure, etc.) and to chose the most adequate measurement devices. The model of the system is continually developed to better simulate the system studied. High attention is dedicated to the control logic of the system to obtain acceptable results. The initial experimental tests phase consists in cold zero power tests of the facility in order to characterize and to calibrate the pressure drops. In future works the experimental results will be

  5. A technique for measurement of instantaneous heat transfer in steady-flow ambient-temperature facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental technique is described for obtaining time-resolved heat flux measurements with high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) in a steady-flow ambient-temperature facility. The heat transfer test object is preheated and suddenly injected into an established steady flow. Thin-film gages deposited on the test surface detect the unsteady substrate surface temperature. Analog circuitry designed for use in short-duration facilities and based on one-dimensional semiinfinite heat conduction is used to perform the temperature/heat flux transformation. A detailed description of substrate properties, instrumentation, experimental procedure, and data reduction is given, along with representative results obtained in the stagnation region of a circular cylinder subjected to a wake-dominated unsteady flow. An in-depth discussion of related work is also provided.

  6. Boiling Experiment Facility for Heat Transfer Studies in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; McQuillen, John; Chao, David

    2008-01-01

    Pool boiling in microgravity is an area of both scientific and practical interest. By conducting tests in microgravity, it is possible to assess the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and assess the relative magnitude of effects with regards to other "forces" and phenomena such as Marangoni forces, liquid momentum forces, and microlayer evaporation. The Boiling eXperiment Facility is now being built for the Microgravity Science Glovebox that will use normal perfluorohexane as a test fluid to extend the range of test conditions to include longer test durations and less liquid subcooling. Two experiments, the Microheater Array Boiling Experiment and the Nucleate Pool Boiling eXperiment will use the Boiling eXperiment Facility. The objectives of these studies are to determine the differences in local boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity and normal gravity from nucleate boiling, through critical heat flux and into the transition boiling regime and to examine the bubble nucleation, growth, departure and coalescence processes. Custom-designed heaters will be utilized to achieve these objectives.

  7. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) With Applications for Laser Imaging and Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high latitude SuperDARN radars used for auroral...DF arrays, ground HF transmitters such as the Navy relocatable over the horizon radar (ROTHR) and the Air Force/Navy HAARP system would be employed...United States and Australia; (2) high power HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high

  8. Gradient Heating Facility. Experiment cartridges. Description and general specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Specifications that define experiment cartridges that are compatible with the furnace of the gradient heating facility on board the Spacelab are presented. They establish a standard cartridge design independent of the type of experiment to be conducted. By using them, experimenters can design, construct, and test the hot section of the cartridge, known as the high temperature nacelle.

  9. Evaluation of Energy Efficient Options to Heat Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) Maintenance Facilities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-01

    This project was initiated by the ODOT District 2 staff who were looking for more efficient ways to heat and operate their maintenance facilities. This especially applied to the idea of using radiant floor heating as an alternative to todays stand...

  10. SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar): New Developments and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddeley, L. J.; Oksavik, K.

    2009-12-01

    The SPEAR heating facility is located on Svalbard at 75° CGM latitude and as such is 10° closer to a geomagnetic pole than any current ionospheric heating facility. It thus has the unique ability to perform heating experiments inside the polar cap at all local times. It is co-located with several facilities, including the EISCAT Svalbard Radar, the SOUZY radar and the Kjell Henriksen Observatory. After much speculation regarding the operational future of the SPEAR facility, UNIS has taken ownership of the system, with a 3 year research and operational grant from the Norwegian Research Council. The facility has a detailed and successful research history, with results having already been presented at international scientific conferences and appeared in 13 peer-review papers in international journals. Successful experiments have been carried out using both X and O mode polarisation in conjunction with both ground and space based instrumentation. Additionally, the operational frequency the facility (4.45 - 5.825 MHz) means that its scientific capabilities will increase towards the next solar activity maximum in 2012. Future plans, both experimentally and logistically will be discussed in additional to possibilities for future experimental collaborations

  11. Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 1: Test facility and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.; Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    A special test facility was developed to characterize frost growing on heat exchanger fins where the cold surfaces and the air supply conditions were similar to those experienced in freezers, i.e., cold surface temperatures ranging from {minus}35 C to {minus}40 C, air supply temperatures from {minus}10 C to {minus}20 C, and 80% to 100% relative humidity (RH). This test facility included a test section with removable fins to measure the frost height and mass concentration. Frost height on heat exchanger fins was measured using a new automated laser scanning system to measure the height of frost and its distribution onmore » selected fins. The increase in air pressure loss resulting from frost growth on the fins was measured directly in the test loop. The frost mass accumulation distribution was measured for each test using special pre-etched fins that could be easily subdivided and weighed. The total heat rate was measured using a heat flux meter. These frost-measuring instruments were calibrated and the uncertainty of each is stated.« less

  12. Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, Charles P.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

  13. Test facility for investigation of heat transfer of promising coolants for the nuclear power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Sviridov, V. G.; Batenin, V. M.; Biryukov, D. A.; Nikitina, I. S.; Manchkha, S. P.; Pyatnitskaya, N. Yu.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results are presented of experimental investigations into liquid metal heat transfer performed by the joint research group consisting of specialist in heat transfer and hydrodynamics from NIU MPEI and JIHT RAS. The program of experiments has been prepared considering the concept of development of the nuclear power industry in Russia. This concept calls for, in addition to extensive application of water-cooled, water-moderated (VVER-type) power reactors and BN-type sodium cooled fast reactors, development of the new generation of BREST-type reactors, fusion power reactors, and thermonuclear neutron sources. The basic coolants for these nuclear power installations will be heavy liquid metals, such as lead and lithium-lead alloy. The team of specialists from NRU MPEI and JIHT RAS commissioned a new RK-3 mercury MHD-test facility. The major components of this test facility are a unique electrical magnet constructed at Budker Nuclear Physics Institute and a pressurized liquid metal circuit. The test facility is designed for investigating upward and downward liquid metal flows in channels of various cross-sections in a transverse magnetic field. A probe procedure will be used for experimental investigation into heat transfer and hydrodynamics as well as for measuring temperature, velocity, and flow parameter fluctuations. It is generally adopted that liquid metals are the best coolants for the Tokamak reactors. However, alternative coolants should be sought for. As an alternative to liquid metal coolants, molten salts, such as fluorides of lithium and beryllium (so-called FLiBes) or fluorides of alkali metals (so-called FLiNaK) doped with uranium fluoride, can be used. That is why the team of specialists from NRU MPEI and JIHT RAS, in parallel with development of a mercury MHD test facility, is designing a test facility for simulating molten salt heat transfer and hydrodynamics. Since development of this test facility requires numerical predictions and verification

  14. Dumping of auroral kilometric radiation caused by HF heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilevsky, M.; Romantsova, T.; Moiseenko, I.; Bosenger, T.; Rietveld, M.; Hanasz, J.

    2012-04-01

    We have use measurements of electromagnetic waves and plasma onboard of INTERBALL-2 satellite during joint experiment with Tromso HF heating facility. During the selected event the satellite crossed magnetic flux tube with a footprint at the ionosphere above heater. It was found significant dumping of AKR few minutes after the pumping was switched on. The most prominent dumping was detected at high frequency AKR (500-600 kHz) which were emitted at the height of 2-3 thousands km. Two possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed: (i) reflection AKR from the region with increased electron density and (ii) suppression emission by decrease efficiency of the source caused up going plasma from the heated ionosphere.

  15. Teflon probing for the flow characterization of arc-heated wind tunnel facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulli, Stefano; Ground, Cody; Crisanti, Matthew; Maddalena, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The experimental flow characterization of the arc-heated wind tunnel of the University of Texas at Arlington is investigated in this work using ablative Teflon probes in combination with total pressure measurements. A parallel analytical work, focused on the dimensional analysis of the ablation process, has been conducted with the purpose of improving existing semi-empirical correlations for the heat blockage due to the mass injection inside the boundary layer. A control volume analysis at the receding surface of the specimens is used to calculate the wall heat transfer for a non-ablating probe by including the blockage effect. The new correlations, obtained for the convective blockage, show an improvement of the correlation coefficient of 110 % with respect to those available in literature, once a new blowing parameter containing the stagnation pressure is introduced. A correlation developed by NASA during the Round-Robin program, which relates the Teflon mass loss rate to the total pressure and cold-wall heat flux measured experimentally, is also used to predict the wall heat transfer referred to the ablation temperature of Teflon. For both approaches, a simplified stagnation point convective heat transfer equation allows the average stagnation enthalpy to be calculated. Several locations downstream of the nozzle exit have been surveyed, and selected points of the facility's performance map have been used for the experimental campaign. The results show that both approaches provide similar results in terms of stagnation heat flux and enthalpy prediction with uncertainties comparable to those provided by standard intrusive heat flux probes ( δ q max < 25 %). The analysis of the Teflon's ablated surface does not reveal significant flow non-uniformities, and a 1.14 heat flux enhancement factor due to the shock-shock interaction is detectable at x = 3.5 in. from the nozzle exit plane. The results show the use of ablative probes for the flow characterization of arc

  16. Feasibility Study of SSTO Base Heating Simulation in Pulsed-Type Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chung Sik; Sharma, Surendra; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory simulation of the base heating environment of the proposed reusable Single-Stage-To-Orbit vehicle during its ascent flight was proposed. The rocket engine produces CO2 and H2, which are the main combustible components of the exhaust effluent. The burning of these species, known as afterburning, enhances the base region gas temperature as well as the base heating. To determine the heat flux on the SSTO vehicle, current simulation focuses on the thermochemistry of the afterburning, thermophysical properties of the base region gas, and ensuing radiation from the gas. By extrapolating from the Saturn flight data, the Damkohler number for the afterburning of SSTO vehicle is estimated to be of the order of 10. The limitations on the material strengths limit the laboratory simulation of the flight Damkohler number as well as other flow parameters. A plan is presented in impulse facilities using miniature rocket engines which generate the simulated rocket plume by electric ally-heating a H2/CO2 mixture.

  17. First observations of stimulated electromagnetic emission in the ionosphere modified by the spear heating facility on Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereshchenko, E. D.; Yurik, R. Yu.; Yeoman, T. K.; Robinson, T. R.

    2008-11-01

    We present the first results of observations of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) in the ionosphere modified by the Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) heating facility. Observation of the SEE is the key method of ground-based diagnostics of the ionospheric plasma disturbances due to high-power HF radiation. The presented results were obtained during the heating campaign performed at the SPEAR facility in February-March 2007. Prominent SEE special features were observed in periods in which the critical frequency of the F 2 layer was higher than the pump-wave frequency (4.45 MHz). As an example, such special features as the downshifted maximum and the broad continuum in the region of negative detunings from the pump-wave frequency are presented. Observations clearly demonstrate that the ionosphere was efficiently excited by the SPEAR heating facility despite the comparatively low pump-wave power.

  18. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat

  19. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  20. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m 2 tomore » accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.« less

  1. Evaluation of a heat exchanger for use in the Integrated Equipment Test facility solvent-extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. E.

    1982-12-01

    The primary decontamination extraction section product (HAP) heat exchanger will be located between the extracting section (HA) and scrubbing section (HS) of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility. The heat exchanger is required to raise the temperature of the organic product stream from the HA contactor from 40 to 500 C. Tests were conducted under prototypic IET operating conditions to determine the head requirements for gravity flow and the overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger. Results from the tests indicated that the specified heat exchanger would perform satisfactorily under normal operating conditions.

  2. Identification of scintillation signatures on GPS signals originating from plasma structures detected with EISCAT incoherent scatter radar along the same line of sight

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Chris; Skone, Susan; Häggström, Ingemar; Mitchell, Cathryn; Da Dalt, Federico; Panicciari, Tommaso; Kinrade, Joe; Bust, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ionospheric scintillation originates from the scattering of electromagnetic waves through spatial gradients in the plasma density distribution, drifting across a given propagation direction. Ionospheric scintillation represents a disruptive manifestation of adverse space weather conditions through degradation of the reliability and continuity of satellite telecommunication and navigation systems and services (e.g., European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, EGNOS). The purpose of the experiment presented here was to determine the contribution of auroral ionization structures to GPS scintillation. European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) measurements were obtained along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromso and followed by means of the EISCAT UHF radar to causally identify plasma structures that give rise to scintillation on the co‐aligned GPS radio link. Large‐scale structures associated with the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough, with auroral arcs in the nightside auroral oval and with particle precipitation at the onset of a substorm were indeed identified as responsible for enhanced phase scintillation at L band. For the first time it was observed that the observed large‐scale structures did not cascade into smaller‐scale structures, leading to enhanced phase scintillation without amplitude scintillation. More measurements and theory are necessary to understand the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of large‐scale to small‐scale energy cascade and to reproduce the observations. This aspect is fundamental to model the scattering of radio waves propagating through these ionization structures. New insights from this experiment allow a better characterization of the impact that space weather can have on satellite telecommunications and navigation services. PMID:28331778

  3. Identification of scintillation signatures on GPS signals originating from plasma structures detected with EISCAT incoherent scatter radar along the same line of sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Biagio; Coleman, Chris; Skone, Susan; Häggström, Ingemar; Mitchell, Cathryn; Da Dalt, Federico; Panicciari, Tommaso; Kinrade, Joe; Bust, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric scintillation originates from the scattering of electromagnetic waves through spatial gradients in the plasma density distribution, drifting across a given propagation direction. Ionospheric scintillation represents a disruptive manifestation of adverse space weather conditions through degradation of the reliability and continuity of satellite telecommunication and navigation systems and services (e.g., European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, EGNOS). The purpose of the experiment presented here was to determine the contribution of auroral ionization structures to GPS scintillation. European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) measurements were obtained along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromso and followed by means of the EISCAT UHF radar to causally identify plasma structures that give rise to scintillation on the co-aligned GPS radio link. Large-scale structures associated with the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough, with auroral arcs in the nightside auroral oval and with particle precipitation at the onset of a substorm were indeed identified as responsible for enhanced phase scintillation at L band. For the first time it was observed that the observed large-scale structures did not cascade into smaller-scale structures, leading to enhanced phase scintillation without amplitude scintillation. More measurements and theory are necessary to understand the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of large-scale to small-scale energy cascade and to reproduce the observations. This aspect is fundamental to model the scattering of radio waves propagating through these ionization structures. New insights from this experiment allow a better characterization of the impact that space weather can have on satellite telecommunications and navigation services.

  4. Identification of scintillation signatures on GPS signals originating from plasma structures detected with EISCAT incoherent scatter radar along the same line of sight.

    PubMed

    Forte, Biagio; Coleman, Chris; Skone, Susan; Häggström, Ingemar; Mitchell, Cathryn; Da Dalt, Federico; Panicciari, Tommaso; Kinrade, Joe; Bust, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric scintillation originates from the scattering of electromagnetic waves through spatial gradients in the plasma density distribution, drifting across a given propagation direction. Ionospheric scintillation represents a disruptive manifestation of adverse space weather conditions through degradation of the reliability and continuity of satellite telecommunication and navigation systems and services (e.g., European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, EGNOS). The purpose of the experiment presented here was to determine the contribution of auroral ionization structures to GPS scintillation. European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) measurements were obtained along the same line of sight of a given GPS satellite observed from Tromso and followed by means of the EISCAT UHF radar to causally identify plasma structures that give rise to scintillation on the co-aligned GPS radio link. Large-scale structures associated with the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough, with auroral arcs in the nightside auroral oval and with particle precipitation at the onset of a substorm were indeed identified as responsible for enhanced phase scintillation at L band. For the first time it was observed that the observed large-scale structures did not cascade into smaller-scale structures, leading to enhanced phase scintillation without amplitude scintillation. More measurements and theory are necessary to understand the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of large-scale to small-scale energy cascade and to reproduce the observations. This aspect is fundamental to model the scattering of radio waves propagating through these ionization structures. New insights from this experiment allow a better characterization of the impact that space weather can have on satellite telecommunications and navigation services.

  5. 77 FR 30888 - Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Standards for Bureau-Funded Dormitory Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...As required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the Secretary of the Interior has developed regulations using negotiated rulemaking that address heating, cooling, and lighting standards for Bureau-funded dormitory facilities. These regulations also make a technical change to remove an obsolete reference.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.

  7. New methods to detect particle velocity and mass flux in arc-heated ablation/erosion facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayton, D. B.; Bomar, B. W.; Seibel, B. L.; Elrod, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    Arc-heated flow facilities with injected particles are used to simulate the erosive and ablative/erosive environments encountered by spacecraft re-entry through fog, clouds, thermo-nuclear explosions, etc. Two newly developed particle diagnostic techniques used to calibrate these facilities are discussed. One technique measures particle velocity and is based on the detection of thermal radiation and/or chemiluminescence from the hot seed particles in a model ablation/erosion facility. The second technique measures a local particle rate, which is proportional to local particle mass flux, in a dust erosion facility by photodetecting and counting the interruptions of a focused laser beam by individual particles.

  8. 77 FR 60041 - Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Standards for Bureau-Funded Dormitory Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 36 [Docket ID BIA-2012-0001] RIN 1076-AF10 Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Standards for Bureau-Funded Dormitory Facilities AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is...

  9. Determination of the Heat and Mass Transfer Efficiency at the Contact Stage of a Jet-Film Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, O. S.; Madyshev, I. N.; Dmitriev, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    A contact jet-film facility has been developed for increasing the efficiency of operation of industrial cooling towers. The results of experimental and analytical investigation of the operation of this facility, its hydraulic resistance, and of the heat and mass transfer efficiency of its contact stage are presented.

  10. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tiedmore » directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.« less

  11. Influence of condensation on heat flux and pressure measurements in a detonation-based short-duration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.; Olivier, H.

    2017-10-01

    Detonation-based short-duration facilities provide hot gas with very high stagnation pressures and temperatures. Due to the short testing time, complex and expensive cooling techniques of the facility walls are not needed. Therefore, they are attractive for economical experimental investigations of high-enthalpy flows such as the flow in a rocket engine. However, cold walls can provoke condensation of the hot combustion gas at the walls. This has already been observed in detonation tubes close behind the detonation wave, resulting in a loss of tube performance. A potential influence of condensation at the wall on the experimental results, like wall heat fluxes and static pressures, has not been considered so far. Therefore, in this study the occurrence of condensation and its influence on local heat flux and pressure measurements has been investigated in the nozzle test section of a short-duration rocket-engine simulation facility. This facility provides hot water vapor with stagnation pressures up to 150 bar and stagnation temperatures up to 3800 K. A simple method has been developed to detect liquid water at the wall without direct optical access to the flow. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that condensation has a remarkable influence on local measurement values. The experimental results indicate that for the elimination of these influences the nozzle wall has to be heated to a certain temperature level, which exclusively depends on the local static pressure.

  12. ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA-666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. CONCRETE BLOCK SIDING. SLOPED ROOF. ROLL-UP DOOR. AIR INTAKE ENCLOSURE ON NORTH SIDE. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A5, 8/1966. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-152258, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Suresh C.

    1994-03-01

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building's energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  14. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; ...

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m 2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holdersmore » compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  15. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  16. An evaluation of analog and numerical techniques for unsteady heat transfer measurement with thin-film gauges in transient facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, William K.; Rae, William J.; Woodward, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of frequency response considerations in the use of thin-film gages for unsteady heat transfer measurements in transient facilities is considered, and methods for evaluating it are proposed. A departure frequency response function is introduced and illustrated by an existing analog circuit. A Fresnel integral temperature which possesses the essential features of the film temperature in transient facilities is introduced and is used to evaluate two numerical algorithms. Finally, criteria are proposed for the use of finite-difference algorithms for the calculation of the unsteady heat flux from a sampled temperature signal.

  17. Remote sensing of ELF/VLF radiation induced in experiments on artificial modification of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, B. G.; Zetser, Yu. I.; Ryakhovskii, I. A.; Poklad, Yu. V.; Ermak, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    In 2012, remote measurements of electromagnetic signals in the ELF/VLF band were taken at different points in Russia during experiments on artificial ionospheric modification with the powerful HF wave at the EISCAT heating facility (Tromsø, Norway). The use of the new, highly sensitive magnetometric equipment allowed signals with an amplitude of a few femtoteslas to be recorded at a distance of up to 2000 km from the source. Analysis of the measurement results discovered substantial differences in the amplitude-phase characteristics of the signals, which were caused by a change in helio-geophysical conditions in the region of heating and along the signal passage route, and features of signal propagation, which are related to their mode of guided propagation, the directivity of the source, and angles of reception.

  18. On the potential for BECCS efficiency improvement through heat recovery from both post-combustion and oxy-combustion facilities.

    PubMed

    Dowell, N Mac; Fajardy, M

    2016-10-20

    In order to mitigate climate change to no more than 2 °C, it is well understood that it will be necessary to directly remove significant quantities of CO 2 , with bioenergy CCS (BECCS) regarded as a promising technology. However, BECCS will likely be more costly and less efficient at power generation than conventional CCS. Thus, approaches to improve BECCS performance and reduce costs are of importance to facilitate the deployment of this key technology. In this study, the impact of biomass co-firing rate and biomass moisture content on BECCS efficiency with both post- and oxy-combustion CO 2 capture technologies was evaluated. It was found that post-combustion capture BECCS (PCC-BECCS) facilities will be appreciably less efficient than oxy-combustion capture BECCS (OCC-BECCS) facilities. Consequently, PCC-BECCS have the potential to be more carbon negative than OCC-BECCS per unit electricity generated. It was further observed that the biomass moisture content plays an important role in determining the BECCS facilities' efficiency. This will in turn affect the enthalpic content of the BECCS plant exhaust and implies that exhaust gas heat recovery may be an attractive option at higher rates of co-firing. It was found that there is the potential for the recovery of approximately 2.5 GJ heat per t CO 2 at a temperature of 100 °C from both PCC-BECCS and OCC-BECCS. On- and off-site applications for this recovered heat are discussed, considering boiler feedwater pre-heating, solvent regeneration and district heating cases.

  19. Summary of experimental heat-transfer results from the turbine hot section facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Yeh, Fredrick C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data from the turbine Hot Section Facility are presented and discussed. These data include full-coverage film-cooled airfoil results as well as special instrumentation results obtained at simulated real engine conditions. Local measurements of airfoil wall temperature, airfoil gas-path static-pressure distribution, and local heat-transfer coefficient distributions are presented and discussed. In addition, measured gas and coolant temperatures and pressures are presented. These data are also compared with analyses from Euler and boundary-layer codes.

  20. River Gardens Intermediate-Care Facility water-to-air heating and air-conditioning demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.

    An integrated system of heat pumps is used to reject heat into or extract heat from circulating water from a shallow well adjacent to the river to demonstrate the efficiency and fuel cost savings of water-to-air heat pumps, without the expense of drilling a deep well. Water is returned unpolluted to the Guadalupe River and is circulated through a five-building complex at River Gardens Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded in New Braunfels, Texas. The water is used as a heat source or sink for 122 heat pumps providing space heating and cooling, and for refrigeration and freezer units.more » The system was not installed as designed, which resulted in water pumping loads being higher than the original design. Electrical consumption for pumping water represented 36 to 37% of system electrical consumption. Without the water pumping load, the water-to-air system was an average of 25% more efficient in heating than a comparable air-to-air unit with resistance heating. With water pumping load included, the installed system averaged 17% less efficient in cooling and 19% more efficient in heating than the comparable unit.« less

  1. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities: Market Analysis and Lessons from the Field

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report presents the opportunities for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the municipal wastewater treatment sector, and it documents the experiences of the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) operators who have employed CHP.

  2. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) was constructed to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test the performance of a complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions, and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is printed along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance, and some preliminary results.

  3. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe (HP) cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system. Reactivity feedback calculations were then based on a bulk reactivity feedback coefficient and measured average core temperature. This paper presents preliminary results from similar dynamic testing of a direct drive gas cooled reactor system (DDG), demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. Although the HP and DDG designs both utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility. Planned system upgrades to allow implementation of higher fidelity dynamic testing are also discussed. Proposed DDG

  4. 9 CFR 3.51 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facilities, indoor. 3.51 Section 3.51... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.51 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for rabbits need not be heated. (b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities for rabbits shall be adequately...

  5. 9 CFR 3.76 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indoor housing facilities. 3.76... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.76 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities must be sufficiently heated and cooled when...

  6. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 Test Facility: Thermal Vacuum and Propellant Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  7. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  8. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  9. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  10. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.26 Facilities, indoor. (a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... pigs or hamsters shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at...

  11. Heat transfer and instrumentation studies on rotating turbine blades in a transient facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, William D. E.

    1990-08-01

    The current demands of modern aviation have encouraged engine manufacturers to develop larger, more powerful, yet quieter and more fuel efficient gas turbine engines. This has promoted particular interest in the heat loads borne by turbines, for efficiency can be improved if turbine entry temperature is increased. Presently, ceilings for this parameter are set by the thermal properties of the blade materials and their internal cooling capabilities. It has been established that flow unsteadiness and secondary flows in the turbine passages greatly influence the heat transfer rate on turbine blades and endwall surfaces. The three-dimensionality of the rotating turbine flowfield, however, complicates the interaction of these unsteady effects and their combined role in heat transfer on turbine blades. To fulfill the need to study this complex fluid environment, a model turbine stage has been installed in the working section of the Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel at Oxford. This transient facility enables the rotor to be operated at engine representative conditions. Novel high density instrumentation has been development for use on the turbine blade. Both the production and calibration of the thin film gauges will be explained and the theory supporting heat transfer measurement using this instrumentation is presented in this thesis. Perhaps the most important feature of this thesis lies in the extensive mean and unsteady heat transfer rates measured on the blade profile. These were determined on a total of 5 streamlines and represent a significant contribution to the total experimental data available on 3-dimensional profiles at engine representative conditions.

  12. Experimental investigations on active cooling thermal protection structure of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor in arc heated facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianqiang, Tu; Jinlong, Peng; Xianning, Yang; Lianzhong, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The active cooling thermal protection technology is the efficient method to resolve the long-duration work and reusable problems of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor, where worst thermo-mechanical loads occur. The fuel is passed through coolant channels adjacent to the heated surfaces to absorb heat from the heating exchanger panels, prior to injection into the combustor. The heating exchanger both cooled down the wall temperature of the combustor wall and heats and cracks the hydrocarbon fuel inside the panel to permit an easier combustion and satisfying combustion efficiency. The subscale active cooling metallic panels, with dimensions of 100×100 mm and different coolant channel sizes, have been tested under typical combustion thermal environment produced by arc heated Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD). The heat exchange ability of different coolant channel sizes has been obtained. The big-scale active cooling metallic panel, with dimensions of 100 × 750 mm and the coolant channel sizes of better heating exchange performance, has been made and tested in the big-scale arc heated TFD facility. The test results show that the local superheated ablation is easy to happen for the cooling fuel assigned asymmetrically in the bigscale active cooling metallic panel, and the cooling fuel rate can reduce 8%˜10% after spraying the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) in the heating surface.

  13. Conceptual design of two-phase fluid mechanics and heat transfer facility for spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, B. F.; Hill, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Five specific experiments were analyzed to provide definition of experiments designed to evaluate two phase fluid behavior in low gravity. The conceptual design represents a fluid mechanics and heat transfer facility for a double rack in Spacelab. The five experiments are two phase flow patterns and pressure drop, flow boiling, liquid reorientation, and interface bubble dynamics. Hardware was sized, instrumentation and data recording requirements defined, and the five experiments were installed as an integrated experimental package. Applicable available hardware was selected in the experiment design and total experiment program costs were defined.

  14. The 0.040-scale space shuttle orbiter base heating model tests in the Lewis Research Center space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Space shuttle base heating tests were conducted using a 0.040-scale model in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility of The NASA Lewis Research Center. The tests measured heat transfer rates, pressure distributions, and gas recovery temperatures on the orbiter vehicle 2A base configuration resulting from engine plume impingement. One hundred and sixty-eight hydrogen-oxygen engine firings were made at simulated flight altitudes ranging from 120,000 to 360,000 feet.

  15. Full-Scale Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Processes in the Earth's Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.; Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping

    2008-10-15

    We present a full-scale simulation study of ionospheric turbulence by means of a generalized Zakharov model based on the separation of variables into high-frequency and slow time scales. The model includes realistic length scales of the ionospheric profile and of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields, and uses ionospheric plasma parameters relevant for high-latitude radio facilities such as Eiscat and HAARP. A nested grid numerical method has been developed to resolve the different length-scales, while avoiding severe restrictions on the time step. The simulation demonstrates the parametric decay of the ordinary mode into Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, followed by a Langmuirmore » wave collapse and short-scale caviton formation, as observed in ionospheric heating experiments.« less

  16. Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emission in Public Welfare Facilities Equipped with PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

    The reduction effect of life cycle CO2 emission is examined in case of introducing a PV/solar heat/cogeneration system into public welfare facilities(hotel and hospital). Life cycle CO2 emission is calculated as the sum of that when operating and that when manufacturing equipments. The system is operated with the dynamic programming method, into which hourly data of electric and heat loads, solar insolation, and atmospheric temperature during a year are input. The proposed system is compared with a conventional system and a cogeneration system. The life cycle CO2 emission of the PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is lower than that of the conventional system by 20% in hotel and by 14% in hospital.

  17. Facilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Research Facilities Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Center for Transportation Research Distributed Energy Research Center Engine Research Facility Heat Transfer Laboratory Materials Engineering Research Facility

  18. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  19. 9 CFR 3.3 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.3 Sheltered housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. The sheltered part of sheltered housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  20. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  1. 9 CFR 3.2 - Indoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.2 Indoor housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Indoor housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or humidity extremes and to provide...

  2. Gradient Heating Facility in the Materials Science Double Rack (MSDR) on Spacelab-1 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was designed to carry large payloads into Earth orbit. One of the most important payloads is Spacelab. The Spacelab serves as a small but well-equipped laboratory in space to perform experiments in zero-gravity and make astronomical observations above the Earth's obscuring atmosphere. In this photograph, Payload Specialist, Ulf Merbold, is working at Gradient Heating Facility on the Materials Science Double Rack (MSDR) inside the science module in the Orbiter Columbia's payload bay during STS-9, Spacelab-1 mission. Spacelab-1, the joint ESA (European Space Agency)/NASA mission, was the first operational flight for the Spacelab, and demonstrated new instruments and methods for conducting experiments that are difficult or impossible in ground-based laboratories. This facility performed, in extremely low gravity, a wide variety of materials processing experiments in crystal growth, fluid physics, and metallurgy. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall management responsibilities.

  3. Advanced high temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W.; Hobart, H. F.; Strange, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    To fully characterize advanced high temperature heat flux sensors, calibration and testing is required at full engine temperature. This required the development of unique high temperature heat flux test facilities. These facilities were developed, are in place, and are being used for advanced heat flux sensor development.

  4. ICI-III sounding rocket investigation of a Reversed flow event seen by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dåbakk, Y.; Moen, J. I.; Carlson, H. C.; Saito, Y.; Abe, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI)- III Sounding rocket was launched from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard on December 3rd, 2011. The aim of the ICI-III mission was to investigate the physics of RFE class of cusp flow events. ICI-III intersected the first RFE (RFE1) in a sequence of in total 3 consecutive RFEs seen by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR). The ESR and ICI-III were geographically looking at the same region of the ionosphere both at the time ICI-III entered RFE1 on its poleward boundary and left it on its equatorward boundary, hence ESR tracked the rocket perfectly on entering and leaving RFE1. ICI-III measured hence for the first time detailed flows and precipitation within an RFE with a resolution down to tens of meters. The observations presented are used to test the various explanations that have been proposed as generation mechanisms for this phenomenon. The only consistent explanation that remains seems to be the theory suggested by Rinne et al. 2007, where an asymmetric version of the Southwood FTE twin cell model was proposed in which return flow develops predominantly on the poleward side of newly open flux since it is inhibited by the open-closed boundary (OCB) on the equatorward side to explain the RFE. By zooming into the RFE, detailed structure and dynamics within the RFE are revealed, previously unseen due to instrument resolution.

  5. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a... operations conducted at the facility. In order to be certified, a heat treatment facility must: (1) Have...

  6. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a... operations conducted at the facility. In order to be certified, a heat treatment facility must: (1) Have...

  7. 7 CFR 305.8 - Heat treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heat treatment requirements. 305.8 Section 305.8... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.8 Heat treatment requirements. (a... operations conducted at the facility. In order to be certified, a heat treatment facility must: (1) Have...

  8. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  9. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  10. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  11. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  12. Flow Property Measurement Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Porter, Barry J.; Carballo, Julio Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species has been applied to single-point measurements of velocity and static temperature in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet. Excitation spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen were recorded while scanning a tunable dye laser over the absorption feature. Thirty excitation spectra were acquired during 8 arc jet runs at two facility operating conditions; the number of scans per run varied between 2 and 6. Curve fits to the spectra were analyzed to recover their Doppler shifts and widths, from which the flow velocities and static temperatures, respectively, were determined. An increase in the number of independent flow property pairs from each as-measured scan was obtained by extracting multiple lower-resolution scans. The larger population sample size enabled the mean property values and their uncertainties for each run to be characterized with greater confidence. The average plus or minus 2 sigma uncertainties in the mean velocities and temperatures for all 8 runs were plus or minus 1.4% and plus or minus 11%, respectively.

