Science.gov

Sample records for el-bagre colombia south

  1. South American pemphigus foliaceus: study of an epidemic in El Bagre and Nechi, Colombia 1982 to 1986.

    PubMed

    Robledo, M A; Prada, S; Jaramillo, D; Leon, W

    1988-06-01

    Between 1982 and 1986 we have had the chance to study 21 patients with pemphigus foliaceus of the 'fogo selvagem' type. The patients came from El Bagre and Nechi, rural areas of Colombia with some gold mining. This is the first outbreak of South American pemphigus foliaceus reported in Colombia. The majority of the patients were mestizo men, who worked as farmers or miners or both, with an average age of 44. Five patients were relatives. Eleven patients (52%) had mild disease, three (14%) moderate disease and seven (33%) severe disease. During hospitalization, three patients died due to complications or as a result of immunosuppressive treatment. Of the remaining 18 patients, 10 were in remission with treatment, one was in remission without treatment, while no information was available on the remaining seven. PMID:3401411

  2. Colombia.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers. PMID:12177933

  3. Colombia.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers.

  4. Evaluation of water and energy budgets over Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan; Hoyos-Rincón, Isabel; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The study presents a dataset intercomparison of reanalyses, data from other authors, and one regional climate model applied over South America with special focus on the hydrological cycle and the surface energy budget. The model simulated the 41 years from 1960 to 2000 by using quasi-observed boundary conditions derived from ECMWF re-analysis (ERA). The intercomparison focuses on one large catchment covering an area of major research interest within Colombia. The variables used are monthly mean surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge. From the modelling perspective, the potential advantages of such comparative analyses are to provide information about model performance, enhance the understanding of hydrological behavior in a systematic dataset comparison framework, characterize consistencies and differences in datasets, and identify the requirements for catchment-scale hydrological models to reliably simulate future behavior.

  5. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control.

  6. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  7. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  8. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  9. The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    James, K.H.

    1996-08-01

    A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

  10. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

    2003-09-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types.

  14. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  15. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  16. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  17. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia.

  18. Oceanographic coral records from South Western Caribbean: Isla Fuerte, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Qiceno, M.; Hughen, K.; Urrego, L.

    2009-04-01

    The southwestern corner of the Caribbean Sea is considered a coastal warm pool oceanographically linked to the Panama Colombia Gyre. The atmosphere - ocean variability there is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZC), the Andean river runoff, the northeasterly trade winds, and a tropical low level jet (San Andrés jet), all of them connected to global variability. This warm pool has a significant (>95%) warming trend (0.6°C between 1981 and 2000), with the warmest record just in front of the Sinu River, where Isla Fuerte is located, 11 km from the coast, to the western of Sinu Delta. Sea surface temperature (SST) and the Multivariate ENSO index have a significant (>95%) correlation of 0.4 with a 7 months lag. The Sinu River flow does not show a long trend between 1985 and 2000, but has a significant correlation with ENSO (0.5) with no lag. Two corals from Isla Fuerte, a Siderastrea siderea colony with a maximum length of 72.5 cm and a Montastrea annularis colony of 30.5 cm, were studied in order to test the climatic potential of these records and to understand the oceanographic variability at the SW Caribbean. Fluorescence has better resolution than density bands in both corals. Chronology based on them indicates an age of 127 and 32 years respectively. We present and discuss growth and Sr/Ca series. The signal is produced by the interaction between the river flow and local winds. The river reaches the island when northeastern winds deflect their plume to the east. However, there are not in situ instrumental records for calibration and interpretation of the signals and we used world data bases with low spatial resolution.

  19. Phylogenetic evidence of a new canine distemper virus lineage among domestic dogs in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2014-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America. PMID:24950886

  20. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations

  1. Direct genotyping of animal and human isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Colombia (South America).

    PubMed

    Gallego, Carolina; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2006-02-01

    Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the main genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (SAG2 types I, II, and III) associated with humans, cats, birds and guinea pig toxoplasmosis in Colombia. This typing was directly performed on clinical samples and autopsy material from human or animals. A total of 50 from 146 samples were positive by specific B1 Toxoplasma PCR assay and then were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in PCR-amplified SAG2 products. Characterization of the SAG2 gene was successful in 33 (66%) of the samples. Genotyping indicated that 31 (93.9%) were SAG2 type I, 1 was SAG2 type III and 1 was atypical. In birds and cats all samples were SAG2 type I. Results support a predominance of the Toxoplasma SAG2 type I circulating in human and animals in South America.

  2. Mercury in environmental samples from a waterbody contaminated by gold mining in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Olivero, J; Solano, B

    1998-06-30

    Environmental samples from a marsh, which receives mercury discharges from a gold mine in Colombia (South America), were evaluated for total mercury content. Mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediments, macrophytes and fish species from different trophic levels. The Mean mercury levels in sediments oscillated between 140 and 355 micrograms/kg whereas in the macrophyte Eichornia crassipes levels were between 219 and 277 microgram/kg with practically no interseasonal variations. The mercury content in the muscle of fish varied depending on the position in the trophic chain and the feeding habits of each species, oscillating between non-detectable (< 7.4 microgram/kg) and 1084 micrograms/kg. Seasonal variations were only observed in fish species whose habitats are mostly the bottom sediment. The presence of mercury in some fish appeared to be the result of bioaccumulation rather than a biomagnification processes. This was clearly evidenced in the detritivorous species Triportheus magdalenae which obtain their food within the sediments and whose mercury concentrations were significantly higher when compared to the other species including carnivorous. The relatively low mercury concentrations found in fish may be due to both the dispersion of the contaminant once it reaches the waterbody and the migrational characteristics of the fish species. PMID:9695173

  3. The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Sandownids are a group of Early Cretaceous-Paleocene turtles that for several decades have been only known by cranial and very fragmentary postcranial elements. Here I report and describe the most complete sandownid turtle known so far, including articulated skull, lower jaw and postcranial elements, from the Early Cretaceous (upper Barremian-lower Aptian, >120 Ma), Paja Formation, Villa de Leyva town, Colombia. The new Colombian sandownid is defined here as Leyvachelys cipadi new genus, new species and because of its almost identical skull morphology with a previously reported turtle from the Glen Rose Formation, Texas, USA, both are grouped in a single and officially (ICNZ rules) defined taxon. Phylogenetic analysis including L. cipadi supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae, as belonging to the large and recently redefined Pan-Chelonioidea clade. The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers. Leyvachelys cipadi not only constitutes the first record of sandowinds in South America, but also the earliest global record for the group. PMID:26713227

  4. The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sandownids are a group of Early Cretaceous-Paleocene turtles that for several decades have been only known by cranial and very fragmentary postcranial elements. Here I report and describe the most complete sandownid turtle known so far, including articulated skull, lower jaw and postcranial elements, from the Early Cretaceous (upper Barremian-lower Aptian, >120 Ma), Paja Formation, Villa de Leyva town, Colombia. The new Colombian sandownid is defined here as Leyvachelys cipadi new genus, new species and because of its almost identical skull morphology with a previously reported turtle from the Glen Rose Formation, Texas, USA, both are grouped in a single and officially (ICNZ rules) defined taxon. Phylogenetic analysis including L. cipadi supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae, as belonging to the large and recently redefined Pan-Chelonioidea clade. The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers. Leyvachelys cipadi not only constitutes the first record of sandowinds in South America, but also the earliest global record for the group. PMID:26713227

  5. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-02-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the implementation of teacher education that aims at those objectives. None of these countries have rigorous selection criteria for candidates for science teacher education programs, although each has some type of certification or test requirement before entry into the public education system is permitted. The three countries have similar teacher training programs, with instruction programs lasting between 4 and 5 years; programs entail both disciplinary instruction and pedagogical instruction that starts in the first year. Data from the three countries show that a high percentage of instruction in the training programs is devoted to general pedagogy with less instruction time devoted to specific preparation for teaching science. Disciplinary instruction accounts for nearly 50 % of the instruction program among secondary teachers. Training in other subjects such as nature of science, history of science and scientific inquiry is poorly developed. In general, there are few opportunities for research on practicum, as these opportunities tend to occur at the end of the training program. The generation of instruction standards by governments as well as the increase in the number of scholars dedicated to the investigation of science education and the education of science teachers suggests that some of these shortcomings could be remedied in the future.

  6. Genetic and biologic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E; Bedoya, Angela; Lora, Fabiana; Vianna, M C B; Hill, D; Kwok, O C H; Shen, S K; Marcet, P L; Lehmann, T

    2005-11-25

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 77 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Colombia, South America was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in 32 (44.4%) of 72 chickens with titers of 1:5 in 4, 1:10 in 3, 1:20 in 1, 1:40 in 1, 1:80 in 8, 1:160 in 8, 1:320 in 3, and 1:640 or higher in 4. Hearts and brains of 31 seropositive chickens were pooled and bioassayed in mice. Tissues from 32 (16+16) seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to two, T. gondii-free cats, and tissues from nine chickens without matching sera were fed to one T. gondii-free cat. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. T. gondii oocysts were excreted by a cat that was fed tissues of 16 seronegative chickens. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 23 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from 16 of the 23 isolates died of toxoplasmosis. Overall, 82 (81.1%) of 101 mice that became infected after inoculation with chicken tissues died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 24 isolates using polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus indicated that seven T. gondii isolates were Type I, 17 were Type III, and none was Type II. Phenotypically, T. gondii isolates from chickens from Colombia were similar to isolates from Brazil but different from the isolates from North America; most isolates from chickens from Brazil and Colombia were lethal for mice whereas isolates from North America did not kill inoculated mice. Genetically, none of the T. gondii isolates from Colombia and Brazil was SAG2 Type II, whereas most isolates from chickens from North America were Type II. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Colombia, South America.

  7. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  8. Measuring homonegativity: psychometric analysis of Herek's attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG) in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alexander; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    The empirical study of negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian people (homonegativity) is a way to understand the reason for its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG). A total of 359 undergraduate students were recruited from two different cities in Colombia, South America. Participants' attitudes toward gays and lesbian people were assessed using the ATLG Scale and the Homophobia Scale; anxiety was measured using a short version of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Internal consistency analyses have shown that the ATLG Scale is a reliable measure of homonegativity in a Colombian sample. In addition, principal components analyses, as well as convergent and divergent validity analyses have confirmed that the ATLG Scale is a valid and reliable measure of homonegativity in the Colombian context and support its use as a research instrument. PMID:25569818

  9. Measuring homonegativity: psychometric analysis of Herek's attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG) in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alexander; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    The empirical study of negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian people (homonegativity) is a way to understand the reason for its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG). A total of 359 undergraduate students were recruited from two different cities in Colombia, South America. Participants' attitudes toward gays and lesbian people were assessed using the ATLG Scale and the Homophobia Scale; anxiety was measured using a short version of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Internal consistency analyses have shown that the ATLG Scale is a reliable measure of homonegativity in a Colombian sample. In addition, principal components analyses, as well as convergent and divergent validity analyses have confirmed that the ATLG Scale is a valid and reliable measure of homonegativity in the Colombian context and support its use as a research instrument.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

  11. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  12. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. PMID:26921813

  13. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Cali, Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Fernando; Les, Jessica T; Agudelo, Alejandro; Villalobos, Carlos; Chaves, José A; Tunubala, Gloria Anais; Messa, Adriana; Remington, Jack S; Montoya, José G

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies among pregnant women in Cali, Colombia. In 2005, 955 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and sociodemographic information was collected. Their average age was 25.1 years, overall IgG seroprevalence 45.8% (95% CI: 41.8%, 48.2%), IgM 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5%, 3.6%). Seroprevalence increased significantly with age, 39.0% in 14 to 19 years to 55.3% in 30 to 39 years (P = 0.001). There was a significant trend toward a higher seroprevalence in the lower socioeconomic strata (SES) (low: 49.0%, high: 29%, P = 0.004). The increase in seroprevalence by age was more significant in the lower socioeconomic strata (P = 0.002). Our results suggest a higher prevalence when compared with those of the national 1980 (33-37.6%) survey. In contrast to reports from other regions of the world, Cali has not seen a decrease in T. gondii seroprevalence over the past 25 years.