  13. Heat Recovery at Army Materiel Command (AMC) Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    industrial complexes and somewhat smaller commercial/ HVAC ** systems, a portion of this waste heat can be recovered, improving energy efficiency. Heat...devices are used in sequence. Other shell-and-tube applications include heat transfer from process liquids, condensates, and cooling water. Two...pipe consists of a sealed element involving an annular capillary wick con- tained inside the full length of the tube, with an appropriate entrained

  14. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  15. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara

    2005-02-06

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an earlymore » prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore

  16. Enthalpy By Energy Balance for Aerodynamic Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center Arc Jet Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; MacDonald, Christine L.; Martinez, Edward R.; Balboni, John A.; Anderson, Karl F.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Arc Jet Facilities' Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) has been instrumented for the Enthalpy By Energy Balance (EB2) method. Diagnostic EB2 data is routinely taken for all AHF runs. This paper provides an overview of the EB2 method implemented in the AHF. The chief advantage of the AHF implementation over earlier versions is the non-intrusiveness of the instruments used. For example, to measure the change in cooling water temperature, thin film 1000 ohm Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are used with an Anderson Current Loop (ACL) as the signal conditioner. The ACL with 1000 ohm RTDs allows for very sensitive measurement of the increase in temperature (Delta T) of the cooling water to the arc heater, which is a critical element of the EB2 method. Cooling water flow rates are measured with non-intrusive ultrasonic flow meters.

  17. Evaluation of renewable energy alternatives for highway maintenance facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    A considerable annual energy budget is used for heating, lighting, cooling and operating ODOT : maintenance facilities. Such facilities contain vehicle repair and garage bays, which are large open : spaces with high heating demand in winter. The main...

  18. Radiant Heat Test Facility (RHTF): User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the RHTF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  19. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  20. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-10-14

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time.

  1. Electron density inversed by plasma lines induced by suprathermal electron in the ionospheric modification experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zhou, Chen

    2018-05-01

    Incoherent scatter radar (ISR) is the most powerful ground-based measurement facility to study the ionosphere. The plasma lines are not routinely detected by the incoherent scatter radar due to the low intensity, which falls below the measured spectral noise level of the incoherent scatter radar. The plasma lines are occasionally enhanced by suprathermal electrons through the Landau damping process and detectable to the incoherent scatter radar. In this study, by using the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) UHF incoherent scatter radar, the experiment observation presents that the enhanced plasma lines were observed. These plasma lines were considered as manifest of the suprathermal electrons generated by the high-frequency heating wave during the ionospheric modification. The electron density profile is also obtained from the enhanced plasma lines. This study can be a promising technique for obtaining the accurate electron density during ionospheric modification experiment.

  2. Performance evaluation of the Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The general performance of the NASA Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) and its subsystems and components over a four year operational period is discussed, and data are provided for a typical one year period. The facility consists of a 4645 sq office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and a baseboard heating system. An adjoining 1176 sq solar flat plate collector field with a 114 cu tank provides the solar heated water. The solar system provided 57 percent of the energy required for heating and cooling on an annual basis. The average efficiency of the solar collectors was 26 percent over a one year period.

  3. Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-06

    OVERSEEING ORION HEAT SHIELD WORK IN MARSHALL'S SEVEN-AXIS MILLING AND MACHINING FACILITY ARE, FROM LEFT, JOHN KOWAL, MANAGER OF ORION'S THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER; NICHOLAS CROWLEY, AN AMES ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN; AND ROB KORNIENKO, AMES ENGINEERING BRANCH CHIEF. THE HEAT SHIELD FLEW TO SPACE DURING THE EFT-1 FULL SCALE FLIGHT TEST OF ORION IN DECEMBER, 2014

  4. Borehole model for simulation transport geothermal heat with heat pipe system and with forced circulation of heat carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubský, Michal; Lenhard, Richard; Vantúch, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2012-04-01

    In the call OPVaV-2008/2.2/01-SORO Operational Programme Research and Development - knowledge and technology transfer from research and development into practice (ITMS-26220220057), whose strategic goal is "Device to use low-potential geothermal heat without forced circulation of heat carrier deep in the well "in the Department of Energy laboratory techniques to construct a simulator of transport low potential of geothermal energy in comparative test-drilling in the laboratory. The article describes a device that was designed as a scale model of two deep boreholes each of which withdraws the earth's heat by heat transfer technology and heat carrier. Device using forced circulation of heat carrier will respond in the construction of equipment currently used to transport heat from deep borehole. As the heat carrier will be used CO2. Facilities without using forced circulation of heat carrier, the new technology, which will be used as heat carrier ammonia (NH3).

  5. Sura heating facility transmissions to the CASSIOPE/e-POP satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.; Frolov, V. L.; Andreeva, E. S.; Padokhin, A. M.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    Throughout a nighttime pass of the CASSIOPE satellite at an altitude of about 1300 km above the Sura heating facility, transmission of O-mode radiation from Sura to the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument on CASSIOPE was maintained. Also, during this pass, continuous VHF/UHF transmission from the e-POP Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography radio beacon to three coordinated ground receivers in the Sura vicinity was achieved. Tomography of the VHF/UHF received wave data based on total electron content permitted the two-dimensional distribution of ionospheric ambient electron plasma frequency fpe to be determined in the latitude-altitude space between Sura and CASSIOPE. The foF2 values about 0.1 MHz above the Sura pump frequency of 4.3 MHz were measured by the tomography. We examine the question of whether the observations can be explained on the basis of classic propagation in a smooth ionosphere. Tracing of rays from Sura toward CASSIOPE orbital locations finds most rays reflected away from the topside by the patchy ionospheric structure in bottomside fpe. It is concluded that O-mode ducting in underdense field-aligned irregularities is responsible for maintaining the transionospheric transmission across the 2 min pass. O- to Z-mode "radio-window" conversion in the F region bottomside is not required to explain these data.

  6. Communal biofuel burning for district heating: Emissions and immissions from medium-sized (0.4 and 1.5 MW) facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2018-05-01

    Particulate and gaseous emissions of two medium-sized district heating facilities (400 kW, fueled with miscanthus, and 1.5 MW, fueled with wood chips) were characterized for different operational conditions, and compared to previously obtained results for household wood and pellet stoves. SO2 and NOx emission factors (reported in mg MJFuel-1) were found to not only depend on fuel sulfur/nitrogen content, but also on combustion appliance type and efficiency. Emission factors of SO2, NOx, and PM (particulate matter) increased with increasing load. Particle chemical composition did not primarily depend on operational conditions, but varied mostly with combustion appliances, fuel types, and flue gas cleaning technologies. Black carbon content was decreasing with increasing combustion efficiency; chloride content was strongly enhanced when burning miscanthus. Flue gas cleaning using an electrostatic precipitator caused strong reduction not only in total PM, but also in the fraction of refractory and semi-refractory material within emitted PM1. For the impact of facilities on their surroundings (immissions) not only their total emissions are decisive, but also their stack heights. In immission measurements downwind of the two facilities, a plume could only be observed for the 400 kW facility with low (11 m) stack height (1.5 MW facility: 30 m), and measured immissions agreed reasonably well with predicted ones. The impact of these immissions is non-negligible: At a distance of 50 m from the facility, apart from CO2, also plume contributions of NOx, ultrafine particles, PM1, PM10, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, and sulfate were detected, with enhancements above background values of 2-130%.

  7. Ion Upwelling and Height-Resolved Electrodynamic Response of the Ionosphere to ULF Waves and Precipitation: Comparison Between Simulation and EISCAT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Rankin, R.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a comprehensive two-dimensional (meridional) model of coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere that covers an altitude range from ~100 km to few thousand km at high latitudes [Sydorenko and Rankin, 2013]. The model describes propagation of inertial scale Alfven waves, including ponderomotive forces, and has a parametric model of energetic electron precipitation; it includes vertical ion flows and chemical reactions between ions and neutrals. Model results are presented that reproduce EISCAT radar observations of electron and ion temperatures, height integrated conductivity, ion densities, and ion flows during a period of ULF activity described in [Lester, Davies, and Yeoman, 2000]. We performed simulations where the precipitation and the Alfven wave perturb the ionosphere simultaneously. By adjusting parameters of the wave and the precipitation we have achieved qualitative, and sometimes even reasonable quantitative agreement between the observations and the simulation. The model results are discussed in the context of new results anticipated from the Canadian small satellite mission ePOP "Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe", scheduled for launch on September 9, 2013. Sydorenko D. and R. Rankin, 'Simulation of O+ upflows created by electron precipitation and Alfvén waves in the ionosphere' submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013. Lester M., J. A. Davies, and T. K. Yeoman, 'The ionospheric response during an interval of PC5 ULF wave activity', Ann. Geophysicae, v.18, p.257-261 (2000).

  8. High power plasma heating experiments on the Proto-MPEX facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Beers, C. J.; Biewer, T. M.; Caneses, J. F.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Diem, S. J.; Goulding, R. H.; Green, D. L.; Kafle, N.; Rapp, J.; Showers, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Work is underway to maximize the power delivered to the plasma that is available from heating sources installed on the Prototype Materials Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at ORNL. Proto-MPEX is a linear device that has a >100 kW, 13.56 MHz helicon plasma generator available and is intended for material sample exposure to plasmas. Additional plasma heating systems include a 10 kW 18 GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system, a 25 kW 8 MHz ion cyclotron heating ICH system, and a 200 kW 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) and ECH system. Most of the heating systems have relatively good power transmission efficiency, however, the 28 GHz EBW system has a lower efficiency owing to stringent requirements on the microwave launch characteristics for EBW coupling combined with the lower output mode purity of the early-model gyrotron in use and its compact mode converter system. A goal for the Proto-MPEX is to have a combined heating power of 200 kW injected into the plasma. Infrared emission diagnostics of the target plate combined with Thomson Scattering, Langmuir probe, and energy analyzer measurements near the target are utilized to characterize the plasmas and coupling efficiency of the heating systems. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  9. Ionospheric electron heating, optical emissions, and striations induced by powerful HF radio waves at high latitudes: Aspect angle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietveld, M. T.; Kosch, M. J.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Kornienko, V. A.; Leyser, T. B.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, large electron temperature increases of 300% (3000 K above background) caused by powerful HF-radio wave injection have been observed during nighttime using the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar near Tromsø in northern Norway. In a case study we examine the spatial structure of the modified region. The electron heating is accompanied by ion heating of about 100 degrees and magnetic field-aligned measurements show ion outflows increasing with height up to 300 m s-1 at 582 km. The electron density decreases by up to 20%. When the radar antenna was scanned between three elevations from near field-aligned to vertical, the strongest heating effects were always obtained in the field-aligned position. When the HF-pump beam was scanned between the same three positions, the heating was still almost always strongest in the field-aligned direction. Simultaneous images of the 630 nm O(1D) line in the radio-induced aurora showed that the enhancement caused by the HF radio waves also remained localized near the field-aligned position. Coherent HF radar backscatter also appeared strongest when the pump beam was pointed field-aligned. These results are similar to some Langmuir turbulence phenomena which also show a strong preference for excitation by HF rays launched in the field-aligned direction. The correlation of the position of largest temperature enhancement with the position of the radio-induced aurora suggests that a common mechanism, upper-hybrid wave turbulence, is responsible for both effects. Why the strongest heating effects occur for HF rays directed along the magnetic field is still unclear, but self-focusing on field-aligned striations is a candidate mechanism, and possibly ionospheric tilts may be important.

  10. Realistic Development and Testing of Fission System at a Non-Nuclear Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Tom; VanDyke, Melissa; Dickens, Ricky; Pedersen, Kevin; Lenard, Roger; Houts, Mike

    2000-01-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on a module has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the Propellant Energy Source Testbed (PEST). This paper discusses the experimental facilities and equipment used for performing resistance heated tests. Recommendations are made for improving non-nuclear test facilities and equipment for simulated testing of nuclear systems.

  11. Realistic development and testing of fission systems at a non-nuclear testing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Tom; van Dyke, Melissa; Dickens, Ricky; Pedersen, Kevin; Lenard, Roger; Houts, Mike

    2000-01-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on a module has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the Propellant Energy Source Testbed (PEST). This paper discusses the experimental facilities and equipment used for performing resistance heated tests. Recommendations are made for improving non-nuclear test facilities and equipment for simulated testing of nuclear systems. .

  12. 9 CFR 3.26 - Facilities, indoor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the... facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall have ample light, by natural or artificial means, or both, of.... Primary enclosures shall be so placed as to protect the guinea pigs or hamsters from excessive...

  13. Seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the quiet-time ionospheric trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Kadokura, A.; Hiraki, Y.; Häggström, I.

    2014-08-01

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ionospheric F region trough, focusing on its seasonal variation and solar activity dependence under geomagnetically quiet and moderate conditions, using plasma parameter data obtained via Common Program 3 observations performed by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar between 1982 and 2011. We have confirmed that there is a major difference in frictional heating between the high- and low-latitude sides of the EISCAT field of view (FOV) at ~73°0'N-60°5'N (geomagnetic latitude) at an altitude of 325 km, which is associated with trough formation. Our statistical results show that the high-latitude and midlatitude troughs occur on the high- and low-latitude sides of the FOV, respectively. Seasonal variations indicate that dissociative recombination accompanied by frictional heating is a main cause of trough formation in sunlit regions. During summer, therefore, the occurrence rate is maintained at 80-90% in the postmidnight high-latitude region owing to frictional heating by eastward return flow. Solar activity dependence on trough formation indicates that field-aligned currents modulate the occurrence rate of the trough during the winter and equinox seasons. In addition, the trough becomes deeper via dissociative recombination caused by an increased ion temperature with F10.7, at least in the equinox and summer seasons but not in winter.

  14. Thermal Testing of Ablators in the NASA Johnson Space Center Radiant Heat Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Papa, Steven; Milhoan, Jim; Remark, Brian; Suess, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    A spacecraft's thermal protection system (TPS) is required to survive the harsh environment experienced during reentry. Accurate thermal modeling of the TPS is required to since uncertainties in the thermal response result in higher design margins and an increase in mass. The Radiant Heat Test Facility (RHTF) located at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) replicates the reentry temperatures and pressures on system level full scale TPS test models for the validation of thermal math models. Reusable TPS, i.e. tile or reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC), have been the primary materials tested in the past. However, current capsule designs for MPCV and commercial programs have required the use of an ablator TPS. The RHTF has successfully completed a pathfinder program on avcoat ablator material to demonstrate the feasibility of ablator testing. The test results and corresponding ablation analysis results are presented in this paper.

  15. Solar water-heating system for the Ingham County geriatric medical care facility, Okemos, Michigan. Operational and maintenance instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The objectives of the Ingham County Solar Project include: the demonstration of a major operational supplement to fossil fuels, thereby reducing the demand for non-renewable energy sources, demonstration of the economic and technical feasibility of solar systems as an important energy supplement over the expected life of the building, and to encourage Michigan industry to produce and incorporate solar systems in their own facility. The Ingham County solar system consists of approximately 10,000 square feet of solar collectors connected in a closed configuration loop. The primary loop solution is a mixture of water and propylene glycol which flows through themore » tube side of a heat exchanger connected to the primary storage tank. The heat energy which is supplied to the primary storage tank is subsequently utilized to increase the temperature of the laundry water, kitchen water, and domestic potable water.« less

  16. On the Accuracy of the Conjugation of High-Orbit Satellites with Small-Scale Regions in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safargaleev, V. V.; Safargaleeva, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    The degree of uncertainty that arises when mapping high-orbit satellites of the Cluster type into the ionosphere using three geomagnetic field models (T89, T98, and T01) has been estimated. Studies have shown that uncertainty is minimal in situations when a satellite in the daytime is above the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere at the distance of no more than 5 R E from the Earth's surface and is projected into the ionosphere of the northern hemisphere. In this case, the dimensions of the uncertainty region are about 50 km, and the arbitrariness of the choice of the model for projecting does not play a decisive role in organizing satellite support based on optical observations when studying such large-scale phenomena as, e.g., WTS, as well as heating experiments at the EISCAT heating facility for the artificial modification of the ionosphere and the generation of artificial fluctuations in the VLF band. In all other cases, the uncertainty in determining the position of the base of the field line on which the satellite is located is large, and additional information is required to correctly compare the satellite with the object in the ionosphere.

  17. Design and performance of vacuum system for high heat flux test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy Kidambi, Rajamannar; Mokaria, Prakash; Khirwadkar, Samir; Belsare, Sunil; Khan, M. S.; Patel, Tushar; Krishnan, Deepu S.

    2017-04-01

    High heat flux test facility (HHFTF) at IPR is used for testing thermal performance of plasma facing materials or components. It consists of various subsystems like vacuum system, high power electron beam system, diagnostic and calibration system, data acquisition and control system and high pressure high temperature water circulation system. Vacuum system consists of large D-shaped chamber, target handling system, pumping systems and support structure. The net volume of vacuum chamber is 5 m3 was maintained at the base pressure of the order of 10-6 mbar for operation of electron gun with minimum beam diameter which is achieved with turbo-molecular pump (TMP) and cryo pump. A variable conductance gate valve is used for maintaining required vacuum in the chamber. Initial pumping of the chamber was carried out by using suitable rotary and root pumps. PXI and PLC based faster real time data acquisition and control system is implemented for performing the various operations like remote operation, online vacuum data measurements, display and status indication of all vacuum equipments. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of various vacuum system for HHFTF.

  18. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance

    2017-01-01

    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively. PMID:28729740

  19. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft 2 (252 m 2 ), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft -2 , 51.7 kWh m -2 ), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft -2, 24.7 kWh m -2 ) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W -1 h -1 (2.95 W W -1 ), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W -1 h -1 (4.63 W W -1 ). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W -1 h -1 (2.09 W W -1 ), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W -1 h -1 (2.65 W W -1 ). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  20. High-Performance Computing Data Center Waste Heat Reuse | Computational

    Science.gov Websites

    control room With heat exchangers, heat energy in the energy recovery water (ERW) loop becomes available to heat the facility's process hot water (PHW) loop. Once heated, the PHW loop supplies: Active loop in the courtyard of the ESIF's main entrance District heating loop: If additional heat is needed

  1. Economically dispatching cogeneration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.

    Economic dispatching has been used by utilities to meet the energy demands of their customers for decades. The objective was to first load those units which cost the least to run and slowly increase the loading of more expensive units as the incremental energy price increased. Although this concept worked well for utility based systems where incremental costs rose with peak demand, the independent power producers(IPPs) and the power purchase agreements (PPAs) have drastically changed this notion. Most PPAs structured for the IPP environment have negotiated rates which remain the same during peak periods and base their electrical generation onmore » specific process steam requirements. They also must maintain the required production balance of process steam and electrical load in order to qualify as a Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) facility. Consequently, economically dispatching Cogeneration facilities becomes an exercise in adhering to contractual guidelines while operating the equipment in the most efficient manner possible for the given condition. How then is it possible to dispatch a Cogeneration facility that maintains the electrical load demand of JFK Airport while satisfying all of its heating and cooling needs? Contractually, Kennedy International Airport Cogen (KIAC) has specific obligations concerning electrical and thermal energy exported to JFK Airport. The facility`s impressive array of heating and cooling apparatuses together with the newly installed cogen fulfilled the airport`s needs by utilizing an endless combination of new and previously installed equipment. Moreover, in order to economically operate the plant a well structured operating curriculum was necessary.« less

  2. Autonomous Electrothermal Facility for Oil Recovery Intensification Fed by Wind Driven Power Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsky, Aleksey A.; Dobush, Vasiliy S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the structure of autonomous facility fed by wind driven power unit for intensification of viscous and heavy crude oil recovery by means of heat impact on productive strata. Computer based service simulation of this facility was performed. Operational energy characteristics were obtained for various operational modes of facility. The optimal resistance of heating element of the downhole heater was determined for maximum operating efficiency of wind power unit.

  3. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities. (a... heated and cooled when necessary to protect the nonhuman primates from temperature extremes, and to... must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present...

  4. 9 CFR 3.77 - Sheltered housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.77 Sheltered housing facilities. (a... heated and cooled when necessary to protect the nonhuman primates from temperature extremes, and to... must not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present...

  5. Solar Energy to Help Heat Major Commercial Facility

    Science.gov Websites

    feet of transpired solar collectors developed at NREL that will pre-heat incoming ventilation air collector was recognized by Popular Science and Research and Development magazines in 1994 as one of the

  6. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heat treatment of dried whites. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.575 Heat treatment of dried whites. Heat treatment of dried... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat...

  7. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heat treatment of dried whites. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.575 Heat treatment of dried whites. Heat treatment of dried... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat...

  8. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heat treatment of dried whites. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.575 Heat treatment of dried whites. Heat treatment of dried... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat...

  9. Observations of the structure and vertical transport of the polar upper ionosphere with the EISCAT VHF radar. II - First investigations of the topside O(+) and H(+) vertical ion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jian; Blanc, Michel; Alcayde, Denis; Barakat, Abdullah R.; Fontanari, Jean; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Kofman, Wlodek

    1992-01-01

    EISCAT VHF radar was used to investigate the vertical flows of H(+) and O(+) ions in the topside high-latitude ionosphere. The radar transmitted a single long pulse to probe the ionosphere from 300 to 1200 km altitude. A calculation scheme is developed to deduce the H(+) drift velocity from the coupled momentum equations of H(+), O(+), and the electrons, using the radar data and a neutral atmosphere model. The H(+) vertical drift velocity was expressed as a linear combination of the different forces acting on the plasma. Two nights, one very quiet, one with moderate magnetic activity, were used to test the technique and to provide a first study of the morphology and orders of magnitudes of ion outflow fluxes over Tromso. O(+) vertical flows were found to be downward or close to zero most of the time in the topside ionosphere; they appeared to be strongly correlated with magnetic activity during the disturbed night. H(+) topside ion fluxes were always directed upward, with velocity reaching 500-1000 m/s. A permanent outflow of H(+) ions is inferred.

  10. Thermal Vacuum Facility for Testing Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Sikora, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A thermal vacuum facility for testing launch vehicle thermal protection systems by subjecting them to transient thermal conditions simulating re-entry aerodynamic heating is described. Re-entry heating is simulated by controlling the test specimen surface temperature and the environmental pressure in the chamber. Design requirements for simulating re-entry conditions are briefly described. A description of the thermal vacuum facility, the quartz lamp array and the control system is provided. The facility was evaluated by subjecting an 18 by 36 in. Inconel honeycomb panel to a typical re-entry pressure and surface temperature profile. For most of the test duration, the average difference between the measured and desired pressures was 1.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 7.4%, while the average difference between measured and desired temperatures was 7.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 6.5%. The temperature non-uniformity across the panel was 12% during the initial heating phase (t less than 500 sec.), and less than 2% during the remainder of the test.

  11. Direct amide formation using radiofrequency heating.

    PubMed

    Houlding, Thomas K; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Rahman, Md Taifur; Rebrov, Evgeny V

    2013-07-07

    We present a simple method for direct and solvent-free formation of amides from carboxylic acids and amines using radiofrequency heating. The direct energy coupling of the AC magnetic field via nickel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles enables fast and controllable heating, as well as enabling facile work-up via magnetic separation.

  12. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 3: Structural

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    An inventory of test facilities for conducting acceleration, environmental, impact, structural shock, load, heat, vibration, and noise tests is presented. The facility is identified with a description of the equipment, the testing capabilities, and cost of operation. Performance data for the facility are presented in charts and tables.

  13. Heating systems to maximise efficiency.

    PubMed

    House, Jeff

    2013-09-01

    Jeff House, marketing and applications manager, Baxi Commercial, identifies some of the heating options available to the operators of healthcare facilities, and highlights practical examples of successful applications.

  14. 1998 Calibration of the Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Irby, Richard G.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    A calibration of the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 nozzles was performed in 1998. For each nozzle, three different typical facility operating test points were selected for calibration. Each survey consisted of measurements, at 340 separate locations across the 11 inch square nozzle exit plane, of pitot pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. Measurement density was higher (4/inch) in the boundary layer near the nozzle wall than in the core nozzle flow (1/inch). The results generated for each of these calibration surveys were contour plots at the nozzle exit plane of the measured and calculated flow properties which completely defined the thermodynamic state of the nozzle exit flow. An area integration of the mass flux at the nozzle exit for each survey was compared to the AHSTF mass flow meter results to provide an indication of the overall quality of the calibration performed. The percent difference between the integrated nozzle exit mass flow and the flow meter ranged from 0.0 to 1.3 percent for the six surveys. Finally, a comparison of this 1998 calibration was made with the 1986 calibration. Differences of less than 10 percent were found within the nozzle core flow while in the boundary layer differences on the order of 20 percent were quite common.

  15. Comparisons of RELAP5-3D Analyses to Experimental Data from the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bucknor, Matthew; Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius

    2016-04-17

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important passive safety system being incorporated into the overall safety strategy for high temperature advanced reactor concepts such as the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactors (HTGR). The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) reflects a 1/2-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The project conducts ex-vessel, passive heat removal experiments in support of Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program, while also generating data for code validation purposes. While experiments are being conducted at themore » NSTF to evaluate the feasibility of the passive RCCS, parallel modeling and simulation efforts are ongoing to support the design, fabrication, and operation of these natural convection systems. Both system-level and high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to gain a complete understanding of the complex flow and heat transfer phenomena in natural convection systems. This paper provides a summary of the RELAP5-3D NSTF model development efforts and provides comparisons between simulation results and experimental data from the NSTF. Overall, the simulation results compared favorably to the experimental data, however, further analyses need to be conducted to investigate any identified differences.« less

  16. High heat flux measurements and experimental calibrations/characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Carl T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in techniques employed in the measurement of very high heat-transfer rates in reentry-type facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is described. These advances include thermal analyses applied to transducer concepts used to make these measurements; improved heat-flux sensor fabrication methods, equipment, and procedures for determining the experimental time response of individual sensors; performance of absolute heat-flux calibrations at levels above 2,000 Btu/cu ft-sec (2.27 kW/cu cm); and innovative methods of performing in-situ run-to-run characterizations of heat-flux probes installed in the test facility. Graphical illustrations of the results of extensive thermal analyses of the null-point calorimeter and coaxial surface thermocouple concepts with application to measurements in aerothermal test environments are presented. Results of time response experiments and absolute calibrations of null-point calorimeters and coaxial thermocouples performed in the laboratory at intermediate to high heat-flux levels are shown. Typical AEDC high-enthalpy arc heater heat-flux data recently obtained with a Calspan-fabricated null-point probe model are included.

  17. Heat pipes in space and on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of heat pipes used in the thermal control system of spacecraft such as OAO-III and ATS-6 is discussed, and applications of heat pipes to permafrost stabilization on the Alaska Pipeline and to heat recovery systems are described. Particular attention is given to the ATS-6, launched in 1974, which employs 55 heat pipes to carry solar and internal power loads to radiator surfaces. In addition, experiments involving radiative cooling based on cryogenic heat pipes have been planned for the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft and for Spacelab. The role of heat pipes in Space Shuttle heat rejection services is also mentioned.

  18. Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Flametube Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, James E.; Nemets, Stephen A.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy D.; Frankenfield, Bruce J.; Manning, Stephen D.; Thompson, William K.

    2004-01-01

    Facility modifications have been completed to an existing combustor flametube facility to enable testing with gaseous hydrogen propellants at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of the facility is to test a variety of fuel nozzle and flameholder hardware configurations for use in aircraft combustors. Facility capabilities have been expanded to include testing with gaseous hydrogen, along with the existing hydrocarbon-based jet fuel. Modifications have also been made to the facility air supply to provide heated air up to 350 psig, 1100 F, and 3.0 lbm/s. The facility can accommodate a wide variety of flametube and fuel nozzle configurations. Emissions and performance data are obtained via a variety of gas sample probe configurations and emissions measurement equipment.

  19. The NASA Glen Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility. Chapter 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Willis, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, freejet wind tunnel that provides true enthalpy flight conditions for Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility is unique due to its large scale and use of non-vitiated (clean air) flow. A 3MW graphite core storage heater is used to heat the test medium of gaseous nitrogen to the high stagnation temperatures required to produce true enthalpy conditions. Gaseous oxygen is mixed into the heated test flow to generate the true air simulation. The freejet test section is 1.07m (42 in.) in diameter and 4.3m (14 ft) in length. The facility is well suited for the testing of large scale airbreathing propulsion systems. In this chapter, a brief history and detailed description of the facility are presented along with a discussion of the facility's application towards hypersonic airbreathing propulsion testing.

  20. Combined Heat and Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Combined heat and power (CHP) refers to the simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from a single fuel source. Find out how local governments can lead by example and increase use of CHP in their facilities and their communities.

  1. 76 FR 8571 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... sanitary facilities, exact street address), providers should contact the appropriate landholding agencies... sanitary or heating facilities, Natl Register of Historic Places Bldg. 10 Property Number: 97199810002 VA...

  2. ADEPT Heat Shield Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-16

    NASA is developing the next generation of heat shield to enable astronauts to go to Mars and other deep space destinations. Called the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology or ADEPT, the heat shield is mechanically deployable and uses a flexible woven carbon fabric as its skin. Recently, engineers successfully completed a series of tests in the Ames Arc Jet facility. Other tests conducted in wind tunnels at Ames demonstrated that the ADEPT materials and system perform well under planetary re-entry conditions.

  3. Experimental operation of a sodium heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, R. E.; McLennan, G. A.; Koehl, E. R.

    1985-05-01

    This report documents the operation of a 28 in. long sodium heat pipe in the Heat Pipe Test Facility (HPTF) installed at Argonne National Laboratory. Experimental data were collected to simulate conditions prototypic of both a fluidized bed coal combustor application and a space environment application. Both sets of experiment data show good agreement with the heat pipe analytical model. The heat transfer performance of the heat pipe proved reliable over a substantial period of operation and over much thermal cycling. Additional testing of longer heat pipes under controlled laboratory conditions will be necessary to determine performance limitations and to complete the design code validation.

  4. Evaluation of externally heated pulsed MPD thruster cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Domonkos, Matthew; Gallimore, Alec D.

    1993-12-01

    Recent interest in solar electric orbit transfer vehicles (SEOTV's) has prompted a reevaluation of pulsed magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster systems due to their ease of power scaling and reduced test facility requirements. In this work the use of externally heated cathodes was examined in order to extend the lifetime of these thrusters to the 1000 to 3000 hours required for SEOTV missions. A pulsed MPD thruster test facility was assembled, including a pulse-forming network (PFN), ignitor supply and propellant feed system. Results of cold cathode tests used to validate the facility, PFN, and propellant feed system design are presented, as well as a preliminary evaluation of externally heated impregnated tungsten cathodes. The cold cathode thruster was operated on both argon and nitrogen propellants at peak discharge power levels up to 300 kW. The results confirmed proper operation of the pulsed thruster test facility, and indicated that large amounts of gas were evolved from the BaO-CaO-Al2O3 cathodes during activation. Comparison of the expected space charge limited current with the measured vacuum current when using the heated cathode indicate that either that a large temperature difference existed between the heater and the cathode or that the surface work function was higher than expected.

  5. Evaluation of externally heated pulsed MPD thruster cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Domonkos, Matthew; Gallimore, Alec D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent interest in solar electric orbit transfer vehicles (SEOTV's) has prompted a reevaluation of pulsed magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster systems due to their ease of power scaling and reduced test facility requirements. In this work the use of externally heated cathodes was examined in order to extend the lifetime of these thrusters to the 1000 to 3000 hours required for SEOTV missions. A pulsed MPD thruster test facility was assembled, including a pulse-forming network (PFN), ignitor supply and propellant feed system. Results of cold cathode tests used to validate the facility, PFN, and propellant feed system design are presented, as well as a preliminary evaluation of externally heated impregnated tungsten cathodes. The cold cathode thruster was operated on both argon and nitrogen propellants at peak discharge power levels up to 300 kW. The results confirmed proper operation of the pulsed thruster test facility, and indicated that large amounts of gas were evolved from the BaO-CaO-Al2O3 cathodes during activation. Comparison of the expected space charge limited current with the measured vacuum current when using the heated cathode indicate that either that a large temperature difference existed between the heater and the cathode or that the surface work function was higher than expected.

  6. Effects of modification of the polar ionosphere with high-power short-wave extraordinary-mode HF waves produced by the spear heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T. D.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; S. Kalishin, A.; Oksavik, K.; Baddelley, L.; K. Yeoman, T.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of modifying the F2 layer of the polar ionosphere experimentally with highpower HF extraordinary-mode waves. The experiments were performed in October 2010 using the short-wave SPEAR heating facility (Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen). To diagnose the effects of high-power HF waves by the aspect-scattering method in a network of diagnostic paths, we used the short-wave Doppler radar CUTLASS (Hankasalmi, Finland) and the incoherent scatter radar ESR (Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen). Excitation of small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities was revealed, which were responsible for the aspect and backward scattering of the diagnostic signals. The measurements performed by the ESR incoherent scatter radar simultaneously with the heating demonstrated changes in the parameters of the ionospheric plasma, specifically, an increase in the electron density by 10-25 % and an increase in the electron temperature by 10-30 % at the altitudes of the F2 layer, as well as formation of sporadic ionization at altitudes of 140-180 km (below the F2 layer maximum). To explain the effects of ionosphere heating with HF extraordinary-mode waves, we propose a hypothesis of transformation of extraordinary electromagnetic waves to ordinary in the anisotropic, smoothly nonuniform ionosphere.

  7. Characterization of the NASA Langley Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility Using NO PLIF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, F. Gray, III; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Cabell, Karen F.; Hass, Neal E.; Capriotti, Diego P.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; Johansen, Criag T.

    2014-01-01

    The nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging was used to characterize the air flow of the NASA Langley Arc Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) configured with a Mach 6 nozzle. The arc raises the enthalpy of the test gas in AHSTF, producing nitric oxide. Nitric oxide persists as the temperature drops through the nozzle into the test section. NO PLIF was used to qualitatively visualize the flowfield at different experimental conditions, measure the temperature of the gas flow exiting the facility nozzle, and visualize the wave structure downstream of the nozzle at different operating conditions. Uniformity and repeatability of the nozzle flow were assessed. Expansion and compression waves on the free-jet shear layer as the nozzle flow expands into the test section were visualized. The main purpose of these experiments was to assess the uniformity of the NO in the freestream gas for planned experiments, in which NO PLIF will be used for qualitative fuel-mole-fraction sensitive imaging. The shot-to-shot fluctuations in the PLIF signal, caused by variations in the overall laser intensity as well as NO concentration and temperature variations in the flow was 20-25% of the mean signal, as determined by taking the standard deviation of a set of images obtained at constant conditions and dividing by the mean. The fluctuations within individual images, caused by laser sheet spatial variations as well as NO concentration and temperature variations in the flow, were about 28% of the mean in images, determined by taking standard deviation within individual images, dividing by the mean in the same image and averaged over the set of images. Applying an averaged laser sheet intensity correction reduced the within-image intensity fluctuations to about 10% suggesting that the NO concentration is uniform to within 10%. There was no significant difference in flow uniformity between the low and high enthalpy settings. While not strictly quantitative, the

  8. Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

  9. An Experimental Test Facility to Support Development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Aaron, Adam M; Cunningham, Richard Burns

    2014-01-01

    The need for high-temperature (greater than 600 C) energy exchange and delivery systems is significantly increasing as the world strives to improve energy efficiency and develop alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Liquid fluoride salts are one of the few energy transport fluids that have the capability of operating at high temperatures in combination with low system pressures. The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor design uses fluoride salt to remove core heat and interface with a power conversion system. Although a significant amount of experimentation has been performed with these salts, specific aspects of this reactor concept will require experimental confirmation during themore » development process. The experimental facility described here has been constructed to support the development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor concept. The facility is capable of operating at up to 700 C and incorporates a centrifugal pump to circulate FLiNaK salt through a removable test section. A unique inductive heating technique is used to apply heat to the test section, allowing heat transfer testing to be performed. An air-cooled heat exchanger removes added heat. Supporting loop infrastructure includes a pressure control system; trace heating system; and a complement of instrumentation to measure salt flow, temperatures, and pressures around the loop. The initial experiment is aimed at measuring fluoride salt heat transfer inside a heated pebble bed similar to that used for the core of the pebble bed advanced high-temperature reactor. This document describes the details of the loop design, auxiliary systems used to support the facility, the inductive heating system, and facility capabilities.« less

  10. Design characteristics of a heat pipe test chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Jang, J. Hoon; Yu, Juin S.

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has designed a heat pipe test facility which will be used to provide data for validating heat pipe computer codes. A heat pipe test chamber that uses helium gas for enhancing heat transfer was investigated. The conceptual design employs the technique of guarded heating and guarded cooling to facilitate accurate measurements of heat transfer rates to the evaporator and from the condenser. The design parameters are selected for a baseline heat pipe made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 38.10 mm and a wall thickness of 1.016 mm. The heat pipe operates at a design temperature of 1000 K with an evaporator radial heat flux of 53 W/sq. cm.

  11. On The Ion Drift Contribution To The Phase Velocity of Electrojet Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M.; Koustov, A.; Janhunen, P.; Pellinen, R.; Danskin, D.; Nozawa, S.

    The ion drift effect is often ignored in the interpretation of VHF Doppler measure- ments. For example, in the STARE experiment it is assumed that the line-of-sight velocity measured at large flow angles is simply a cosine component of the true elec- tron drift. Previous studies seem to support this assumption, though only to a certain degree. In this study we consider a 3.5-hour morning event of joint STARE-EISCAT observa- tions for which the STARE-Finland radar velocity was mainly larger than the EISCAT convection component. A moderate 5-20 deg offset between the EISCAT convection azimuth and its STARE estimate was also observed. We show that both the STARE- Finland radar velocity "over-speed" and the azimuthal offset between the EISCAT and STARE convection vectors can be explained by fluid plasma theory arguments if the ion drift contribution to the irregularity phase velocity under the condition of moder- ate backscatter off-orthogonality is taken into account. The ion effects were enhanced because of a lifting up of the entire E-region seen by the EISCAT. It perhaps resulted in an increase of the STARE echo heights and aspect angles. The latter are of the order of 1 deg at the top of the electrojet layer. We also compare STARE convection magni- tudes and true velocities measured by the EISCAT to study the potential impact of the ion motions on the STARE velocity estimates.

  12. Direct Contact Heat Exchange Interfacial Phenomena for Liquid Metal Reactors: Part II - Void Fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.H.

    One concept being considered for steam generation in innovative nuclear reactor applications, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. The vigorous agitation of the two fluids, the direct liquid-liquid contact and the consequent large interfacial area can give rise to large heat transfer coefficients and rapid steam generation. For an optimum design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. In order to investigate the interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability of direct liquid-liquid contact, amore » series of experiments are being performed in a 1-d test facility at Argonne National Laboratory and a 2-d experimental facility at UW-Madison. Each of the experimental facilities primarily consist of a liquid-metal melt chamber, heated test section (10 cm diameter tube for 1-d facility and 10 cm 50 cm rectangle for 2-d facility), water injection system and steam suppression tank. This paper is part II which, primarily addresses results and analysis of a set of preliminary experiments and void fraction measurements conducted in the 2-d facility at UW-Madison, part I deals with the heat transfer in the 1-d test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. A real-time high energy X-ray imaging system was developed and utilized to visualize the multiphase flow and measure line-average local void fractions, time-dependent void fraction distribution as well as estimates of the vapor bubble sizes and velocities. These measurements allowed us to determine the volumetric heat transfer coefficient and gain insight into the local heat transfer mechanisms. In this study, the images were captured at frame rates of 100 fps with spatial resolution of about 7 mm with a full-field view of a 15 cm square and five different positions along the test section height. The full

  13. Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

  14. Plans of a test bed for ionospheric modelling based on Fennoscandian ground-based instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Kero, Antti; Verronen, Pekka T.; Aikio, Anita; Vierinen, Juha; Lehtinen, Markku; Turunen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Virtanen, Ilkka; Norberg, Johannes; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Kallio, Esa; Kestilä, Antti; Partamies, Noora; Syrjäsuo, Mikko

    2016-07-01

    One of the recommendations for teaming among research groups in the COSPAR/ILWS roadmap is about building test beds in which coordinated observing supports model development. In the presentation we will describe a test bed initiative supporting research on ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere interactions. The EISCAT incoherent scatter radars with their future extension, EISCAT3D, form the backbone of the proposed system. The EISCAT radars are surrounded by versatile and dense arrays of ground-based instrumentation: magnetometers and auroral cameras (the MIRACLE and IMAGE networks), ionospheric tomography receivers (the TomoScand network) and other novel technology for upper atmospheric probing with radio waves (e.g. the KAIRA facility, riometers and the ionosonde maintained by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory). As a new opening, close coordination with the Finnish national cubesat program is planned. We will investigate opportunities to establish a cost efficient nanosatellite program which would support the ground-based observations in a systematic and persistent manner. First experiences will be gathered with the Aalto-1 and Aalto-2 satellites, latter of which will be the Finnish contribution to the international QB50 mission. We envisage close collaboration also in the development of data analysis tools with the goal to integrate routines and models from different research groups to one system, where the different elements support each other. In the longer run we are aiming for a modelling framework with observational guidance which gives a holistic description on ionosphere-thermosphere processes and this way enables reliable forecasts on upper atmospheric space weather activity.

  15. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyser, Thomas B.; James, H. Gordon; Gustavsson, Björn; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency) electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association) Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer) spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O) conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  16. Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.

  17. Laser materials processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The laser materials processing facility and its capabilities are described. A CO2 laser with continuous wave, repetitive pulse, and shaped power-time cycles is employed. The laser heated crystal growth station was used to produce metal and metal oxide single crystals and for cutting and shaping experiments using Si3N4 to displace diamond shaping processes.

  18. Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. A.

    1991-12-01

    Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100 C currently exist within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100 to 350 C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several features relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long term planning horizon with well defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies that are different from those of other sectors, and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds.

  19. Railway transport of low temperature heat from large power stations by means of alternative heat carriers and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtman, G.; Bracke, T.

    1981-11-01

    The feasibility of railway transport of liquid and solid heat carriers in tank cars so as to replace pipeline transport of small to medium large heat loads was investigated. The typical characteristics of railway transport were analyzed and all essential technical and economical variables were integrated in a transport model. Over 1000 complex chemical compounds were evaluated for their suitability as heat carriers. Of these, three ammonia compounds are considered as promising. Considering, however, that complicated and expensive facilities are needed for heat transfer to and from ammonia, water is identified as the better choice. Results, based on 1975 transport prices, show that railway heat transport becomes competitive for heat loads above 50 to 100 MW and transport distances over 20 km.

  20. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  1. Applications of Radiative Heating for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandis, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vehicles entering planetary atmospheres at high speeds (6 - 12 kms) experience intense heating by flows with temperatures of the order 10 000K. The flow around the vehicle experiences significant dissociation and ionization and is characterized by thermal and chemical non-equilibrium near the shock front, relaxing toward equilibrium. Emission from the plasma is intense enough to impart a significant heat flux on the entering spacecraft, making it necessary to predict the magnitude of radiative heating. Shock tubes represent a unique method capable of characterizing these processes in a flight-similar environment. The Electric Arc Shock tube (EAST) facility is one of the only facilities in its class, able to produce hypersonic flows at speeds up to Mach 50. This talk will review the characterization of radiation measured in EAST with simulations by the codes DPLR and NEQAIR, and in particular, focus on the impact these analyses have on recent missions to explore the solar system.

  2. Waste heat generation: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Yee, Emma H

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive review of heat generation in various types of wastes and of the thermal regime of waste containment facilities is provided in this paper. Municipal solid waste (MSW), MSW incineration ash, and mining wastes were included in the analysis. Spatial and temporal variations of waste temperatures, thermal gradients, thermal properties of wastes, average temperature differentials, and heat generation values are provided. Heat generation was influenced by climatic conditions, mean annual earth temperatures, waste temperatures at the time of placement, cover conditions, and inherent heat generation potential of the specific wastes. Time to onset of heat generation varied between months and years, whereas timelines for overall duration of heat generation varied between years and decades. For MSW, measured waste temperatures were as high as 60-90°C and as low as -6°C. MSW incinerator ash temperatures varied between 5 and 87°C. Mining waste temperatures were in the range of -25 to 65°C. In the wastes analyzed, upward heat flow toward the surface was more prominent than downward heat flow toward the subsurface. Thermal gradients generally were higher for MSW and incinerator ash and lower for mining waste. Based on thermal properties, MSW had insulative qualities (low thermal conductivity), while mining wastes typically were relatively conductive (high thermal conductivity) with ash having intermediate qualities. Heat generation values ranged from -8.6 to 83.1MJ/m(3) and from 0.6 to 72.6MJ/m(3) for MSW and mining waste, respectively and was 72.6MJ/m(3) for ash waste. Conductive thermal losses were determined to range from 13 to 1111MJ/m(3)yr. The data and analysis provided in this review paper can be used in the investigation of heat generation and thermal regime of a wide range of wastes and waste containment facilities located in different climatic regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lead Coolant Test Facility Systems Design, Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Cost Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Soli Khericha; Edwin Harvego; John Svoboda

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstratemore » Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimate. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.« less

  4. Aerospace test facilities at NASA LERC Plumbrook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-10-01

    An overview of the facilities and research being conducted at LeRC's Plumbrook field station is given. The video highlights four main structures and explains their uses. The Space Power Facility is the worlds largest space environment simulation chamber, where spacebound hardware is tested in simulations of the vacuum and extreme heat and cold of the space plasma environment. This facility was used to prepare Atlas 1 rockets to ferry CRRES into orbit; it will also be used to test space nuclear electric power generation systems. The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility allows rocket vehicles to be hot fired in a simulated space environment. In the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility, researchers are developing technology for storing and transferring liquid hydrogen in space. There is also a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel which can perform flow tests with winds up to Mach 7.

  5. SciTech Connect

    Forme, F.R.E.; Fontaine, D.; Wahlund, J.E.

    UHF and VHF data for the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in northern Scandinavia is presented. Electron and ion temperatures, electron density, and ion drift velocity were measured from heights of 280 to 1500 km. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations are more observable with VHF than UHF radar due to wavelength effects. The fluctuations are usually associated with a large flux of precipitating electrons with energies from 100 ev to 10 kev. The spatial extent of the turbulent regions are determined. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  7. Temperature dependent BRDF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airola, Marc B.; Brown, Andrea M.; Hahn, Daniel V.; Thomas, Michael E.; Congdon, Elizabeth A.; Mehoke, Douglas S.

    2014-09-01

    Applications involving space based instrumentation and aerodynamically heated surfaces often require knowledge of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of an exposed surface at high temperature. Addressing this need, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) developed a BRDF facility that features a multiple-port vacuum chamber, multiple laser sources covering the spectral range from the longwave infrared to the ultraviolet, imaging pyrometry and laser heated samples. Laser heating eliminates stray light that would otherwise be seen from a furnace and requires minimal sample support structure, allowing low thermal conduction loss to be obtained, which is especially important at high temperatures. The goal is to measure the BRDF of ceramic-coated surfaces at temperatures in excess of 1000°C in a low background environment. Most ceramic samples are near blackbody in the longwave infrared, thus pyrometry using a LWIR camera can be very effective and accurate.

  8. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF): Golden, CO - Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, Michael; VanGeet, Otto; Pless, Shanti

    2015-03-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in Golden, Colo., scientists and engineers work to overcome challenges related to how the nation generates, delivers and uses energy by modernizing the interplay between energy sources, infrastructure, and data. Test facilities include a megawatt-scale ac electric grid, photovoltaic simulators and a load bank. Additionally, a high performance computing data center (HPCDC) is dedicated to advancing renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. A key design strategy is to use waste heat from the HPCDC to heat parts of the building. The ESIF boasts an annual EUI of 168.3 kBtu/ft2. This article describes themore » building's procurement, design and first year of performance.« less

  9. High-Flux Solar Furnace Facility | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    High-Flux Solar Furnace Facility High-Flux Solar Furnace Facility NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) is a 10-kW optical furnace for testing high-temperature processes or applications requiring high range of technologies with a diverse set of experimental requirements. The high heating rates create the

  10. Plant model of KIPT neutron source facility simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yan; Wei, Thomas Y.; Grelle, Austin L.

    2016-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine are collaborating on constructing a neutron source facility at KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility has 100-kW electron beam driving a subcritical assembly (SCA). The electron beam interacts with a natural uranium target or a tungsten target to generate neutrons, and deposits its power in the target zone. The total fission power generated in SCA is about 300 kW. Two primary cooling loops are designed to remove 100-kW and 300-kW from the target zone and the SCA, respectively. A secondary cooling system ismore » coupled with the primary cooling system to dispose of the generated heat outside the facility buildings to the atmosphere. In addition, the electron accelerator has a low efficiency for generating the electron beam, which uses another secondary cooling loop to remove the generated heat from the accelerator primary cooling loop. One of the main functions the KIPT neutron source facility is to train young nuclear specialists; therefore, ANL has developed the KIPT Neutron Source Facility Simulator for this function. In this simulator, a Plant Control System and a Plant Protection System were developed to perform proper control and to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper operation of the facility during the steady-state and the transient states using a facility plant model. This report focuses on describing the physics of the plant model and provides several test cases to demonstrate its capabilities. The plant facility model uses the PYTHON script language. It is consistent with the computer language of the plant control system. It is easy to integrate with the simulator without an additional interface, and it is able to simulate the transients of the cooling systems with system control variables changing on real-time.« less

  11. An Overview of Opportunities for Waste Heat Recovery and Thermal Integration in the Primary Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, Cassandre; Gosselin, Louis

    2012-08-01

    Efficient smelters currently consume roughly 13 MWh of electricity per ton of aluminum, while roughly half of that energy is lost as thermal waste. Although waste heat is abundant, current thermal integration in primary aluminum facilities remains limited. This is due to both the low quality of waste heat available and the shortage of potential uses within reasonable distance of identified waste heat sources. In this article, we present a mapping of both heat dissipation processes and heat demands around a sample facility (Alcoa Deschambault Quebec smelter). Our primary aim is to report opportunities for heat recovery and integration in the primary aluminum industry. We consider potential heat-to-sink pairings individually and assess their thermodynamic potential for producing energy savings.

  12. Uncertainty analysis of thermocouple measurements used in normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments at Sandia's Radiant Heat Facility and Lurance Canyon Burn Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2004-04-01

    It would not be possible to confidently qualify weapon systems performance or validate computer codes without knowing the uncertainty of the experimental data used. This report provides uncertainty estimates associated with thermocouple data for temperature measurements from two of Sandia's large-scale thermal facilities. These two facilities (the Radiant Heat Facility (RHF) and the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS)) routinely gather data from normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments. They are managed by Fire Science & Technology Department 09132. Uncertainty analyses were performed for several thermocouple (TC) data acquisition systems (DASs) used at the RHF and LCBS. These analyses apply tomore » Type K, chromel-alumel thermocouples of various types: fiberglass sheathed TC wire, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed (MIMS) TC assemblies, and are easily extended to other TC materials (e.g., copper-constantan). Several DASs were analyzed: (1) A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3852A system, and (2) several National Instrument (NI) systems. The uncertainty analyses were performed on the entire system from the TC to the DAS output file. Uncertainty sources include TC mounting errors, ANSI standard calibration uncertainty for Type K TC wire, potential errors due to temperature gradients inside connectors, extension wire uncertainty, DAS hardware uncertainties including noise, common mode rejection ratio, digital voltmeter accuracy, mV to temperature conversion, analog to digital conversion, and other possible sources. Typical results for 'normal' environments (e.g., maximum of 300-400 K) showed the total uncertainty to be about {+-}1% of the reading in absolute temperature. In high temperature or high heat flux ('abnormal') thermal environments, total uncertainties range up to {+-}2-3% of the reading (maximum of 1300 K). The higher uncertainties in abnormal thermal environments are caused by increased errors due to the effects of imperfect TC attachment to the test item

  13. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Dairaku, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-10-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J—EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 × 3 mm 2. As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux.

  14. LDEF transverse flat plate heat pipe experiment /S1005/. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the Transverse Flat Plate Heat Pipe Experiment. A transverse flat plate heat pipe is a thermal control device that serves the dual function of temperature control and mounting base for electronic equipment. In its ultimate application, the pipe would be a lightweight structure member that could be configured in a platform or enclosure and provide temperature control for large space structures, flight experiments, equipment, etc. The objective of the LDEF flight experiment is to evaluate the zero-g performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules. Performance will include: (1) the pipes transport capability, (2) temperature drop, and (3) ability to maintain temperature over varying duty cycles and environments. Performance degradation, if any, will be monitored over the length of the LDEF mission. This information is necessary if heat pipes are to be considered for system designs where they offer benefits not available with other thermal control techniques, such as minimum weight penalty, long-life heat pipe/structural members.

  15. A statistical survey of heat input parameters into the cusp thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, J. I.; Skjaeveland, A.; Carlson, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on three winters of observational data, we present those ionosphere parameters deemed most critical to realistic space weather ionosphere and thermosphere representation and prediction, in regions impacted by variability in the cusp. The CHAMP spacecraft revealed large variability in cusp thermosphere densities, measuring frequent satellite drag enhancements, up to doublings. The community recognizes a clear need for more realistic representation of plasma flows and electron densities near the cusp. Existing average-value models produce order of magnitude errors in these parameters, resulting in large under estimations of predicted drag. We fill this knowledge gap with statistics-based specification of these key parameters over their range of observed values. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) tracks plasma flow Vi , electron density Ne, and electron, ion temperatures Te, Ti , with consecutive 2-3 minute windshield-wipe scans of 1000x500 km areas. This allows mapping the maximum Ti of a large area within or near the cusp with high temporal resolution. In magnetic field-aligned mode the radar can measure high-resolution profiles of these plasma parameters. By deriving statistics for Ne and Ti , we enable derivation of thermosphere heating deposition under background and frictional-drag-dominated magnetic reconnection conditions. We separate our Ne and Ti profiles into quiescent and enhanced states, which are not closely correlated due to the spatial structure of the reconnection foot point. Use of our data-based parameter inputs can make order of magnitude corrections to input data driving thermosphere models, enabling removal of previous two fold drag errors.

  16. 75 FR 10347 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... plan, existing sanitary facilities, exact street address), providers should contact the appropriate... story stone structure, no sanitary or heating facilities, Natl Register of Historic Places Bldg. 10 VA..., State Hwy 52 Celina Co: Clay TN 38551 Landholding Agency: COE Property Number: 31199140006 Status...

  17. Characterization of the Inductively Heated Plasma Source IPG6-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma facilities have been established using the Inductively heated Plasma Generator 6 (IPG6). The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160 m3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control over a wide range. Intended fields of research include basic investigation into thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. those found in fusion devices or during atmospheric re-entry of spacecraft. After moving the IPG6-B facility to the Baylor Research and Innovation Collaborative (BRIC) it was placed back into operation during the summer of 2014. Initial characterization in the new lab, using a heat flux probe, Pitot probe and cavity calorimeter, has been conducted for Air, Argon and Helium. The results of this characterization are presented.

  18. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a n-Heptane Phase Change Material (PCM) canister. A total of 388 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe of axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the EDS batteries lost power. The inability of the HEPP's radiator to cool below 190 K in flight prevented freezing of the PCM and the opportunity to conduct transport tests with the heat pipes. Post flight tests showed that the heat pipes and the PCM are still functioning. This paper presents a summary of the flight data analysis for the HEPP and its related support systems. Pre and post-flight thermal vacuum tests results are presented for the HEPP thermal control system along with individual heat pipe performance and PCM behavior. Appropriate SIG related systems data will also be included along with a 'lessons learned' summary.

  19. Space Power Facility at NASA’s Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-02-21

    Exterior view of the Space Power Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The $28.4-million facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It produces a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The facility can sustain a high vacuum; simulate solar radiation via a 4-megawatt quartz heat lamp array, solar spectrum by a 400-kilowatt arc lamp, and cold environments. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear power sources for spacecraft during long durations in a space atmosphere, but it was never used for that purpose. The facility’s first test in 1970 involved a 15 to 20-kilowatt Brayton Cycle Power System for space applications. Three different methods of simulating solar heat were employed during the Brayton tests. The facility was also used for jettison tests of the Centaur Standard Shroud. The shroud was designed for the new Titan-Centaur rocket that was scheduled to launch the Viking spacecraft to Mars. The new shroud was tested under conditions that simulated the time from launch to the separation of the stages. Test programs at the facility include high-energy experiments, shroud separation tests, Mars Lander system tests, deployable Solar Sail tests and International Space Station hardware tests.

  20. Progress in the measurement of SSME turbine heat flux with plug-type sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1991-01-01

    Data reduction was completed for tests of plug-type heat flux sensors (gauges) in a turbine blade thermal cycling tester (TBT) that is located at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and a typical gauge is illustrated. This is the first time that heat flux has been measured in a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turbopump Turbine environment. The development of the concept for the gauge was performed in a heat flux measurement facility at Lewis. In this facility, transient and steady state absorbed surface heat flux information was obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gauge. A schematic of the TBT is presented, and plots of the absorbed surface heat flux measured on the three blades tested in the TBT are presented. High quality heat flux values were measured on all three blades. The experiments demonstrated that reliable and durable gauges can be repeatedly fabricated into the airfoils. The experiment heat flux data are being used for verification of SSME analytical stress, boundary layer, and heat transfer design models. Other experimental results and future plans are also presented.

  1. Steam ejector as an industrial heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, H.G.; Huntley, W.R.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1982-01-01

    The steam ejector is analyzed for use in industrial heat recovery applications and compared to mechanical compressor heat pumps. An estimated ejector performance was analyzed using methods based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy; using steam properties to account for continuity; and using appropriate efficiencies for the nozzle and diffuse performance within the ejector. A potential heat pump application at a paper plant in which waste water was available in a hot well downstream of the paper machine was used to describe use of the stream ejector. Both mechanical compression and jet ejector heat pumps were evaluated for recompressionmore » of flashed steam from the hot well. It is noted that another possible application of vapor recompression heat pumps is the recovery of waste heat from large facilities such as the gaseous diffusion plants. The economics of recovering waste heat in similar applications is analyzed. (MCW)« less

  2. Calibration of High Heat Flux Sensors at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Tsai, B. K.; Gibson, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    An ongoing program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is aimed at improving and standardizing heat-flux sensor calibration methods. The current calibration needs of U.S. science and industry exceed the current NIST capability of 40 kW/m2 irradiance. In achieving this goal, as well as meeting lower-level non-radiative heat flux calibration needs of science and industry, three different types of calibration facilities currently are under development at NIST: convection, conduction, and radiation. This paper describes the research activities associated with the NIST Radiation Calibration Facility. Two different techniques, transfer and absolute, are presented. The transfer calibration technique employs a transfer standard calibrated with reference to a radiometric standard for calibrating the sensors using a graphite tube blackbody. Plans for an absolute calibration facility include the use of a spherical blackbody and a cooled aperture and sensor-housing assembly to calibrate the sensors in a low convective environment. PMID:27805156

  3. Hypersonic engine component experiments in high heat flux, supersonic flow environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.

    1993-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Even though progress has been made in the computational understanding of fluid dynamics and the physics/chemistry of high speed flight, there is also a need for experimental facilities capable of providing a high heat flux environment for testing component concepts and verifying/calibrating these analyses. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to fulfill this need. This 'Hot Gas Facility' is capable of providing heat fluxes up to 450 w/sq cm on flat surfaces and up to 5,000 w/sq cm at the leading edge stagnation point of a strut in a supersonic flow stream. Gas temperatures up to 3050 K can also be attained. Two recent experimental programs conducted in this facility are discussed. The objective of the first experiment is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Macrophotographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight. The objective of the second experiment is to assess the capability of cooling a porous surface exposed to a high temperature, high velocity flow environment and to provide a heat transfer data base for a design procedure. Experimental results from transpiration cooled surfaces in a supersonic flow environment are presented.

  4. Alleviation of Facility/Engine Interactions in an Open-Jet Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Emami, Saied

    2001-01-01

    Results of a series of shakedown tests to eliminate facility/engine interactions in an open-jet scramjet test facility are presented. The tests were conducted with the NASA DFX (Dual-Fuel eXperimental scramjet) engine in the NASA Langley Combustion Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) in support of the Hyper-X program, The majority of the tests were conducted at a total enthalpy and pressure corresponding to Mach 5 flight at a dynamic pressure of 734 psf. The DFX is the largest engine ever tested in the CHSTF. Blockage, in terms of the projected engine area relative to the nozzle exit area, is 81% with the engine forebody leading edge aligned with the upper edge of the facility nozzle such that it ingests the nozzle boundary layer. The blockage increases to 95% with the engine forebody leading edge positioned 2 in. down in the core flow. Previous engines successfully tested in the CHSTF have had blockages of no more than 51%. Oil flow studies along with facility and engine pressure measurements were used to define flow behavior. These results guided modifications to existing aeroappliances and the design of new aeroappliances. These changes allowed fueled tests to be conducted without facility interaction effects in the data with the engine forebody leading edge positioned to ingest the facility nozzle boundary layer. Interaction effects were also reduced for tests with the engine forebody leading edge positioned 2 in. into the core flow, however some interaction effects were still evident in the engine data. A new shroud and diffuser have been designed with the goal of allowing fueled tests to be conducted with the engine forebody leading edge positioned in the core without facility interaction effects in the data. Evaluation tests of the new shroud and diffuser will be conducted once ongoing fueled engine tests have been completed.

  5. Aerospace Test Facilities at NASA LeRC Plumbrook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the facilities and research being conducted at LeRC's Plumbrook field station is given. The video highlights four main structures and explains their uses. The Space Power Facility is the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, where spacebound hardware is tested in simulations of the vacuum and extreme heat and cold of the space plasma environment. This facility was used to prepare Atlas 1 rockets to ferry CRRES into orbit; it will also be used to test space nuclear electric power generation systems. The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility allows rocket vehicles to be hot fired in a simulated space environment. In the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility, researchers are developing technology for storing and transferring liquid hydrogen in space. There is also a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel which can perform flow tests with winds up to Mach 7.

  6. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  7. Nuclear electric propulsion development and qualification facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, D. S.; Thomassen, K.; Sovey, J.; Fontana, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of a Tri-Agency panel consisting of members from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) that were charged with reviewing the status and availability of facilities to test components and subsystems for megawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. The facilities required to support development of NEP are available in NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and industry. However, several key facilities require significant and near-term modification in order to perform the testing required to meet a 2014 launch date. For the higher powered Mars cargo and piloted missions, the priority established for facility preparation is: (1) a thruster developmental testing facility, (2) a thruster lifetime testing facility, (3) a dynamic energy conversion development and demonstration facility, and (4) an advanced reactor testing facility (if required to demonstrate an advanced multiwatt power system). Facilities to support development of the power conditioning and heat rejection subsystems are available in industry, federal laboratories, and universities. In addition to the development facilities, a new preflight qualifications and acceptance testing facility will be required to support the deployment of NEP systems for precursor, cargo, or piloted Mars missions. Because the deployment strategy for NEP involves early demonstration missions, the demonstration of the SP-100 power system is needed by the early 2000's.

  8. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  9. Development of a test facility and preliminary testing of flow boiling heat transfer of R410A refrigerant with Al2O3 nanolubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thiam

    In vapor compression cycles, a small portion of the oil circulates with the refrigerant throughout the system components, while most of the oil stays in the compressors. In heat exchangers, the lubricant in excess penalizes the heat transfer and increases the pressure losses: both effects are highly undesired but yet unavoidable. Nanoparticles dispersed in the excess lubricant are expected to provide enhancements in heat transfer. While solubility and miscibility of refrigerants in polyolesters (POE) lubricant are well established knowledge, there is a lack of information regarding if and how nanoparticles dispersed in the lubricant affect these properties. This thesis presents experimental data of solubility of two types of Al2O3 nanolubricants with refrigerant R-410A. The nanoparticles were dispersed in POE lubricant by using different surfactants and dispersion methods. The nanolubricants appeared to have slightly lower solubility than that of R-410A but actually the solid nanoparticles did not really interfere with the POE oil solubility characteristics. A test facility and experimental methodology was developed for the investigation of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. The pressure drop of the refrigerant lubricant mixtures during flow boiling depended on the mass flux of the refrigerant. Greater augmentation was seen in the pressure drop results with decreasing mass flow rate. Pure refrigerant R410A showed the lowest pressure drop, addition of nanolubricants to the refrigerant showed a slightly higher pressure drop and POE-refrigerant mixture showed the highest pressure drop in the tests conducted. Enhancement or degradation in heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling depended on the nanoparticle concentration in the lubricant as well as the lubricant concentration in refrigerant. R410A showed the highest heat transfer coefficient for all conditions tested. For a concentration of 1% nanolubricant in refrigerant, the heat transfer coefficient

  10. Uncertainty Analysis on Heat Transfer Correlations for RP-1 Fuel in Copper Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, E. A.; Landrum, D. B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying kerosene (RP-1) for application in Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT). Accurate heat transfer correlations in narrow passages at high temperatures and pressures are needed. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as RP-1, produce carbon deposition (coke) along the inside of tube walls when heated to high temperatures. A series of tests to measure the heat transfer using RP-1 fuel and examine the coking were performed in NASA Glenn Research Center's Heated Tube Facility. The facility models regenerative cooling by flowing room temperature RP-1 through resistively heated copper tubing. A Regression analysis is performed on the data to determine the heat transfer correlation for Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Each measurement and calculation is analyzed to identify sources of uncertainty, including RP-1 property variations. Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine how each uncertainty source propagates through the regression and an overall uncertainty in predicted heat transfer coefficient. The implications of these uncertainties on engine design and ways to minimize existing uncertainties are discussed.

  11. Development of Facility Type Information Packages for Design of Air Force Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    solution. For example, the optimum size and loca- 19 tion of windows for the incorporation of a passive solar *l . heating system varies with location, time...conditioning load estimate M. Energy impact statement N. Majcom review comments 0. Solar energy systems 61 4 Information which could help in the development...and Passive solar systems. All facilities should have Scme aspects of passive solar incor- por3ted into the iesign. Active sclar systems should ze con

  12. A Unique Facility For Metabolic and Thermoregulatory Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to perform tipper body ergometry tests for space applications. Originally designed to simulate the muscular, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to working in zero gravity, this facility may be used to conduct basic thermoregulatory investigations applicable to multiple sclerosis patients. An environmental chamber houses the tipper body ergometer and permits control of temperature, air now and humidify. The chamber is a closed system and recirculate-s air after conditioning if. A Cybex Lipper body ergometer has been mounted horizontally on the wall of the environmental chamber. In this configuration, the subject lies underneath the arm crank on a supine seat in order to turn the crank. The supine seat can be removed in order to introduce other equipment into the chamber such as a stool to allow upright arm cranking, or a treadmill to allow walk-run experiments. Physiological and environmental signals are fed into a Strawberry Tree data acquisition system while being monitored and logged using the Workbench software program. Physiological monitoring capabilities include 3-lead EKG using an H-P patient monitor, 5 site skin temperature and core temperature using YSI thermistors, and O2 consumption and CO2 production using AMFTFK Applied Electrochemistry analyzers and sensors. This comprehensive data acquisition set tip allows for calculation of various thermoregulatory indices including heat storage, evaporative heat loss, latent heat loss, and metabolic rate. The current system is capable of adding more data acquisition channels if needed. Some potential studies that could be carried out using the facility include: 1) An investigation into the efficiency of cooling various segments of the body to lower Tc 1-2 F. 2) A series of heat and mass balance studies comparing various LCG configurations.

  13. Fuel Cells Provide Reliable Power to U.S. Postal Service Facility in Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Working together, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and Chugach Electric Association, partnering with the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USA CERL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), developed and installed one of the largest fuel cell installations in the world. The one-megawatt fuel cell combined heat and power plant sits behind the Anchorage U.S. Postal Service Mail Processing and Distribution Facility. Chugach Electric owns, operates, and maintains the fuel cell power plant, which provides clean, reliable power to the USPS facility. Inmore » addition, heat recovered from the fuel cells, in the form of hot water, is used to heat the USPS Mail Processing and Distribution Facility. By taking a leadership role, the USPS will save over $800,000 in electricity and natural gas costs over the 5 1/2-year contract term with Chugach Electric.« less

  14. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 2. Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility experimental data report for test 3. 03. 6AR - transient film boiling in upflow

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, C. B.; Felde, D. K.; Sutton, A. G.