  14. Human exposure to mercury in San Jorge river basin, Colombia (South America).

    PubMed

    Olivero, Jesus; Johnson, Boris; Arguello, Eduardo

    2002-04-22

    During May-September 1999 human hair samples were collected from the village of Caimito, a fishing community of the state of Sucre (Colombia), in the San Jorge River basin area, and analyzed for total mercury (t-Hg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg was measured in both male and female people aged 15-65 years, whose diet mainly consists of fish collected in nearby marshes. Average hair t-Hg concentration in people from Caimito was 4.91 +/- 0.55 microg/g (n = 94), similar to the value previously detected in fishermen living in the gold mining area, 50 km east. Males had similar t-Hg concentrations (4.31 +/- 0.42 microg/g; n = 56) to females (5.78 +/- 1.21 microg/g; n = 38) and there was no difference in t-Hg levels between groups of different age. Mercury content in hair was weakly but significantly associated (R = 0.20, P = 0.05) with fish consumption. PMID:12049405

  15. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; López, Sergio A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis of the relationship between monthly mean sea level anomalies near the deltas related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); (4) development of a database of key physical variables; (5) series of correlation calculations to examine which environmental factors control delta morphology; (6) analysis of shoreline changes for the 1986-2000 yr-period; and (7) classification of each delta system based on the relationship between water and sediment discharges and wave and tidal energies. Overall, Colombian deltas are built under destructive physical conditions. The Pacific deltas, San Juan, Mira, and Patía, are tide-influenced deltas although they exhibit definite characteristics of wave-dominated systems such as the presence of barriers and beach ridges. Also, these deltas exhibit the highest marine energy conditions of all Colombian deltas (marine power values between 9.1 and 11.6) due to the interplay of (1) moderate wave conditions as a result of the effect of swells from the SW with a significant height varying from 1.7 in the San Juan delta to 3.0 m and 3.1 m in the Mira and Patía deltas, respectively; (2) meso-tidal ranges; (3) steep subaqueous profiles; (4) low attenuation indexes of deep-water waves; and (5) strong oceanographic manifestations associated with the ENSO, causing regional sea level rises of 20-44 cm during El Niño events. The Caribbean deltas, Magdalena, Sinú and to a lesser extent, the Atrato, are wave-influenced deltas. The Magdalena, with deep and nearshore wave power values of 45 × 10 6 erg s -1 and 35 × 10 6 erg s -1

  16. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities. PMID:25354433

  17. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  18. Cenozoic tectonic evolution leading to the Choco-South America collision (Panama-Colombia), from seismic profiles interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, F.; Maurin, T.; Auxietre, J.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Salmon, P.; Sosson, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Choco Block is located in eastern Panama and western Colombia, at the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and is mainly characterized by a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic arc overlying the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This block was accreted to South American plate (SAP) during Middle to Late Miocene. Geological, chronological and structural data are scarce in the Choco Block. Our study aims at reconstructing the evolution at a local scale, to provide new constraints to the regional scale tectonic processes that have occurred since the Paleogene. In that perspective, we have interpreted offshore seismic reflection profiles. This interpretation was supported by biostratigraphic data from two wells. We focused our studies in the Uraba Gulf area, a triple junction between the Choco Block, the SAP and the Caribbean oceanic plateau. This poorly understood zone offers rare observation of two accretionary wedges, the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), and the Sinu Belt, located at the margins of the Choco Block and the SAP, respectively. They are the results of two opposite convergent zones, and collide along the active Uramita strike-slip Fault Zone (UFZ), a suture zone between the Choco Block and the SAP. This area may provide information on the ages of both accretionary wedges, on the tectonic processes responsible for the disappearance of the CP, and on the late formation of the Choco Block. Our results evidence a northward propagating deformation along the Choco Block, miocene or older in the South of the Uraba Gulf, pliocene in the North of the Uraba Gulf, and active along the northern margin of Panama. This deformation is the result of the progressive accretion of Choco Block along the SAP. At the Uraba triple junction, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited since late Miocene. North verging progradations suggest that sediments came from the drainage of the western cordillera of Colombia by a Paleo-Sinu river and actual Atrato river

  19. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  20. A 5000 Year Record of Andean South American Summer Monsoon Variability from Laguna de Ubaque, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, O. M.; Bird, B. W.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of Northern Hemisphere South American summer monsoon (SASM) dynamics during the Holocene has been limited by the small number of terrestrial paleoclimate records from this region. In order to increase our knowledge of SASM variability and to better inform our predictions of its response to ongoing rapid climate change, we require high-resolution paleoclimate records from the Northern Hemisphere Andes. To this end, we present sub-decadally resolved sedimentological and geochemical data from Laguna de Ubaque that spans the last 5000 years. Located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, Laguna de Ubaque (2070 m asl) is a small, east facing moraine-dammed lake in the upper part of the Rio Meta watershed near Bogotá containing finely laminated clastic sediments. Dry bulk density, %organic matter, %carbonate and magnetic susceptibility (MS) results from Ubaque suggest a period of intense precipitation between 3500 and 2000 years BP interrupted by a 300 yr dry interval centered at 2700 years BP. Following this event, generally drier conditions characterize the last 2000 years. Although considerably lower amplitude than the middle Holocene pluvial events, variability in the sedimentological data support climatic responses during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) and Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE) that are consistent with other records of local Andean conditions. In particular, reduced MS during the MCA suggests a reduction in terrestrial material being washed into the lake as a result of generally drier conditions. The LIA on the other hand shows a two phase structure with increased MS between 1450 and 1600 CE, suggesting wetter conditions during the onset of the LIA, and reduced MS between 1600 and 1900 CE, suggesting a return to drier conditions during the latter part of the LIA. These LIA trends are similar to the Quelccaya accumulation record, possibly supporting an in-phase relationship between the South American

  1. Chemical Mineralogy, Geochemical Characterization and Petrography of the Cambumbia Stock, Northern Andes, South America, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Lequerica, Salvador; María Jaramillo Mejía, José; Concha Perdomo, Ana Elena; Jimenez Quintero, Camilo

    2013-04-01

    The Cambumbia Stock is located on the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the northern Andes, South America. The goals of this study were to characterize the mineral chemistry, the geochemical composition and the petrography of the Cambumbia igneous body and to establish its petrogenesis. We collected 41 samples, selected 28 for thin section petrographic analysis, 14 for whole rock elementary chemical determination by ICP-MS and 4 for chemical mineralogy by LA-ICP(JEOL JXA-8200). Petrographically the samples were classified as 30 % hornblende-gabbro, 30% pyroxene-gabbros, 10% diorites, 10% olivine-gabbro, 7% gabbronorites, 7% tonalities and 3% norite, 3% wehrlite, the rock varies from medium to coarse hipidiomorfic and holocristaline texture, with local microporfiritic texture. Spot elemental chemical analysis of the some minerals in 4 samples show the range of the major elemental composition is plagioclase (labradorite), clinopyroxene (augite), horblende (magnesiohornblende), olivine (fayalite())Chemical mineralogy shows the variety of minerals in this rock, essential minerals correspond to bytownite, augite, magnesio-honblende, fallaite and titanite. We conclude base on the SiO2 Vs Total Alkalis graph that the samples correspond to the sub-alkaline series with low K content, mainly in the calc-alkaline series. By using the SiO2 vs TiO2, Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb and Zr/117-Th-Nb/16 diagrams it was determined that these rocks were generated in two geotectonic environments: one type MOR (extension) and other island arc (subduction, compression). Recently, a U/Pb age was obtained by the Universidad de Caldas in zircon in 2009 (not published data), yielded an age of 233.41 ± 3.4 Ma (Carnian - Upper Triassic). Petrographic geochemical and geochronology comparisons between the rocks of Cambumbia Stock and Diorite and Gabbro El Pueblito (located about 25 km to the north-west) and with U/Pb age 231 ± 8 may postulate a possible genetic link between them. These ages are

  2. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  3. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  4. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions.

  5. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.

  6. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies. PMID:25504253

  7. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  8. Tectonomagmatic setting and provenance of the Santa Marta Schists, northern Colombia: Insights on the growth and approach of Cretaceous Caribbean oceanic terranes to the South American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; García-Casco, A.; Ojeda, G.; Ruiz, J.; Saldarriaga, M.; Weber, M.

    2010-10-01

    Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/ 86Sr-ɛ Nd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82 Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65 Ma.

  9. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices.

  10. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices. PMID:26245782

  11. Preliminary results of sequential monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in Colombia, South America, using ground penetrating radar and botany.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection.

  12. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life Trajectories over the First Year after Stroke in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alejandra Morlett; Landa, Laiene Olabarrieta; Chagualá, Amilkar Calderón; Peralta, Helmer Chacón; Torres, Gina Vergara; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND Stroke is the second most common cause of death around the world, and little is known about long-term HRQOL outcomes for Latino American individuals after stroke. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the study is to compare HRQOL trajectories in stroke survivors to a group of healthy controls from Colombia first year post-stroke. METHODS Forty individuals diagnosed with stroke and 50 controls were recruited from the Psychological Attention Center of Antonio Nariño University. RESULTS Hierarchical linear models suggested that trajectories of all eight indices of HRQOL were lower over time in stroke individuals compared to controls. Stroke patients showed gains in the HRQOL domains of physical functioning, role limitations - physical, role limitations - emotional, pain, and social functioning, although only pain in stroke individuals approached that of controls at 12 months. Despite these improvements, seven of the eight indices of HRQOL in stroke individuals remained very low over time, suggesting that the vast majority of rehabilitation gains in HRQOL, even when present, were extremely limited. CONCLUSIONS The current findings suggest a need in Latin America for mental health services after stroke, as well as other interventions designed to increase social and family support, which may thereby improve mental health.

  14. Bd on the beach: high prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island (Colombia, South America).

    PubMed

    Flechas, Sandra Victoria; Sarmiento, Carolina; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2012-09-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has been implicated in the decimation and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide, especially at mid and high elevations. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the pathogen in the lowlands from Australia and Central America. We extend here its elevational range by demonstrating its presence at the sea level, in the lowland forests of Gorgona Island, off the Pacific coast of Colombia. We conducted two field surveys, separated by four years, and diagnosed Bd by performing polymerase chain reactions on swab samples from the skin of five amphibian species. All species, including the Critically Endangered Atelopus elegans, tested positive for the pathogen, with prevalences between 3.9 % in A. elegans (in 2010) and 52 % in Pristimantis achatinus. Clinical signs of chytridiomycosis were not detected in any species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. dendrobatidis in tropical lowlands at sea level, where temperatures may exceed optimal growth temperatures of this pathogen. This finding highlights the need to understand the mechanisms allowing the interaction between frogs and pathogen in lowland ecosystems. PMID:22669408

  15. A new species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 from South America with a synopsis of the known species of the subgenus in Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure in Colombia is presented. The species identified are Centris ferruginea Lepeletier, C. lutea Friese and C. aureiventris, a new species from the Colombian Andes. Morphological characters of both sexes, distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in Colombia are provided.

  16. The Garzón Massif, Colombia-a new ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic complex in the Early Neoproterozoic of northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenberger, U.; Mejia Jimenez, D. M.; Günter, C.; Sierra Rodriguez, G. I.; Scheffler, F.; Oberhänsli, R.

    2012-07-01

    The Garzón Complex of the Garzón Massif in SW Colombia is composed of the Vergel Granulite Unit (VG) and the Las Margaritas Migmatite Unit (LMM). Previous studies reveal peak temperature conditions for the VG of about 740 °C. The present study considers the remarkable exsolution phenomena in feldspars and pyroxenes and titanium-in-quartz thermometry. Recalculated ternary feldspar compositions indicate temperatures around 900-1,000 °C just at or above the ultra-high temperature-metamorphism (UHTM) boundary of granulites. The calculated temperatures range of exsolved ortho- and clinopyroxenes also supports the existence of an UHTM event. In addition, titanium-in-quartz thermometry points towards ultra-high temperatures. It is the first known UHTM crustal segment in the northern part of South America. Although a mean geothermal gradient of ca 38 °C km-1 could imply additional heat supply in the lower crust controlling this extreme of peak metamorphism, an alternative model is suggested. The formation of the Vergel Granulite Unit is supposed to be formed in a continental back-arc environment with a thinned and weakened crust behind a magmatic arc (Guapotón-Mancagua Gneiss) followed by collision. In contrast, rocks of the adjacent Las Margaritas Migmatite Unit display "normal" granulite facies temperatures and are formed in a colder lower crust outside the arc, preserved by the Guapotón-Mancagu Gneiss. Back-arc formation was followed by inversion and thickening of the basin. The three units that form the modern-day Garzón Massif, were juxtaposed upon each other during collision (at ca. 1,000 Ma) and exhumation. The collision leading to the deformation of the studied area is part of the Grenville orogeny leading to the amalgamation of Rodinia.

  17. Origin of a crustal splay fault and its relation to the seismogenic zone and underplating at the erosional north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Marcaillou, B.

    2008-12-01

    Splay faults within accretionary complexes are commonly associated with the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Prestack depth migration of a multichannel seismic line across the north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin images a crustal splay fault that correlates with the seaward limit of the rupture zone of the 1958 (Mw 7.7) tsunamogenic subduction earthquake. The splay fault separates 5-6.6 km/s velocity, inner wedge basement rocks, which belong to the accreted Gorgona oceanic terrane, from 4 to 5 km/s velocity outer wedge rocks. The outer wedge is dominated by basal tectonic erosion. Despite a 3-km-thick trench fill, subduction of 2-km-high seamount prevented tectonic accretion and promotes basal tectonic erosion. The low-velocity and poorly reflective subduction channel that underlies the outer wedge is associated with the aseismic, décollement thrust. Subduction channel fluids are expected to migrate upward along splay faults and alter outer wedge rocks. Conversely, duplexes are interpreted to form from and above subducting sediment, at ˜14- to 15-km depths between the overlapping seismogenic part of the splay fault and the underlying aseismic décollement. Coeval basal erosion of the outer wedge and underplating beneath the apex of inner wedge control the margin mass budget, which comes out negative. Intraoceanic basement fossil listric normal faults and a rift zone inverted in a flower structure reflect the evolution of the Gorgona terrane from Cretaceous extension to likely Eocene oblique compression. The splay faults could have resulted from tectonic inversion of listric normal faults, thus showing how inherited structures may promote fluid flow across margin basement and control seismogenesis.

  18. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks bounding the Santa Marta massif - NW corner of Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayona, G.; Jimenez, G.; Silva, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Santa Marta massif (SMM) is a complex terrain located in the NW margin of South America, bounded by the left-lateral Santa Marta fault to the west and the right-lateral Oca fault to the north. The SMM is cored by Precambrian metamorphic and Jurassic intrusive rocks, whereas along the SE flank crop out Jurassic volcanic rocks overlying unconformably by Limestones of Cretaceous age. Paleomagnetic analysis of 30 sites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous units in the SE region uncovered two principal magnetic components. The component "a", isolated in low coercivity and temperatures, has declinations to the north and moderate positive inclinations representing the actual field direction (n=11, D=347.6 I=23 K=30.77, a95=8.4). The component "c", with high coercivity and temperatures, has two orientations. After two-step tilt corrections, the first has northward declination and positive, low inclination (n=9, D=12, I=3, K=18.99, a95=12.1); this direction was uncovered in Cretaceous and some Jurassic rocks near to the Santa Marta fault, and we consider it as a Cretaceous component. The second direction was uncovered only in Jurassic rocks and has NNE declinations with negative-low inclinations (n=9, D=11.3 I=-14.3 K=12.36, a95=15.2); this direction represents a Jurassic component. Jurassic and Cretaceous directions isolated in areas faraway of the Santa Marta Fault suggest slight clockwise vertical-axes rotation. The Jurassic component suggests northward translation of the SMM from Paleolatitude -7.3, to near the magnetic equador in the Cretaceous, and to northern latitudes in the Cenozoic.

  19. Combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf dating of garnets from the Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ibanez-mejia, M.; Ganguly, J.

    2013-12-01

    Garnet-whole rock (Grt-WR) ages of metapelites determined by the Lu-Hf decay system are almost always older than those determined by the Sm-Nd system. Unambiguous interpretation of the observed age differences has been hindered by a lack of adequate information about grain size, diffusion data for Hf in garnet, and in many cases about peak metamorphic conditions and cooling rates, all of which affect the closure temperatures of these decay systems. As part of a broader study on basement rocks from the Andean Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia, we have determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Grt-WR ages of these rocks using painstakingly handpicked garnets of ~50 μm radius, and obtained ages of 1070 × 5.6 and 1007 × 2.9 Ma, respectively. By modeling the retrograde Fe-Mg zoning in garnet adjacent to biotite according to an asymptotic cooling model (1/T = 1/To + ηt) with the diffusion data from [1], an initial cooling rate of ~2-5 °C/Ma is obtained independently of the geochronological data; peak P-T conditions of ~8 kb, 675 °C are imposed by garnet-orthopyroxene thermobarometry. Using the above data in conjunction with the Nd diffusion data from [2] and Hf diffusion data from our recent study, we obtain closure temperatures for the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd decay systems in garnet of ~545-565 °C and 415-430 °C, respectively. Results from analytical solutions [3, 4] and a more flexible numerical method are found to be in good agreement with one another. The calculated difference of closure temperatures predicts a difference of ~105-40 Ma between the ages determined by the two decay systems, as compared to the observed age difference of 63 × 6 Ma. The predicted peak metamorphic age derived from the measured and calculated resetting ages of the two decay systems is between ~1030 and 1185 Ma, as compared to the Lu-Hf age of 1070 ×1.9 Ma; we are currently working to obtain U-Pb zircon ages to better constrain this peak metamorphic age. In calculating these results

  20. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  1. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  2. The diffuse seismicity of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, the Perijá Range, and south of the La Guajira peninsula, Colombia and Venezuela: Result of the convergence between Caribbean plate and the South American margin during the Late Neogene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Pedraza, P.; Mora-paez, H.; Ordonez Aristizabal, C. O.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Kammer, A.

    2012-12-01

    A diffuse low deep microseismicity located overall between the Guajira peninsula and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) was registered with the recent installation (2008 to Present) of three seismological stations in northeastern Colombia by the Colombian Seismological Network (RSNC), but mainly with the Uribia station in (the) central region of La Guajira peninsula, The microseismicity is characterized by a great population of events with 1.2 < Ml < 3.0. and few events of 3.0 < Ml < 4.0 that sporadically occur. The poor number of seismological stations in this region of Colombia impedes to locate the origin of the local seismicity; however, this seismic activity is associated to the tectonic activity of the Oca fault because with the GPS displacement analysis, neotectonics evidence found in faults traces associated to the Oca fault and the historical earthquake that affected the Colombian city of Santa Marta in 1834, lead us to conclude this. This is a big cortical fault that sets the limit between La Guajira peninsula and the SNSM. Its cortical characteristics were verified from geological data together with gravimetric and seismic exploration. The SNSM limits toward the southeast with the Cesar - Ranchería basin, and this basin in turn limits with the Perijá Range that is localized in the Colombia - Venezuela border. The SNSM, Cesar - Ranchería basin and Perijá Range limit toward the southwest with the Bucaramanga - Santa Marta fault (BSMF), the Oca fault toward the north, and Perijá - El Tigre fault toward the southeast defining a pyramidal orogenic complex. Using remote sensing images data with geological and regional geophysical information, we proposed that this orogenic complex was originated as a result of the Panama arc with the northwestern South America accretion. The final adjustment of the Caribbean plate (CP) between North America and South America during the Late Neogene produced the big cortical faults systems activation like Oca - Moron

  3. In North Ecuador - South Colombia margin (0-4°N), the sedimentation rate in the trench and the tectonic deformation co-control the location of the seismogenic zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaillou, Boris; Jean-Yves, Collot; Allessandra, Ribodetti; Elia, D'acremont

    2010-05-01

    The North Ecuador - South Colombia convergent margin shows along strike variations in tectonic, thermal and seismogenic features that offer a great opportunity to study the relation between subduction zone tectono-structure, thermal regime and location of the thermally-defined seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflections and conventional bathymetric data were collected in 2000 and 2005 during the SISTEUR and AMADEUS cruises. 6 selected lines perpendicular to the margin were processed with a pre-stack depth migration using a preserved amplitude approach (alias Ray+Born diffraction tomography). The first heat flow measurements in this area were also acquired, completed by heat flow derived from numerous bottom simulating reflectors. The margin is divided in Esmeraldas, Patia, Tumaco and Manglares segments. 1/ Tectonically, the tectonic deformation at the margin front drastically vary from North to South: The Patia segment is fronted by a 35 km- long active accretionary prism, the Tumaco segment by a less than 10 km-long active accretionary prism, no accretion occur in the Manglares segment, while the southern Esmeraldas segment undergoes a strong tectonic erosion. It is noteworthy that this regime is independent from the sediment thickness in the trench which is thinner where the prism is longer. 2/ Thermally, these segments also shows clear variations in heat flow that is, in the trench and in the lower slope, two-fold lower in the Tumaco segment than in the others. 3/ Sismogenically, large subduction earthquakes have ruptured the plate interface beneath the Manglares segment in 1958 and the Tumaco-Patia segments en 1979. Based on the aftershocks distribution and the rupture zone location, the seismogenic zone extends trenchward nearby the deformation front in the Patia-Tumaco segments but is restricted 30 km landward in the Manglares segment. The integrated interpretation of heat flow and sismic data indicate that: 1/ The thermal segmentation is mainly

  4. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  5. Viva Colombia/Colombia Viva! A Fantasy Trip for the Five Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ramirez, Lori Langer

    2006-01-01

    In the author's experience, Colombia is among the most misunderstood Spanish-speaking countries. Most of the news about Columbia involves drug trafficking or guerilla warfare, due to the many social and political problems that face the country. It is rare that the public is informed about the culture and people of this beautiful South American…

  6. State of emergency medicine in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Christian; Patiño, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Colombia is an upper-middle-income country with a population of 45 million people and one of the best national healthcare and medical education systems in South America. However, its widely diverse and difficult terrains hinder healthcare delivery to rural areas, creating disparities in healthcare access and outcomes between the urban and rural settings. Currently, emergency medical care is overwhelmingly provided by general practitioners without residency training, who obtain specialty consultations based on the medical/surgical condition identified. A few emergency medicine (EM) residency programs have sprouted over the last two decades in renowned academic institutions in the largest cities, producing high-quality EM specialists. With the establishment of EM as a specialty in 2005 and increasing recognition of the specialty, there has been an increasing demand for EM specialists in cities, which is only slowly being met by the current residencies. The critical challenges for EM in Colombia are both, establishing itself as a well-recognized specialty - by increasing academic production and reaching a critical mass of and unity among EM specialists - and providing the highest quality and safest emergency care to the people of Colombia - by improving capacity both in emergency departments and in the regional and national emergency response systems. Historically, the establishment of EM as a strongly organized specialty in other countries has spanned decades (e.g., the United States), and Colombia has been making significant progress in a similar trajectory.

  7. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  8. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included. PMID:27515626

  9. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-08-05

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included.

  10. Terrorism in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  11. Radioastronomy at the National Astronomical Observatory of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Colombia is located in the northern tip of South America close to the amazon rain forest. This makes astronomical observations in the visible range very challenging, as cloud coverage is relatively high. Hence, radio astronomy becomes a natural and good choice. We present the design, characterization and first results of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional solar radio spectrograph. This instrument is a Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna (LPDA) working between 100 MHz and 1 GHz optimized for solar observations. The radio spectrograph is a working prototype for a more ambitious solar radio interferometer, that will be the first instrument of this kind in Colombia.

  12. New records and geographical distribution of ctenid spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.

  13. Recruiting Teachers in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a system of special schools in Colombia which introduces students to teaching careers as early as the 8th grade. The Colombian system is based on a simple idea: Every student is a potential teacher. Principals talk about molding "ciudadano-pedagogos"--citizen-educators who view teaching as a way of…

  14. Situation Report--Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and…

  15. English Teaching Profile: Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Colombia discusses the role of English in the educational system and in Colombian society. The status of English as the country's first foreign language is examined. It is noted that because Spanish is sufficient for most needs and because there is a relatively small number of Colombians…

  16. [Fertility in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G

    1998-06-01

    Demography, which should be the basis for planning of any program or project, has traditionally been ignored by Colombian governments. No population statistics are available for the pre-Conquest period in Colombia. Statistics during the Colonial era were based on population counts for division of lands, taxation, and similar considerations. The first census was undertaken around 1770. Colombia's most recent census was in 1993, and another is being prepared for 2000. The censuses have been useful for development purposes despite their significant limitations of completeness and accuracy. Colombia's population in 1997 was estimated at 40,300,000, making it the third most populous country of Latin America after Brazil and Mexico. Fertility has declined considerably since 1965. Colombia's crude birth rate is believed to have exceeded 50/1000 in the 18th and 19th centuries and was estimated at 45/1000 by the Latin American Demographic Center for the first half of the 20th century. The crude birth rate was 41.3/1000 in 1968, 33.1/1000 in 1973, 30/1000 in 1980, and around 26/1000 in 1990 and 1995. The total fertility rate was estimated at 7.0 in 1960-65, 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in 1973, 3.2 in 1985, and 2.9 in 1995. Fertility declined most appreciably before 1975, but rates continue to drop in rural as well as urban areas and in all geographic zones. For Colombia as a whole the total fertility rate is 4.8 for women with less than 5 years of schooling and 2.4 for those with 8 or more years. It is 2.7 in urban and 4.4 in rural areas.

  17. The Great Tumaco, Colombia Earthquake of 12 December 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Darrell G.; Youd, T. Leslie; Meyer, Hansjurgen; Arango C., Jorge Luis; Person, Waverly J.; Mendoza, Carlos

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

  18. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  19. The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

  20. Education for a New Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    This study, one of a series of publications on education in other countries, describes all major levels and types of education in Colombia against a background of the relevant economic, cultural, and social features of that country. The first two chapters depict features of Colombia essential to understanding the context within which its…

  1. Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part II - drilling case history

    SciTech Connect

    Greener, J.M.; Trimble, G.E.; Singer, G.M.; Barnes, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Opon Gas Field development drilling case history in the Middle Magdalena Basin of north-central Colombia, South America. World class levels of drilling fluid and cementing densities in excess of 22.0 ppg were required to control the extreme pressures encountered. A continuous improvement process is detailed in regard to casing, drilling fluid, cement and related drilling mechanics programs in a severely pressured and environmentally sensitive operation.