    1982-04-01

    Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.03.6AR. This test was conducted by members of the ORNL Pressurized-Water-Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on May 21, 1980. Objective was to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.03.6AR was conducted to obtain transient film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. The primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses for THTF Test 3.03.6AR available. Included in the report are uncertainties in the instrument responses,more » calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.« less

  15. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leidel, James

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 verticalmore » borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.« less

  16. 9 CFR 307.1 - Facilities for Program employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities exist in a nearby convenient location. Laundry service for inspectors' outer work clothing shall....1 Section 307.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., including necessary furnishings, light, heat, and janitor service, shall be provided by official...

  17. Flow Characterization Studies of the 10-MW TP3 Arc-Jet Facility: Probe Sweeps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Alunni, Antonella I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports computational simulations and analysis in support of calibration and flow characterization tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted in the NASA Ames 10-MW TP3 facility using flat-faced stagnation calorimeters at six conditions corresponding to the steps of a simulated flight heating profile. Data were obtained using a conical nozzle test configuration in which the models were placed in a free jet downstream of the nozzle. Experimental surveys of arc-jet test flow with pitot pressure and heat flux probes were also performed at these arc-heater conditions, providing assessment of the flow uniformity and valuable data for the flow characterization. Two different sets of pitot pressure and heat probes were used: 9.1-mm sphere-cone probes (nose radius of 4.57 mm or 0.18 in) with null-point heat flux gages, and 15.9-mm (0.625 in) diameter hemisphere probes with Gardon gages. The probe survey data clearly show that the test flow in the TP3 facility is not uniform at most conditions (not even axisymmetric at some conditions), and the extent of non-uniformity is highly dependent on various arc-jet parameters such as arc current, mass flow rate, and the amount of cold-gas injection at the arc-heater plenum. The present analysis comprises computational fluid dynamics simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle and test box, including the models tested. Comparisons of computations with the experimental measurements show reasonably good agreement except at the extreme low pressure conditions of the facility envelope.

  18. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms, dust...

  19. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms, dust...

  20. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms, dust...

  1. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate ventilation shall be provided. (b) Equipment for adequate control over air pressure, micro-organisms, dust...

  2. Heat exchanger development at Reaction Engines Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varvill, Richard

    2010-05-01

    The SABRE engine for SKYLON has a sophisticated thermodynamic cycle with heat transfer between the fluid streams. The intake airflow is cooled in an efficient counterflow precooler, consisting of many thousand small bore thin wall tubes. Precooler manufacturing technology has been under investigation at REL for a number of years with the result that flightweight matrix modules can now be produced. A major difficulty with cooling the airflow to sub-zero temperatures at low altitude is the problem of frost formation. Frost control technology has been developed which enables steady state operation. The helium loop requires a top cycle heat exchanger (HX3) to deliver a constant inlet temperature to the main turbine. This is constructed in silicon carbide and the feasibility of manufacturing various matrix geometries has been investigated along with suitable joining techniques. A demonstration precooler will be made to run in front of a Viper jet engine at REL's B9 test facility in 2011. This precooler will incorporate full frost control and be built from full size SABRE engine modules. The facility will incorporate a high pressure helium loop that rejects the absorbed heat to a bath of liquid nitrogen.

  3. Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Brian; Fiedler, Lon

    2012-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, many schools and universities are considering energy-saving solutions, including solar heating options, to lower costs and to attract students and staff that support environmentally friendly practices. However, administrators and facility engineers should take several issues into account before pursuing a solar…

  4. Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov Websites

    | NREL Materials Laboratory Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory, researchers investigate materials that can be used as high-temperature heat transfer fluids or thermal energy storage media in concentrating solar

  5. Test and evaluation of the heat recovery incinerator system at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    This report describes test and evaluation of the two-ton/hr heat recovery incinerator (HRI) facility located at Mayport Naval Station, Fla., carried out during November and December 1980. The tests included: (1) Solid Waste: characterization, heating value, and ultimate analysis, (2) Ash: moisture, combustibles, and heating values of both bottom and cyclone ashes; Extraction Procedure toxicity tests on leachates from both bottom and cyclone ashes; trace metals in cyclone particulates, (3) Stack Emissions: particulates (quantity and size distribution), chlorides, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and trace elements, and (4) Heat and Mass Balance: all measurements required to carry out complete heat and mass balance calculations over the test period. The overall thermal efficiency of the HRI facility while operating at approximately 1.0 ton/hr was found to be 49% when the primary Btu equivalent of the electrical energy consumed during the test program was included.

  6. CO2 heat pumps for commercial building applications with simultaneous heating and cooling demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharkar, Supriya

    Many commercial buildings, including data centers, hotels and hospitals, have a simultaneous heating and cooling demand depending on the season, occupation and auxiliary equipment. A data center on the Purdue University, West Lafayette campus is used as a case study. The electrical equipment in data centers produce heat, which must be removed to prevent the equipment temperature from rising to a certain level. With proper integration, this heat has the potential to be used as a cost-effective energy source for heating the building in which the data center resides or the near-by buildings. The proposed heat pump system utilizes carbon dioxide with global warming potential of 1, as the refrigerant. System simulations are carried out to determine the feasibility of the system for a 12-month period. In addition, energy, environmental and economic analyses are carried out to show the benefits of this alternative technology when compared to the conventional system currently installed in the facility. Primary energy savings of ~28% to ~61%, a payback period of 3 to 4.5 years and a decrease in the environmental impact value by ~36% makes this system an attractive option. The results are then extended to other commercial buildings.

  7. Common Utilities in the Energy Systems Integration Facility | Energy

    Science.gov Websites

    Systems Integration Facility. Common utilities include: Power: Three-phase 480/277 VAC, 208/120 VAC, 240 split-phase VAC, and 120 single-phase VAC Water: Process heating and cooling and research cooling

  8. Heat transfer and pressure drop performance of a finned-tube heat exchanger proposed for use in the NASA Lewis Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A segment of the heat exchanger proposed for use in the NASA Lewis Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT) facility has been tested under dry and icing conditions. The heat exchanger has the largest pressure drop of any component in the AWT loop. It is therefore critical that its performance be known at all conditions before the final design of the AWT is complete. The heat exchanger segment is tested in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in order to provide an icing cloud environment similar to what will be encountered in the AWT. Dry heat transfer and pressure drop data are obtained and compared to correlations available in the literature. The effects of icing sprays on heat transfer and pressure drop are also investigated.

  9. Direct sunlight facility for testing and research in HCPV

    SciTech Connect

    Sciortino, Luisa, E-mail: luisa.sciortino@unipa.it; Agnello, Simonpietro, E-mail: luisa.sciortino@unipa.it; Bonsignore, Gaetano

    2014-09-26

    A facility for testing different components for HCPV application has been developed in the framework of 'Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza' (FAE) project funded by the Sicilian Regional Authority (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1). The testing facility is equipped with an heliostat providing a wide solar beam inside the lab, an optical bench for mounting and aligning the HCPV components, electronic equipments to characterize the I-V curves of multijunction cells operated up to 2000 suns, a system to circulate a fluid in the heat sink at controlled temperature and flow-rate, a data logging system with sensors to measure temperatures in severalmore » locations and fluid pressures at the inlet and outlet of the heat sink, and a climatic chamber with large test volume to test assembled HCPV modules.« less

  10. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  11. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  12. Recent High Heat Flux Tests on W-Rod-Armored Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; YOUCHISON,DENNIS L.; MCDONALD,JIMMIE M.

    2000-07-18

    In the authors initial high heat flux tests on small mockups armored with W rods, done in the small electron beam facility (EBTS) at Sandia National Laboratories, the mockups exhibited excellent thermal performance. However, to reach high heat fluxes, they reduced the heated area to only a portion ({approximately}25%) of the sample. They have now begun tests in their larger electron beam facility, EB 1200, where the available power (1.2 MW) is more than enough to heat the entire surface area of the small mockups. The initial results indicate that, at a given power, the surface temperatures of rods inmore » the EB 1200 tests is somewhat higher than was observed in the EBTS tests. Also, it appears that one mockup (PW-10) has higher surface temperatures than other mockups with similar height (10mm) W rods, and that the previously reported values of absorbed heat flux on this mockup were too high. In the tests in EB 1200 of a second mockup, PW-4, absorbed heat fluxes of {approximately}22MW/m{sup 2} were reached but the corresponding surface temperatures were somewhat higher than in EBTS. A further conclusion is that the simple 1-D model initially used in evaluating some of the results from the EBTS testing was not adequate, and 3-D thermal modeling will be needed to interpret the results.« less

  13. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a low-temperature (182 K) phase change material. A total of 390 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe and an axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the data acquisition system's batteries lost power. Each heat pipe had approximately 1 watt applied throughout this period. The HEPP was not able to cool below 188.6 K during the mission. As a result, the preprogrammed transport test sequence which initiates when the PCM temperature drops below 180 K was never exercised, and transport tests with both pipes and the diode reverse mode test could not be run in flight. Also, because the melt temperature of the n-heptane PCM is 182 K, its freeze/thaw behavior could not be tested. Post-flight thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses have indicated that there was an apparent error in the original thermal analyses that led to this unfortunate result. Post-flight tests have demonstrated that the performance of both heat pipes and the PCM has not changed since being fabricated more than 14 years ago. A summary of HEPP's flight data and post-flight test results are presented.

  14. High-temperature test facility at the NASA Lewis engine components research laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato O.

    1990-01-01

    The high temperature test facility (HTTF) at NASA-Lewis Engine Components Research Laboratory (ECRL) is presently used to evaluate the survivability of aerospace materials and the effectiveness of new sensing instrumentation in a realistic afterburner environment. The HTTF has also been used for advanced heat transfer studies on aerospace components. The research rig uses pressurized air which is heated with two combustors to simulate high temperature flow conditions for test specimens. Maximum airflow is 31 pps. The HTTF is pressure rated for up to 150 psig. Combustors are used to regulate test specimen temperatures up to 2500 F. Generic test sections are available to house test plates and advanced instrumentation. Customized test sections can be fabricated for programs requiring specialized features and functions. The high temperature test facility provides government and industry with a facility for testing aerospace components. Its operation and capabilities are described.

  15. Facile green in situ synthesis of Mg/CuO core/shell nanoenergetic arrays with a superior heat-release property and long-term storage stability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Xu, Daguo; Zhang, Qiaobao; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Kaili

    2013-08-14

    We report a facile green method for the in situ synthesis of Mg/CuO core/shell nanoenergetic arrays on silicon, with Mg nanorods as the core and CuO as the shell. Mg nanorods are first prepared by glancing angle deposition. CuO is then deposited around the Mg nanorods by reactive magnetron sputtering to realize the core/shell structure. Various characterization techniques are used to investigate the prepared Mg/CuO core/shell nanoenergetic arrays, including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. Uniform mixing and intimate contact between the Mg nanorods and CuO are confirmed from both visual inspection of the morphological images and analyses of the heat-release curves. The nanoenergetic arrays exhibit a low-onset reaction temperature (∼300 °C) and high heat of reaction (∼3400 J/g). Most importantly, the nanoenergetic arrays possess long-term storage stability resulting from the stable CuO shell. This study provides a potential general strategy for the synthesis of various Mg nanorod-based stable nanoenergetic arrays.

  16. Innovative Corrosion-Resistant Coatings for Heat Distribution Piping at Fort Jackson

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    installations are served by district heat distribution sys- tems (HDSs) that provide space heating and hot water to the facilities. HDSs are large, complex...corrosive to exposed steel. Furthermore, water tends to infiltrate the manhole from outside or though pinhole leaks in pipes. When water collects in the man...energized. A typical HDS services a number of installa- tion customers all year for both space heating and domestic hot water . Scheduled maintenance is

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Heat Shield Integration for Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-10

    During final stacking of NASA Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, the heat shield is positioned for integration with the rest of the spacecraft in this photograph from inside the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center, Fla.

  18. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF (Heating) Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    and Megill, 1974; Carlson, 1974; Bernhardt et al., 1989). During the last years new interesting results have been obtained at HAARP facility (Peterson...Haslett and Megill, 1974; Carlson, 1974; Bernhardt et al., 1989). During the last years new interesting results have been obtained at HAARP facility

  19. Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

  20. Artificial periodic irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere excited by the HAARP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Shindin, A. V.; Milikh, G. M.; Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; McCarrick, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present results of the new observations of artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionosphere using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility carried out in late May and early June 2014.The objective of this work is to detect API using high-latitude facility and analyze possible differences of the temporal and spatial variations of the API echoes in the high (HAARP) and middle (Sura) latitudes. Irregularities were created by the powerful wave of X mode and were sounded using the short probing pulses signals of X mode. API echoes were observed in the D, E, and F regions of the ionosphere. Amplitudes and characteristic times of the API echoes were measured. The API growth and decay times at HAARP (high latitudes) observed were similar to those at the Sura heating facility (midlatitudes).

  1. An oxidation and erosion test facility for cooled panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartwout, W. H.; Erdos, J. I.; Engers, R. J.; Prescott, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Panel Oxidation and Erosion Testbed (POET) facility under construction at GASL to provide the required test environment is described. The POET facility comprises three major element including a vitiated air heater, a supersonic nozzle, and a test section. A hydrogen-fueld vitiated air heater will provide the oxidizing and erosive environment. The flow through the test section characterized by low supersonic speed and Mach number of 1.4 will maximize the local heat transfer rate and the local surface shear stress.

  2. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    The Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1, secured on a transporter, arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The heat shield was moved from the Launch Abort System Facility. The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  3. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    The Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1 has arrived in High Bay 2 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The heat shield was moved from the Launch Abort System Facility. The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  4. Energy and environmental evaluation of combined cooling heating and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaj, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The paper addresses issues involving problems of implementing combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system to industrial facility with well-defined demand profiles of cooling, heating and electricity. The application of CCHP system in this particular industrial facility is being evaluated by comparison with the reference system that consists of three conventional methods of energy supply: (a) electricity from external grid, (b) heat from gas-fired boilers and (c) cooling from vapour compression chillers run by electricity from the grid. The CCHP system scenario is based on the combined heat and power (CHP) plant with gas turbine-compressor arrangement and water/lithium bromide absorption chiller of a single-effect type. Those two scenarios are analysed in terms of annual primary energy usage as well as emissions of CO2. The results of the analysis show an extent of primary energy savings of the CCHP system in comparison with the reference system. Furthermore, the environmental impact of the CCHP usage, in the form of greenhouse gases emission reductions, compares quite favourably with the reference conventional option.

  5. Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,…

  6. Heat pipes for low-humidity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K.

    1989-01-01

    A novel application of an air-to-air heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) in a cooling and dehumidification process of an air-conditioning system is described which provides significant energy savings in applications requiring reheat of cold supply air to maintain low humidity. The efficiency of the system has been demonstrated in an application requiring a humidity of 40 percent. The use of the HPHX and fine tuning of the air-conditioning system and controls has resulted in significant energy savings. The technology can be advantageously used in many low-humidity applications commonly encountered in high-tech and aerospace facilities.

  7. Geothermal-retrofit study for the National Orange Show Facilities in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-17

    The cost and feasibility of retrofitting the National Orange Show Facilities to use geothermal heat instead of natural gas for heating are determined. Because of the limited usage of the smaller facilities the study was limited to the conversion of the six major buildings: Domed, Hobby, Citrus, Auditorium, Restaurant and Commercial. A major problem is that most of the buildings are used on a very limited basis. This drastically reduced the amount of savings that could be used to amortize the retrofit cost. Another problem is that the buildings are spread over a large area and so the below grademore » piping costs were high. Finally, all of the buildings except for the Auditorium have direct gas fired heaters that would require all new terminal heating systems. In order to limit the retrofit cost, the retrofit system was designed to handle less than the peak load. This seemed appropriate because the facility might not even be in operation when a peak load condition occurred. Also, the existing systems could be used to supplement the geothermal system if necessary. The calculated and design peak loads are summarized.« less

  8. Exploratory Environmental Tests of Several Heat Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, George P.; Betts, John, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Exploratory tests have been conducted with several conceptual radiative heat shields of composite construction. Measured transient temperature distributions were obtained for a graphite heat shield without insulation and with three types of insulating materials, and for a metal multipost heat shield, at surface temperatures of approximately 2,000 F and 1,450 F, respectively, by use of a radiant-heat facility. The graphite configurations suffered loss of surface material under repeated irradiation. Temperature distribution calculated for the metal heat shield by a numerical procedure was in good agreement with measured data. Environmental survival tests of the graphite heat shield without insulation, an insulated multipost heat shield, and a stainless-steel-tile heat shield were made at temperatures of 2,000 F and dynamic pressures of approximately 6,000 lb/sq ft, provided by an ethylene-heated jet operating at a Mach number of 2.0 and sea-level conditions. The graphite heat shield survived the simulated aerodynamic heating and pressure loading. A problem area exists in the design and materials for heat-resistant fasteners between the graphite shield and the base structure. The insulated multipost heat shield was found to be superior to the stainless-steel-tile heat shield in retarding heat flow. Over-lapped face-plate joints and surface smoothness of the insulated multi- post heat shield were not adversely affected by the test environment. The graphite heat shield without insulation survived tests made in the acoustic environment of a large air jet. This acoustic environment is random in frequency and has an overall noise level of 160 decibels.

  9. Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop: Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) Facility for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-11-01

    Effective and robust high temperature heat transfer systems are fundamental to the successful deployment of advanced reactors for both power generation and non-electric applications. Plant designs often include an intermediate heat transfer loop (IHTL) with heat exchangers at either end to deliver thermal energy to the application while providing isolation of the primary reactor system. In order to address technical feasibility concerns and challenges a new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility “Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test facility” (ARTIST) is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water.more » Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed« less

  10. A DISCUSSION ON UTILIZATION OF HEAT PIPE AND VAPOUR CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY AS A PRIMARY DEVICE FOR HEAT EXTRACTION FROM PHOTON ABSORBER SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, K. J.; Lurie, Alexander M.; Den Hartog, P.

    Heat pipes and vapour chambers work on heat exchange phenomena of two-phase flow and are widely used for in-dustrial and commercial applications. These devices offer very high effective thermal conductivities (5,000-200,000 W/m/K) and are adaptable to various sizes, shapes, and ori-entations. Although they have been found to be an excel-lent thermal management solution for laptops, satellites, and many things in-between, heat pipes and vapour cham-bers have yet to be adopted for use at particle accelerator facilities where they offer the possibility of more compact and more efficient means to remove heat from unwanted synchrotron radiation. As with all technologies, theremore » are inherent limitations. Foremost, they are limited by practi-cality to serve as local heat transfer devices; heat transfer over long distances is likely best provided by other means. Heat pipes also introduce unique failure modes which must be considered.« less

  11. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    A flatbed truck carrying the Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1, backs into High Bay 2 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The heat shield was moved from the Launch Abort System Facility. The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  12. The design of components for an advanced Rankine cycle test facility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a facility for testing components of an advanced Rankine cycle power system is summarized. The facility is a three-loop system in which lithium, potassium and NaK-78 are the working fluids of the primary, secondary and heat-rejection loops, respectively. Design bases and performance predictions for the major loop components, including the lithium heater and the potassium boiler, condenser and preheater, are outlined.

  13. Experimental investigation of heat transfer characteristics of guar-based polymer solutions and gels

    SciTech Connect

    Azouz, I.; Vinod, P.S.; Shah, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental investigation of the heat transfer characteristics of hydraulic fracturing fluids was conducted at the Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) of the University of Oklahoma. The facility is equipped with a high pressure fracture simulator, coiled tubing fluid pre-conditioning system, and a full-scale, counter-current, double pipe heat exchanger. The fluids investigated include non-crosslinked and borate-crosslinked guar gum and hydroxypropyl guar (HPG). Results were also obtained for water and were used as a basis for comparison. The effects of flow rate, operating temperature, pH, and various levels of shear pre-conditioning, on the heat transfer behavior of the test fluids weremore » investigated. Results show a significant difference between the heat transfer coefficient of the pure solvent (water) and those of the polymer solutions tested. While all polymer solutions tested exhibited lower heat transfer coefficients than that of the pure solvent, crosslinking appears to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of the polymer fluids. It was also observed that shear preconditioning does not seem to have a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient of the crosslinked gels. These findings are of great interest to the industry, especially to the petroleum industry where these fluids are commonly used during hydraulic fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirs.« less

  14. NPDES Permit for General Services Administration (GSA) West Heating Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000035, General Services Administration (GSA) West Heating Plant is authorized to discharge from a facility to receiving waters named Rock Creek.

  15. Ingham County Medical Care Facility solar energy project (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    A complete set of as-built drawings for the Ingham County Geriatric Medical Care Facility's solar water heating system is included. These drawings accompany report No. DOE/CS/32382-T1 and DOE/CS/32382-T2. (LS)

  16. Performance Analysis of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Using Mine Water as Heat Sink and Source

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaobing; Malhotra, Mini; Walburger, Adam; ...

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes a case study of an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system that uses flooded mines as a heat source and heat sink. This GSHP system provides space conditioning to a 56,000 sq ft 2(5,203 m 2) newly constructed research facility, in conjunction with supplementary existing steam heating and air-cooled chiller systems. Heat transfer performance and overall efficiency of the GSHP system were analysed using the available measured data from January through July 2014. The performance analysis identified some issues with using mine water for cooling and the integration of the GSHP system with the existing steammore » heating system. Recommendations were made to improve the control and operation of the GSHP system. These recommendations, in conjunction with the available measured data, were used to predict the annual energy use of the system. Finally, the energy and cost savings and CO 2 emission reduction potential of the GSHP system were estimated by comparing with a baseline scenario. This case study provides insights into the performance of and potential issues with the mine-water source heat pump system, which is relatively under-explored compared to other GSHP system designs and configurations.« less

  17. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  18. DKIST facility management system integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Charles R.; Phelps, LeEllen

    2016-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Observatory is under construction at Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i. When complete, the DKIST will be the largest solar telescope in the world. The Facility Management System (FMS) is a subsystem of the high-level Facility Control System (FCS) and directly controls the Facility Thermal System (FTS). The FMS receives operational mode information from the FCS while making process data available to the FCS and includes hardware and software to integrate and control all aspects of the FTS including the Carousel Cooling System, the Telescope Chamber Environmental Control Systems, and the Temperature Monitoring System. In addition it will integrate the Power Energy Management System and several service systems such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), the Domestic Water Distribution System, and the Vacuum System. All of these subsystems must operate in coordination to provide the best possible observing conditions and overall building management. Further, the FMS must actively react to varying weather conditions and observational requirements. The physical impact of the facility must not interfere with neighboring installations while operating in a very environmentally and culturally sensitive area. The FMS system will be comprised of five Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs). We present a pre-build overview of the functional plan to integrate all of the FMS subsystems.

  19. Sensors for Metering Heat Flux Area Density and Metrological Equipment for the Heat Flux Density Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, D. O.

    2018-04-01

    The demand in measuring and studies of heat conduction of various media is very urgent now. This article considers the problem of heat conduction monitoring and measurement in various media and materials in any industries and branches of science as well as metrological support of the heat flux measurement equipment. The main study objects are both the sensors manufactured and facilities onto which these sensors will be installed: different cladding structures of the buildings, awnings, rocket fairings, boiler units, internal combustion engines. The Company develops and manufactures different types of heat flux sensors: thermocouple, thin-film, heterogeneous gradient as well as metrological equipment for the gauging calibration of the heat flux density measurement. The calibration shall be performed using both referencing method in the unit and by fixed setting of the heat flux in the unit. To manufacture heterogeneous heat flux gradient sensors (HHFGS) the Company developed and designed a number of units: diffusion welding unit, HHFGS cutting unit. Rather good quality HHFGS prototypes were obtained. At this stage the factory tests on the equipment for the heat flux density measurement equipment are planned. A high-sensitivity heat flux sensor was produced, now it is tested at the Construction Physics Research Institute (Moscow). It became possible to create thin-film heat flux sensors with the sensitivity not worse than that of the sensors manufactured by Captec Company (France). The Company has sufficient premises to supply the market with a wide range of sensors, to master new sensor manufacture technologies which will enable their application range.

  20. OFF-Stagnation point testing in plasma facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viladegut, A.; Chazot, O.

    2015-06-01

    Reentry space vehicles face extreme conditions of heat flux when interacting with the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. Stagnation point heat flux is normally used as a reference for Thermal Protection Material (TPS) design; however, many critical phenomena also occur at off-stagnation point. This paper adresses the implementation of an offstagnation point methodology able to duplicate in ground facility the hypersonic boundary layer over a flat plate model. The first analysis using two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations is carried out to understand the limitations of this methodology when applying it in plasma wind tunnel. The results from the testing campaign at VKI Plasmatron are also presented.

  1. Boeing CST-100 Heat Shield Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-31

    A heat shield is used during separation test activities with Boeing's Starliner structural test article. The test article is undergoing rigorous qualification testing at the company's Huntington Beach Facility in California. Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner will launch on the Atlas V rocket to the International Space Station as part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program.

  2. Solar heating system for recreation building at Scattergood School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.

    1978-01-01

    The solar heating facility and the project involved in its construction are described. As such, it has both detailed drawings of the completed system and a section that discusses the bottlenecks that were encountered along the way.

  3. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    A flatbed truck carrying the Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1, prepares to back into High Bay 2 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The heat shield was moved from the Launch Abort System Facility. The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  4. Municipal Development of Anaerobic Digestion/ Combined Heat and Power in Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Brenda

    With a commercial food waste ban going into effect in Massachusetts in October 2014, businesses, institutions, and municipalities are considering alternatives to landfills and incinerators for organic waste. Anaerobic digestion is one such alternative. Similar to composting, but in an environment devoid of oxygen, anaerobic digestion produces byproducts such as methane (which can be burned for heat or electricity) and liquid or solid digestate (which can be used as fertilizer, cattle bedding, and more). Thus, disposal of food waste and other organic materials can become a source of revenue rather than just an expense. Municipalities interested in developing anaerobic digestion/combined heat and power (AD/CHP) facilities have the benefit of desirable options for sites, such as landfill gas facilities and wastewater treatment plants, and potential feedstocks in source-separated residential or municipal food waste or wastewater. This thesis examines the opportunities and challenges for municipal development of AD/CHP facilities in Massachusetts.

  5. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koker, John; Lizotte, Michael

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approachmore » to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).« less

  6. Laboratory simulation of heat exchange for liquids with Pr > 1: Heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Zakharova, O. D.; Krasnoshchekova, T. E.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sukomel, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid metals are promising heat transfer agents in new-generation nuclear power plants, such as fast-neutron reactors and hybrid tokamaks—fusion neutron sources (FNSs). We have been investigating hydrodynamics and heat exchange of liquid metals for many years, trying to reproduce the conditions close to those in fast reactors and fusion neutron sources. In the latter case, the liquid metal flow takes place in a strong magnetic field and strong thermal loads resulting in development of thermogravitational convection in the flow. In this case, quite dangerous regimes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat exchange not known earlier may occur that, in combination with other long-known regimes, for example, the growth of hydraulic drag in a strong magnetic field, make the possibility of creating a reliable FNS cooling system with a liquid metal heat carrier problematic. There exists a reasonable alternative to liquid metals in FNS, molten salts, namely, the melt of lithium and beryllium fluorides (Flibe) and the melt of fluorides of alkali metals (Flinak). Molten salts, however, are poorly studied media, and their application requires detailed scientific substantiation. We analyze the modern state of the art of studies in this field. Our contribution is to answer the following question: whether above-mentioned extremely dangerous regimes of MHD heat exchange detected in liquid metals can exist in molten salts. Experiments and numerical simulation were performed in order to answer this question. The experimental test facility represents a water circuit, since water (or water with additions for increasing its electrical conduction) is a convenient medium for laboratory simulation of salt heat exchange in FNS conditions. Local heat transfer coefficients along the heated tube, three-dimensional (along the length and in the cross section, including the viscous sublayer) fields of averaged temperature and temperature pulsations are studied. The probe method for measurements in

  7. Comparative Measurements of Earth and Martian Entry Environments in the NASA Langley HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Bey, Kim S.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Arc-jet facilities play a major role in the development of heat shield materials for entry vehicles because they are capable of producing representative high-enthalpy flow environments. Arc-jet test data is used to certify material performance for a particular mission and to validate or calibrate models of material response during atmospheric entry. Materials used on missions entering Earth s atmosphere are certified in an arc-jet using a simulated air entry environment. Materials used on missions entering the Martian atmosphere should be certified in an arc-jet using a simulated Martian atmosphere entry environment, which requires the use of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has not been used as a test gas in a United States arc-jet facility since the early 1970 s during the certification of materials for the Viking Missions. Materials certified for the Viking missions have been used on every entry mission to Mars since that time. The use of carbon dioxide as a test gas in an arc-jet is again of interest to the thermal protection system community for certification of new heat shield materials that can increase the landed mass capability for Mars bound missions beyond that of Viking and Pathfinder. This paper describes the modification, operation, and performance of the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-jet facility with carbon dioxide as a test gas. A basic comparison of heat fluxes, various bulk properties, and performance characteristics for various Earth and Martian entry environments in HYMETS is provided. The Earth and Martian entry environments consist of a standard Earth atmosphere, an oxygen-rich Earth atmosphere, and a simulated Martian atmosphere. Finally, a preliminary comparison of the HYMETS arc-jet facility to several European plasma facilities is made to place the HYMETS facility in a more global context of arc-jet testing capability.

  8. University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Field Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M. C.

    1982-12-01

    The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Field Test Facility became operational. Experiments demonstrated that the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer will accept injection of 300 gpm (18.9 1 sec (-1)) at reasonable pressures with a heat buildup in the injection well of about 44 psi (31.6 m) over 8 days. Heating of the ground water caused precipitation of carbonate in the piping and injection well, but with proper water conditioning, the system will work satisfactorily at elevated temperatures.

  9. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    The Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1, secured on a transporter, departs the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  10. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1 is being prepared for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  11. Effect of steam generator configuration in a loss of the RHR during mid-loop operation at PKL facility

    SciTech Connect

    Villanueva, J. F.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.

    The loss of the residual heat removal system in mid-loop conditions may occur with a non-negligible contribution to the plant risk, so the analysis of the accidental sequences and the actions to mitigate the accident are of great interest in shutdown conditions. In order to plan the appropriate measures to mitigate the accident is necessary to understand the thermal-hydraulic processes following the loss of the residual heat removal system during shutdown. Thus, transients of this kind have been simulated using best-estimate codes in different integral test facilities and compared with experimental data obtained in different facilities. In PKL (Primaerkreislauf-Versuchsanlage, primarymore » coolant loop test facility) test facility different series of experiments have been undertaken to analyze the plant response in shutdown. In this context, the E3 and F2 series consist of analyzing the loss of the residual heat removal system with a reduced inventory in the primary system. In particular, the experiments were developed to investigate the influence of the steam generators secondary side configuration on the plant response, what involves the consideration of different number of steam generators filled with water and ready for activation, on the heat transfer mechanisms inside the steam generators U-tubes. This work presents the results of such experiments calculated using, RELAP5/Mod 3.3. (authors)« less

  12. On Laminar to Turbulent Transition of Arc-Jet Flow in the NASA Ames Panel Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Alunni, Antonella I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence and supporting computational analysis to characterize the laminar to turbulent flow transition in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The arc-jet test data obtained in the 20 MW Panel Test Facility include measurements of surface pressure and heat flux on a water-cooled calibration plate, and measurements of surface temperature on a reaction-cured glass coated tile plate. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to characterize the arc-jet test environment and estimate its parameters consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle, test box, and flowfield over test articles. Both laminar and turbulent simulations are performed, and the computed results are compared with the experimental measurements, including Stanton number dependence on Reynolds number. Comparisons of computed and measured surface heat fluxes (and temperatures), along with the accompanying analysis, confirm that that the boundary layer in the Panel Test Facility flow is transitional at certain archeater conditions.

  13. Procedures for testing and evaluating spacecraft-type heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes part of an effort to develop dependable, cost effective spacecraft thermal control heat pipes. In the program the reliability and performance of 30 commercially available heat pipes were assessed. The pipes comprised 10 groups of varying design, with aluminum and stainless steel as structural materials, and methanol and ammonia as working fluids. The factors studied were noncondensible gas accumulation and heat transfer capability in one g. The present report supplements a brief earlier report by describing in detail the procedures required to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of heat pipes for thermal control. It discusses the test facilities and testing procedures. The manner in which data may be taken for estimating useful life and comparing performance is described. Some of the pitfalls in making such judgments are illustrated. Originator supplied keywords include: heat transfer, and corrosion.

  14. Spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, I.; Sosaoglu, B.

    2007-11-01

    The degree-day method is commonly used to estimate energy consumption for heating and cooling in residential, commercial and industrial buildings, as well as in greenhouses, livestock facilities, storage facilities and warehouses. This article presents monthly and yearly averages and spatial distributions of heating, cooling, and industrial degree-days at the base temperatures of 18 °C and 20 °C, 18 °C and 24 °C, and 7 °C and 13 °C, respectively; as well as the corresponding number of days in Turkey. The findings presented here will facilitate the estimation of heating and cooling energy consumption for any residential, commercial and industrial buildings in Turkey, for any period of time (monthly, seasonal, etc.). From this analysis it will also be possible to compare and design alternative building systems in terms of energy efficiencies. If one prefers to use set point temperatures to indicate the resumption of the heating season would also be possible using the provided information in this article. In addition, utility companies and manufacturing/marketing companies of HVAC systems would be able to easily determine the demand, marketing strategies and policies based on the findings in this study.