  2. Preceramic sequences in the el abra rock-shelters, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hurt, W R; Hammen, T; Urrego, G C

    1972-03-10

    A series of crude stone artifacts, characterized by a trimming mainly of the working edge of a single face of a chert flake or a fragment of a nodule, was excavated in the El Abra rock-shelters, north of Bogotá, Colombia. The tools indicate a cultural complex distinct from others that have been described for the Paleo-Indian of South America.

  3. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children. PMID:19586926

  4. Bee pathogens found in Bombus atratus from Colombia: A case study.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Viviana; Ravoet, Jorgen; Brunain, Marleen; Smagghe, Guy; Meeus, Ivan; Figueroa, Judith; Riaño, Diego; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bombus atratus bumblebees from Colombia that were caught in the wild and from breeding programs were screened for a broad set of bee pathogens. We discovered for the first time Lake Sinai Virus and confirmed the infection by other common viruses. The prevalence of Apicystis bombi, Crithidia bombi and Nosema ceranae was remarkably high. According to other studies the former two could have been co-introduced in South America with exotic bumble bees as Bombus terrestris or Bombus ruderatus. Given the fact that none of these species occur in Colombia, our data puts a new light on the spread of these pathogens over the South American continent.

  5. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  6. Astronomy in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Peña, W. E.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy in Colombia has been done since the beginning of the nineteen century when in 1803 was built one of the oldest or maybe the older astronomical Observatory of America. This is a very beautiful, historical and ancient building. A small dome with a small telescope is also inside the university campus . The Observatory leads since then the development of astronomy in Colombia as a professional science. At the present time a Master Program and a Specialization Program are successfully carried out with a good number of smart young students. The Observatory has a staff of eleven professors all with a master degree in sciences; two of them are PhD and in a couple of years five staff members will be PhD in Physics. With some international collaboration they will shoulder in few years a doctoral astronomical program. There are several research lines mainly in the fields of Astrometry, Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy, Cosmology, Astrostatistic and Astrobiology. Three research groups have got recognition from the governmental institution that supports the research in sciences COLCIENCIAS. Several papers have been published in national and international journals. Besides the professional line in astronomy, the Observatory sponsors several non professional Colombian astronomical groups that work enthusiastically in the field of astronomy.

  7. U/Pb detrital zircon provenance from late cretaceous metamorphic units of the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia: Tectonic implications on the collision between the Caribbean arc and the South American margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Valencia, V.; García-Casco, A.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.

    2010-10-01

    Mesozoic metamorphic units exposed along the northern margin of the South American plate record the different stages of subduction evolution or arc-continent collision between the margins of the Caribbean plate and the South American continent. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology for provenance analysis was carried out on meta-sedimentary rocks of the Etpana formation and metamorphic boulders found within a nearby Tertiary conglomerate, including high-pressure rocks in the Colombian Caribbean. All samples have similar age populations, suggesting that they share a relatively common source and paleogeography. Prominent age peaks include Meso and Paleoproterozoic ages of ca. 1624 Ma and 1315 Ma, Cambrian to Neoproterozoic ages of ca. 630 Ma, 580 Ma and 547 Ma, and less abundant Jurassic and Permian ages of ca. 270 Ma and 160 Ma, which indicate that the South American margin is a major source for the sedimentary protoliths. There are also remnants of younger Cretaceous allocthonous Caribbean arc input at ca. 90-70 Ma. The deposition and metamorphism of these units records the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin within the Caribbean intra-oceanic arc-subduction zone. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates, and sediments with continental signatures were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge. As convergence continued, sediments derived from a mix of South American and arc sources were deposited and included in the collisional wedge up until <71 Ma.

  8. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain COL/Cundinamarca/2014 from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Matthew C; Lam, Ham Ching; Rovira, Albert; Marthaler, Douglas G

    2016-04-21

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been found throughout Europe and Asia, and has emerged in North and South America. A whole genome sequence was obtained from a paraffin-embedded tissue sample from the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia through Next Generation Sequencing techniques to further understand the evolution of PEDV.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain COL/Cundinamarca/2014 from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Matthew C.; Lam, Ham Ching; Rovira, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been found throughout Europe and Asia, and has emerged in North and South America. A whole genome sequence was obtained from a paraffin-embedded tissue sample from the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia through Next Generation Sequencing techniques to further understand the evolution of PEDV. PMID:27103712

  11. Potential for the use of photovoltaic systems in agricultural production and rural sector of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Neyeloff, S.

    1983-12-01

    A field study was conducted in Colombia, South America, to determine the possible market for PV power systems in rural areas. It was found that a sizeable market exists in the areas of coffee processing, beef cattle watering, domestic uses, rural telephones and rural health stations.

  12. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  13. Discoveries, financial strength lift Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia plans to play a growing role in international oil markets while expanding and privatizing its domestic gas and electricity industries. Officials intend to curb the government`s spending on energy development while increasing its energy revenues. Their plans imply growing participation in energy projects by private companies. Also certain to help attract investment capital is the country`s new standing as a world-class oil and gas province. Discovery of Cusiana oil field in 1989 and of Cupiagua oil field in 1992 added 2 billion bbl of oil and 3 tcf of gas reserves, effectively doubling Colombia`s totals. Exploration near the giant Cusiana-Cupiagua complex, in the eastern foothills of the Andes about 100 miles northeast of Bogota, has turned up an estimated 10 tcf of gas and 1 billion bbl of oil in Volcanera field and two discoveries overlying it, Florena and Pauto Sur. Colombia`s critics say that, despite its laudable economic stability and improving oil and gas prospectivity, political impediments could interfere with progress toward its lofty energy goals. The paper discusses the heightened political risks, unequal pace of reform, gas pipeline construction, gas regulations, tying gas to power, reform in the oil sector, achieving sustainable change, and the appeal to investors.

  14. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease. PMID:17162422

  15. Glaciers of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1998-01-01

    Landsat images, together with maps and aerial photographs, have been used to produce glacier inventories, define glacier locations, and study glacier dynamics in the countries of South America, along with the Andes Mountains. In Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the small glaciers have been undergoing extensive glacier recession since the late 1800's. Glacier-related hazards (outburst floods, mud flows, and debris avalanches) occur in Colombia, in Ecuador, and associated with the more extensive (2,600 km2) glaciers of Peru. The largest area of glacier ice is found in Argentina and Chile, including the northern Patagonian ice field (about 4,200 km2) and the southern Patagonian ice field (about 13,000 km2), the largest glacier in the Southern Hemisphere outside Antarctica.

  16. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  17. Joint inversion of multichannel seismic reflection and wide-angle seismic data: Improved imaging and refined velocity model of the crustal structure of the north Ecuador-south Colombia convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Collot, J.-Y.; Operto, S.

    2009-02-01

    Improving seismic imaging of the crust is essential for understanding the structural factors controlling subduction zones processes. We developed a processing work flow based on the combined analysis of multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and wide angle (WA) reflection/refraction data to derive both shallow and deep velocities suitable for prestack depth migration and to construct a blocky velocity model integrating all identifiable seismic phases contained in MCS and WA data. We apply this strategy to the study of the north Ecuador-SW Colombia subduction margin to improve the imaging and geostructural interpretation of a splay fault and surrounding outer and inner margin wedges. Results show improvements over tomographic inversion of WA data only, such as (1) sediment velocity variation across the trench and margin slope that correlates with lateral lithologic changes, tectonic compaction and effect of mass wasting processes; (2) a two-layer velocity structure of the inner wedge basement that is consistent with the crust of an oceanic plateau; (3) a complex velocity structure of the outer wedge basement that consists of a deep, high-velocity (5.0-5.5 km s-1) core and a low-velocity zone (3.8-5.0 km s-1) associated with the major splay fault; (4) a ˜1.3-km-thick, low-velocity (3.5-4.0 km s-1) subduction channel that extends beneath the margin outer wedge. Both the splay fault and subduction channel are expected to direct fluid flows; and (5) downdip velocity increase (5-6 km s-1) in the subducting oceanic crust associated with a low (7.8 km s-1) upper mantle velocity, possibly reflecting changes in rock nature or properties.

  18. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  19. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  20. Computer aided solar house design made of ``Guadua`` in Bogota, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.C.; Chalfoun, N.V.

    1995-11-01

    Bogota, Colombia, is the third highest capital in South America, its location near the equator assures high altitudes over the horizon and almost 5 hours of daily mean sunshine. Since 1981, efforts for using natural energy instead of nonrenewable fuel have been targeted to Colombia`s residential construction industry. This paper focuses on a computer aided design process for passive solar low-income row housing in Bogota. Thermal comfort for this tropical climate has been achieved through employing ``Guadua,`` a strong bamboo specie,as an alternative wall system to the traditional brick, adobe, or concrete structures. Through computer analysis, several energy conservation and passive solar strategies have been optimized for a case study row housing type common to the region. The load savings compared to a 6 inch CMU house totaled 72%, while the operating cost has been reduced by 71%. Furthermore, this lightweight and inexpensive ``Guadua`` material has reduced the construction cost by 30%.

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO

    PubMed Central

    FACCINI-MARTÍNEZ, Álvaro A.; BOTERO-GARCÍA, Carlos A.; HIDALGO, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence of R. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas for R. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia. PMID:27074327

  2. First Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase VIM-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Lolans, Karen; del Rosario Olivera, Maria; Suarez, Carlos José; Correa, Adriana; Queenan, Anne Marie; Quinn, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Colombia, as in many South American countries, are high for reasons that remain unclear. From our nationwide network, we describe the first detection of the metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from multiple cities within Colombia. Metallo-β-lactamases were not detected in the two centers with the highest imipenem resistance rates. Clonality was noted in five of the eight centers with strains meeting the criteria for molecular typing. The high carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa in Colombia may be attributable to a combination of factors, including the presence of metallo-β-lactamases and nosocomial transmission. PMID:16377690

  3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO.

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence of R. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas for R. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia.

  4. Diatoms from lentic and lotic systems in Antioquia, Chocó and Santander Departments in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sala, Silvia E; Ramírez, John J; Plata, Yasmín

    2008-09-01

    In the tropical and subtropical regions, there is a large number of species which has not been yet described. The high possibility of extinction makes their inventory a priority. In this paper, 23 diatoms taxa from Andean lotic systems and lentic waterbodies localized in the Departments of Antioquia, Santander and Chocó, Colombia, are analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Each taxon is described and information about environmental characteristic of the sites where they were collected and distribution in Colombia is given. The studied taxa belong to the orders Thalassiosirales (1), Aulacoseirales (1), Fragilariales (4), Cymbellales (7), Achnanthales (2), Naviculales (7), and Thalassiophysales (1). Fifteen of them are recorded for the first time in Colombia and Encyonema jemtlandicum in South America. A comparison with the diatom flora of the Colombian Amazonia showed that there were only three taxa in common to these two equatorial regions probably due to the influence of altitudinal gradient. PMID:19419036

  5. South America: everybody is drilling almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A group of studies describes accomplishments in 1980 in South America drilling and producing. There may be 3285 wells drilled during 1980, with the majority in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru, compared with a 2934 total for all countries on the continent in 1979. Reserves at the end of 1979 in South America exceeded 27 billion bbl, and production averaged 3.8 million bpd. Individual country reports are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Urauguay, and Guyana.

  6. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide. PMID:26801362

  7. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide.

  8. Overview of exploration potential of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno, R.; Kanes, W.H.

    1989-03-01

    The sedimentary basins of Colombia, including the Llanos, Putumayo, Upper Magdalena, Middle Magdalena, Lower Magdalena-Sinu, Cauca-Patia, Cesar-Rancheria, Guajira, and Chaco-Pacifico basins, are placed in a comprehensive geologic framework. All basins are related to the tectonic evolution of northwestern South America. Basin stratigraphic packages are defined for each sequence, and this sequence stratigraphy is related to the following events: (1) pre-Cretaceous tectonic fabric, (2) docking of the Amaime and Cordillera Occidental terranes, (3) eastward movement of the Caribbean plate, (4) accretion of the Baudo terrane and the welding of Central America, and (5) Miocene-Holocene plate collision. Brief overview of basin exploration histories suggest that early established tectonic trends tend to undergo repeated deformation and are an important factor in the accumulation of major hydrocarbon reserves. This is particularly true where basement inversion or broad regional cross structures are present. Also, the amount of wrench faulting and its effect on migration paths and trap formation is still incompletely understood but undoubtedly has a strong influence in the formation of large fields. As more regional studies are made and detailed studies are synthesized in light of regional structural and stratigraphic patterns, significant additional hydrocarbon discoveries should be forthcoming.

  9. Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Nihei, Silvio S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De

    2016-06-14

    Colombia has an imposing natural wealth due to its topography has many unique characteristics as a consequence of having Caribbean and Pacific shores, as well as sharing part of the Amazon basin and northern Andes mountains. Thus, many natural and biological features are due to the convergence of three biogeographical regions: Pacific, Andes and Amazonia. The Andean uplift created a complex mosaic of mountains and isolated valleys, including eleven biogeographical provinces (Morrone 2006). The Andes dominate the Colombian topography and cross the country south to north. There are three mountain ranges (Western, Central, and Eastern) with a maximum elevation of 5,775 m, and an average elevation of 2,000 m. The Magdalena and Cauca River valleys separate these ranges, that along with the Putumayo and Caquetá Rivers, the Catatumbo watershed, the Darién, Pique Hill, the Orinoquia Region (with its savannas), the Amazon region (with tropical rainforests), and some lower mountain ranges (Macarena and Chiribiquete), have generated the conditions for very high levels of endemism. This variety of conditions has resulted in an extremely diverse plant and animal biota, and in which 48% of the nation remains unexplored.

  10. Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Nihei, Silvio S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De

    2016-01-01

    Colombia has an imposing natural wealth due to its topography has many unique characteristics as a consequence of having Caribbean and Pacific shores, as well as sharing part of the Amazon basin and northern Andes mountains. Thus, many natural and biological features are due to the convergence of three biogeographical regions: Pacific, Andes and Amazonia. The Andean uplift created a complex mosaic of mountains and isolated valleys, including eleven biogeographical provinces (Morrone 2006). The Andes dominate the Colombian topography and cross the country south to north. There are three mountain ranges (Western, Central, and Eastern) with a maximum elevation of 5,775 m, and an average elevation of 2,000 m. The Magdalena and Cauca River valleys separate these ranges, that along with the Putumayo and Caquetá Rivers, the Catatumbo watershed, the Darién, Pique Hill, the Orinoquia Region (with its savannas), the Amazon region (with tropical rainforests), and some lower mountain ranges (Macarena and Chiribiquete), have generated the conditions for very high levels of endemism. This variety of conditions has resulted in an extremely diverse plant and animal biota, and in which 48% of the nation remains unexplored. PMID:27395251

  11. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein. PMID:9273199

  12. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  13. El Proyecto Universidad Desescolarizada: A Feasibility Study of Teaching at a Distance in Colombia, S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Arthur; Arboleda, Jairo

    1979-01-01

    Plans for a nationwide system of education at a distance in Colombia, South America, are now under way to meet growing demands for higher education and to decentralize the current university system. Prior to this decision, a feasibility project was undertaken by the University of Antioquia. The project and results are reported. (Author/JMD)

  14. Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

  15. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Effective October 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER..., the United States and Colombia signed the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement...

  16. Historical Seismicity of the Algeciras Fault System, Southwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Gomez-Capera, A.; Salcedo-Hurtado, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Algeciras Fault System (AFS) is located in the Eastern Cordillera south western Colombia. This fault system has been allocated at least four big earthquakes in the last 230 years. In this work we describe the macroseismic intensities of these earthquakes not only to its epicentral zone but also in others places as Bogotá metropolitan area far from AFS more of 200 km. The AFS is shaped by three thrust faults. From north to south these are Guayuriba Fault with with 160 km of lengh, the Algeciras Fault with 149 km of lengh, and the Garzon - Pitalito Fault with 128 km of lengh. The big earthquakes, whose macroseismic data are analyzed here, its that of the 1785 (M=6.8) event, for which the Guayuriba Fault was related; it caused heavy damage in Bogotá and Neiva. This fault also produced the 1917 (6.9Ms) earthquake which significantly affected to Bogotá and Villavicencio. The 1967 earthquake (7.2Mw) is related to the Algeciras Fault; this event was very destructive in rural villages of Huila Department and caused significant damage in Bogotá and Neiva. With the latter earthquake high vulnerability was evident in the Bogota metropolitan area front to a large event ocurred by this fault system. The 16 November 1827 (M=7.3) earthquake ocurred on the Garzon - Pitalito Fault and was felt throughout the whole Andean region of Colombia. This event produced high intensities both in Bogota like in Popayan, Neiva, Pasto and where today are located the cities of Armenia, Manizales and Pereira toward west of Colombia. These lattest cities were founded in the second half of nineteen century after happened this earthquake. From historical seismicity review, we can determine the scope of seismic hazard for this fault system which not only affects its area of influence but also the center and west of the country, a región inhabited by more than 65% of the population of Colombia.

  17. Interpretation of ERTS-MSS images of a Savanna area in eastern Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elberson, G. W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.

  18. Colombia an approach to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales, O.

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  19. Humanitarian IED clearance in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Molina, A.; Diaz, D.; Grasmueck, M.; Moreno, H. A.; Hernández, R. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) by insurgents in Colombia is characterized by a quick response to counter IED measures. Many current IED's do not contain any metal parts and can have any shape or form. Due to the low metal content or the absence of any metal parts, sensors based on metal detection are not useful anymore. Due to the wide variety of sizes, shapes, and enclosure materials of current IED's, one and two-dimensional GPR sensors using a "library" of known shapes as well as acoustic sensors using material characteristic frequencies have become ineffective. Therefore, the Colombian experience strongly suggests that chemical sensors are the way for IED detection in soils since they do not depend on IED metal content, size, or shape but only on the presence of explosives, a necessary ingredient for any IED. Promising recently developed chemical sensors make use of semiconducting organic polymers (SOPs) such as FIDO and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once an explosive has been detected, the IED needs to be identified and located. Therefore, there is a need for three-dimensional high resolution scans for identification of all subsoil features including rocks, roots, and IED's. The recently developed 3D-GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can map all features of the subsoil with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm or less. The objectives of this contribution are to inform about the IED problem in Colombia and how novel technologies may contribute to humanitarian IED clearance under humid tropical conditions.

  20. Colombia staying the course on oil policies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Colombia plans to stay the course on oil policies that turned it into a significant crude exporter in the 1980s. Colombia's Minister of Mines and Energy Luis Fernando Vergara Munarriz said the new administration of President Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, elected May 27, 1990, essentially will maintain the previous administration's policies covering oil, gas, and petrochemical sectors. A strong exploration and development program pushed by state oil company Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (Ecopetrol) separately and in concert with foreign operating companies have made energy the mainspring of Colombia's economic growth the past few years, broadening its economic base significantly.

  1. [Family planning in Colombia -- 1987].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1987-09-01

    Frequent surveys have produced detailed information on demographic trends in Colombia and the use of various contraceptive methods. The annual rate of population growth declined from 2.5% in 1974 to a projected 1.65% in 1987. The decline of 34% is 1 of the most significant in Latin America. The number of fertile aged women increased by 53% between 1974 and 1987, from 3,036,000 to 4,660,000, as the large cohorts born 15-25 years ago reached childbearing age. The distorted age structure represented by the large cohorts is a serious demographic challenge for the country and a logistical challenge for family planning programs. Although young fertile aged couples exhibit more moderate fertility behavior than their parents did, their larger numbers will cause the crude birth rate to increase. Contraceptive use has increased from 38% in 1974 to 63% in 1986 and possibly 65% in 1987. The number of women who must be supplied with contraceptives has increased from 1,150,000 in 1974 to a projected 3,000,000 in 1987. Among women using contraception in 1986, 25.4% used pills, 28.6% used sterilization, 17.4% used IUDs, 3.2% injectables, 3.2% each vaginal methods and condoms, 7.9% rhythm, 9.5% withdrawal, and 1.6% other methods. In 1976, 37.2% of women using contraceptives used pills, 11.6% sterilization, 23.2% IUDs, 14.0% rhythm, 11.6% withdrawal, and 2.3% other methods. In 1986, 17.4% of couples used the less effective methods of rhythm and withdrawal. In 1987, 9-10 million cycles of pills will be used, 110,000 IUDs will be inserted, 122,000 sterilizations will be performed, and 12 million condoms and the same quantity of vaginal tablets will be distributed. Much time consuming and complex training for natural family planning users will also be required. Colombia's success in family planning over the past 2 decades, despite a relatively unpromising start, was not due simply to the existence of demand for contraceptive information and services, which also was present in other

  2. [Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia.

  3. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  4. Nutritional status in South America.

    PubMed

    Dutra de Oliveira, J E; de Souza, N; Pacheco, H A; Giarola, L C

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews malnutrition problems in South America in terms of population growth, food production, health, nutrition, and food supply. The estimated population of South America in 1976 was 224 million. Population growth from 1965-76 varied by country and ranged from the highest increase in Ecuador (43.6%), Colombia (42.9%), and Brazil (36.8%) to the lowest in Chile (22.7%), Argentina (16%), and Uruguay (12%). The annual population growth rate for the continent is one of the highest in the world. More than 40% of South America's population is 14 years or younger. Food production has not kept pace with population growth in several countries. Brazil and Venezuela are the 2 South American countries with the largest food production. Per capita food production has decreased in Chile and Ecuador. Infant mortality, which is linked to factors such as water supply, sewage disposal, and income, has decreased during the 1960s and 1970s. 1.5-6.4% of all causes of death for all ages in South American countries have been due to malnutrition. Studies of the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age indicate that malnutrition has decreased in Brazil from 68.3% between 1960-70 to 46% between 1970-80. Other countries (Colombia and Venezuela) show slight decreases while Chile shows an increase. The food supply in South America has shown an increase in the consumption of protein between 1965-74. Malnutrition is one of the most widespread health problems in South America, especially for infants less than 5 years of age.

  5. An Energy Overview of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  6. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M.; Ayala, Martha S.; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology. PMID:27328969

  7. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M; Ayala, Martha S; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-06-22

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology.

  8. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M; Ayala, Martha S; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology. PMID:27328969

  9. El Espanol Hablado en Pamplona (Colombia) (Spanish Spoken in Pamplona, Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza Barrios, Jorge Enrique

    1974-01-01

    Using two informants and the questionnaires of the "Linguistic and Ethnographic Atlas of Colombia," a linguistic corpus of Pamplona, Colombia, was derived. Regional speech characteristics are discussed here, including use of vowels and consonants, reversing sound position, elision, and lexical anomalies. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  10. Projected Issues in the Preparation of Educational Administrators: Viewed from the South American Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Carlos Correa

    This paper presents representative aspects of the preparation of educational administrators in South America, using information collected from a series of documents presented in 1977 at an Organization of American States conference. The situation in each of 10 South American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,…

  11. Integrated exploration workflow in the south Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Isabelle; Charry, German Rodriguez; Morales, Marcela Mayorga; Mondragon, Juan Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The HC exploration is presently active in the southern part of the Middle Magdalena Valley but only moderate size discoveries have been made up to date. The majority of these discoveries are at shallow depth in the Tertiary section. The structures located in the Valley are faulted anticlines charged by lateral migration from the Cretaceous source rocks that are assumed to be present and mature eastward below the main thrusts and the Guaduas Syncline. Upper Cretaceous reservoirs have also been positively tested. To reduce the risks linked to the exploration of deeper structures below the western thrusts of the Eastern Cordillera, an integrated study was carried out. It includes the acquisition of new seismic data, the integration of all surface and subsurface data within a 3D-geomodel, a quality control of the structural model by restoration and a modeling of the petroleum system (presence and maturity of the Cretaceous source rocks, potential migration pathways). The various steps of this workflow will be presented as well as the main conclusions in term of source rock, deformation phases and timing of the thrust emplacement versus oil maturation and migration. Our data suggest (or confirm) The good potential of the Umir Fm as a source rock. The early (Paleogene) deformation of the Bituima Trigo fault area. The maturity gap within the Cretaceous source rock between the hangingwall and footwall of the Bituima fault that proves an initial offset of Cretaceous burial in the range of 4.5 km between the Upper Cretaceous series westward and the Lower Cretaceous ones eastward of this fault zone. The post Miocene weak reactivation as dextral strike slip of Cretaceous faults such as the San Juan de Rio Seco fault that corresponds to change in the Cretaceous thickness and therefore in the depth of the thrust decollement.