  15. Genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food processing facilities before and after postcook chiller heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Turner, Mark S; Seale, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Possible selection for and establishment of stress-resistant Listeria monocytogenes variants as a consequence of heating interventions is of concern to the food industry. Lineage analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on 20 L. monocytogenes isolates, of which 15 were obtained before and 5 were obtained after heat treatment of a postcook meat chiller. The ctsR gene (a class III heat shock gene regulator) from 14 isolates was amplified and sequenced because previous work has indicated that spontaneous mutations can occur in this gene during heat treatment. Heat treatment of the meat chiller did not significantly change the relative abundance of the various L. monocytogenes lineages; lineage II strains (less-heat-resistant isolates) dominated both before and after heat treatment. MLVA typing confirmed that some isolates of L. monocytogenes occur both before and after heat treatment of the chiller. No isolate of L. monocytogenes indicated any likely functionally significant mutations in ctsR. This study indicates the absence of any obvious difference in the profiles of L. monocytogenes strains obtained before and after heat treatment of a meat chiller, based on the characteristics examined. Although this finding supports the effectiveness of heat treatment, the limited number of strains used and characteristics examined mean that further study on a larger scale is required before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry J.; Brown, Jeffrey D.; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Stephen J.; Brubaker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper will document the latest improvements of the LIF system design and demonstrations of the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems.

  17. HIFiRE Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) Phase I Ground Test Results from the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Neal E.; Cabell, Karen F.; Storch, Andrea M.

    2010-01-01

    The initial phase of hydrocarbon-fueled ground tests supporting Flight 2 of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experiment (HIFiRE) Program has been conducted in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF). The HIFiRE Program, an Air Force-lead international cooperative program includes eight different flight test experiments designed to target specific challenges of hypersonic flight. The second of the eight planned flight experiments is a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet flight test intended to demonstrate dual-mode to scramjet-mode operation and verify the scramjet performance prediction and design tools. A performance goal is the achievement of a combusted fuel equivalence ratio greater than 0.7 while in scramjet mode. The ground test rig, designated the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR), is a full-scale, heat sink, direct-connect ground test article that duplicates both the flowpath lines and the instrumentation layout of the isolator and combustor portion of the flight test hardware. The primary objectives of the HDCR Phase I tests are to verify the operability of the HIFiRE isolator/combustor across the Mach 6.0-8.0 flight regime and to establish a fuel distribution schedule to ensure a successful mode transition prior to the HiFIRE payload Critical Design Review. Although the phase I test plans include testing over the Mach 6 to 8 flight simulation range, only Mach 6 testing will be reported in this paper. Experimental results presented here include flowpath surface pressure, temperature, and heat flux distributions that demonstrate the operation of the flowpath over a small range of test conditions around the nominal Mach 6 simulation, as well as a range of fuel equivalence ratios and fuel injection distributions. Both ethylene and a mixture of ethylene and methane (planned for flight) were tested. Maximum back pressure and flameholding limits, as well as a baseline fuel schedule, that covers the Mach 5.84-6.5 test space have been

  18. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  19. Review Of Existing Facilities: Shock Tunnels, Part of AIAA Short Course On Aerothermodynamic Facilities and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This review is divided into two main sections. The first section described the various types of shock tunnel facilities - reflected shock tunnels, non-reflected shock tunnels and expansion tubes/tunnels. Driver technology is then described, followed by a discussion of the performance obtainable from various driver-driven combinations. A survey of a number of facilities is then presented. The second part of the review deals with details of the operation of the facilities. Operation of combustion drivers, electrically heated drivers and piston compression drivers is discussed in some detail. Main diaphragm break techniques are discussed, with particular attention being paid to maintaining the integrity of the diaphragm petals. Secondary diaphragm techniques are discussed. Phenomena which limit test time are discussed and a number of techniques to increase test time are presented. Contamination of the flow with material ablated from the wall is discussed along with the relative suitability of various materials for lining the tubes and nozzle. Finally, boundary layer effects in shock tunnels and expansion tubes are discussed.

  20. Universal time dependence of nighttime F region densities at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, O.; Wickwar, V. B.; Caudal, G.; Holt, J. M.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Coincident auroral-zone experiments using three incoherent-scatter radars at widely spaced longitudes are reported. The observational results demonstrate that, during the night, the F layer electron density is strongly dependent on the longitude of the observing site. Ionization patches were observed in the nighttime F region from the Chatanika and EISCAT radars, while densities observed from the Millstone radar were substantially smaller. The electron density within these maxima is larger at EISCAT than at Chatanika. When observed in the midnight sector auroral zone, these densities had a peak density at a high altitude of 360-475 km. The density was maximum when EISCAT was in the midnight sector and minimum when Millstone was in the midnight sector. A minimum in insolation in the auroral zone occurs at the UT when Millstone is in the midnight sector.

  1. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulantsmore » of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.« less

  2. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation lawsmore » along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  3. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry J.; Brown, Jeffrey D.; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Stephen J.; Brubaker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnson's arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  4. Consolidated Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic Systems for the NASA Ames Arc Jet Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay; Wilder, Michael C.; Porter, Barry; Brown, Jeff; Yeung, Dickson; Battazzo, Steve; Brubaker, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species for non-intrusive arc jet flow property measurement was first implemented at NASA Ames in the mid-1990s. Use of TALIF expanded at NASA Ames and to NASA Johnsons arc jet facility in the late 2000s. In 2013-2014, NASA combined the agency's large-scale arc jet test capabilities at NASA Ames. Concurrent with that effort, the agency also sponsored a project to establish two comprehensive LIF diagnostic systems for the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) and Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jets. The scope of the project enabled further engineering development of the existing IHF LIF system as well as the complete reconstruction of the original AHF LIF system. The updated LIF systems are identical in design and capability. They represent the culmination of over 20 years of development experience in transitioning a specialized laboratory research tool into a measurement system for large-scale, high-demand test facilities. This paper documents the overall system design from measurement requirements to implementation. Representative data from the redeveloped AHF and IHF LIF systems are also presented.

  5. High-frequency Propagation through the Ionosphere from the Sura Heating Facility to the Orbiting CASSIOPE/e-POP Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.; Frolov, V. L.; Padokhin, A. M.; Siefring, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    High-frequency pump waves have been transmitted from the Russian heating facility Sura to the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) in the e-POP payload on the Canadian small satellite CASSIOPE. This experiment has been carried out 24 times, under a variety of circumstances. In some cases, the ePOP VHF-UHF beacon CERTO was on, and ground receivers near Sura recorded total electron content. Subsequent tomographic processing has allowed the two-dimensional electron density distribution to be determined in the altitude-latitude space between Sura and CASSIOPE. We present some details from a night-time pass on 9 Sept. 2014 when the fixed pump frequency 4.3 MHz was slightly smaller than foF2 above Sura. This was an instance in which conversion between the O and Z cold plasma modes may have been required to achieve transmission. Explanation could be elaborated in terms of underdense, heater-created, field-aligned irregularities that are "artificial radio windows". The Sura heater radiation pattern maximum was tilted 12° south of the vertical, toward the terrestrial magnetic field axis, potentially enhancing the power transmitted through radio windows. The observations are interpreted in the light of competing concepts of transmission.

  6. Transient Approximation of SAFE-100 Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Reid, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have designed several heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, ranging in power from 15 kWt to 800 kWt, for both surface power systems and nuclear electric propulsion systems. The Safe, Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) is now being developed in a collaborative effort between LANL and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). NASA is responsible for fabrication and testing of non-nuclear, electrically heated modules in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at MSFC. In-core heat pipes must be properly thawed as the reactor power starts. Computational models have been developed to assess the expected operation of a specific heat pipe design during start-up, steady state operation, and shutdown. While computationally intensive codes provide complete, detailed analyses of heat pipe thaw, a relatively simple. concise routine can also be applied to approximate the response of a heat pipe to changes in the evaporator heat transfer rate during start-up and power transients (e.g., modification of reactor power level) with reasonably accurate results. This paper describes a simplified model of heat pipe start-up that extends previous work and compares the results to experimental measurements for a SAFE-100 type heat pipe design.

  7. Boeing CST-100 Starliner Base Heat Shield Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-15

    On March 15, the base heat shield for Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner was freshly installed on the bottom of Spacecraft 1 in the High Bay of the Commercial Crew and Cargo Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This is the spacecraft that will fly during the Pad Abort Test. The next step involves installation of the back shells and forward heat shield, and then the crew module will be mated to the service module for a fit check. Finally, the vehicle will head out to White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico for testing.

  8. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-03-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  9. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  10. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1 is secured on a transporter and ready for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  11. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1 is being loaded onto a transporter for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  12. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield Move from LASF to VAB Highbay 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a crane lowers the Orion heat shield from Exploration Flight Test-1 onto a transporter for its move to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The heat shield is being transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations. In the VAB, the heat shield will be integrated with the Orion ground test article and used for future underway recovery testing.

  13. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. o collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in D...

  14. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. To collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in ...

  15. High-temperature combustor liner tests in structural component response test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Paul E.

    1988-01-01

    Jet engine combustor liners were tested in the structural component response facility at NASA Lewis. In this facility combustor liners were thermally cycled to simulate a flight envelope of takeoff, cruise, and return to idle. Temperatures were measured with both thermocouples and an infrared thermal imaging system. A conventional stacked-ring louvered combustor liner developed a crack at 1603 cycles. This test was discontinued after 1728 cycles because of distortion of the liner. A segmented or float wall combustor liner tested at the same heat flux showed no significant change after 1600 cycles. Changes are being made in the facility to allow higher temperatures.

  16. Case study comparison of two pellet heating facilities in southeastern Alaska

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Allen Brackley; Robert Deering; Daniel Parrent; Brian Kleinhenz; Craig. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, wood-energy use in Alaska has grown dramatically. Since 2000, several dozen new wood-energy installations have been established, with numerous others in the design or construction phase. This case study report compares two wood-pellet heating systems in Juneau, Alaska. The Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, a native housing authority that...

  17. SRB thermal protection systems materials test results in an arc-heated nitrogen environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The external surface of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) will experience imposed thermal and shear environments due to aerodynamic heating and radiation heating during launch, staging and reentry. This report is concerned with the performance of the various TPS materials during the staging maneuver. During staging, the wash from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) exhust plumes impose severe, short duration, thermal environments on the SRB. Five different SRB TPS materials were tested in the 1 MW Arc Plasma Generator (APG) facility. The maximum simulated heating rate obtained in the APG facility was 248 Btu/sq ft./sec, however, the test duration was such that the total heat was more than simulated. Similarly, some local high shear stress levels of 0.04 psia were not simulated. Most of the SSME plume impingement area on the SRB experiences shear stress levels of 0.02 psia and lower. The shear stress levels on the test specimens were between 0.021 and 0.008 psia. The SSME plume stagnation conditions were also simulated.

  18. Test facility for the evaluation of microwave transmission components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, C. G.; Poole, B. R.

    1985-10-01

    A Low Power Test Facility (LPTF) was developed to evaluate the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) microwave transmission components for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The facility generates 26 to 60 GHz in modes of TE01, TE02, or TE03 launched at power levels of 1/2 milliwatt. The propagation of the RF as it radiates from either transmitting or secondary reflecting microwave transmission components is recorded by a discriminating crystal detector mechanically manipulated at constant radius in spherical coordinates. The facility is used to test, calibrate, and verify the design of overmoded, circular waveguide components, quasi-optical reflecting elements before high power use. The test facility consists of microwave sources and metering components, such as VSWR, power and frequency meters, a rectangular TE10 to circular TE01 mode transducer, mode filter, circular TE01 to 2.5 in. diameter overmoded waveguide with mode converters for combination of TE01 to TE03 modes. This assembly then connects to a circular waveguide launcher or the waveguide component under test.

  19. 9 CFR 3.79 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.79 Mobile or traveling housing... sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect nonhuman primates from temperature extremes and to... not fall below 45 °F (7.2 °C) for more than 4 consecutive hours when nonhuman primates are present...

  20. Compact Heat Exchanger Design and Testing for Advanced Reactors and Advanced Power Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Christensen, Richard

    The goal of the proposed research is to demonstrate the thermal hydraulic performance of innovative surface geometries in compact heat exchangers used as intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) and recuperators for the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO 2) Brayton cycle. Printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) are the primary compact heat exchangers of interest. The overall objectives are: To develop optimized PCHE designs for different working fluid combinations including helium to s-CO 2, liquid salt to s-CO 2, sodium to s-CO 2, and liquid salt to helium; To experimentally and numerically investigate thermal performance, thermal stress and failure mechanism of PCHEs under various transients;more » and To study diffusion bonding techniques for elevated-temperature alloys and examine post-test material integrity of the PCHEs. The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing five different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved a thorough literature review and a selection of IHX candidates with different surface geometries as well as a summary of prototypic operational conditions. The second task involved optimization of PCHE design with numerical analyses of thermal-hydraulic performances and mechanical integrity. The subsequent task dealt with the development of testing facilities and engineering design of PCHE to be tested in s-CO 2 fluid conditions. The next task involved experimental investigation and validation of the thermal-hydraulic performances and thermal stress distribution of prototype PCHEs manufactured with particular surface geometries. The last task involved an investigation of diffusion bonding process and posttest destructive testing to validate mechanical design methods adopted in the design process. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed s-CO 2 test loop

  1. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  2. SOLAR PANELS ON HUDSON COUNTY FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    BARRY, KEVIN

    2014-06-06

    This project involved the installation of an 83 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system tied into the energy management system of Hudson County's new 60,000 square foot Emergency Operations and Command Center and staff offices. Other renewable energy features of the building include a 15 kW wind turbine, geothermal heating and cooling, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, gray water plumbing system and a green roof. The County intends to seek Silver LEED certification for the facility.

  3. Facility Management as a Way of Reducing Costs in Transport Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusova, Dominika; Gogolova, Martina

    2017-10-01

    For facility management exists a several interpretations. These interpretations emerged progressively. At the time of the notion of facility management was designed to manage an administrative building, in the United States (US). They can ensure their operation and maintenance. From the US, this trend is further moved to Europe and now it start becoming a current and actual topic also in Slovakia. Facility management is contractually agreed scheme of services, semantically recalls traditional building management. There by finally pushed for activities related to real estates. For facility management is fundamental - certification and certification systems. Therefore, is essential to know, the cost structure of certification. The most commonly occurring austerity measures include: heat pumps, use of renewable energy, solar panels and water savings. These measures can reduce the cost.

  4. Carbon phenolic heat shields for Jupiter/Saturn/Uranus entry probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezines, S.

    1974-01-01

    Carbon phenolic heat shield technology is reviewed. Heat shield results from the outer planetary probe mission studies are summarized along with results of plasma jet testing of carbon phenolic conducted in a ten megawatt facility. Missile flight data is applied to planetary entry conditions. A carbon phenolic heat shield material is utilized and tailored to accommodate each of the probe missions. An integral heat shield approach is selected over in order to eliminate a high temperature interface problem and permit direct bonding of the carbon phenolic to the structural honeycomb sandwich. The sandwich is filled with a very fine powder to minimize degradation of its insulation properties by the high conductive hydrogen/helium gases during the long atmospheric descent phase.

  5. Development of cryogenic thermal control heat pipes. [of stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of thermal control heat pipes that are applicable to the low temperature to cryogenic range was investigated. A previous effort demonstrated that stainless steel axially grooved tubing which met performance requirements could be fabricated. Three heat pipe designs utilizing stainless steel axially grooved tubing were fabricated and tested. One is a liquid trap diode heat pipe which conforms to the configuration and performance requirements of the Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP). The HEPP is scheduled for flight aboard the Long Duration Flight Exposure Facility (LDEF). Another is a thermal switch heat pipe which is designed to permit energy transfer at the cooler of the two identical legs. The third thermal component is a hybrid variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP). The design incorporates both a conventional VCHP system and a liquid trap diode. The design, fabrication and thermal testing of these heat pipes is described. The demonstrated heat pipe behavior including start-up, forward mode transport, recovery after evaporator dry-out, diode performance and variable conductance control are discussed.

  6. Nike Facility Diagnostics and Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yung; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Obenschain, Steve; Oh, Jaechul; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, Jim

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser-target facility is a 56-beam krypton fluoride system that can deliver 2 to 3 kJ of laser energy at 248 nm onto targets inside a two meter diameter vacuum chamber. Nike is used to study physics and technology issues related to laser direct-drive ICF fusion, including hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, material behavior at extreme pressures, and optical and x-ray diagnostics for laser-heated targets. A suite of laser and target diagnostics are fielded on the Nike facility, including high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging cameras, spectrometers and photo-detectors. A centrally-controlled, distributed computerized data acquisition system provides robust data management and near real-time analysis feedback capability during target shots. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  7. Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Flametube Facility Upgraded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, James E.; Nemets, Steve A.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Smith, Timothy D.; Frankenfeld, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal year 2003, test cell 23 of the Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL 23) at the NASA Glenn Research Center was upgraded with the addition of gaseous hydrogen as a working propellant and the addition of a 450-psig air-supply system. Test flexibility was further enhanced by upgrades to the facility control systems. RCL 23 can now test with gaseous hydrogen flow rates up to 0.05 lbm/sec and jet fuel flow rates up to 0.62 lbm/sec. Research airflow rates up to 3 lbm/sec are possible with the 450-psig supply system over a range of inlet temperatures. Nonvitiated, heated air is supplied from a shell and tube heat exchanger. The maximum nonvitiated facility air temperature is 1100 F at 1.5 lbm/sec. Research-section exhaust temperatures are limited to 3200 F because of material and cooling capacity limits. A variety of support systems are available depending on the research hardware configuration. Test section ignition can be provided via either a hydrogen air torch system or an electronic spark system. Emissions measurements are obtained with either pneumatically or electromechanically actuated gas sample probes, and the electromechanical system allows for radial measurements at a user-specified axial location for measurement of emissions profiles. Gas analysis data can be obtained for a variety of species, including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx), oxygen (O2), unburnt hydrocarbons, and unburnt hydrogen. Facility control is accomplished with a programmable logic control system. Facility operations have been upgraded to a system based on graphical user interface control screens. A data system is available for real-time acquisition and monitoring of both measurements in engineering units and performance calculations. The upgrades have made RCL 23 a highly flexible facility for research into low emissions gas turbine combustor concepts, and the flame tube configuration inherently allows for a variety of fuel nozzle

  8. Information on the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis Lee

    The purpose of this report provides information related to the design of the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility. Information provided in this report have been pulled from the following information sources: Reference 1: R. Nourgaliev and et.al, "Summary Report on NGSAC (Next-Generation Safety Analysis Code) Development and Testing," Idaho National Laboratory, 2011. Note that this is report has not been released as an external report. Reference 2: O. Stevens, Characterization of the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Passive Residual Heat Removal System Heat Exchanger, Master Thesis, June 1996. Reference 3: J. Reyes, Jr., Q. Wu, and J.more » King, Jr., Scaling Assessment for the Design of the OSU APEX-1000 Test Facility, OSU-APEX-03001 (Rev. 0), May 2003. Reference 4: J. Reyes et al, Final Report of the NRC AP600 Research Conducted at Oregon State University, NUREG/CR-6641, July 1999. Reference 5: K. Welter et al, APEX-1000 Confirmatory Testing to Support AP1000 Design Certification (non-proprietary), NUREG-1826, August 2005.« less

  9. Heat Exchanger Design and Testing for a 6-Inch Rotating Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Engine Research Facility HHV Higher heating value LHV Lower heating value PDE Pulsed detonation engine RDE Rotating detonation engine RTD...the combustion community are pulse detonation engines ( PDEs ) and rotating detonation engines (RDEs). 1.1 Differences between Pulsed and Rotating ...steadier than that of a PDE (2, 3). (2) (3) Figure 1. Unrolled rotating detonation wave from high-speed video (4) Another difference that

  10. The Multistage Compressor Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie

    2004-01-01

    Research and developments of new aerospace technologies is one of Glenn Research Center's specialties. One facility that deals with the research of aerospace technologies is the High-speed Multistage Compressor Facility. This facility will be testing the performance and efficiency of an Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) two-stage compressor. There is a lot of preparation involved with testing something of this caliber. Before the test article can be installed into the test rig, the facility must be fully operational and ready to run. Meaning all the necessary instrumentation must be calibrated and installed in the facility. The test rig should also be in safe operating condition, and the proper safety permits obtained. In preparation for the test, the Multistage Compressor Facility went through a few changes. For instance the facility will now be utilizing slip rings, the gearbox went through some maintenance, new lubrications systems replaced the old ones, and special instrumentation needs to be fine tuned to achieve the maximum amount of accurate data. Slips rings help gather information off of a rotating device - in this case from a shaft - onto stationary contacts. The contacts (or brushes) need to be cooled to reduce the amount of frictional heat produced between the slip ring and brushes. The coolant being run through the slip ring is AK-225, a material hazardous to the ozone. To abide by the safety regulations the coolant must be run through a closed chiller system. A new chiller system was purchased but the reservoir that holds the coolant was ventilated which doesn t make the system truly closed and sealed. My task was to design and have a new reservoir built for the chiller system that complies with the safety guidelines. The gearbox had some safety issues also. Located in the back of the gearbox an inching drive was set up. When the inching drive is in use the gears and chain are bare and someone can easily get caught up in it. So to prevent

  11. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 2: Heat transfer on serpentine flow passage.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    The improvement of the heat transfer coefficient of the 1st row blades in high temperature industrial gas turbines is one of the most important issues to ensure reliable performance of these components and to attain high thermal efficiency of the facility. This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of such gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. Following the experiments described in Part 1, a set of trials was conducted to clarify the influence of the blade's rotating motion on the heat transfer coefficient for internal serpentine flow passages with turbulence promoters. Test results are shown and discussed in this second part of the contribution.

  12. Conjugate Heat Transfer and Thermo-Structural Analysis of the Actively Cooled Multi-Stage Conical Nozzle and Hypersonic Low-Reynolds Diffuser of the New Arc-Heated Wind Tunnel (AWHT-II) of the University of Texas at Arlington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, David R.

    Arc-heated wind tunnels are the primary test facility for screening and qualification of candidate materials for hypersonic thermal protection systems (TPS). Via an electric arc that largely augments the enthalpy (by tens of MJ/kg) of the working fluid (Air, Nitrogen, CO2 in case of Mars-entry studies) passed through a converging-diverging nozzle at specific stagnation conditions, different regimes encountered in entry and re-entry hypersonic aerothermodynamics can be simulated. Because of the high-enthalpies (and associated temperatures that generally exceed the limits required by the thermo-structural integrity of the facility) the active cooling of the arc-heated wind tunnel's parts exposed to the working gas is critical. This criticality is particularly severe in these facilities due to the time scales associated with their continuous operation capabilities (order of minutes). This research focuses on the design and the conjugate heat transfer and resultant thermo-structural analysis of a multi-segment nozzle and low-Reynolds, hypersonic diffuser for the new arc-heated wind tunnel (AHWT-II) of the University of Texas at Arlington. Nozzles and hypersonic diffusers are critical components that experience highly complex flows (non-equilibrium aerothermochemistry) and high (local and distributed) heat-flux loads which significantly augment the complexity of the problems associated with their thermal management. The proper design and thermo-mechanical analysis of these components are crucial elements for the operability of the new facility. This work is centered on the design considerations, methodologies and the detailed analysis of the aforementioned components which resulted in the definition of final parts and assemblies that are under manufacturing at this writing. The project is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA).

  13. Numerical simulation of the plasma thermal disturbances during ionospheric modification experiments at the SURA heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Alexey; Huba, J. D.

    indent=1cm We present the results of numerical simulation of the near-Earth plasma disturbances produced by resonant heating of the ionospheric F-region by high-power HF radio emission from the SURA facility. The computational model is based on the modified version of the SAMI2 code (release 1.00). The model input parameters are appropriated to the conditions of the SURA-DEMETER experiment. In this work, we study the spatial structure and temporal characteristics of stimulated large-scale disturbances of the electron number density and temperature. It is shown that the stimulated disturbances are observed throughout the ionosphere. Disturbances are recorded both in the region below the pump wave reflection level and in the outer ionosphere (up to 3000 km). At the DEMETER altitude, an increase in the ion number density is stipulated by the oxygen ions O (+) , whereas the number density of lighter H (+) ions decreases. A typical time of the formation of large-scale plasma density disturbances in the outer ionosphere is 2-3 min. After the heater is turned off, the disturbances relaxation time is approximately 30 min. The simulation results are important for planning future promising experiments on the formation of ionospheric artificial density ducts. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 12-02-00747-a), and the Government of the Russian Federation (contract No. 14.B25.31.0008).

  14. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration. Competency-Based Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr.

    This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…

  15. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  16. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits producedmore » on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.« less

  17. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    PubMed

    Betti, R; Christopherson, A R; Spears, B K; Nora, R; Bose, A; Howard, J; Woo, K M; Edwards, M J; Sanz, J

    2015-06-26

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  18. Advanced Spectroscopic and Thermal Imaging Instrumentation for Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF, an aeroballistic range) at NASA Ames support basic research in aerothermodynamic phenomena of atmospheric entry, specifically shock layer radiation spectroscopy, convective and radiative heat transfer, and transition to turbulence. Innovative optical instrumentation has been developed and implemented to meet the challenges posed from obtaining such data in these impulse facilities. Spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of absolute radiance of a travelling shock wave in EAST are acquired using multiplexed, time-gated imaging spectrographs. Nearly complete spectral coverage from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared is possible in a single experiment. Time-gated thermal imaging of ballistic range models in flight enables quantitative, global measurements of surface temperature. These images can be interpreted to determine convective heat transfer rates and reveal transition to turbulence due to isolated and distributed surface roughness at hypersonic velocities. The focus of this paper is a detailed description of the optical instrumentation currently in use in the EAST and HFFAF.

  19. Technical activities report: Heat, water, and mechanical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.K.

    1951-10-04

    Topics in the heat studies section include: front and rear face reflector shields at the C-pile; process tube channel thermocouples; water temperature limits for horizontal rods; slug temperature and thermal conductivity calculations; maximum slug-end cap temperature; boiling consideration studies; scram time limit for Panellit alarm; heat transfer test; slug stresses; thermal insulation of bottom tube row at C-pile; flow tests; present pile enrichment; electric analog; and measurement of thermal contact resistance. Topics in the water studies section include: 100-D flow laboratory; process water studies; fundamental studies on film formation; coatings on tip-offs; can difference tests; slug jacket abrasion at highmore » flow rates; corrosion studies; front tube dummy slugs; metallographic examination of tubes from H-pile; fifty-tube mock-up; induction heating facility; operational procedures and standards; vertical safety rod dropping time tests; recirculation; and power recovery. Mechanical development studies include: effect of Sphincter seal and lubricant VSR drop time; slug damage; slug bubble tester; P-13 removal; chemical slug stripper; effect of process tube rib spacing and width; ink facility installation; charging and discharging machines; process tube creep; flapper nozzle assembly test; test of single gun barrel assembly; pigtail fixture test; horizontal rod gland seal test; function test of C-pile; and intermediate test of Ball 3-X and VSR systems.« less

  20. Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W.; Underwood, P.

    2003-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the restoration of reliability and improved performance of the heat exchanger systems resulting in the expansion of the NTF air operations envelope. Additionally, results are presented from a continued effort to reduce model dynamics through the use of a new stiffer balance and sting

  1. Hypervelocity Heat-Transfer Measurements in an Expansion Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Perkins, John N.

    1996-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the NASA HYPULSE Expansion Tube, in both CO2 and air test gases, in order to obtain data for comparison with computational results and to assess the capability for performing hypervelocity heat-transfer studies in this facility. Heat-transfer measurements were made in both test gases on 70 deg sphere-cone models and on hemisphere models of various radii. HYPULSE freestream flow conditions in these test gases were found to be repeatable to within 3-10%, and aerothermodynamic test times of 150 microsec in CO2 and 125 microsec in air were identified. Heat-transfer measurement uncertainty was estimated to be 10-15%. Comparisons were made with computational results from the non-equilibrium Navier-Stokes solver NEQ2D. Measured and computed heat-transfer rates agreed to within 10% on the hemispheres and on the sphere-cone forebodies, and to within 10% in CO2 and 25% in air on the afterbodies and stings of the sphere-cone models.

  2. Measurements of heat generation in prismatic Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaiwei; Unsworth, Grant; Li, Xianguo

    2014-09-01

    An accurate understanding of the characteristics of battery heat generation is essential to the development and success of thermal management systems for electric vehicles. In this study, a calorimeter capable of measuring the heat generation rates of a prismatic battery is developed and verified by using a controllable electric heater. The heat generation rates of a prismatic A123 LiFePO4 battery is measured for discharge rates ranging from 0.25C to 3C and operating temperature ranging from -10 °C to 40 °C. At low rates of discharge the heat generation is not significant, even becoming endothermic at the battery operating temperatures of 30 °C and 40 °C. Heat of mixing is observed to be a non-negligible component of total heat generation at discharge rates as low as 0.25C for all tested battery operating temperatures. A double plateau in battery discharge curve is observed for operating temperatures of 30 °C and 40 °C. The developed experimental facility can be used for the characterization of heat generation for any prismatic battery, regardless of chemistries.

  3. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites.

  4. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  5. Rapid Charging of Thermal Energy Storage Materials through Plasmonic Heating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyong; Tao, Peng; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hao; Ye, Qinxian; Hu, Hang; Song, Chengyi; Chen, Zhaoping; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Direct collection, conversion and storage of solar radiation as thermal energy are crucial to the efficient utilization of renewable solar energy and the reduction of global carbon footprint. This work reports a facile approach for rapid and efficient charging of thermal energy storage materials by the instant and intense photothermal effect of uniformly distributed plasmonic nanoparticles. Upon illumination with both green laser light and sunlight, the prepared plasmonic nanocomposites with volumetric ppm level of filler concentration demonstrated a faster heating rate, a higher heating temperature and a larger heating area than the conventional thermal diffusion based approach. With controlled dispersion, we further demonstrated that the light-to-heat conversion and thermal storage properties of the plasmonic nanocomposites can be fine-tuned by engineering the composition of the nanocomposites. PMID:25175717

  6. Simultaneous observations of traveling convection vortices: Ionosphere-thermosphere coupling: M-I-T COUPLING OF TCV

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hyomin; Lessard, Marc R.; Jones, Sarah L.; ...

    2017-03-11

    We present simultaneous observations of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling over Svalbard during a traveling convection vortex (TCV) event. Various spaceborne and ground-based instruments made coordinated measurements, including magnetometers, particle detectors, an all-sky camera, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard Radar, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and SCANning Doppler Imager (SCANDI). The instruments recorded TCVs associated with a sudden change in solar wind dynamic pressure. The data display typical features of TCVs including vortical ionospheric convection patterns seen by the ground magnetometers and SuperDARN radars and auroral precipitation near the cusp observed by the all-sky camera. Simultaneously, electron and ion temperature enhancements withmore » corresponding density increase from soft precipitation are also observed by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. The ground magnetometers also detected electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at the approximate time of the TCV arrival. This implies that they were generated by a temperature anisotropy resulting from a compression on the dayside magnetosphere. SCANDI data show a divergence in thermospheric winds during the TCVs, presumably due to thermospheric heating associated with the current closure linked to a field-aligned current system generated by the TCVs. We conclude that solar wind pressure impulse-related transient phenomena can affect even the upper atmospheric dynamics via current systems established by a magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process.« less

  7. Simultaneous observations of traveling convection vortices: Ionosphere-thermosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyomin; Lessard, Marc R.; Jones, Sarah L.; Lynch, Kristina A.; Fernandes, Philip A.; Aruliah, Anasuya L.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Moen, Jøran I.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Yahnin, Alexander G.; Yeoman, Timothy K.

    2017-05-01

    We present simultaneous observations of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling over Svalbard during a traveling convection vortex (TCV) event. Various spaceborne and ground-based instruments made coordinated measurements, including magnetometers, particle detectors, an all-sky camera, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard Radar, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and SCANning Doppler Imager (SCANDI). The instruments recorded TCVs associated with a sudden change in solar wind dynamic pressure. The data display typical features of TCVs including vortical ionospheric convection patterns seen by the ground magnetometers and SuperDARN radars and auroral precipitation near the cusp observed by the all-sky camera. Simultaneously, electron and ion temperature enhancements with corresponding density increase from soft precipitation are also observed by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. The ground magnetometers also detected electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at the approximate time of the TCV arrival. This implies that they were generated by a temperature anisotropy resulting from a compression on the dayside magnetosphere. SCANDI data show a divergence in thermospheric winds during the TCVs, presumably due to thermospheric heating associated with the current closure linked to a field-aligned current system generated by the TCVs. We conclude that solar wind pressure impulse-related transient phenomena can affect even the upper atmospheric dynamics via current systems established by a magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process.

  8. Simultaneous observations of traveling convection vortices: Ionosphere-thermosphere coupling: M-I-T COUPLING OF TCV

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyomin; Lessard, Marc R.; Jones, Sarah L.

    We present simultaneous observations of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling over Svalbard during a traveling convection vortex (TCV) event. Various spaceborne and ground-based instruments made coordinated measurements, including magnetometers, particle detectors, an all-sky camera, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard Radar, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and SCANning Doppler Imager (SCANDI). The instruments recorded TCVs associated with a sudden change in solar wind dynamic pressure. The data display typical features of TCVs including vortical ionospheric convection patterns seen by the ground magnetometers and SuperDARN radars and auroral precipitation near the cusp observed by the all-sky camera. Simultaneously, electron and ion temperature enhancements withmore » corresponding density increase from soft precipitation are also observed by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. The ground magnetometers also detected electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at the approximate time of the TCV arrival. This implies that they were generated by a temperature anisotropy resulting from a compression on the dayside magnetosphere. SCANDI data show a divergence in thermospheric winds during the TCVs, presumably due to thermospheric heating associated with the current closure linked to a field-aligned current system generated by the TCVs. We conclude that solar wind pressure impulse-related transient phenomena can affect even the upper atmospheric dynamics via current systems established by a magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process.« less

  9. Real-time aerodynamic heating and surface temperature calculations for hypersonic flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Robert D.; Gong, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    A real-time heating algorithm was derived and installed on the Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility real-time flight simulator. This program can calculate two- and three-dimensional stagnation point surface heating rates and surface temperatures. The two-dimensional calculations can be made with or without leading-edge sweep. In addition, upper and lower surface heating rates and surface temperatures for flat plates, wedges, and cones can be calculated. Laminar or turbulent heating can be calculated, with boundary-layer transition made a function of free-stream Reynolds number and free-stream Mach number. Real-time heating rates and surface temperatures calculated for a generic hypersonic vehicle are presented and compared with more exact values computed by a batch aeroheating program. As these comparisons show, the heating algorithm used on the flight simulator calculates surface heating rates and temperatures well within the accuracy required to evaluate flight profiles for acceptable heating trajectories.