  12. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  13. Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Romero, Solangy; Alonso, Milena; Hernandez-Cuervo, Helena; Yunis, Emilio J.; Yunis, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the frequency of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 424 individuals from 21 Colombian Amerindian tribes. Our results showed a high degree of mtDNA diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups A and C were high in the majority of populations studied. The distribution of these four mtDNA haplogroups from Amerindian populations was different in the northern region of the country compared to those in the south. Haplogroup A was more frequently found among Amerindian tribes in northern Colombia, while haplogroup D was more frequent among tribes in the south. Haplogroups A, C and D have clinal tendencies in Colombia and South America in general. Populations belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family of Colombia and other countries nearby showed a strong genetic differentiation from the other populations tested, thus corroborating previous findings. Genetically, the Ingano, Paez and Guambiano populations are more closely related to other groups of south eastern Colombia, as also inferred from other genetic markers and from archeological data. Strong evidence for a correspondence between geographical and linguistic classification was found, and this is consistent with evidence that gene flow and the exchange of customs and knowledge and language elements between groups is facilitated by close proximity. PMID:23885195

  14. A new species of Oozetetes De Santis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) from Colombia with an updated key for the bucheri species-group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Benavides, A Lucia; Serna, Francisco; Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-01-01

    Oozetetes lucidus sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is described from Colombia, South America, and through macrophotography compared with all described species in the bucheri species-group of Oozetetes De Santis. An illustrated key modified from Gibson (2004) is provided to distinguish females of the six described species of this group. PMID:27394274

  15. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  16. NorTropical Warm Pool variability and its effects on the climate of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodriguez, Deisy; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2015-04-01

    Much has been said about the effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on oceanographic and climatic conditions in Colombia, but little is known about the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP), which includes the gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the western tropical North Atlantic. The AWP has been identified by some authors as an area that influences the Earth's climate, associated with anomalous summer rainfall and hurricane activity in the Atlantic. The aim of this study was to understand the variation in the AWP and its effects on the climate of Colombia. An annual average of sea surface temperature (SST) was obtained from the composition of monthly images of the Spectroradiometer Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with resolution of 4 km, for one area that comprises the marine territory of Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica both the Pacific and the Caribbean, and parts of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, for the period between 2007 and 2013. The results suggest that warm pool is not restricted to the Caribbean, but it also covers a strip Pacific bordering Central America and the northern part of the Colombian coast, so it should be called the Nor-Tropical Warm pool (NTWP). Within the NTWP higher SST correspond to a marine area extending about 1 degree north and south of Central and out of the Colombian Caribbean coast. The NTWP also showed large interannual variability, with the years 2008 and 2009 with lower SST in average, while 2010, 2011 and 2013 years with warmer conditions, matching with greater precipitation. It was also noted that during warmer conditions (high amplitude NTWP) the cold tongue from the south Pacific has less penetration on Colombian coast. Finally, the results suggest a strong influence of NTWP in climatic conditions in Colombia.

  17. Endemic goiter in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E

    1983-01-01

    Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of

  18. Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.

    2013-12-01

    We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees

  19. Identifying structural styles in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.P.; Van Nieuwenhuise, R.E.; Steuer, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Much of our understanding of the Earth is from the study of surface geology and seismic, but many surface structures are responses to deformation which occurred below sedimentary layers. The practice within the petroleum industry is to use top-down processes of analyzing the surface to understand the subsurface, and observed surface structural styles tend to influence seismic interpretations. Yet many conditions which influenced the structural styles seen at the surface are different at depth. Since seismic is a time representation of the Earth, many interpretation pitfalls may exist within areas of complex geology. Also, its reliability decreases with depth and with increasing geologic complexity. Forward modeling and pre-stack depth migration technologies are used to provide true depth images of the seismic data. Even with these advances in seismic imaging technology, the interpreter needs to incorporate additional data into the interpretation. Accurate structural identification requires the interpreter to integrate seismic with surface geology, remote sensing, gravity, magnetic data, geochemistry, fault-plane solutions from earthquakes, and regional tectonic studies. Incorporating these types of data into the interpretation will help us learn how basement is involved in the deformation of overlying sediments. A study of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia shows the deformation to be dominantly transpressional in style. Euler deconvolution of the areomagnetic data shows a highly fractured basement, steep fault lineaments, en echelon structures, and complex fault patterns, all of which would be typical of wrench-type deformation. Available surface geology, regional studies, earthquake data, and forward modeling support this interpretation.

  20. Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T

    2007-01-01

    Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia. PMID:18027530

  1. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine. PMID:26038461

  2. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  3. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system. Methods We compiled data from publications and hereditary cancer registries to characterize the Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum in South America. In total, data from 267 families that fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria and/or the Bethesda guidelines from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Uruguay were included. Results Disease-predisposing mutations were identified in 37% of the families and affected MLH1 in 60% and MSH2 in 40%. Half of the mutations have not previously been reported and potential founder effects were identified in Brazil and in Colombia. Conclusion The South American Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum includes multiple new mutations, identifies potential founder effects and is useful for future development of genetic testing in this continent. PMID:24344984

  4. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Reason, Iara J. de Messias; Howard, Michael S.; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim: We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods: By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of EPF, including data described almost one century ago; and, to include several unindexed reports, which may have not been available to many current scientists and health care personnel. Results: Foci of EPF have been described in several Central American and South American countries, affecting predominately young people and Amerindians, with an additional female predilection. Although most cases have occurred in Brazil, some cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Venezuela. Another variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, another type of EPF was described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Conclusion: Our understanding of EPF has been hampered by a lack of government attention to these diseases, especially in some South and Central American countries. Other factors that have made past studies of EPF difficult include 1) that the disease foci are often located in rural areas bordering the rain forest of underdeveloped countries; and 2) military conflicts in some of these areas. PMID:22624115

  5. Colombia's Libraries: Modernizing amidst a Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact that the war on drugs in Colombia has had on their library services and on the lives of professional librarians. Topics discussed include political, staffing, budget, resource, and physical plant problems; the serious shortage of professional librarians; and extending library service to rural areas. (LRW)

  6. Fuelling a National Innovation System in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Arias, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an online effort…

  7. Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, T. Paul

    The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

  8. Returns to Education in Bogota, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, T. P.

    This memorandum derives estimates of the private rate of return to schooling for men and women based on a 1965 labor force survey, past cross-sectional data, and the long-term educational public policy of Bogota, Colombia. Here resources may be viewed as an investment in the future productive capacity of people. Depending on the costs and benefits…

  9. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  10. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Uribe, Gilberto Álvarez; Araújo, Roberto Montoya; Narváez, Pablo Chaparro; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia), with high predominance (85%) in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region. PMID:21881765

  11. Colombia Exports Its "New School" Blueprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Asbel

    1999-01-01

    To compensate for disadvantages of traditional rural schools, Colombia's Escuela Nueva (New School) movement offers solutions such as self-instruction guides geared to aspects of daily life and flexible school schedules. Teacher training that encourages student and community involvement is a key element. Escuela Nueva successes have led to its…

  12. Microgeographic genetic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cordoba and Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; Gómez, Giovan F; González, John J; Castro, Martha I; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2010-07-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia.

  13. The bud midge Prodiplosis longifila: Damage characteristics, potential distribution and presence on a new crop host in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis M; Guzman, Yoan C; Martínez-Arias, Adriana; Manzano, Maria R; Selvaraj, John J

    2015-01-01

    The Dipteran Prodiplosis longifila is a severe pest, mainly of Solanaceae, in South America and some years ago it damaged Tahiti lime crops in the United States. It is a potential invasive pest. Despite its presence in Colombia, nothing is known regarding the taxonomic identification of P. longifila or the characteristics of the damage it produces. Moreover, the current and potential distributions of this pest are unknown. To determine these factors, P. longifila was sampled in several Solanaceae- and Citrus (x) latifolia (Tahiti lime)-producing areas in Colombia. The larvae consumed tender foliage, flowers and fruits in tomato, fruits in sweet pepper, and buds in Tahiti lime. P. longifila was not found in asparagus or in potatoes. Its presence in Tahiti lime was previously unknown in Colombia. Adults recovered in the laboratory were taxonomically identified using male morphological characteristics such as the shapes of the genitalia, antenna and wing. P. longifila was found in the Andean region of Colombia. The ecological niche model for populations found in tomato suggests that P. longifila is limited in its distribution by altitude and variables associated with temperature and precipitation. The highest probability of occurrence is in areas where tomato, sweet pepper and the new host, Tahiti lime, are grown. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive measures, such as planting tomato materials free of P. longifila larvae, in areas where the pest is not yet present but where there is the potential for its development. PMID:25977894

  14. Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

  15. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  16. The bud midge Prodiplosis longifila: Damage characteristics, potential distribution and presence on a new crop host in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis M; Guzman, Yoan C; Martínez-Arias, Adriana; Manzano, Maria R; Selvaraj, John J

    2015-01-01

    The Dipteran Prodiplosis longifila is a severe pest, mainly of Solanaceae, in South America and some years ago it damaged Tahiti lime crops in the United States. It is a potential invasive pest. Despite its presence in Colombia, nothing is known regarding the taxonomic identification of P. longifila or the characteristics of the damage it produces. Moreover, the current and potential distributions of this pest are unknown. To determine these factors, P. longifila was sampled in several Solanaceae- and Citrus (x) latifolia (Tahiti lime)-producing areas in Colombia. The larvae consumed tender foliage, flowers and fruits in tomato, fruits in sweet pepper, and buds in Tahiti lime. P. longifila was not found in asparagus or in potatoes. Its presence in Tahiti lime was previously unknown in Colombia. Adults recovered in the laboratory were taxonomically identified using male morphological characteristics such as the shapes of the genitalia, antenna and wing. P. longifila was found in the Andean region of Colombia. The ecological niche model for populations found in tomato suggests that P. longifila is limited in its distribution by altitude and variables associated with temperature and precipitation. The highest probability of occurrence is in areas where tomato, sweet pepper and the new host, Tahiti lime, are grown. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive measures, such as planting tomato materials free of P. longifila larvae, in areas where the pest is not yet present but where there is the potential for its development.

  17. 78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department... Program for implementing the United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which...

  18. Is what I have just a cold or is it dengue? Addressing the gap between the politics of dengue control and daily life in Villavicencio-Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M Roberto; Olarte, S Maria Fernanda; Ana, M F A; González, U Catalina

    2005-07-01

    In Colombia, dengue has been a target for public health interventions since the 1950s, with inadequate results. Furthermore, during the last few years in Colombia, the reported cases of dengue have increased. The social and cultural realities of the disease has been shown to be important and has not been considered when creating and implementing prevention and control programs. The paper draws on qualitative research of low- and high-income communities in the vicinity of Villaviecencio, South East Colombia to describe changing practices and direction of dengue prevention and control. It can be clearly observed from individuals' therapeutic itineraries and their perception of disease that public policies advertised in booklets and flyers and on television differ radically from people's everyday reality. This difference influences the success or failure of these policies.

  19. [Malnutrition and poverty in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rico Velasco, J; Acciarri, G; Fajardo, L F

    1982-01-01

    A history of colonial exploitation and a development model that concentrates wealth and excludes a large proportion of the population from the development process are the principal determinants of income distribution in Colombia. This work analyzes the extent of malnutrition among the poorest 30% of the Colombian population. The National Plan for Feeding and Nutrition (PAN), an important component of the national development plan, strives to improve the nutritional status of the most vulnerable population groups living in rural areas and marginal urban neighborhoods, with particular emphasis on mothers and children. The program initially was focussed on 11 priority regions where 5 types of interventions were developed: primary health care, environmental sanitation, food production, food distribution, and nutrition education. Because of the good results initially obtained, PAN now covers the entire national territory. A 1977 survey stratified by socioeconomic levels indicated that among the poorest 30% of the population, 67% of the children examined had low weight for age caused by a combination of chronic and acute malnutrition. 12% were considered to have severe and 23% moderate malnutrition. 8% had severe and 17% had moderate problems of height for age. 26% had deficient weight for height. Comparison of the data to normal values published by the World Health Organization clearly demonstrates the pattern of overall malnutrition indicated by weight for age figures. It can be concluded at 33% of children in the poorest 30% of the population are normal, 31% have mild malnutrition, 23% moderate malnutrition, and 12% severe malnutrition. Data on height for age indicated that 43% were normal, 32% had mild chronic malnutrition, 17% had moderate chronic malnutrition, and 8% had severe chronic malnutrition. The prevalence of acute malnutrition in the poor population measured by the ratio of weight to height was less than that of chronic or overall malnutrition. 21% were

  20. [Malnutrition and poverty in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rico Velasco, J; Acciarri, G; Fajardo, L F

    1982-01-01

    A history of colonial exploitation and a development model that concentrates wealth and excludes a large proportion of the population from the development process are the principal determinants of income distribution in Colombia. This work analyzes the extent of malnutrition among the poorest 30% of the Colombian population. The National Plan for Feeding and Nutrition (PAN), an important component of the national development plan, strives to improve the nutritional status of the most vulnerable population groups living in rural areas and marginal urban neighborhoods, with particular emphasis on mothers and children. The program initially was focussed on 11 priority regions where 5 types of interventions were developed: primary health care, environmental sanitation, food production, food distribution, and nutrition education. Because of the good results initially obtained, PAN now covers the entire national territory. A 1977 survey stratified by socioeconomic levels indicated that among the poorest 30% of the population, 67% of the children examined had low weight for age caused by a combination of chronic and acute malnutrition. 12% were considered to have severe and 23% moderate malnutrition. 8% had severe and 17% had moderate problems of height for age. 26% had deficient weight for height. Comparison of the data to normal values published by the World Health Organization clearly demonstrates the pattern of overall malnutrition indicated by weight for age figures. It can be concluded at 33% of children in the poorest 30% of the population are normal, 31% have mild malnutrition, 23% moderate malnutrition, and 12% severe malnutrition. Data on height for age indicated that 43% were normal, 32% had mild chronic malnutrition, 17% had moderate chronic malnutrition, and 8% had severe chronic malnutrition. The prevalence of acute malnutrition in the poor population measured by the ratio of weight to height was less than that of chronic or overall malnutrition. 21% were

  1. CSM: Profamilia's approach in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, S

    1982-03-01

    Colombia's PROFAMILIA has successfully operated a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) program since 1973. Beginning with 1 salesperson distributing primarily to Cajas de Subsideio, the CSM program is now distributed through 70-80% of the 6000 registered pharmacies in the country, as well as pharmacy counters of several supermakets in urban areas. During 1981, PROFAMILIA's 5 salespersons accountd for commerical sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) to 225,000 couples and sales of barrier methods to another 75,000. Program sales of contraceptives and other products generated approximately US $1.7 million in revenue for the same year. PROFAMILIA's marketing approach is unique in its product and promotinal characteristics. Supplies are obtained directly from local and foreign manufacturers and are resold without any repackaging. While it is generally believed that CSM programs expand the market for contraceptives, data analysis and analysis of PROFAMILIA's distribution system suggests that the PROFAMILIA CSM program has simply absorbed some of the previously existing commerical market. Total commerical market sales of oral contraceptives (OCs) have grown at an annual rate of 3-4% since 1975. During the same period, direct sales of Schering, Wyeth, and other competitors have declined. PROFAMILIA's community-based program operates mainly among urban and semi-rural lower income populations. It sells products through established retail outlets rather than through institutional or non-retail outlets. PROFAMILIA's community-based program in all respects but its use of a staff of 112 salaried "instructoras" is as much a marketing program as PROFAMILIA's sales through pharmacies. Taken together, the 2 program expanded the commerical makert by about 1/2 since 1975. The contraceptive social marketing or pharmacy sales program appears to excel at generation of revenue and delivery of products to higher income clients. The community-based program excels at delivery of information

  2. When South meets South.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the establishment of a new organization, Partners in Population and Development, which promotes collaboration between developing countries. The organization was an outcome of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development. The basic aim is to share technical knowledge and experience between developing countries. In rural Ha Tay province in northern Vietnam, for example, a community mapping technique for tracking contraceptive use was implemented. The mapping technique was first developed in Indonesia and transferred to Vietnam via the Indonesian national family planning coordinating board. A Bangkok-based nongovernmental group was working in Ninh Binh province with income generation among rice workers as part of a reproductive health program. Partners in Population and Development includes high ranking government officials responsible for national family planning programs from Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. In 1996, a permanent secretariat was established in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The secretariat includes a small staff consisting of an executive director and three deputies from developing countries. The secretariat will act as a clearinghouse and coordinating unit between countries and projects. The office will answer field requests for assistance and help identify potential sources of donor support. The office will operate on funding from the UN Population Fund, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Partnership will diffuse the appearance that developed countries are "demographic imperialists" and offer sound financial political advice. Projects will emphasize appropriateness and sustainability. The aim is to build bridges between countries where there are barriers and to extend services beyond regional borders.

  3. [South-South cooperation: what role for the North?].

    PubMed

    Lery, A

    1997-09-01

    The First African Meeting for South-South Cooperation in Reproductive Health/Family Planning and Population was held in Tunis in July 1997. Tunisian participants from the Ministry of Public Health and other officials met with representatives of 12 Francophone African countries, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. The meetings were intended to assist each country in establishing partnerships to facilitate projects related to reproductive health, family planning, and population. The meeting was an initiative of the Partnership in Population and Development, an outgrowth of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The Partnership establishes networks and strategic action alliances among all parties currently or potentially interested in reproductive health to promote exchanges of information and experience, technical assistance, and technology transfers. The Partnership countries are Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Several other countries have participated in Partnership projects. France and the principal French public and private organizations interested in population and development problems should follow the progress of the South-South Partnership. The Partnership should demonstrate its effectiveness and its willingness to work in close cooperation with the northern hemisphere countries in technical as well as financial aspects. PMID:12293317

  4. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design

  5. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  6. Detection of mercury and other undetermined materials in skin biopsies of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abréu Vélez, Ana María; Warfvinge, Gunnar; Herrera, Walter Leon; Abréu Vélez, Clara Eugenia; Montoya M, Fernando; Hardy, David M; Bollag, Wendy B; Hashimoto, Ken

    2003-10-01

    A novel variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) was described among individuals in an area surrounding El Bagre, Colombia, South America. The population in this rural mining community is exposed to high environmental levels of mercury, used for gold extraction, as well as other minerals, metalloids, and trace elements (e.g., quartz, rutile, granite, magnetite, and almenite) and ultraviolet radiation. Fifty control subjects and fifty EPF patients in the endemic area were examined for the presence of mercury in skin biopsies and hair, using autometallographic and mass spectroscopic analyses, respectively. Simultaneously, serum levels of IgE were measured, and cutaneous tests for hypersensitivity reactions were performed. Using autometallography, mercuric sulfides/selenides were detected in 14 of 51 skin biopsies distributed similarly in the control and patient groups. However, significantly higher serum IgE levels and mercury concentrations in hair, urine, and nails were found in patients compared with controls. Microscopic analysis revealed mercuric sulfides/selenides concentrated within and around the sweat gland epithelium, as well as in dendritic cells. Five skin biopsies from EPF patients and five from controls that tested positive for the presence of mercuric sulfides/selenides by autometallography were randomly selected for electron microscopic analysis. This analysis revealed a mixed electron-dense and electron-light material closely associated with desmosomes in patients. However, there were intracellular vesicles containing an amalgam of electron-dense and electron-light materials only in the EPF patients. Thus, EPF-affected individuals are exposed to high levels of environmental mercuric sulfides/selenides and other elements. This is the first study reporting mercuric sulfides/selenides in skin biopsies from people living in a focus of EPF, and these compounds may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  7. Detection of mercury and other undetermined materials in skin biopsies of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abréu Vélez, Ana María; Warfvinge, Gunnar; Herrera, Walter Leon; Abréu Vélez, Clara Eugenia; Montoya M, Fernando; Hardy, David M; Bollag, Wendy B; Hashimoto, Ken

    2003-10-01

    A novel variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) was described among individuals in an area surrounding El Bagre, Colombia, South America. The population in this rural mining community is exposed to high environmental levels of mercury, used for gold extraction, as well as other minerals, metalloids, and trace elements (e.g., quartz, rutile, granite, magnetite, and almenite) and ultraviolet radiation. Fifty control subjects and fifty EPF patients in the endemic area were examined for the presence of mercury in skin biopsies and hair, using autometallographic and mass spectroscopic analyses, respectively. Simultaneously, serum levels of IgE were measured, and cutaneous tests for hypersensitivity reactions were performed. Using autometallography, mercuric sulfides/selenides were detected in 14 of 51 skin biopsies distributed similarly in the control and patient groups. However, significantly higher serum IgE levels and mercury concentrations in hair, urine, and nails were found in patients compared with controls. Microscopic analysis revealed mercuric sulfides/selenides concentrated within and around the sweat gland epithelium, as well as in dendritic cells. Five skin biopsies from EPF patients and five from controls that tested positive for the presence of mercuric sulfides/selenides by autometallography were randomly selected for electron microscopic analysis. This analysis revealed a mixed electron-dense and electron-light material closely associated with desmosomes in patients. However, there were intracellular vesicles containing an amalgam of electron-dense and electron-light materials only in the EPF patients. Thus, EPF-affected individuals are exposed to high levels of environmental mercuric sulfides/selenides and other elements. This is the first study reporting mercuric sulfides/selenides in skin biopsies from people living in a focus of EPF, and these compounds may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:14501287

  8. Sirenomelia: two cases in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Salcedo-Arellano, Maria Jimena; Ramirez-Cheyne, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of sirenomelia, a rare congenital defect with a prevalence rate of 1:100 000 births; both cases were observed in Cali, Colombia. Both pregnant women were referred from Buenaventura, Colombia. The expecting mothers shared multiple adverse sociodemographic factors. Their homes were located in a city where the entire population is of low socioeconomic status living under conditions of extreme poverty. They were uneducated, with nutritional deficiencies and no access to drinking water most of the time. Both were exposed to water and fish from a nearby river contaminated with leachate from a poorly managed landfill. A similar relation was previously reported in Cali in 2005 between environmental factors and sirenomelia. We suggest that there is a common aetiological factor of environmental origin between these two sirenomelia cases and propose that exposure to derivatives from landfills should be included among the factors for this rare defect of multifactorial aetiological origin. PMID:25636631

  9. Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Polystomatidae), a parasite of buccal cavity of Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Testudinata: Emydidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lenis, Carolina; García-Prieto, Luis

    2009-08-01

    Polystomoides magdalenensis n. sp. is described from the buccal cavity of the Colombian slider Trachemys callirostris callirostris (Gray, 1856) in the middle of Magdalena River drainage, Colombia. The new species is characterized by a combination of traits, i.e., 29-35 genital spines, outer and inner hamuli length (123-150 and 54-63, respectively), testis size (261.4-554.5 x 388.2-768.4), marginal hook lengths (45-51), and pharynx length (150-333), as well as testis length/oral sucker length, testis length/pharynx length, and testis width/pharynx width ratios. This is the first species described from turtles in Colombia and the fifth reported in chelonians from South America. PMID:20049992

  10. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  11. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E; Merino, H; Rodriguez, G; Medina, P; Meyer, J D; DeRouen, T A; MacLennan, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia.

  12. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters     ... and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ...

  13. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals hidden genetic diversity in captive populations of the threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Paul; Ibáñez, Carolina; Viloria-Lagares, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of units within species worthy of separate management consideration is an important area within conservation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) surveys can potentially contribute to this by identifying phylogenetic and population structure below the species level. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is broadly distributed throughout the Neotropics. Its numbers have been reduced severely with the species threatened throughout much of its distribution. In Colombia, the release of individuals from commercial captive populations has emerged as a possible conservation strategy that could contribute to species recovery. However, no studies have addressed levels of genetic differentiation or diversity within C. acutus in Colombia, thus complicating conservation and management decisions. Here, sequence variation was studied in mtDNA cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in three Colombian captive populations of C. acutus. Two distinct lineages were identified: C. acutus-I, corresponding to haplotypes from Colombia and closely related Central American haplotypes; and C. acutus-II, corresponding to all remaining haplotypes from Colombia. Comparison with findings from other studies indicates the presence of a single “northern” lineage (corresponding to C. acutus-I) distributed from North America (southern Florida), through Central America and into northern South America. The absence of C. acutus-II haplotypes from North and Central America indicates that the C. acutus-II lineage probably represents a separate South American lineage. There appears to be sufficient divergence between lineages to suggest that they could represent two distinct evolutionary units. We suggest that this differentiation needs to be recognized for conservation purposes because it clearly contributes to the overall genetic diversity of the species. All Colombian captive populations included in this study contained a mixture of representatives of both lineages. As

  14. First Characterization of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli ST131 and ST405 Clones Causing Community-Onset Infections in South America▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sory J.; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F.; Martinez, Ernesto; Rosso, Fernando; Muñoz, Martin; Quinn, John P.; Cantón, Rafael; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli has emerged worldwide as an important pathogen associated with community-onset infections, but in South America reports are scarce. We document the presence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli of the international ST131 and ST405 clones in Colombia and present the first molecular characterization of these isolates in South America. PMID:21325548

  15. New views on the Late Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, T.; Stéphan, J. F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Dhont, D.

    2012-04-01

    northwestern margin of Colombia, is not more controlled by the caribbean subduction. We propose that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape uplifted the margin through left-lateral transpression, reworking inherited structures. The thick Tertiary sedimentary cover subsequently collapsed down in the Colombian basin when the critical slope was reached. Since Pliocene time at least, the Caribbean-South American plate convergence might be accommodated diffusely across the whole North Andean Block, and most prominently along the Venezuelan Andes and the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, at the eastern boundary of the Block.

  16. Ticks (Ixodidae) on humans in South America.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Beati, L; Barros-Battesti, D M; Labruna, M B; Nava, S; Venzal, J M; Mangold, A J; Szabó, M P J; Martins, J R; González-Acuña, D; Estrada-Peña, A

    2006-01-01

    Twenty eight species of Ixodidae have been found on man in South America (21 Amblyomma, 1 Boophilus, 2 Dermacentor, 2 Haemaphysalis, 1 Ixodes and 1 Rhipicephalus species). Most of them are rarely found on man. However, three species frequently parasitize humans in restricted areas of Argentina (A. neumanni reported from 46 localities), Uruguay (A. triste from 21 sites) and Argentina-Brazil (A. parvum from 27 localities). The most widespread ticks are A. cajennense (134 localities in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname and Venezuela), A. ovale (37 localities in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname and Venezuela) and A. oblongoguttatum (28 sites in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela). Amblyomma aureolatum (18 localities in Argentina, Brazil, French Guiana and Paraguay), A. cajennense, and A. triste are vectors of rickettsioses to man in South America. A better understanding of the respective roles of these and other tick species in transmitting pathogens to humans will require further local investigations. Amblyomma ticks should be the main subjects of these studies followed by species of Boophilus, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis and Rhipicephalus species. In contrast with North America, Europe and Asia, ticks of the genus Ixodes do not appear to be major players in transmitting diseases to human. Indeed, there is only one record of an Ixodes collected while feeding on man for all South America.