  10. Small Changes Yield Large Results at NIST's Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Fanney, A Hunter; Healy, William; Payne, Vance; Kneifel, Joshua; Ng, Lisa; Dougherty, Brian; Ullah, Tania; Omar, Farhad

    2017-12-01

    The Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) was designed to be approximately 60 % more energy efficient than homes meeting the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements. The thermal envelope minimizes heat loss/gain through the use of advanced framing and enhanced insulation. A continuous air/moisture barrier resulted in an air exchange rate of 0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pa. The home incorporates a vast array of extensively monitored renewable and energy efficient technologies including an air-to-air heat pump system with a dedicated dehumidification cycle; a ducted heat-recovery ventilation system; a whole house dehumidifier; a photovoltaic system; and a solar domestic hot water system. During its first year of operation the NZERTF produced an energy surplus of 1023 kWh. Based on observations during the first year, changes were made to determine if further improvements in energy performance could be obtained. The changes consisted of installing a thermostat that incorporated control logic to minimize the use of auxiliary heat, using a whole house dehumidifier in lieu of the heat pump's dedicated dehumidification cycle, and reducing the ventilation rate to a value that met but did not exceed code requirements. During the second year of operation the NZERTF produced an energy surplus of 2241 kWh. This paper describes the facility, compares the performance data for the two years, and quantifies the energy impact of the weather conditions and operational changes.

  11. Testing of SLA-561V in NASA-Ames' Turbulent Flow Duct with Augmented Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Kornienko, Robert S.; Radbourne, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of Mars Science Laboratory s (MSL) heatshield development program, SLA-561 was tested in NASA Ames Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD) Facility. For these tests, the TFD facility was modified to include a ceramic plate located in the wall opposite to the test model. Normally the TFD wall opposite to the test model is water-cooled steel. Installing a noncooled ceramic plate allows the ceramic to absorb convective heating and radiate the energy back to the test model as the plate heats up. This work was an effort to increase the severity of TFD test conditions. Presented here are the results from these tests.

  12. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J; Périard, J D

    2015-01-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1–2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat. PMID:26069301

  13. Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J; Flouris, Andreas D; Girard, Olivier; González-Alonso, José; Hausswirth, Christophe; Jay, Ollie; Lee, Jason K W; Mitchell, Nigel; Nassis, George P; Nybo, Lars; Pluim, Babette M; Roelands, Bart; Sawka, Michael N; Wingo, Jonathan; Périard, Julien D

    2015-07-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

  14. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  15. Determination of initial conditions for heat exchanger placed in furnace by burning pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durčanský, Peter; Jandačka, Jozef; Kapjor, Andrej

    2014-08-01

    Objective of the experimental facility and subsequent measurements is generally determine whether the expected physical properties of the verification, identification of the real behavior of the proposed system, or part thereof. For the design of heat exchanger for combined energy machine is required to identify and verify a large number of parameters. One of these are the boundary conditions of heat exchanger and pellets burner.

  16. Cryosorption Pumps for a Neutral Beam Injector Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dremel, M.; Mack, A.; Day, C.

    2006-04-27

    We present the experiences of the manufacturing and the operating of a system of two identical cryosorption pumps used in a neutral beam injector test facility for fusion reactors. Calculated and measured heat loads of the cryogenic liquid helium and liquid nitrogen circuits of the cryosorption pumps are discussed. The design calculations concerning the thermo-hydraulics of the helium circuit are compared with experiences from the operation of the cryosorption pumps. Both cryopumps are integrated in a test facility of a neutral beam injector that will be used to heat the plasma of a nuclear fusion reactor with a beam ofmore » deuterium or hydrogen molecules. The huge gas throughput into the vessel of the test facility results in challenging needs on the cryopumping system.The developed cryosorption pumps are foreseen to pump a hydrogen throughput of 20 - 30 mbar{center_dot}l/s. To establish a mean pressure of several 10-5 mbar in the test vessel a pumping speed of about 350 m3/s per pump is needed. The pressure conditions must be maintained over several hours pumping without regeneration of the cryopanels, which necessitates a very high pumping capacity. A possibility to fulfill these requirements is the use of charcoal coated cryopanels to pump the gasloads by adsorption. For the cooling of the cryopanels, liquid helium at saturation pressure is used and therefore a two-phase forced flow in the cryopump system must be controlled.« less

  17. Brayton Cycle Power System in the Space Power Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-21

    Set up of a Brayton Cycle Power System test in the Space Power Facility’s massive vacuum chamber at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The $28.4-million facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It can produce a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear-power sources for spacecraft, but it was never used for that purpose. The Space Power Facility was first used to test a 15 to 20-kilowatt Brayton Cycle Power System for space applications. Three different methods of simulating solar heat were employed during the tests. Lewis researchers studied the Brayton power system extensively in the 1960s and 1970s. The Brayton engine converted solar thermal energy into electrical power. The system operated on a closed-loop Brayton thermodynamic cycle with a helium-xenon gas mixture as its working fluid. A space radiator was designed to serve as the system’s waste heat rejecter. The radiator was later installed in the vacuum chamber and tested in a simulated space environment to determine its effect on the power conversion system. The Brayton system was subjected to simulated orbits with 62 minutes of sun and 34 minutes of shade.

  18. LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) exterior, as modified for EBOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) exterior, as modified for EBOR. Camera facing northeast. Heat exchange fans, helium storage tanks, and completed EBOR perimeter road. Photographer: Page Comisky. Date: ca. August 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4328 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. HISCAT: A proposed new scatter facility in Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostrom, R.; Thide, B.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that a new versatile ionospheric and atmospheric scatter radar be constructed in northern Scandavia through a multinational collaborative effort. The new facility tentatively named HISCAT (High frequency, High power, High latitude, Heating and Ionospheric Scatter facility), should be used for scientific investigations of: the physics of the neutral (middle) atmosphere; fundamental plasma phenomena, natural or artificially induced in the ionosphere; electrodynamic conditions at high altitudes above the auroral region and in the polar cap ionosphere; plasma waves in the solar atmosphere. The system should thus be able to operate as a mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a so-called ionospheric modification facility, incoherent-scatter radar, coherent-scatter radar, and solar radar. Basically, the new facility should be a device that can operate simultaneously on several frequencies in the frequency range 5 to 50 MHz not covered by other instruments. It should comprise: powerful transmitters, capable of delivering a total average power of several megawatts; an advanced phased antenna array of high gain forming one or two steerable and well collimated beams; and an advanced data collection and analysis system.

  20. Elimination of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in an Animal Feed Manufacturing Facility.

    PubMed

    Huss, Anne R; Schumacher, Loni L; Cochrane, Roger A; Poulsen, Elizabeth; Bai, Jianfa; Woodworth, Jason C; Dritz, Steve S; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) was the first virus of wide scale concern to be linked to possible transmission by livestock feed or ingredients. Measures to exclude pathogens, prevent cross-contamination, and actively reduce the pathogenic load of feed and ingredients are being developed. However, research thus far has focused on the role of chemicals or thermal treatment to reduce the RNA in the actual feedstuffs, and has not addressed potential residual contamination within the manufacturing facility that may lead to continuous contamination of finished feeds. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the use of a standardized protocol to sanitize an animal feed manufacturing facility contaminated with PEDV. Environmental swabs were collected throughout the facility during the manufacturing of a swine diet inoculated with PEDV. To monitor facility contamination of the virus, swabs were collected at: 1) baseline prior to inoculation, 2) after production of the inoculated feed, 3) after application of a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend cleaner, 4) after application of a sodium hypochlorite sanitizing solution, and 5) after facility heat-up to 60°C for 48 hours. Decontamination step, surface, type, zone and their interactions were all found to impact the quantity of detectable PEDV RNA (P < 0.05). As expected, all samples collected from equipment surfaces contained PEDV RNA after production of the contaminated feed. Additionally, the majority of samples collected from non-direct feed contact surfaces were also positive for PEDV RNA after the production of the contaminated feed, emphasizing the potential role dust plays in cross-contamination of pathogen throughout a manufacturing facility. Application of the cleaner, sanitizer, and heat were effective at reducing PEDV genomic material (P < 0.05), but did not completely eliminate it.

  1. Mediterranean report/heated pipeline offloads tankers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1979-08-01

    The first heated submarine pipeline in Europe, according to Anonima Petroli Italiana, is now in operation from their Falconara Refinery near Ancona, Italy, to an existing offshore loading facility. The 3850 m long, 24 inch wide line, laid on the seabottom at 3-14 m depths, was built to offload high pour/high viscosity crudes requiring a minimum constant discharge temperature of 45-65 C. Four 3.5 mm heating pipes (three operating and one spare) were stretch-welded to the outside of the line at 45 degree angles to each other; they are heated at about 100 m/m by a parasitic current formed onmore » the pipe while 1500 volt current is passed through a cable inside the pipe. The heating system is equipped with an electric feeding installation, automatic power regulation, and remote sensors applied along the sea line. The heating pipes were protected with a coat of epoxy tar paint, a 50 mm thick and 70 kg/cm dense sprayed-on urethane foam coat, a sheath of butyric elastomer covered with an adhering 3 mm coat of polyethylene, and a concrete coat for protection and weighting. Specially designed water stops were placed at both ends of every line section under the waterproofing. Industria Construzioni Opere Publiche prefabricated the line on shore and laid it from shore.« less

  2. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GMmore » 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.« less

  3. Application of Thin-Film Thermocouples to Localized Heat Transfer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Smith, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a proof-of-concept experiment on thin-film thermocouples used for localized heat transfer measurements applicable to experiments on hot parts of turbine engines. The paper has three main parts. The first part describes the thin-film sensors and manufacturing procedures. Attention is paid to connections between thin-film thermocouples and lead wires, which has been a source of problems in the past. The second part addresses the test arrangement and facility used for the heat transfer measurements modeling the conditions for upcoming warm turbine tests at NASA LeRC. The paper stresses the advantages of a modular approach to the test rig design. Finally, we present the results of bulk and local heat flow rate measurements, as well as overall heat transfer coefficients obtained from measurements in a narrow passage with an aspect ratio of 11.8. The comparison of bulk and local heat flow rates confirms applicability of thin-film thermocouples to upcoming warm turbine tests.

  4. Ground test program for a full-size solar dynamic heat receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures were developed to conduct ground testing of a full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver in a partially simulated, low earth orbit environment. The heat receiver was designed to supply 102 kW of thermal energy to a helium and xenon gas mixture continuously over a 94 minute orbit, including up to 36 minutes of eclipse. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber using liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate. Special test equipment was designed to provide the required ranges in interface boundary conditions that typify those expected or required for operation as part of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. The support hardware includes an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones and a closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator to circulate and condition the helium-xenon gas mixture. The test article, test support hardware, facilities, and instrumentation developed to conduct the ground test program are all described.

  5. Ground test program for a full-size solar dynamic heat receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures were developed to conduct ground testing of a full size, solar dynamic heat receiver in a partially simulated, low Earth orbit environment. The heat receiver was designed to supply 102 kW of thermal energy to a helium and xenon gas mixture continuously over a 94 minute orbit, including up to 36 minutes of eclipse. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber using liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate. Special test equipment were designed to provide the required ranges in interface boundary conditions that typify those expected or required for operation as part of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. The support hardware includes an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones and a closed Brayton cycle engine simulator to circulate and condition the helium xenon gas mixture. The test article, test support hardware, facilities, and instrumentation developed to conduct the ground test program are all described.

  6. Ground test program for a full-size solar dynamic heat receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; McLallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures were developed to conduct ground testing of a full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver in a partially simulated, low earth orbit environment. The heat receiver was designed to supply 102 kW of thermal energy to a helium and xenon gas mixture continuously over a 94 minute orbit, including up to 36 minutes of eclipse. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber using liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate. Special test equipment was designed to provide the required ranges in interface boundary conditions that typify those expected or required for operation as part of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. The support hardware includes an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones and a closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator to circulate and condition the helium-xenon gas mixture. The test article, test support hardware, facilities, and instrumentation developed to conduct the ground test program are all described.

  7. The concept of a facility for cosmic dust research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Juergen; Cabane, Michel; Fonda, Mark; Giovane, Frank; Gustafson, Bo A. S.; Keller, Horst U.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Levasseur-Regourd, Any-Chantal; Worms, Jean-Claude; Nuth, Joseph A.; hide

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for the development of a permanently operating facility for the experimental investigation of cosmic dust-related phenomena onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. Potential applications for this facility are the convection-free nucleation of dust grains, studies of coagulation and aggregation phenomena in a microgravity environment, investigations of heat transport through, and dust emissions from, high-porosity cometary analogs, and experiments on the interaction of very fluffy dust grains with electromagnetic radiation and with low pressure gas flows. Possible extensions of such a facility are towards aerosol science and colloidal plasma research.

  8. HIFiRE Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) Phase I Scramjet Test Results from the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Karen; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea; Gruber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrocarbon-fueled direct-connect scramjet ground tests has been completed in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) at simulated Mach 8 flight conditions. These experiments were part of an initial test phase to support Flight 2 of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program. In this flight experiment, a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet is intended to demonstrate transition from dual-mode to scramjet-mode operation and verify the scramjet performance prediction and design tools A performance goal is the achievement of a combusted fuel equivalence ratio greater than 0.7 while in scramjet mode. The ground test rig, designated the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR), is a full-scale, heat sink test article that duplicates both the flowpath lines and a majority of the instrumentation layout of the isolator and combustor portion of the flight test hardware. The primary objectives of the HDCR Phase I tests were to verify the operability of the HIFiRE isolator/combustor across the simulated Mach 6-8 flight regime and to establish a fuel distribution schedule to ensure a successful mode transition. Both of these objectives were achieved prior to the HiFIRE Flight 2 payload Critical Design Review. Mach 8 ground test results are presented in this report, including flowpath surface pressure distributions that demonstrate the operation of the flowpath in scramjet-mode over a small range of test conditions around the nominal Mach 8 simulation, as well as over a range of fuel equivalence ratios. Flowpath analysis using ground test data is presented elsewhere; however, limited comparisons with analytical predictions suggest that both scramjet-mode operation and the combustion performance objective are achieved at Mach 8 conditions.

  9. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  10. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  11. New Battery Testing Facility Could Boost Future of Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov Websites

    industry. The Battery Thermal Test Facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable , ambient heat sources that could effect thermal readings from the battery. The cycler can both charge and draw current from a battery, allowing for thermal testing of any voltage. It can also be used to test

  12. High Power Ion Cyclotron Heating in the VASIMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmier, B. W.; Brukardt, M. S.; Bering, E. A.; Chang Diaz, F.; Squire, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR®) is an electric propulsion system under development at Ad Astra Rocket Company that utilizes several processes of ion acceleration and heating that occur in the Birkeland currents of an auroral arc system. Among these processes are parallel electric field acceleration, lower hybrid resonance heating, and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The VASIMR® is capable of laboratory simulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave heating during a single pass of ions through the resonance region. The plasma is generated by a helicon discharge of 35 kW then passes through a 176 kW RF booster stage that couples left hand polarized slow mode waves from the high field side of the resonance. VX-200 auroral simulation results from the past year are discussed. Ambipolar acceleration has been shown to produce 35eV argon ions in the helicon exhaust. The effects on the ion exhaust with an addition of 150-200 kW of ion cyclotron heating are presented. The changes to the VASIMR® experiment at Ad Astra Rocket Company's new facility in Webster, Texas will also be discussed, including the possibility of collaborative experiments.

  13. Heat transfer in a real engine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.

    1985-10-01

    The hot section facility at the Lewis Research Center was used to demonstrate the capability of instruments to make required measurements of boundary conditions of the flow field and heat transfer processes in the hostile environment of the turbine. The results of thermal scaling tests show that low temperature and pressure rig tests give optimistic estimates of the thermal performance of a cooling design for high pressure and temperature application. The results of measuring heat transfer coefficients on turbine vane airfoils through dynamic data analysis show good comparison with measurements from steady state heat flux gauges. In addition, the data trends are predicted by the STAN5 boundary layer code. However, the magnitude of the experimental data was not predicted by the analysis, particularly in laminar and transitional regions near the leading edge. The infrared photography system was shown capable of providing detailed surface thermal gradients and secondary flow features on a turbine vane and endwell.

  14. A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.

    PubMed

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physics and technology in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency on Tore Supra and TITAN test facility: implication for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Litaudon, X; Bernard, J. M.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To support the design of an ITER ion-cyclotron range of frequency heating (ICRH) system and to mitigate risks of operation in ITER, CEA has initiated an ambitious Research & Development program accompanied by experiments on Tore Supra or test-bed facility together with a significant modelling effort. The paper summarizes the recent results in the following areas: Comprehensive characterization (experiments and modelling) of a new Faraday screen concept tested on the Tore Supra antenna. A new model is developed for calculating the ICRH sheath rectification at the antenna vicinity. The model is applied to calculate the local heat flux on Toremore » Supra and ITER ICRH antennas. Full-wave modelling of ITER ICRH heating and current drive scenarios with the EVE code. With 20 MW of power, a current of 400 kA could be driven on axis in the DT scenario. Comparison between DT and DT(3He) scenario is given for heating and current drive efficiencies. First operation of CW test-bed facility, TITAN, designed for ITER ICRH components testing and could host up to a quarter of an ITER antenna. R&D of high permittivity materials to improve load of test facilities to better simulate ITER plasma antenna loading conditions.« less

  16. Design analysis of levitation facility for space processing applications. [Skylab program, space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. T.; Kornrumpf, W. P.; Napaluch, L. J.; Harden, J. D., Jr.; Walden, J. P.; Stockhoff, E. H.; Wouch, G.; Walker, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Containerless processing facilities for the space laboratory and space shuttle are defined. Materials process examples representative of the most severe requirements for the facility in terms of electrical power, radio frequency equipment, and the use of an auxiliary electron beam heater were used to discuss matters having the greatest effect upon the space shuttle pallet payload interfaces and envelopes. Improved weight, volume, and efficiency estimates for the RF generating equipment were derived. Results are particularly significant because of the reduced requirements for heat rejection from electrical equipment, one of the principal envelope problems for shuttle pallet payloads. It is shown that although experiments on containerless melting of high temperature refractory materials make it desirable to consider the highest peak powers which can be made available on the pallet, total energy requirements are kept relatively low by the very fast processing times typical of containerless experiments and allows consideration of heat rejection capabilities lower than peak power demand if energy storage in system heat capacitances is considered. Batteries are considered to avoid a requirement for fuel cells capable of furnishing this brief peak power demand.

  17. Calibrator tests of heat flux gauges mounted in SSME blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of heat flux to space shuttle main engine (SSME) turbine blade surfaces are being made in the Lewis heat flux calibration facility. Surface heat flux information is obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gauge. A 100-kW Vortek arc lamp is used as a source of thermal radiant energy. Thermoplugs, with diameters of about 0.190 cm and lengths varying from about 0.190 to 0.320 cm, are being investigated. The thermoplug is surrounded on all surfaces except the active surface by a pocket of air located in the circular annulus and under the back cover. Since the thermoplug is insulated, it is assumed that heat is conducted in a one-dimensional manner from the hot active surface to the cooler back side of the thermoplug. It is concluded that the miniature plug-type gauge concept is feasible for measurement of blade surface heat flux. It is suggested that it is important to measure heat flux near the hub on the suction surface and at the throat on SSME blades rotating in engines because stress and heat transfer coefficients are high in this region.

  18. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  19. "Twisted Beam" SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Han, S.-M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Scales, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions of high power HF radio waves in the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska is the world's largest heating facility, yielding effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. New results are present from HAARP experiments using a "twisted beam" excitation mode. Analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are identical to more traditional patterns. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional "solid spot" region from a pencil beam. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of stable artificial airglow layers because of the horizontal structure of the ring. The results of these runs include artificial layer creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern. The SEE measurements aid the interpretation of the twisted beam interactions in the ionosphere.

  20. Turbulent heat flux measurements in a transitional boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, K. H.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Reshotko, E.

    1992-01-01

    During an experimental investigation of the transitional boundary layer over a heated flat plate, an unexpected result was encountered for the turbulent heat flux (bar-v't'). This quantity, representing the correlation between the fluctuating normal velocity and the temperature, was measured to be negative near the wall under certain conditions. The result was unexpected as it implied a counter-gradient heat transfer by the turbulent fluctuations. Possible reasons for this anomalous result were further investigated. The possible causes considered for this negative bar-v't' were: (1) plausible measurement error and peculiarity of the flow facility, (2) large probe size effect, (3) 'streaky structure' in the near wall boundary layer, and (4) contributions from other terms usually assumed negligible in the energy equation including the Reynolds heat flux in the streamwise direction (bar-u't'). Even though the energy balance has remained inconclusive, none of the items (1) to (3) appear to be contributing directly to the anomaly.

  1. First heated jettison test on the Centaur standard shroud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The first in a planned series of heated jettison tests on the Centaur Standard Shround was conducted at NASA Plum Brook Station's Space Power Facility on November 19, 1973. The first 250-second portion of the test sequence involved heating the shroud with a specially-built fixture designed to provide a simulation of the heating environment encountered by the shroud during its ascent through the earth's atmosphere. The two heater halves, which were mounted on a rail system, were then retracted. This was followed by the jettison of the two shroud halves into catch nets positioned at 90 deg to the heater rails. The condition which made this test unique compared to the planned subsequent tests was the location of the maximum thermal line at 32 deg from the shroud separation plane. Information on the test hardware, configuration, and sequence is presented. Shroud thermal and deflection data encountered during the heating portion of the test sequence is compared with free-skin design temperatures in various graphical formats.

  2. Transport Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.A.; Shoemaker, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is currently evaluating hot gas desulfurization (HGD)in its on-site transport reactor facility (TRF). This facility was originally constructed in the early 1980s to explore advanced gasification processes with an entrained reactor, and has recently been modified to incorporate a transport riser reactor. The TRF supports Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems, one of METC`s advanced power generation systems. The HGD subsystem is a key developmental item in reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of the IGCC concept. The TRF is a unique facility with high-temperature, high-pressure, and multiple reactant gas composition capability.more » The TRF can be configured for reacting a single flow pass of gas and solids using a variety of gases. The gas input system allows six different gas inputs to be mixed and heated before entering the reaction zones. Current configurations allow the use of air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen, steam, or any mixture of these gases. Construction plans include the addition of a coal gas input line. This line will bring hot coal gas from the existing Fluidized-Bed Gasifier (FBG) via the Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) after filtering out particulates with ceramic candle filters. Solids can be fed either by a rotary pocket feeder or a screw feeder. Particle sizes may range from 70 to 150 micrometers. Both feeders have a hopper that can hold enough solid for fairly lengthy tests at the higher feed rates, thus eliminating the need for lockhopper transfers during operation.« less

  3. Monitoring of Building Heating and Cooling Systems Based on Geothermal Heat Pump in Galicia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Franco, D.

    2012-10-01

    In November 2009 was signed an agreement between Galicia's Government and EnergyLab to develop a project related with the geothermal heatpumps (hereafter, GSHP) technology. That project consisted in replacing the existing thermal equipment generators (diesel boilers and air-water heat pumps) by GSHP systems in representative public buildings: two nursery schools, a university library, a health centre and a residential building. This new systems will reach the demands of existing heating, cooling and domestic hot water (hereafter, DHW). These buildings can serve as examples of energy and economic savings that can offer this technology. We will show detailed analysis of the GSHP facilities monitored, since the starting-up of them. Which includes: COP's, EER's, energy consumption, operating costs, operation hours of the system, economic and emissions comparative, geothermal exchange evolution graphs, environmental conditions evolution graphs (temperature and demands), etc. The results presented show an example of the important benefits of the GSHP technology and the significant savings that can offer its implementation for heating, cooling and DHW production. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  4. Honey Lake Power Facility under construction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal energy and wood waste are primary energy sources for the 30 megawatt, net, Honey Lake Power Facility, a cogeneration power plant. The facility 60% completed in January 1989, will use 1,300 tons per day of fuel obtained from selective forest thinnings and from logging residue combined with mill wastes. The power plant will be the largest industrial facility to use some of Lassen County's geothermal resources. The facility will produce 236 million kilowatt-hours of electricity annually. The plant consists of a wood-fired traveling grate furnace with a utility-type high pressure boiler. Fluids from a geothermal well will pass throughmore » a heat exchange to preheat boiler feedwater. Used geothermal fluid will be disposed of in an injection well. Steam will be converted to electrical power through a 35.5-megawatt turbine generator and transmitted 22 miles to Susanville over company-owned and maintained transmission lines. The plant includes pollution control for particulate removal, ammonia injection for removal of nitrogen oxides, and computer-controlled combustion systems to control carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The highly automated wood yard consists of systems to remove metal, handle oversized material, receive up to six truck loads of wood products per hour, and continuously deliver 58 tons per hour of fuel through redundant systems to ensure maximum on-line performance. The plant is scheduled to become operational in mid-1989.« less

  5. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J E; Périard, J D

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, Diana María; Galeano-Vasco, Luis Fernando; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001). The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s) and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. Temperatures above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the daily variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material). PMID:26812150

  7. Electromagnetic containerless processing requirements and recommended facility concept and capabilities for space lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. T.; Bloom, H. L.; Napaluch, L. J.; Stockhoff, E. H.; Wouch, G.

    1974-01-01

    Containerless melting, reaction, and solidification experiments and processes which potentially can lead to new understanding of material science and production of new or improved materials in the weightless space environment are reviewed in terms of planning for spacelab. Most of the experiments and processes discussed are amenable to the employment of electromagnetic position control and electromagnetic induction or electron beam heating and melting. The spectrum of relevant properties of materials, which determine requirements for a space laboratory electromagnetic containerless processing facility are reviewed. Appropriate distributions and associated coil structures are analyzed and compared on the basis of efficiency, for providing the functions of position sensing, control, and induction heating. Several coil systems are found capable of providing these functions. Exchangeable modular coils in appropriate sizes are recommended to achieve the maximum power efficiencies, for a wide range of specimen sizes and resistivities, in order to conserve total facility power.

  8. 10. VIEW OF CALCINER IN ROOM 146148. THE CALCINER HEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF CALCINER IN ROOM 146-148. THE CALCINER HEATED PLUTONIUM PEROXIDE TO CONVERT IT TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE. THE PROCESS REMOVED RESIDUAL WATER AND NITRIC ACID LEAVING A DRY, POWDERED PRODUCT. (4/29/65) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Ames Research Center Shear Tests of SLA-561V Heat Shield Material for Mars-Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael; Tran, Huy; Henline, William; Cartledge, Alan; Hui, Frank; Tran, Duoc; Zimmerman, Norm

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of arc-jet testing at Ames Research Center on behalf of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the development of the Mars-Pathfinder heat shield. The current test series evaluated the performance of the ablating SLA-561V heat shield material under shear conditions. In addition, the effectiveness of several methods of repairing damage to the heat shield were evaluated. A total of 26 tests were performed in March 1994 in the 2 in. X 9 in. arc-heated turbulent Duct Facility, including runs to calibrate the facility to obtain the desired shear stress conditions. A total of eleven models were tested. Three different conditions of shear and heating were used. The non-ablating surface shear stresses and the corresponding, approximate, non-ablating surface heating rates were as follows: Condition 1, 170 N/m(exp 2) and 22 W/cm(exp 2); Condition 2, 240 N/m(exp 2) and 40 W/cm(exp 2); Condition 3, 390 N/m(exp 2) and 51 W/cm(exp 2). The peak shear stress encountered in flight is represented approximately by Condition 1; however, the heating rate was much less than the peak flight value. The peak heating rate that was available in the facility (at Condition 3) was about 30 percent less than the maximum value encountered during flight. Seven standard ablation models were tested, of which three models were instrumented with thermocouples to obtain in-depth temperature profiles and temperature contours. An additional four models contained a variety of repair plugs, gaps, and seams. These models were used to evaluated different repair materials and techniques, and the effect of gaps and construction seams. Mass loss and surface recession measurements were made on all models. The models were visually inspected and photographed before and after each test. The SLA-561 V performed well; even at test Condition 3, the char remained intact. Most of the resins used for repairs and gap fillers performed poorly. However, repair plugs made of SLA-561V performed

  10. Simulating the heat budget for waste as it is placed within a landfill operating in a northern climate.

    PubMed

    Megalla, Dina; Van Geel, Paul J; Doyle, James T

    2016-09-01

    A landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) facility in Ste. Sophie, Quebec was instrumented with sensors which measure temperature, oxygen, moisture content, settlement, total earth pressure, electrical conductivity and mounding of leachate. These parameters were monitored during the operating phase of the landfill in order to better understand the biodegradation and waste stabilization processes occurring within a LFGTE facility. Conceptual and numerical models were created to describe the heat transfer processes which occur within five waste lifts placed over a two-year period. A finite element model was created to simulate the temperatures within the waste and estimate the heat budget over a four and a half year period. The calibrated model was able to simulate the temperatures measured to date within the instrumented waste profile at the site. The model was used to evaluate the overall heat budget for the waste profile. The model simulations and heat budget provide a better understanding of the heat transfer processes occurring within the landfill and the relative impact of the various heat source/sink and storage terms. Aerobic biodegradation appears to play an important role in the overall heat budget at this site generating 36% of the total heat generated within the waste profile during the waste placement stages of landfill operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hardware Progress Made in the Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) To Support Near-Term Space Fission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, James

    2005-02-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF), provides a facility to experimentally evaluate nuclear reactor related thermal hydraulic issues through the use of non-nuclear testing. This facility provides a cost effective method to evaluate concepts/designs and support mitigation of developmental risk. Electrical resistance thermal simulators can be used to closely mimic the heat deposition of the fission process, providing axial and radial profiles. A number of experimental and design programs were underway in 2004 which include the following. Initial evaluation of the Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory 19 module stainless steel/sodium heat pipe reactor with integral gas heat exchanger was operated at up to 17.5 kW of input power at core temperatures of 1000 K. A stainless steel sodium heat pipe module was placed through repeated freeze/thaw cyclic testing accumulating over 200 restarts to a temperature of 1000 K. Additionally, the design of a 37- pin stainless steel pumped sodium/potassium (NaK) loop was finalized and components procured. Ongoing testing at the EFF-TF is geared towards facilitating both research and development necessary to support future decisions regarding potential use of space nuclear systems for space exploration. All efforts are coordinated with DOE laboratories, industry, universities, and other NASA centers. This paper describes some of the 2004 efforts.

  12. Effect of Ducted HPWH on Space-Conditioning and Water Heating Energy Use -- Central Florida Lab Home

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, Carlos; Martin, Eric; Parker, Danny

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of ducted heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) on space conditioning and water heating energy use in residential applications. Two identical HPWHs, each of 60 gallon capacity were tested side by side at the Flexible Residential Test facility (FRTF) laboratories of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) campus in Cocoa, Florida. The water heating experiments were run in each test house from July 2014 until February 2015.

  13. Effect of Ducted HPWH on Space-Conditioning and Water Heating Energy Use -- Central Florida Lab Home

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, Carlos; Martin, Eric; Parker, Danny

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of ducted heat pump water heaters (HPWH's) on space conditioning and water heating energy use in residential applications. Two identical HPWH's, each of 60 gallon capacity were tested side by side at the Flexible Residential Test facility (FRTF) laboratories of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) campus in Cocoa, Florida. The water heating experiments were run in each test house from July 2014 until February 2015.

  14. Airglow during ionospheric modifications by the sura facility radiation. experimental results obtained in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Klimenko, V. V.; Shindin, A. V.; Nasyrov, I. A.; Sergeev, E. N.; A. Yashnov, V.; A. Pogorelko, N.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of studying the structure and dynamics of the HF-heated volume above the Sura facility obtained in 2010 by measurements of ionospheric airglow in the red (λ = 630 nm) and green (λ = 557.7 nm) lines of atomic oxygen. Vertical sounding of the ionosphere (followed by modeling of the pump-wave propagation) and measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emission were used for additional diagnostics of ionospheric parameters and the processes occurring in the heated volume.

  15. Ground-based observations and simulation of ionospheric VLF source in experiments on modification of the polar ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed', O. M.; Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Larchenko, A. V.; Grigor'ev, V. F.; Pil'gaev, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The phase velocities of TE and TEM waves at frequencies of 1017 and 3017 Hz, as well as the effect of precipitations during auroras on the velocities, are estimated in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide on the basis of observations of electromagnetic fields of an ionospheric source in experiments on modification of the lower ionosphere by a modulated high-power short-wave signals performed by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) at the EISCAT/Heating test bench in October 2016. Probable electron density profiles in the plane-stratified ionosphere are retrieved from the numerical solution of a wave equation, which are used for the calculation of the phase velocities close to measured ones.

  16. Heating requirements and nonadiabatic surface effects for a model in the NTF (National Transonic Facility) cryogenic wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Macha, J.M.; Landrum, D.B.; Pare, L.A. III

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the severity of nonadiabatic surface conditions arising from internal heat sources within a model in a cryogenic wind tunnel. Local surface heating is recognized as having an effect on the development of the boundary layer, which can introduce changes in the flow about the model and affect the wind tunnel data. The geometry was based on the NTF Pathfinder I wind tunnel model. A finite element heat transfer computer code was developed and used to compute the steady state temperature distribution within the body of the model, from which the surface temperature distributionmore » was extracted. Particular three dimensional characteristics of the model were represented with various axisymmetric approximations of the geometry. This analysis identified regions on the surface of the model susceptible to surface heating and the magnitude of the respective surface temperatures. It was found that severe surface heating may occur in particular instances, but could be alleviated with adequate insulating material. The heat flux through the surface of the model was integrated to determine the net heat required to maintain the instrumentation cavity at the prescribed temperature. The influence of the nonadiabatic condition on boundary layer properties and on the validity of the wind tunnel simulation was also investigated. 20 refs., 12 figs.« less

  17. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  18. Status of power generation experiments in the NASA Lewis closed cycle MHD facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Nichols, L. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design and operation of the closed cycle MHD facility is discussed and results obtained in recent experiments are presented. The main components of the facility are a compressor, recuperative heat exchanger, heater, nozzle, MHD channel with 28 pairs of thoriated tungsten electrodes, cesium condenser, and an argon cooler. The facility has been operated at temperatures up to 2100 K with a cesium-seeded argon working fluid. At low magnetic field strengths, the open circuit voltage, Hall voltage and short circuit current obtained are 90, 69, and 47 percent of the theoretical equilibrium values, respectively. Comparison of this data with a wall and boundary layer leakage theory indicates that the generator has shorting paths in the Hall direction.

  19. Properties of radio-frequency heated argon confined uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Pure uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was injected into an argon confined, steady state, rf-heated plasma within a fused silica peripheral wall test chamber. Exploratory tests conducted using an 80 kW rf facility and different test chamber flow configurations permitted selection of the configuration demonstrating the best confinement characteristics and minimum uranium compound wall coating. The overall test results demonstrated applicable flow schemes and associated diagnostic techniques were developed for the fluid mechanical confinement and characterization of uranium within an rf plasma discharge when pure UF6 is injected for long test times into an argon-confined, high-temperature, high-pressure, rf-heated plasma.

  20. Skylab Shroud in the Space Power Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-12-21

    The 56-foot tall, 24,400-pound Skylab shroud installed in the Space Power Facility’s vacuum chamber at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station. The Space Power Facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It can produce a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear-power sources for spacecraft during long durations in a space atmosphere, but it was never used for that purpose. Payload shrouds are aerodynamic fairings to protect the payload during launch and ascent to orbit. The Skylab mission utilized the largest shroud ever attempted. Unlike previous launches, the shroud would not be jettisoned until the spacecraft reached orbit. NASA engineers designed these tests to verify the dynamics of the jettison motion in a simulated space environment. Fifty-four runs and three full-scale jettison tests were conducted from mid-September 1970 to June 1971. The shroud behaved as its designers intended, the detonators all fired, and early design issues were remedied by the final test. The Space Power Facility continues to operate today. The facility can sustain a high vacuum; simulate solar radiation via a 4-megawatt quartz heat lamp array, solar spectrum by a 400-kilowatt arc lamp, and cold environments. Test programs at the facility include high-energy experiments, shroud separation tests, Mars Lander system tests, deployable Solar Sail tests and International Space Station hardware tests.

  1. Experimental study on heat transfer to supercritical water flowing through tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M.; Gu, H.; Cheng, X.

    2012-07-01

    A test facility named SWAMUP (Supercritical Water Multi-Purpose Loop) has been constructed in Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. to investigate heat transfer and pressure drop through tubes and rod bundles. SWAMUP is a closed loop with operating pressure up to 30 MPa, outlet-water temperature up to 550 deg. C, and mass flow rate up to 5 t/h. In this paper, experimental study has been carried out on heat transfer of supercritical water flowing vertically through tubes (ID=7.6 and 10 mm). A large number of test points in tubes has been obtained with a wide range of heat flux (200-1500 kw/m{sup 2})more » and mass flux (450-2000 kg/m{sup 2}s). Test results showed that heat transfer deterioration (HTD) caused by buoyancy effect only appears in upward flow and HTD caused by acceleration effect appears both in upward flow and downward flow. The heat transfer coefficients (HTC) produced in tube tests were compared with existing heat transfer correlations. (authors)« less

  2. Design Criteria for Microbiological Facilities at Fort Detrick. Volume II: Design Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Biological Labs., Fort Detrick, MD. Industrial Health and Safety Div.

    Volume II of a two-volume manual of design criteria, based primarily on biological safety considerations. It is prepared for the use of architect-engineers in designing new or modified microbiological facilities for Fort Detrick, Maryland. Volume II is divided into the following sections: (1) architectural, (2) heating, ventilating, and air…

  3. Natural convection flows and associated heat transfer processes in room fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, William Stapf

    This report presents the results of experimental investigations of natural convection flows and associated heat transfer processes produced by small fires in rooms with a single door or window opening. Calculation procedures have been developed to model the major aspects of these flows.Two distinct sets of experiments were undertaken.First, in a roughly 1/4 scale facility, a slightly dense solution of brine was allowed to flow into a tank of fresh water. The resulting density difference produced a flow which simulated a very small fire in a room with adiabatic walls. Second, in an approximately 1/2 scale test room, a nearly stoichioinetric mixture of air and natural gas was burned at floor level to model moderate strength fires. In this latter facility, we directly measured the heat conducted through the walls, in addition to determining the gas temperature and composition throughout the room.These two facilities complemented each other. The former offered good flow visualization and allowed us to observe the basic flow phenomena in the absence of heat transfer effects. On the other hand, the latter, which involved relatively larger fires, was a more realistic simulation of an actual room fire, and allowed us to calculate the convective heat transfer to the ceiling and walls. In addition, the stronger sources present in these 1/2 scale tests produced significant secondary flows. These secondary flows along with heat transfer effects act to modify the gas temperature or density profiles within the room from those observed in the 1/4 scale experiments.Several calculation procedures have been developed, based on the far field properties of plumes when the density differences are small (the Boussinesq approximation). The simple point source plume solution is used along with hydraulic analysis of flow through an orifice to estimate the temperatures of the hot ceiling layer gas and of the cooler floor zone fluid, as well as the height of the interface between them. A

  4. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed andmore » new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.« less

  5. Hydro-scaling of DT implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pravesh; Spears, Brian; Clark, Dan

    2017-10-01

    Recent implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) exceed 50 kJ in fusion yield and exhibit yield amplifications of >2.5-3x due to alpha-particle self-heating of the hot-spot. Two methods to increase the yield are (i) to improve the implosion quality, or stagnation pressure, at fixed target scale (by increasing implosion velocity, reducing 3D effects, etc.), and (ii) to hydrodynamically scale the capsule and absorbed energy. In the latter case the stagnation pressure remains constant, but the yield-in the absence of alpha-heating-increases as Y S 4 . 5 , where the capsule radius is increased by S, and the absorbed energy by S3 . With alpha-heating the increase with scale is considerably stronger. We present projections in the performance of current DT experiments, and the extrapolations to ignition, based on applying hydro-scaling theory and accounting for the effect of alpha-heating. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Ecological solid fuels, effective heating devices for communal management and their testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kubica, K.

    1995-12-31

    The national balance of primary energy consumption is almost 90% based upon coal. Coal is used not only in electricity production, but also in the communal sector - in heating facilities comprising chiefly local boiler houses and private households.

  7. Carbon Emissions Trading and Combined Heat and Power Strategies: Unintended Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tysseling, John C.; Vosevich, Mary; Boersma, Benjamin R.; Zumwalt, Jefferey A.

    2009-01-01

    Facility professionals continuously search for projects that reduce energy consumption and operating costs so as to directly benefit their bottom line. Many institutions nationwide have contemplated or made investments in combined heat and power (CHP) projects as a life-cycle strategy to minimize operating costs. However, recent sustainability and…

  8. Advanced Reactors-Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Coupling: Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Utgikar, Vivek; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard

    2016-12-29

    The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate themore » models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.« less

  9. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  10. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  11. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J; Périard, J D

    2015-09-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Thermal shock tests with beryllium coupons in the electron beam facility JUDITH

    SciTech Connect

    Roedig, M.; Duwe, R.; Schuster, J.L.A.

    1995-09-01

    Several grades of American and Russian beryllium have been tested in high heat flux tests by means of an electron beam facility. For safety reasons, major modifications of the facility had to be fulfilled in advance to the tests. The influence of energy densities has been investigated in the range between 1 and 7 MJ/m{sup 2}. In addition the influence of an increasing number of shots at constant energy density has been studied. For all samples, surface profiles have been measured before and after the experiments. Additional information has been gained from scanning electron microscopy, and from metallography.

  13. Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.

  14. An ARM Mobile Facility Designed for Marine Deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program is designing a Mobile Facility exclusively for marine deployments. This marine facility is patterned after ARM's land Mobile Facility, which had its inaugural deployment at Point Reyes, California, in 2005, followed by deployments to Niger in 2006 and Germany in 2007 (ongoing), and a planned deployment to China in 2008. These facilities are primarily intended for the study of clouds, radiation, aerosols, and surface processes with a goal to include these processes accurately in climate models. They are preferably embedded within larger field campaigns which provide context. They carry extensive instrumentation (in several large containers) including: cloud radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared spectrometers, broadband and narrowband radiometers, sonde-launching facilities, extensive surface aerosol measurements, sky imagers, and surface latent and sensible heat flux devices. ARM's Mobile Facilities are designed for 6-10 month deployments in order to capture climatically-relevant datasets. They are available to any scientist, U.S. or international, who wishes to submit a proposal during the annual Spring call. The marine facility will be adapted to, and ruggedized for, the harsh marine environment and will add a scanning two-frequency radar, a boundary-layer wind profiler, a shortwave spectrometer, and aerosol instrumentation adapted to typical marine aerosols like sea salt. Plans also include the use of roving small UAVs, automated small boats, and undersea autonomous vehicles in order to address the point-to-area-average problem which is so crucial for informing climate models. Initial deployments are planned for small islands in climatically- interesting cloud regimes, followed by deployments on oceanic platforms (like decommissioned oil rigs and the quasi-permanent platform of this session's title) and eventually on large ships like car carriers plying routine routes.

  15. Enhanced condensation heat transfer with wettability patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2015-11-01

    Condensation of water vapor on metal surfaces is useful for many engineering applications. A facile and scalable method is proposed for removing condensate from a vertical plate during dropwise condensation (DWC) in the presence of non-condensable gases (NCG). We use wettability-patterned superhydrophilic tracks (filmwise condensing domains) on a mirror-finish (hydrophilic) aluminum surface that promotes DWC. Tapered, horizontal ``collection'' tracks are laid to create a Laplace pressure driven flow, which collects condensate from the mirror-finish domains and sends it to vertical ``drainage tracks'' for gravity-induced shedding. An optimal design is achieved by changing the fractional area of superhydrophilic tracks with respect to the overall plate surface, and augmenting capillary-driven condensate-drainage by adjusting the track spatial layout. The design facilitates pump-less condensate drainage and enhances DWC heat transfer on the mirror-finish regions. The study highlights the relative influences of the promoting and retarding effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation zones on the overall heat transfer improvement on the substrate. The study demonstrated ~ 34% heat transfer improvement on Aluminum surface for the optimized design.

  16. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, andmore » the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.« less

  17. Observations of Jupiter thermal emission made by the Infrared Telescope Facility and the Galileo NIMS instrument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    These observations of Jupiter equator in thermal heat emission were made by NASA Infrared Telescope Facility top panel within hours of the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer NIMS instrument image middle inset and the spectra bottom.

  18. Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.

  19. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  20. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-11-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method.

  1. Validation experiments to determine radiation partitioning of heat flux to an object in a fully turbulent fire.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2006-06-01

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop validation data of the heat flux incident to an object located within the fire plume for the validation of SIERRA/ FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE. One key aspect of the validation data sets is the determination of the relative contribution of the radiative and convective heat fluxes. To meet this objective, a cylindrical calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to measure total and radiative heat flux had been designed and fabricated. This calorimeter will be tested both in the controlled radiative environment of the Penlight facility and in a fire environment in the FLAME/Radiant Heatmore » (FRH) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparisons between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. A significant question of interest to modeling heat flux incident to an object in or near a fire is the contribution of the radiation and convection modes of heat transfer. The series of experiments documented in this test plan is designed to provide data on the radiation partitioning, defined as the fraction of the total heat flux that is due to radiation.« less

  2. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG engineering unit (EU), was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently under extended operation test at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for the ASRG EU. This paper summarizes details of the test facility design, including the mechanical mounting, heat-rejection system, argon system, control systems, and maintenance. The effort proceeded from requirements definition through design, analysis, build, and test. Initial testing and facility performance results are discussed.

  3. Multidimensional Tests of Thermal Protection Materials in the Arcjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Ellerby, Donald T.; Switzer, Mathew R.; Squire, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Many thermal protection system materials used for spacecraft heatshields have anisotropic thermal properties, causing them to display significantly different thermal characteristics in different directions, when subjected to a heating environment during flight or arcjet tests. This paper investigates the effects of sidewall heating coupled with anisotropic thermal properties of thermal protection materials in the arcjet environment. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and LI-2200 materials (the insulation material of Shuttle tiles) were used for this study. First, conduction-based thermal response simulations were carried out, using the Marc.Mentat finite element solver, to study the effects of sidewall heating on PICA arcjet coupons. The simulation showed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. Arcjet tests at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) at NASA Ames Research Center were performed later on instrumented coupons to obtain temperature history at sidewall and various radial locations. The details of instrumentation and experimental technique are the prime focus of this paper. The results obtained from testing confirmed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. The test results were later used to verify the two-dimensional ablation, thermal response, and sizing program, TITAN. The test data and model predictions were found to be in excellent agreement

  4. Education & Collection Facility GSHP Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joplin, Jeff

    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) designed and implemented an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling its new Education and Collection Facility (ECF) building addition. The project goal was to successfully design and install an open-loop GSHP system that utilized water circulating within an underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water system as the heat sink/source as a demonstration project. The expected results were to significantly reduce traditional GSHP installation costs while increasing system efficiency, reduce building energy consumption, require significantly less area and capital to install, and be economically implemented wherever access to amore » recycled water system is available. The project added to the understanding of GSHP technology by implementing the first GSHP system in the United States utilizing a municipal recycled water system as a heat sink/source. The use of this fluid through a GSHP system has not been previously documented. This use application presents a new opportunity for local municipalities to develop and expand the use of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems. The installation costs for this type of technology in the building structure would be a cost savings over traditional GSHP costs, provided the local municipal infrastructure was developed. Additionally, the GSHP system functions as a viable method of heat sink/source as the thermal characteristics of the fluid are generally consistent throughout the year and are efficiently exchanged through the GSHP system and its components. The use of the recycled water system reduces the area required for bore or loop fields; therefore, presenting an application for building structures that have little to no available land use or access. This GSHP application demonstrates the viability of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems as technically achievable, environmentally supportive, and an

  5. Multidimensional Testing of Thermal Protection Materials in the Arcjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Ellerby, Donald T.; Switzer, Matt R.; Squire, Thomas Howard

    2010-01-01

    Many thermal protection system materials used for spacecraft heatshields have anisotropic thermal properties, causing them to display significantly different thermal characteristics in different directions, when subjected to a heating environment during flight or arcjet tests. The anisotropic effects are enhanced in the presence of sidewall heating. This paper investigates the effects of anisotropic thermal properties of thermal protection materials coupled with sidewall heating in the arcjet environment. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and LI-2200 materials (the insulation material of Shuttle tiles) were used for this study. First, conduction-based thermal response simulations were carried out, using the Marc.Mentat finite element solver, to study the effects of sidewall heating on PICA arcjet coupons. The simulation showed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. Arcjet tests at the Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) at NASA Ames Research Center were performed later on instrumented coupons to obtain temperature history at sidewall and various radial locations. The details of instrumentation and experimental technique are the prime focus of this paper. The results obtained from testing confirmed that sidewall heating plays a significant role in thermal response of these models. The test results were later used to validate the two-dimensional ablation, thermal response, and sizing program, TITAN. The test data and model predictions were found to be in excellent agreement

  6. On thermal stress failure of the SNAP-19A RTG heat shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, W. C.; Anderson, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a study on thermal stress problems in an amorphous graphite heat shield that is part of the launch-abort protect system for the SNAP-19A radio-isotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) that will be used on the Viking Mars Lander are presended. The first result is from a thermal stress analysis of a full-scale RTG heat source that failed to survive a suborbital entry flight test, possibly due to thermal stress failure. It was calculated that the maximum stress in the heat shield was only 50 percent of the ultimate strength of the material. To provide information on the stress failure criterion used for this calculation, some heat shield specimens were fractured under abort entry conditions in a plasma arc facility. It was found that in regions free of stress concentrations the POCO graphite heat shield material did fracture when the local stress reached the ultimate uniaxial stress of the material.

  7. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  8. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in prototypic heat exchanges for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    An experimental facility was built to perform heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in supercritical carbon dioxide. Inlet temperatures ranged from 30--125 °C with mass velocities ranging from 118--1050 kg/m2s and system pressures of 7.5--10.2 MPa. Tests were performed in horizontal, upward, and downward flow conditions to test the influence of buoyancy forces on the heat transfer. Horizontal tests showed that for system pressures of 8.1 MPa and up standard Nusselt correlations predicted the heat transfer behavior with good agreement. Tests performed at 7.5 MPa were not well predicted by existing correlations, due to large property variations. The data collected in this work can be used to better understand heat transfer near the critical point. The CFD package FLUENT was found to yield adequate prediction for the heat transfer behavior for low pressure cases, where standard correlations were inaccurate, however it was necessary to have fine mesh spacing (y+˜1) in order to capture the observed behavior. Vertical tests found, under the test conditions considered, that flow orientation had little or no effect on the heat transfer behavior, even in flow regions where buoyancy forces should result in a difference between up and down flow heat transfer. CFD results found that for a given set of boundary conditions a large increase in the gravitational acceleration could cause noticeable heat transfer deterioration. Studies performed with CFD further led to the hypothesis that typical buoyancy induced heat transfer deterioration exhibited in supercritical flows were mitigated through a complex interaction with the inertial force, which is caused by bulk cooling of the flow. This hypothesis to explain the observed data requires further investigation. Prototypic heat exchangers channels (i.e. zig-zag) proved that the heat transfer coefficient was consistently three to four times higher as compared to straight channel geometry. However, the form pressure loss due

  9. Downgrading Nuclear Facilities to Radiological Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Jeffrey F.; Farr, Jesse Oscar; Duran, Leroy

    2015-08-01

    Based on inventory reductions and the use of alternate storage facilities, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) downgraded 4 SNL Hazard Category 3 (HC-3) nuclear facilities to less-than-HC-3 radiological facilities. SNL’s Waste Management and Pollution Prevention Department (WMPPD) managed the HC-3 nuclear facilities and implemented the downgrade. This paper will examine the downgrade process,

  10. 3S (Safeguards, Security, Safety) based pyroprocessing facility safety evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.H.; Choung, W.M.; You, G.S.

    The big advantage of pyroprocessing for the management of spent fuels against the conventional reprocessing technologies lies in its proliferation resistance since the pure plutonium cannot be separated from the spent fuel. The extracted materials can be directly used as metal fuel in a fast reactor, and pyroprocessing reduces drastically the volume and heat load of the spent fuel. KAERI has implemented the SBD (Safeguards-By-Design) concept in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The goal of SBD is to integrate international safeguards into the entire facility design process since the very beginning of the design phase. This paper presents a safety evaluationmore » plan using a conceptual design of a reference pyroprocessing facility, in which 3S (Safeguards, Security, Safety)-By-Design (3SBD) concept is integrated from early conceptual design phase. The purpose of this paper is to establish an advanced pyroprocessing hot cell facility design concept based on 3SBD for the successful realization of pyroprocessing technology with enhanced safety and proliferation resistance.« less

  11. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  12. Application of an atomic oxygen beam facility to the investigation of shuttle glow chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. S.; Peplinski, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility for the investigation of the interactions of energetic atomic oxygen with solids is described. The facility is comprised of a four chambered, differentially pumped molecular beam apparatus which can be equipped with one of a variety of sources of atomic oxygen. The primary source is a dc arc heated supersonic nozzle source which produces a flux of atomic oxygen in excess of 10 to the 15th power sq cm/sec at the target, at a velocity of 3.5 km/sec. Results of applications of this facility to the study of the reactions of atomic oxygen with carbon and polyimide films are briefly reviewed and compared to data obtained on various flights of the space shuttle. A brief discussion of possible application of this facility to investigation of chemical reactions which might contribute to atmosphere induced vehicle glow is presented.

  13. Evaluation of dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy heat shields for space shuttle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R., Jr.; Killpatrick, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a full-size, full-scale TD Ni-20Cr heat shield test array in simulated mission environments is described along with the design and fabrication of two additional full-size, full-scale test arrays to be tested in flowing gas test facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. Cost and reusability evaluations of TD Ni-20Cr heat shield systems are presented, and weight estimates of a TD Ni-20Cr heat shield system for use on a shuttle orbiter vehicle are made. Safe-line expectancy of a TD Ni-20Cr heat shield system is assessed. Non-destructive test techniques are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in quality assurance checks of TD Ni-20Cr components such as heat shields, heat shield supports, close-out panels, formed cover strips, and edge seals. Results of tests on a braze reinforced full-scale, subsize panel are included. Results show only minor structural degradation in the main TD Ni-20Cr heat shields of the test array during simulated mission test cycles.

  14. Materials Evaluation in the Tri-Service Thermal Radiation Test Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-28

    degradation of materials exposed to the radiant heating generated by a nuclear blast can vary enor- mously. The intense radiation needed to simulate a...of surface degradation was accomplished with limited success during the current contract effort. Procedures still need refining to make surface...147; 148; 149 (Table I) 6648-6666 FACILITY CALIBRATION 6667 Aluminized Tape No coating 6668-6742 Aluminum NBR /EDPM blends, Vamac 6743-6755 Wind tunnel

  15. 86. VIEW OF LIQUID NITROGEN STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. VIEW OF LIQUID NITROGEN STORAGE FACILITY LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST OF THE SLC-3W FUEL APRON. NOTE HEAT EXCHANGER IN BACKGROUND. CAMERA TOWER LOCATED DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF LIQUID NITROGEN STORAGE TANK. NITROGEN AND HELIUM GAS STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH END OF FUEL APRON IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Numerical simulation of experiments in the Giant Planet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Davy, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Utilizing a series of existing computer codes, ablation experiments in the Giant Planet Facility are numerically simulated. Of primary importance is the simulation of the low Mach number shock layer that envelops the test model. The RASLE shock-layer code, used in the Jupiter entry probe heat-shield design, is adapted to the experimental conditions. RASLE predictions for radiative and convective heat fluxes are in good agreement with calorimeter measurements. In simulating carbonaceous ablation experiments, the RASLE code is coupled directly with the CMA material response code. For the graphite models, predicted and measured recessions agree very well. Predicted recession for the carbon phenolic models is 50% higher than that measured. This is the first time codes used for the Jupiter probe design have been compared with experiments.

  17. A new thermal vacuum facility at the Martin Marietta Waterton plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Robert N.; Bonn, John W.

    1992-01-01

    A new thermal-vacuum facility has been recently completed at the Martin Marietta Waterton plant near Denver, Colorado. The facility was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested as a turn-key project by Pitt-Des Moines Inc. and CVI Inc. The chamber has a 5.49 M by 6.10 M (18 ft by 20 ft) flat floor and a half-cylindrical roof with a diameter of 5.49 M (18 ft). Both ends of the chamber have full cross section doors, with one equipped with translating motors for horizontal motion. The chamber is provided with four 0.91 M (36 inches) cryopumps to obtain an ultimate pressure of 9 x 10(exp -8) Torr (Clean-Dry-Empty). The thermal shroud is designed to operate at a maximum of -179 C (-290 F) with an internal heat input of 316 MJ/Hr (300,000 BTU/Hr) using liquid nitrogen. The shroud is also designed to operate at any temperature between -156 C (-250 F) and 121 C (+250 F) using gaseous nitrogen, and heat or cool at a rate of 1.1 C (2 F) per minute.

  18. Ecological Safety of the Internal Space of the Cattle-Breeding Facility (Cowshed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.; Tolstoukhova, T. N.; Kostenko, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article emphasizes the importance of observing the ecology of the internal airspace. The factors affecting the state of the air in the internal space of the cattle-breeding facility (cowshed) are revealed. Technical and technological solutions providing for a reduction in the airspace contamination of the livestock facility are proposed. The results of investigations of a technological operation for treating skin integuments of cows with activated water are disclosed, as well as the constructive solution of a heat and power unit that ensures a change in the hydrogen index of the treated water. The justification of the efficiency of the proposed technical and technological solutions is given.

  19. Qualification of oil-based tracer particles for heated Ludwieg tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Marcus; Stephan, Sören; Scholz, Peter; Radespiel, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    The generation, insertion, pressurization and use of oil-based tracer particles is qualified for the application in heated flow facilities, typically hypersonic facilities such as Ludwieg tubes. The operative challenges are to ensure a sub-critical amount of seeding material in the heated part, to qualify the methods that are used to generate the seeding, pressurize it to storage tube pressure, as well as to test specific oil types. The mass of the seeding material is held below the lower explosion limit such that operation is safe. The basis for the tracers is qualified in off-situ particle size measurements. In the main part different methods and operational procedures are tested with respect to their ability to generate a suitable amount of seeding in the test section. For the best method the relaxation time of the tracers is qualified by the oblique shock wave test. The results show that the use of a special temperature resistant lubricant oil "Plantfluid" is feasible under the conditions of a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube with heated storage tube. The method gives high-quality tracers with high seeding densities. Although the experimental results of the oblique shock wave test differ from theoretical predictions of relaxation time, still the relaxation time of 3.2 μs under the more dense tunnel conditions with 18 bar storage tube pressure is low enough to allow the use of the seeding for meaningful particle image velocimetry studies.

  20. Heat transfer rate and film cooling effectiveness measurements in a transient cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. L.; Oldfield, M. L. G.; Jones, T. V.

    1980-09-01

    A transient cascade useful for heat transfer rate measurements is briefly described. The facility employs a free piston which compresses the test gas to temperatures around 450 K and pressures of about 3.5 to 7.5 Atm. The model is initially at room temperature and it is necessary to attain the correct gas to wall temperature ratio. The exit Mach number is set by the inlet total pressure and the pressure in the exit dump tank. Thin film heat transfer gauges are used for the measurement of heat transfer rate, deposited on machineable glass ceramic blades. The inherently fast response of these transducers makes them useful for the investigation of boundary layer transition on blade surfaces and some typical results are included.

  1. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  2. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  3. MSE observatory: a revised and optimized astronomical facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven E.; Angers, Mathieu; Benedict, Tom; Crampton, David; Flagey, Nicolas; Gedig, Mike; Green, Greg; Liu, Andy; Lo, David; Loewen, Nathan; McConnachie, Alan; Murowinski, Rick; Racine, René; Salmon, Derrick; Stiemer, Siegfried; Szeto, Kei; Wu, Di

    2016-07-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Corporation (CFHT) plans to repurpose its observatory on the summit of Maunakea and operate a (60 segment) 11.25m aperture wide field spectroscopic survey telescope, the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE). The prime focus telescope will be equipped with dedicated instrumentation to take advantage of one of the best sites in the northern hemisphere and offer its users the ability to perform large surveys. Central themes of the development plan are reusing and upgrading wherever possible. MSE will reuse the CFHT site and build upon the existing observatory infrastructure, using the same building and telescope pier as CFHT, while minimizing environmental impact on the summit. MSE will require structural support upgrades to the building to meet the latest building seismic code requirements and accommodate a new larger telescope and upgraded enclosure. It will be necessary to replace the current dome since a larger slit opening is needed for a larger telescope. MSE will use a thermal management system to remove heat generated by loads from the building, flush excess heat from lower levels, and maintain the observing environment temperature. This paper describes the design approach for redeveloping the CFHT facility for MSE. Once the project is completed the new facility will be almost indistinguishable on the outside from the current CFHT observatory. Past experience and lessons learned from CFHT staff and the astronomical community will be used to create a modern, optimized, and transformative scientific data collecting machine.

  4. Nova Upgrade: A proposed ICF facility to demonstrate ignition and gain, revision 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-07-01

    The present objective of the national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to determine the scientific feasibility of compressing and heating a small mass of mixed deuterium and tritium (DT) to conditions at which fusion occurs and significant energy is released. The potential applications of ICF will be determined by the resulting fusion energy yield (amount of energy produced) and gain (ratio of energy released to energy required to heat and compress the DT fuel). Important defense and civilian applications, including weapons physics, weapons effects simulation, and ultimately the generation of electric power will become possible if yields of 100 to 1,000 MJ and gains exceeding approximately 50 can be achieved. Once ignition and propagating bum producing modest gain (2 to 10) at moderate drive energy (1 to 2 MJ) has been achieved, the extension to high gain (greater than 50) is straightforward. Therefore, the demonstration of ignition and modest gain is the final step in establishing the scientific feasibility of ICF. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes the Nova Upgrade Facility to achieve this demonstration by the end of the decade. This facility would be constructed within the existing Nova building at LLNL for a total cost of approximately $400 M over the proposed FY 1995-1999 construction period. This report discusses this facility.

  5. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Dao-Gang; Li, Jun; Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Qian; Liu, Nan; Liu, Wei-Tian; Li, Ying-Xue

    2016-06-10

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations.

  6. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkers

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Yong-Mei; WANG, Dao-Gang; LI, Jun; LI, Xing-Hua; WANG, Qian; LIU, Nan; LIU, Wei-Tian; LI, Ying-Xue

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of micronutrient losses through sweat on blood pressure (BP) among heat-exposed steelworkers. A total of 224 heat-exposed male steelworkers from an ironworks facility were evaluated in July 2012. We measured the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index to evaluate the level of heat stress in the workplace. We collected sweat from the workers during an eight-hour work, and then we measured the micronutrients in the sweat. We also measured the BP of each worker. The results revealed that vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat were positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (all P<0.05). A linear stepwise regression analysis revealed that potassium, and calcium losses in sweat adversely affected SBP and DBP (all P<0.05). An analysis of covariance showed that SBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >900 mg, or >100 mg, respectively. Further, DBP increased when potassium or calcium losses in sweat were >600 mg or >130 mg, respectively. Therefore, vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat may adversely effect BP. To help steelworkers maintain healthy BP, facilities with high temperatures should try to lower environmental temperatures to reduce vitamin C, potassium, and calcium losses in sweat. Additionally, heat-exposed steelworkers may need to increase their dietary intakes of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and support these recommendations. PMID:27087421

  7. An isentropic compression-heated Ludweig tube transient wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magari, Patrick J.; Lagraff, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical development and experimental results show that the Ludweig tube with isentropic heating (LICH) transient wind tunnel described is a viable means of producing flow conditions that are suitable for a variety of experimental investigations. A complete analysis of the wave dynamics of the pump tube compression process is presented. The LICH tube operating conditions are very steady and run times are greater than those of other types of transient facilities such as shock tubes and gas tunnels. This facility is well suited for producing flow conditions that are dynamically similar to those found in a gas turbine, i.e., transonic Mach number, gas-to-wall temperature ratios of about 1.5, and Reynolds numbers greater than 10 to the 6th.

  8. Emission Spectroscopy and Radiometric Measurements in the NASA Ames IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael W.; Raiche, George A.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma diagnostic measurement campaigns in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) have been conducted over the last several years with a view towards characterizing the flow in the arc jet facility by providing data necessary for modeling and simulation. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used in the plenum and in the free jet of the nozzle. Radiation incident over a probe surface has also been measured using radiometry. Plenum measurements have shown distinct radial profiles of temperature over a range of operating conditions. For cases where large amounts of cold air are added radially to the main arc-heated stream, the temperature profiles are higher by as much as 1500 K than the profiles assumed in flow simulations. Optical measurements perpendicular to the flow direction in the free jet showed significant contributions to the molecule emission through inverse pre-dissociation, thus allowing determination of atom number densities from molecular emission. This has been preliminarily demonstrated with the N2 1st Positive System. Despite the use of older rate coefficients, the resulting atom densities are reasonable and surprisingly close to flow predictions.

  9. X-ray Heating and Electron Temperature of Laboratory Photoionized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Roberto; Lockard, Tom; Mayes, Daniel C.; Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, James E.; Rochau, Gregory; Abdallah, J.; Golovkin, I.

    2018-06-01

    In separate experiments performed at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories two different samples were employed to produce and characterize photoionized plasmas. One was a gas cell filled with neon, and the other was a thin silicon layer coated with plastic. Both samples were driven by the broadband x-ray flux produced at the collapse of a wire array z-pinch implosion. Transmission spectroscopy of a narrowband portion of the x-ray flux was used to diagnose the charge state distribution, and the electron temperature was extracted from a Li-like ion level population ratio. To interpret the temperature measurement, we performed Boltzmann kinetics and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium atomic physics and the coupling of the radiation flux to the atomic level population kinetics play a critical role in modeling the x-ray heating of photoionized plasmas. In spite of being driven by similar x-ray drives, differences of ionization and charged state distributions in the neon and silicon plasmas are reflected in the plasma heating and observed electron temperatures.This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.

  10. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Wu, Qiao

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embeddedmore » in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.« less

  11. ICRF heating in a straight, helically symmetric stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, E.F.; Weitzner, H.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1987-07-01

    Experimental observations of direct ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heating at fundamental ion cyclotron resonance on the L-2 stellarator have stimulated interest in the theoretical basis for such heating. In this paper, global solutions for the ICRF wave fields in a helically symmetric, straight stellarator are calculated in the cold plasma limit. The component of the wave electric field parallel to B-vector is assumed zero. Helical symmetry allows Fourier decomposition in the longitudinal (z) direction. The two remaining partial differential equations in tau and phi identical to THETA - hz (h is the helical pitch) are solved by finite differencing.more » Energy absorption and antenna impedance are calculated from an ad hoc collision model. Results for parameters typical of the L-2 and Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellarators show that direct resonant absorption of the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance occurs mainly near the plasma edge. The magnitude of the absorption is about half that for minority heating at the two-ion hybrid resonance.« less

  12. Preparation of AgInS2 nanoparticles by a facile microwave heating technique; study of effective parameters, optical and photovoltaic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Cheshmekhavar, Amir Hossein; Imani, Mina

    2012-12-01

    In this work, AgInS2 (AIS) semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized by an efficient and facile microwave heating technique using several sulfur sources and solvents in the different reaction times. The SEM images presented the particle morphology for all of the obtained products in the arranged reaction conditions. The particle size of 70 nm was obtained using thioacetamide (TAA), ethylene glycol (EG) as the sulfur source and solvent, respectively at the reaction time of 5 min. It was found that the change of the mentioned parameters lead to alter on the particle size of the resulting products. The average particle size was estimated using a microstructure measurement program and Minitab statistical software. The optical band gap energy of 1.96 eV for the synthesized AIS nanoparticles was determined by the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). AgInS2/CdS/CuInSe2 heterojunction solar cell was constructed and photovoltaic parameters, i.e., open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) were estimated by photocurrent-voltage (I-V) curve. The calculated fill factor of 30% and energy conversion efficiency of 1.58% revealed the capability of AIS nanoparticles to use in the solar cell devices.

  13. Segmented beryllium target for a 2 MW super beam facility

    DOE PAGES

    Davenne, T.; Caretta, O.; Densham, C.; ...

    2015-09-14

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF, formerly the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment) is under design as a next generation neutrino oscillation experiment, with primary objectives to search for CP violation in the leptonic sector, to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to provide a precise measurement of θ 23. The facility will generate a neutrino beam at Fermilab by the interaction of a proton beam with a target material. At the ultimate anticipated proton beam power of 2.3 MW the target material must dissipate a heat load of between 10 and 25 kW depending on the target size. This paper presents amore » target concept based on an array of spheres and compares it to a cylindrical monolithic target such as that which currently operates at the T2K facility. Thus simulation results show that the proposed technology offers efficient cooling and lower stresses whilst delivering a neutrino production comparable with that of a conventional solid cylindrical target.« less

  14. Diagnosis of Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufor, Mikal T.; Jemiolo, Andrew J.; Keesee, Amy; Cassak, Paul; Tu, Weichao; Scime, Earl E.

    2017-10-01

    The DARTH (Diagnosis of Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Heating) experiment is an intermediate-scale, experimental facility designed to study magnetic reconnection at and below the kinetic scale of ions and electrons. The experiment will have non-perturbative diagnostics with high temporal and three-dimensional spatial resolution, giving it the capability to investigate kinetic-scale physics. Of specific scientific interest are particle acceleration, plasma heating, turbulence and energy dissipation during reconnection. Here we will describe the magnetic field system and the two plasma guns used to create flux ropes that then merge through magnetic reconnection. We will also describe the key diagnostic systems: laser induced fluorescence (LIF) for ion vdf measurements, a 300 GHz microwave scattering system for sub-mm wavelength fluctuation measurements and a Thomson scattering laser for electron vdf measurements. The vacuum chamber is designed to provide unparalleled access for these particle diagnostics. The scientific goals of DARTH are to examine particle acceleration and heating during, the role of three-dimensional instabilities during reconnection, how reconnection ceases, and the role of impurities and asymmetries in reconnection. This work was supported by the by the O'Brien Energy Research Fund.

  15. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  16. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs Part II. Analysis of transient temperature responses observed during a heat slug propagation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert; Malinowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    A heat slug propagation experiment in the final design dual channel ITER TF CICC was performed in the SULTAN test facility at EPFL-CRPP in Villigen PSI. We analyzed the data resulting from this experiment to determine the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient hBC between the bundle and the central channel of this cable. In the data analysis we used methods based on the analytical solutions of a problem of transient heat transfer in a dual-channel cable, similar to Renard et al. (2006) and Bottura et al. (2006). The observed experimental and other limits related to these methods are identified and possible modifications proposed. One result from our analysis is that the hBC values obtained with different methods differ by up to a factor of 2. We have also observed that the uncertainties of hBC in both methods considered are much larger than those reported earlier.

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  18. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  19. Generation of whistler waves by continuous HF heating of the upper ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Eliasson, B. E.; Sharma, A.; Chang, C.; Parrot, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    We report observations of VLF waves by the DEMETER satellite overflying the HAARP facility during ionospheric heating experiments. The detected VLF waves were in the range 8-17 kHz and coincided with times of continuous heating. The experiments indicate whistler generation due to conversion of artificial lower hybrid waves to whistlers on small scale field-aligned plasma density striations. The observations are compared with theoretical models, taking into account both linear and nonlinear processes. Implications of the mode conversion technique on VLF generation with subsequent injection into the radiation belts to trigger particle precipitation are discussed.

  20. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  1. Simple, economical heat-shock devices for zebrafish housing racks.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, Robert J; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E

    2011-12-01

    One reason for the popularity of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model vertebrate is the ability to manipulate gene expression in this organism. A common method is to induce gene expression transiently under control of a heat-shock promoter (e.g., hsp70l). By making simple mechanical adjustments to small aquarium heaters (25-50W), we were able to produce consistent and reliable heat-shock conditions within a conventional zebrafish housing system. Up to two heat-shock intervals per day (>37°C) could be maintained under conditions of continuous flow (5-25 mL/min). Temperature logging every 30 s indicated rapid warm up times, consistent heat-shock lengths, and accurate and precise peak water temperatures (mean±SD=38°C±0.2°C). The biological effects of these heat-shock treatments were confirmed by observing inducible expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and inhibition of caudal fin regeneration in a transgenic fish line expressing a dominant negative fibroblast growth factor receptor (Tg(hsp70l:dnfgfr1-EGFP)(pd1)). These devices are inexpensive, easily modified, and can be calibrated to accommodate a variety of experimental designs. After setup on a programmable timer, the heaters require no intervention to produce consistent daily heat shocks, and all other standard care protocols can be followed in the fish facility. The simplicity and stability of these devices make them suitable for long-term heat shocks at any stage of the zebrafish lifecycle (>7 days postfertilization), and useful for both laboratory and classroom experiments on transgenic zebrafish.

  2. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  3. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  4. Strengthening Critical Infrastructure: Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Webinar) – November 15, 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs), including advantages and challenges, financial incentives and funding programs, and technical and economic potential.

  5. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed. PMID:27583542

  6. Heat Transfer to a Thin Solid Combustible in Flame Spreading at Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Altenkirch, R. A.; Olson, S. L.; Sotos, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer rate to a thin solid combustible from an attached diffusion flame, spreading across the surface of the combustible in a quiescent, microgravity environment, was determined from measurements made in the drop tower facility at NASA-Lewis Research Center. With first-order Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, the solid-phase mass and energy equations along with the measured spread rate and surface temperature profiles were used to calculate the net heat flux to the surface. Results of the measurements are compared to the numerical solution of the complete set of coupled differential equations that describes the temperature, species, and velocity fields in the gas and solid phases. The theory and experiment agree on the major qualitative features of the heat transfer. Some fundamental differences are attributed to the neglect of radiation in the theoretical model.

  7. First experimental demonstration of magnetic-field assisted fast heating of a dense plasma core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sakata, Shohei; Lee, Seung Ho; Matsuo, Kazuki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Yuki; Law, King Fai Farley; Morita, Hitoki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Abe, Yuki; Yao, Akira; Hata, Masayasu; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Morace, Alessio; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Nagatomo, Hideo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Firex Project Team

    2016-10-01

    Fast heating of a dense plasma core by an energetic electron beam is being studied on GEKKO-LFEX laser facility. Here, we introduce a laser-driven kilo-tesla external magnetic field to guide the diverging electron beam to the dense plasma core. This involve placing a spherical target in the magnetic field, compressing it with the GEKKO-XII laser beams and then using the LFEX laser beams injected into the dense plasma to generate the electron beam which do the fast heating. Cu-Ka emission is used to visualize transport or heating processes of a dense plasma. X-ray spectrum from a highly ionized Cu ions indicates several keV of the temperature increment induced by the LFEX.

  8. SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.M.; Virdi, T.S.

    The incoherent scatter radar located at Soendre Stroemfjord, Greenland (67{degree}N, 51{degree}W, 74.5{degree}{Lambda}) and the EISCAT incoherent scatter facility located in northern Scandinavia (69.5{degree}N, 19{degree}E, 66.3{degree}{Lambda}) both obtained E and F region measurements during the first campaign of the Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study (LTCS 1, September 21-25, 1987). Neutral winds deduced from these measurements have been analyzed for their mean flow and tidal components. A number of the altitude profiles for the mean winds and the diurnal and semidiurnal wave components at the two radar locations show similar variations with height, indicating that latitudinal rather than longitudinal effects are dominant inmore » determining the observed wind field. Diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases are reasonably well represented by theoretical model results (Forbes, 1982). The semidiurnal amplitudes and phases, although somewhat consistent between the two radars, are not well represented in equinox tidal model results (Forbes and Vial, this issue). Results from both radars indicate a vertical wavelength for the zonal semidiurnal oscillation of approximately 60 km. During a period of impulsive magnetospheric forcing (September 22-23), winds deduced from measurements at both radars show enhanced eastward flows near midnight accompanied by equatorward winds at Sondrestrom. Comparison with the results of a National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model (TIGCM) simulation of the LTCS 1 interval shows generally better agreement with the observations at EISCAT than at Sondrestrom.« less

  9. Thermionic system evaluated test (TSET) facility description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Jerry F.; Koonmen, James P.; Thome, Frank V.

    1992-01-01

    A consortium of US agencies are involved in the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) which is being supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). The project is a ground test of an unfueled Soviet TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electrical heat. It is part of the United States' national thermionic space nuclear power program. It will be tested in Albuquerque, New Mexico at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute complex by the Phillips Laboratoty, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of New Mexico. One of TSET's many objectives is to demonstrate that the US can operate and test a complete space nuclear power system, in the electrical heater configuration, at a low cost. Great efforts have been made to help reduce facility costs during the first phase of this project. These costs include structural, mechanical, and electrical modifications to the existing facility as well as the installation of additional emergency systems to mitigate the effects of utility power losses and alkali metal fires.

  10. Orion EFT-1 Heat Shield move from LASF to VAB for Ground Test Article Integration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-26

    The heat shield for Exploration Flight Test-1 is transferred from the Orion Program to the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, Landing and Recovery Operations to be integrated with the Ground Test Article to be utilized for future Underway Recovery Testing. After transport from the Launch Abort System Facility (LASF) to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), the heat shield is lifted off of the transport truck and placed onto foam pads (dunnage) for inspection in Highbay 2 of the VAB.

  11. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Kay L.; Ramsden, Margo M.; Gonzales, John E.

    combustible gas detectors and control systems, or specialized space heating, which are not needed in facilities servicing liquid-fuel vehicles. This handbook covers maintenance facilities that service CNG-fueled vehicles. Although similar requirements are mandated for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fueled vehicles, LNG and LPG are not covered in this handbook.« less

  13. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report with 1000 Hr Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Olivas, Eric Richard; Dale, Gregory E.

    2016-09-23

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was needed for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GMmore » 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. The blower has been operated for 1000 hours as a preliminary investigation of long-term performance, operation and possible maintenance issues. The blower performed well, with no significant change in blower head or mass flow rate developed under the operating conditions. Upon inspection, some oil had leaked out of the shaft seal of the blower. The shaft seal and bearing race have been replaced.« less

  14. Improved heat dissipation in gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with embedded graphene oxide pattern.

    PubMed

    Han, Nam; Cuong, Tran Viet; Han, Min; Ryu, Beo Deul; Chandramohan, S; Park, Jong Bae; Kang, Ji Hye; Park, Young-Jae; Ko, Kang Bok; Kim, Hee Yun; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Jae Hyoung; Katharria, Y S; Choi, Chel-Jong; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The future of solid-state lighting relies on how the performance parameters will be improved further for developing high-brightness light-emitting diodes. Eventually, heat removal is becoming a crucial issue because the requirement of high brightness necessitates high-operating current densities that would trigger more joule heating. Here we demonstrate that the embedded graphene oxide in a gallium nitride light-emitting diode alleviates the self-heating issues by virtue of its heat-spreading ability and reducing the thermal boundary resistance. The fabrication process involves the generation of scalable graphene oxide microscale patterns on a sapphire substrate, followed by its thermal reduction and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of gallium nitride in a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition system under one-step process. The device with embedded graphene oxide outperforms its conventional counterpart by emitting bright light with relatively low-junction temperature and thermal resistance. This facile strategy may enable integration of large-scale graphene into practical devices for effective heat removal.

  15. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; ...

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m 2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm 2, respectively. This paper will present the overallmore » design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  16. Single-jet gas cooling of in-beam foils or specimens: Prediction of the convective heat-transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, Gideon; Vermeulen, Christiaan

    2018-05-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of the jet direction on convective heat-transfer coefficients in single-jet gas cooling of a small heated surface, such as typically induced by an accelerated ion beam on a thin foil or specimen. The hot spot was provided using a small electrically heated plate. Heat-transfer calculations were performed using simple empirical methods based on dimensional analysis as well as by means of an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The results provide an explanation for the observed turbulent cooling of a double-foil, Havar beam window with fast-flowing helium, located on a target station for radionuclide production with a 66 MeV proton beam at a cyclotron facility.

  17. Probabilistic approach for decay heat uncertainty estimation using URANIE platform and MENDEL depletion code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsilanizara, A.; Gilardi, N.; Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.; Lahaye, S.; Martinez, J. M.; Diop, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the decay heat quantity and the associated uncertainties are important issues for the safety of nuclear facilities. Many codes are available to estimate the decay heat. ORIGEN, FISPACT, DARWIN/PEPIN2 are part of them. MENDEL is a new depletion code developed at CEA, with new software architecture, devoted to the calculation of physical quantities related to fuel cycle studies, in particular decay heat. The purpose of this paper is to present a probabilistic approach to assess decay heat uncertainty due to the decay data uncertainties from nuclear data evaluation like JEFF-3.1.1 or ENDF/B-VII.1. This probabilistic approach is based both on MENDEL code and URANIE software which is a CEA uncertainty analysis platform. As preliminary applications, single thermal fission of uranium 235, plutonium 239 and PWR UOx spent fuel cell are investigated.

  18. Time differentiated nuclear resonance spectroscopy coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kupenko, I., E-mail: kupenko@esrf.fr; Strohm, C.; ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9

    2015-11-15

    Developments in pulsed laser heating applied to nuclear resonance techniques are presented together with their applications to studies of geophysically relevant materials. Continuous laser heating in diamond anvil cells is a widely used method to generate extreme temperatures at static high pressure conditions in order to study the structure and properties of materials found in deep planetary interiors. The pulsed laser heating technique has advantages over continuous heating, including prevention of the spreading of heated sample and/or the pressure medium and, thus, a better stability of the heating process. Time differentiated data acquisition coupled with pulsed laser heating in diamondmore » anvil cells was successfully tested at the Nuclear Resonance beamline (ID18) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. We show examples applying the method to investigation of an assemblage containing ε-Fe, FeO, and Fe{sub 3}C using synchrotron Mössbauer source spectroscopy, FeCO{sub 3} using nuclear inelastic scattering, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} using nuclear forward scattering. These examples demonstrate the applicability of pulsed laser heating in diamond anvil cells to spectroscopic techniques with long data acquisition times, because it enables stable pulsed heating with data collection at specific time intervals that are synchronized with laser pulses.« less

  19. Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Le,Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the model development and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

  20. Model Development and Experimental Validation of the Fusible Heat Sink Design for Exploration Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Sheth, Rubik; Le, Hung

    2013-01-01

    The Fusible Heat Sink is a novel vehicle heat rejection technology which combines a flow through radiator with a phase change material. The combined technologies create a multi-function device able to shield crew members against Solar Particle Events (SPE), reduce radiator extent by permitting sizing to the average vehicle heat load rather than to the peak vehicle heat load, and to substantially absorb heat load excursions from the average while constantly maintaining thermal control system setpoints. This multi-function technology provides great flexibility for mission planning, making it possible to operate a vehicle in hot or cold environments and under high or low heat load conditions for extended periods of time. This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the Fusible Heat Sink technology. The model developed was intended to meet the radiation and heat rejection requirements of a nominal MMSEV mission. Development parameters and results, including sizing and model performance will be discussed. From this flight-sized model, a scaled test-article design was modeled, designed, and fabricated for experimental validation of the technology at Johnson Space Center thermal vacuum chamber facilities. Testing showed performance comparable to the model at nominal loads and the capability to maintain heat loads substantially greater than nominal for extended periods of time.

  1. 78 FR 16795 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Requirements for Long-Term Care (LTC) Facilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ...). We noted that research has extensively documented the pervasiveness of vulnerable populations which.... For example, if the State law requires the administrator of a NF participating in its State Medicaid...) would not be applicable. For example, if a facility's air conditioning failed during a heat wave, the...

  2. Initial results from divertor heat-flux instrumentation on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Reinke, M.; Terry, J. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Lipschultz, B.; Whyte, D.

    2009-11-01

    Physics-based plasma transport models that can accurately simulate the heat-flux power widths observed in the tokamak boundary are lacking at the present time. Yet this quantity is of fundamental importance for ITER and most critically important for DEMO, a reactor similar to ITER but with ˜4 times the power exhaust. In order to improve our understanding, C-Mod, DIII-D and NSTX will aim experiments in FY10 towards characterizing the divertor ``footprint'' and its connection to conditions ``upstream'' in the boundary and core plasmas [2]. Standard IR-based heat-flux measurements are particularly difficult in C-Mod, due to its vertical-oriented divertor targets. To overcome this, a suite of embedded heat-flux sensor probes (tile thermocouples, calorimeters, surface thermocouples) combined with IR thermography was installed during the FY09 opening, along with a new divertor bolometer system. This paper will report on initial experiments aimed at unfolding the heat-flux dependencies on plasma operating conditions. [2] a proposed US DoE Joint Facilities Milestone.

  3. Mechanisms Involved in the Mitigation of Urban Heat Islands through Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, F. A.; Smalls-Mantey, L.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat islands are one of many challenges presented by today's unprecedented patterns of urbanization. At higher densities, urban populations are more vulnerable to the increased temperatures that accompany urban landscape change. Though in the US it is funded principally as a means of stormwater management, urban green infrastructure (GI) actually alters hydrologic, energetic, and thermal budgets of urban environments, with a suite of potential co-benefits related to the health of people and ecosystems. Recent research has underscored the roles that vegetation plays in such processes, for example by facilitating evapotranspiration, and regulating air temperature and water availability. While the magnitude of these and other impacts is determined in part by the size, type, location, and configuration of GI facilities, few studies have attempted to characterize and to quantify how various vegetation-mediated processes in GI systems impact the energy and thermal properties of their surroundings. Using data collected at rooftop and ground level GI facilities including green roofs and bioretention areas monitored by Drexel University, this research illustrates the role that processes such as evapotranspiration play in the individual GI site cooling potential, reducing neighborhood vulnerability to the urban heat island effect.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  5. Ripple scalings in geothermal facilities, a key to understand the scaling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Grundy, James; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants. The majority of the scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin are carbonates. They are formed due to a disruption of the lime-carbonic-acid equilibrium during production caused by degassing of CO2. These scalings are found in the production pipes, at the pumps and at filters and can nicely be described using existing hydrogeochemical models. This study proposes a second mechanism for the formation of scalings in ground-level facilities. We investigated scalings which accumulated at the inlet to the heat exchanger. Interestingly, the scalings were recovered after the ground level facilities had been cleaned. The scalings showed distinct ripple structures, which is likely a result of solid particle deposition. From the ripple features the the flow conditions during their formation were calculated based on empirical equations (Soulsby, 2012). The calculations suggest that the deposits were formed during maintenance works. Thin section images of the sediments indicate a two-step process: deposition of sediment grains, followed by stabilization with a calcite layer. The latter likely occured during maintenance. To prevent this type of scalings blocking the heat exchangers, the maintenance procedure has to be revised. References: Soulsby, R. L.; Whitehouse, R. J. S.; Marten, K. V.: Prediction of time-evolving sand ripples in shelf seas. Continental Shelf Research 2012, 38, 47-62

  6. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was designed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the performance of spacecraft materials, components, and systems that have been exposed to the environment of micrometeoroids and space debris for an extended period of time. The LDEF proved invaluable to the development of future spacecraft and the International Space Station (ISS). The LDEF carried 57 science and technology experiments, the work of more than 200 investigators. MSFC`s experiments included: Trapped Proton Energy Determination to determine protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field and the impact of radiation particles; Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment which measures the linear energy transfer spectrum behind different shielding configurations; Atomic oxygen-Simulated Out-gassing, an experiment that exposes thermal control surfaces to atomic oxygen to measure the damaging out-gassed products; Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the shuttle induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces; Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe Experiment, to evaluate the zero-gravity performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules and their ability to transport large quantities of heat; Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment to examine the effects of space on mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of lightweight solar array materials; and the Effects of Solar Radiation on Glasses. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger's STS-41C mission April 6, 1984, the LDEF remained in orbit for five years until January 1990 when it was retrieved by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia STS-32 mission and brought back to Earth for close examination and analysis.

  7. Infrared Low Temperature Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Spuckler, C. M.; Lucci, B. L.; Camperchioli, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer distributions obtained using an infrared camera technique are described. Infrared thermography was used because noncontact surface temperature measurements were desired. Surface temperatures were 80 C or less. Tests were conducted in a three vane linear cascade, with inlet pressures between 0.14 and 1.02 atm., and exit Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.9, for turbulence intensities of approximately 1 and 10%. Measurements were taken on the vane suction side, and on the pressure side leading edge region. The designs for both the vane and test facility are discussed. The approach used to account for conduction within the vane is described. Midspan heat transfer distributions are given for the range of test conditions.

  8. Development of High-Field ST Merging Experiment: TS-U for High Power Reconnection Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Y.; Koike, H.; Tanabe, H.; Himeno, S.; Ishida, S.; Kimura, K.; Kawanami, M.; Narita, M.; Takahata, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Inomoto, M.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2016-10-01

    We are developing high-magnetic field ST merging/ reconnection experiment TS-U with Brec = 0.3-0.5T, based on our scaling law of reconnection heating energy proportional to square of the reconnecting (poloidal) magnetic field Brec. This scaling law indicates that the high-Brec ST merging will heat ions to the burning plasma regime without using any additional heating facility. Its mechanism is that the reconnection outflow accelerates mainly ions up to the poloidal Alfven speed like the Sweet-Parker model. The shock-like density pileups thermalize the accelerated ions in the down-streams in agreement with recent solar satellite observations and PIC simulation results. We already documented significant ion heating of spheromak and ST mergings up to 0.25keV in TS-3 and 1.2keV in MAST, leading us to the high-Brec merging experiment TS-U. It is noted that high-resolution (>500 channel) 2D measurements of ion and electron temperatures is being developed for the purpose of solving all acceleration and heating effects of magnetic reconnection, such as the huge outflow heating of ions in the downstream and electron heating localized at the X-point.

  9. The polar-ionosphere phenomena induced by high-power radio waves from the spear heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kornienko, V. A.; Janzhura, A. S.; Kalishin, A. S.; Robinson, T. R.; Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Baddeley, L. J.

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of specific features in the behavior of small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs) and the DM component in the spectra of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE). Analysis of experimental data shows that AFAIs in the polar ionosphere are generated under different background geophysical conditions (season, local time, the presence of sporadic layers in the E region, etc.). It is shown that AFAIs can be excited not only in the F region, but also in “thick” sporadic E s layers of the polar ionosphere. The AFAIs were observed in some cycles of heating when the HF heater frequency exceeded the critical frequency by 0.3-0.5 MHz. Propagation paths of diagnostic HF radio waves scattered by AFAIs were modelled for geophysical conditions prevailing during the SPEAR heating experiments. Two components, namely, a narrow-banded one with a Doppler-spectrum width of up to 2 Hz and a broadband one observed in a band of up to 20 Hz, were found in the sporadic E s layer during the AFAI excitation. Analysis of the SEE spectra shows that the behavior of the DM component in time is irregular, which is possibly due to strong variations in the critical frequency of the F 2 layer from 3.5 to 4.6 MHz. An interesting feature observed in the SPEAR heating experiments is that the generation of the DM component was similar to the excitation of AFAIs when the heater frequency was up to 0.5 MHz higher than the critical frequency.

  10. Results of 30 kWt Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-30) primary heat transport testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Kevin; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvil, Pat; Reid, Bob

    2001-02-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Safe Affordable Fission Engine-30 kilowatt (SAFE30) test article are being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments to date, and describes the additional testing that will be performed. Recommendations related to the design of testable space fission power and propulsion systems are made. .

  11. HOST turbine heat transfer subproject overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental part of the turbine heat transfer subproject consists of six large experiments, which are highlighted in this overview, and three of somewhat more modest scope. One of the initial efforts was the stator airfoil heat transfer program. The non-film cooled and the showerhead film cooled data have already been reported. The gill region film cooling effort is currently underway. The investigation of secondary flows in a 90 deg curved duct, was completed. The first phase examined flows with a relatively thin inlet boundary layer and low free stream turbulence. The second phase studied a thicker inlet boundary layer and higher free stream turbulence. A comparison of analytical and experimental cross flow velocity vectors is shown for the 60 deg plane. Two experiments were also conducted in the high pressure facility. One examined full coverage film cooled vanes, and the other, advanced instrumentation. The other three large experimental efforts were conducted in a rotation reference frame. An experiment to obtain gas path airfoil heat transfer coefficients in the large, low speed turbine was completed. Single-stage data with both high and low-inlet turbulence were taken. The second phase examined a one and one-half stage turbine and focused on the second vane row. Under phase 3 aerodynamic quantities such as interrow time-averaged and rms values of velocity, flow angle, inlet turbulence, and surface pressure distribution were measured.

  12. Heat Flow Measurement and Analysis of Thermal Vacuum Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laa, C.; Hirschl, C.; Stipsitz, J.

    2008-03-01

    A new kind of calorimeter has been developed at Austrian Aerospace to measure specific material parameters needed for the analysis of thermal vacuum insulation. A detailed description of the measuring device and the measurement results will be given in this paper. This calorimeter facility allows to measure the heat flow through the insulation under vacuum conditions in a wide temperature range from liquid nitrogen to ambient. Both boundary temperatures can be chosen within this range. Furthermore the insulation can be characterized at high vacuum or under degraded vacuum, the latter is simulated by using helium or nitrogen gas. The mechanisms of heat transfer have been investigated, namely infrared radiation between the reflective layers of the insulation and conduction through the interleaving spacer material. A mathematical description of the heat flow through the insulation has been derived. Based on this, the heat flow for a typical insulation material has been calculated by finite element analysis by use of the sotware tool Ansys®. Such a transient calculation is needed to determine the time to reach thermal equilibrium, which is mandatory for a proper interpretation and evaluation of the measurement. The new insulation measurement results combined with the proposed type of analysis can be applied to better understand the thermal behavior of any kind of cryogenic system.

  13. Testing of refrigerant mixtures in residential heat pumps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, J.F.; Radermacher, R.

    1995-08-01

    To contribute to finding the proper substitute for R-22, a test facility was designed and built to measure the steady state and cyclic performance of two air-to-air heat pumps of 2 & 3 refrigeration-ton (RT) capacity. The performance of heat pumps is evaluated based on ASHRAE Standard 116-1983 {open_quotes}Method of Testing for Seasonal Efficiency of Unitary Air-conditioners and Heat Pumps{close_quotes} (47). This standard includes six steady-state tests; three cooling tests (A, B, and C) and three heating tests (High Temperature (47S), Frost Accumulation (35F), and Low Temperature (17L)). The standard also includes two cyclic tests; a cyclic cooling test (D)more » and a cyclic heating test (47C). The results of these tests are used to evaluate the seasonal performance of a heat pump. In the work presented here, two heat pumps (test units) are used. Test unit 1 is a 2 RT split heat pump system using a reciprocating compressor, a short tube, and a thermostatic expansion valve. Test unit 2 is a 3 RT split heat pump system using a scroll compressor and two thermostatic expansion valves. This study investigates four different possibilities for replacing R-22 with R-32/125/134a (30/10/60 wt.%) (Mixture 1) or R-32/125/134a (23/25/52 wt.%) (Mixture 2). The first and simplest scenario is the retrofit with no hardware modifications. The second possibility investigated is altering the refrigerant path to attain a near-counterflow configuration in the indoor coil for the heating mode. The third and most complex possibility is the soft optimization which consists of maximizing the COPs of R-22 and Mixture 2 in the heating and cooling modes by optimizing refrigerant charge and expansion devices. The fourth option investigated is the suction-line heat exchange (SLHX). In unit 1, the first, second, and third scenarios are investigated and in unit 2, the first, second, and fourth scenarios are investigated.« less

  14. High power heating of magnetic reconnection in merging tokamak experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Gi, K.

    2015-05-15

    Significant ion/electron heating of magnetic reconnection up to 1.2 keV was documented in two spherical tokamak plasma merging experiment on MAST with the significantly large Reynolds number R∼10{sup 5}. Measured 1D/2D contours of ion and electron temperatures reveal clearly energy-conversion mechanisms of magnetic reconnection: huge outflow heating of ions in the downstream and localized heating of electrons at the X-point. Ions are accelerated up to the order of poloidal Alfven speed in the reconnection outflow region and are thermalized by fast shock-like density pileups formed in the downstreams, in agreement with recent solar satellite observations and PIC simulation results. The magneticmore » reconnection efficiently converts the reconnecting (poloidal) magnetic energy mostly into ion thermal energy through the outflow, causing the reconnection heating energy proportional to square of the reconnecting (poloidal) magnetic field B{sub rec}{sup 2}  ∼  B{sub p}{sup 2}. The guide toroidal field B{sub t} does not affect the bulk heating of ions and electrons, probably because the reconnection/outflow speeds are determined mostly by the external driven inflow by the help of another fast reconnection mechanism: intermittent sheet ejection. The localized electron heating at the X-point increases sharply with the guide toroidal field B{sub t}, probably because the toroidal field increases electron confinement and acceleration length along the X-line. 2D measurements of magnetic field and temperatures in the TS-3 tokamak merging experiment also reveal the detailed reconnection heating mechanisms mentioned above. The high-power heating of tokamak merging is useful not only for laboratory study of reconnection but also for economical startup and heating of tokamak plasmas. The MAST/TS-3 tokamak merging with B{sub p} > 0.4 T will enables us to heat the plasma to the alpha heating regime: T{sub i} > 5 keV without using any additional heating

  15. Large-scale testing of in-vessel debris cooling through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel in the CYBL facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Bergeron, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    The possibility of achieving in-vessel core retention by flooding the reactor cavity, or the ``flooded cavity``, is an accident management concept currently under consideration for advanced light water reactors (ALWR), as well as for existing light water reactors (LWR). The CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility is a facility specifically designed to perform large-scale confirmatory testing of the flooded cavity concept. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner 3.7 m diameter tank simulates the reactor vessel, and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. The energy deposition on the bottom head is simulated with an array of radiant heaters. The array canmore » deliver a tailored heat flux distribution corresponding to that resulting from core melt convection. The present paper provides a detailed description of the capabilities of the facility, as well as results of recent experiments with heat flux in the range of interest to those required for in-vessel retention in typical ALWRs. The paper concludes with a discussion of other experiments for the flooded cavity applications.« less

  16. Cryogenic and thermal design for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Brooks, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The 1-meter class cryogenically cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) planned by NASA, is scheduled for a 1992 launch. SIRTF would be deployed from the Shuttle, and placed into a sun synchronous polar orbit of 700 km. The facility has been defined for a mission with a minimum initial lifetime of one year in orbit with mission extension that could be made possible through in-orbit servicing of the superfluid helium cryogenic system, and use of a thermal control system. The superfluid dewar would use an orbital disconnect system for the tank supports, and vapor cooling of the barrel baffle. The transient analysis of the design shows that the superfluid helium tank with no active feedback comes within temperature requirements for the nominal orbital aperture heat load, quiescent instrument, and chopper conditions.

  17. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardousmore » material training.« less

  18. Testing the Shuttle heat-protection armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strouhal, G.; Tillian, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The article deals with the thermal protection system (TPS) designed to keep Space Shuttle structures at 350 F ratings over a wide range of temperatures encountered in orbit, but also during prelaunch, launch, deorbit and re-entry, landing and turnaround. The structure, function, fabrication, and bonding of various types of reusable surface insulation and composite materials are described. Test programs are developed for insulation, seals, and adhesion bonds; leak tests and acoustic fatigue tests are mentioned. Test facilities include arc jets, radiant heaters, furnaces, and heated tunnels. The certification tests to demonstrate TPS reusability, structural integrity, thermal performance, and endurance will include full-scale assembly tests and initial orbital flight tests.

  19. Phoenix Spacecraft Heat Shield Deployment Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-16

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers monitor the Phoenix spacecraft during a heat shield deployment test, with a firing of ordnance associated with the separation device. Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. Landing is planned in May 2008 on arctic ground where a mission currently in orbit, Mars Odyssey, has detected high concentrations of ice just beneath the top layer of soil. Launch of Phoenix aboard a Delta II rocket is targeted for Aug. 3 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  20. Comparison of Heat Flux Gages for High Enthalpy Flows - NASA Ames and IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehle, Stefan; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg; Fasoulas, Stefanos; Martinez, Edward; Raiche, George

    2016-01-01

    This article is a companion to a paper on heat flux measurements as initiated under a Space Act Agreement in 2011. The current focus of this collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of the University of Stuttgart and NASA Ames Research Center is the comparison and refinement of diagnostic measurements. A first experimental campaign to test different heat flux gages in the NASA Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) and the Plasmawindkanaele (PWK) at IRS was established. This paper focuses on the results of the measurements conducted at IRS. The tested gages included a at face and hemispherical probe head, a 4" hemispherical slug calorimeter, a null-point calorimeter from Ames and a null-point calorimeter developed for this purpose at IRS. The Ames null-point calorimeter was unfortunately defective upon arrival. The measured heat fluxes agree fairly well with each other. The reason for discrepancies can be attributed to signal-to-noise levels and the probe geometry.