  17. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 18161-18166, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0050) a proposal\\1\\ to amend the... Colombia and Ecuador AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papayas from Colombia and Ecuador into the continental...

  18. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  19. Appropriateness of the TOEIC[R] Bridge Test for Students in Three Countries of South America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Powers, Donald E.; Feng, Ying; Saldivia, Luis; Giunta, Anthony; Simpson, Annabelle; Weng, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the TOEIC[R] "Bridge" as a measure of English language proficiency, one form of the test was administered to more than 6000 test takers in three South American countries--Colombia, Chile and Ecuador. The appropriateness of the TOEIC "Bridge" test as a measure of English language skill…

  20. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  1. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  2. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  4. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  5. Social urbanization in the Cauca Valley, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, M B

    1979-01-01

    "This paper treats aspects of the urbanization of the countryside occurring in southern Colombia. It focuses on those urban-emanating forces that provide rural people with a perspective of 'city' life. The impact of such things as the construction (or improvement) of roads, the role of the media, return visits by ex-villagers, and the urban visiting of country people [is] discussed in terms of social urbanization. This presentation renews the call for eschewing bipolar models for studying migration/urbanization in favor of a broader and more holistic perspective. Furthermore, this article suggests that urbanization is another manifestation of a type of dependency relationship."

  6. Evaluation of institutional cancer registries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, L G; Roca, S; Rodríguez, M N; Stein, J; Izquierdo, J; Trujillo, A; Mora, M

    1999-09-01

    The four primary objectives of this descriptive study were to: 1) design a quality-measurement instrument for institutional cancer registries (ICRs), 2) evaluate the existing ICRs in Colombia with the designed instrument, 3) categorize the different registries according to their quality and prioritize efforts that will efficiently promote better registries with the limited resources available, and 4) determine the institution with the greatest likelihood of successfully establishing Colombia's second population-based cancer registry. In 1990 the National Cancer Institute of Colombia developed 13 institution-based cancer registries in different Colombian cities in order to promote the collection of data from a large group of cancer diagnostic and treatment centers. During the first half of 1997, this evaluation reviewed 12 registries; one of the original 13 no longer existed. All of the Colombian institutions (hospitals) that maintain institution-based cancer registries were included in the study. At each institution, a brief survey was administered to the hospital director, the registry coordinator, and the registrar (data manager). Researchers investigated the institutions by looking at six domains that are in standard use internationally. Within each domain, questions were developed and selected through the Delphi method. Each domain and each question were assigned weights through a consensus process. In most cases, two interviewers went to each site to collect the information. The university hospitals in Cali, Pereira, and Medellín had substantially higher scores, reflecting a good level of performance. Four of the 12 institutions had almost no cancer registry work going on. Five of the 12 hospital directors considered that the information provided by the cancer registries influenced their administrative decisions. Three of the registries had patient survival data. Four of the institutions allocated specific resources to operate their cancer registries; in the

  7. Human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Colombia and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Andres; Aguayo, Francisco; Koriyama, Chihaya; Torres, Miyerlandi; Carrascal, Edwin; Corvalan, Alejandro; Roblero, Juan P; Naquira, Cecilia; Palma, Mariana; Backhouse, Claudia; Argandona, Jorge; Itoh, Tetsuhiko; Shuyama, Karem; Eizuru, Yoshito; Akiba, Suminori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) specimens collected from Colombia and Chile located in the northern and southern ends of the continent, respectively. METHODS: We examined 47 and 26 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded ESCC specimens from Colombia and Chile, respectively. HPV was detected using GP5+/GP6+ primer pair for PCR, and confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Sequencing analysis of L1 region fragment was used to identify HPV genotype. In addition, P16INK4A protein immunostaining of all the specimens was conducted. RESULTS: HPV was detected in 21 ESCC specimens (29%). Sequencing analysis of L1 region fragment identified HPV-16 genome in 6 Colombian cases (13%) and in 5 Chilean cases (19%). HPV-18 was detected in 10 cases (21%) in Colombia but not in any Chilean case. Since Chilean ESCC cases had a higher prevalence of HPV-16 (without statistical significance), but a significantly lower prevalence of HPV-18 than in Colombian cases (P = 0.011) even though the two countries have similar ESCC incidence rates, the frequency of HPV-related ESCC may not be strongly affected by risk factors affecting the incidence of ESCC. HPV-16 genome was more frequently detected in p16 positive carcinomas, although the difference was not statistically significant. HPV-18 detection rate did not show any association with p16 expression. Well-differentiated tumors tended to have either HPV-16 or HPV-18 but the association was not statistically significant. HPV genotypes other than HPV-16 or 18 were not detected in either country. CONCLUSION: HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotypes can be found in ESCC specimens collected from two South American countries. Further studies on the relationship between HPV-16 presence and p16 expression in ESCC would aid understanding of the mechanism underlying the presence of HPV in ESCC. PMID:17036393

  8. Prediction of mean monthly river discharges in Colombia through Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2015-04-01

    The hydro-climatology of Colombia exhibits strong natural variability at a broad range of time scales including: inter-decadal, decadal, inter-annual, annual, intra-annual, intra-seasonal, and diurnal. Diverse applied sectors rely on quantitative predictions of river discharges for operational purposes including hydropower generation, agriculture, human health, fluvial navigation, territorial planning and management, risk preparedness and mitigation, among others. Various methodologies have been used to predict monthly mean river discharges that are based on "Predictive Analytics", an area of statistical analysis that studies the extraction of information from historical data to infer future trends and patterns. Our study couples the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with traditional methods, e.g. Autoregressive Model of Order 1 (AR1) and Neural Networks (NN), to predict mean monthly river discharges in Colombia, South America. The EMD allows us to decompose the historical time series of river discharges into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) that capture the different oscillatory modes of different frequencies associated with the inherent time scales coexisting simultaneously in the signal (Huang et al. 1998, Huang and Wu 2008, Rao and Hsu, 2008). Our predictive method states that it is easier and simpler to predict each IMF at a time and then add them up together to obtain the predicted river discharge for a certain month, than predicting the full signal. This method is applied to 10 series of monthly mean river discharges in Colombia, using calibration periods of more than 25 years, and validation periods of about 12 years. Predictions are performed for time horizons spanning from 1 to 12 months. Our results show that predictions obtained through the traditional methods improve when the EMD is used as a previous step, since errors decrease by up to 13% when the AR1 model is used, and by up to 18% when using Neural Networks is combined with the

  9. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  10. The tobacco dependence dimension in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Posada-Villa, Jose; Cheng, Hui G; Martins, Silvia S; Storr, Carla L; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio A; Anthony, James C

    2011-01-01

    This epidemiological study of a sample of smokers from the general population of Colombia examined the population distribution and dimensionality of eight hypothesized inter-correlated clinical features (CFs) associated with tobacco dependence syndrome (TDS). Data were drawn from interviews of 4 426 smokers conducted in a national survey in Colombia as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Daily smokers completed a Spanish-language TDS module, and the 237 smokers who had begun smoking during the five years prior to the assessment were selected. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for a unidimensional TDS provided discrimination and difficulty parameter estimates. Two CFs that were reported very infrequently among the study sample were dropped from the CFA. Among the six remaining CFs, discrimination (D1) estimates ranged from 1.1 to 6.0 and difficulty (D2) estimates ranged from 1.1 to 2.2, providing evidentiary support for a unidimensional tobacco dependence construct. The Spanish-language TDS module used in this study could serve as a valuable tool in future studies for evaluating public health outreach and early intervention programs directed toward community residents who have begun smoking tobacco.

  11. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded. PMID:12282910

  12. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded.

  13. [Thirty years of demographic transformation in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G; Ordonez, M

    1993-06-01

    Statistical data describing the dramatic fertility decline and increase in contraceptive usage in Colombia since 1965 are presented in this article. Colombia's estimated crude birth rate, which fluctuated around 45/1000 for the first half of the 20th century, fell from 45 in 1965 to 41.3 around 1968, 36 in 1970, 31 in 1975, 28 in 1985, and 26 in 1990. The total fertility rate declined from an estimated 7.0 in 1960-65 to 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in the 1973 census, 3.2 in the 1985 census, and 2.9 according to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey. The most significant fertility declines occurred before 1975, but fertility continues to decline in rural and urban zones and in all regions of Colombia. Some isolated groups of women maintain high fertility. Rural women, women in the Atlantic region, women in consensual unions, less educated women, and those not employed outside the home had higher fertility rates. Marriage age, and important proximate fertility determinant, changed significantly only between 1975-86. Age at first union was around 19 years between 1969-76 vs. 21 years for 1986-90. The median age at first marriage was estimated at 22.1 years in 1976 and 22.8 in 1985. By 1985 the median age at first marriage was 23.4 years in urban areas and 2.2 years lower in rural areas. The causes of the fertility decline have not been precisely identified, although such factors as urbanization, improved health services, increasing educational levels, and female employment are believed to be involved. Colombia's crude death rate has declined from 22/1000 in 1930-51 to 13.5 in 1964, 9 in 1973, and 6 in 1985. The decline has been attributed to improved health conditions, introduction of vaccines and antibiotics, and general development of the medical sciences. The national infant mortality rate was 27/1000 live births in 1990, but elevated levels persist in the marginal areas of large cities, in remote rural areas, and among the least educated. Colombia's fertility decline has

  14. Predictive value of molecular drug resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Beatriz E; García, Pamela K; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-07-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases.

  15. Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

  16. Haplotype identification within Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Hernandez, H; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2011-01-01

    The fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a migratory important pest of corn, sorghum, rice, grass and bermudagrass in North and South America. This species has diverged into two genetically differentiated but morphologically identical strains, "the rice" and "the corn". They have been analyzed by sequencing the genes cytochrome oxydase I, II and ITS1 from populations from the United States and Brazil. However, no such studies were performed in Colombia. In here, we identified 43 haplotypes by sequencing a fragment of the COI gene from 102 individuals, of which 40 had already been identified as the "corn" and "rice" strains or to their hybrids from Tolima, and the rest were collected from corn, cotton, sorghum, grass and rice fields in other regions of Colombia. The corn strain haplotype H1 was the most frequently found in this country, representing the main target for FAW monitoring programs. AMOVA analysis confirmed the population structure between Colombian and North American S. frugiperda haplotypes (F(ST) = 0.76812, P < 0.001), but not within the different Colombian regions, suggesting high gene flow within the country. The ML trees obtained for Tolima and for Colombia as a whole did not generate clustering amongst S. frugiperda sequences, neither via host-plant association nor by geographical areas. The minimum spanning network for Colombia corroborated our finding that the haplotype H1 has the highest frequency in the country. Our data suggest that haplotype frequency determination will be useful in the establishment of a monitoring system for this species.

  17. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  18. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958.

  19. A new termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae, Macuxitermes) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Postle, Anthony C; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2016-01-01

    A new species of termite, Macuxitermes colombicus Postle & Scheffrahn is described from soldiers and workers collected from Departamento Magdalena, Colombia. The soldier of Macuxitermes colombicus differs from its lone congener in having no protuberances on the head capsule. PMID:27408525

  20. The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E.; Paez, Vivian P.; Bock, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna. PMID:25733961

  1. The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E; Daza, Juan M; Paez, Vivian P; Bock, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna.

  2. Between Local Culture and School Science: The Case of Provincial and Urban Students from Eastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2008-03-01

    A lack of congruency between the teaching and learning of science and the student’s personal worlds has long been recognised by the international science education community as an issue deserving space in the research agenda. The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity of student reactions when subcultures such as family, community peers, and personal worldviews are considered along side the subculture of school science. Two-hundred and fifty students from urban and provincial schools in the northeastern region of Colombia (South America) participated. From this group, 18 students were interviewed. It was observed that students adopt a compartmentalisation of knowledge that is evident as both an avoiding strategy in the classroom and as a mechanism to differentiate between the natural world of their everyday situations and the one portrayed by a Westernised science instruction in the classroom. The findings reflect how multiple worldviews correlate with student frameworks as implanted by school science.

  3. [Main migration trends and economic internationalization in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Urrea Giraldo, F

    1993-04-01

    The author examines migration flows to and from Colombia and notes that "Colombia has been experiencing in the last decades different kinds of spatial mobility, towards the United States, Europe, Venezuela and other countries in Latin America. Since the 80s return flows have become important." The impacts on migration of improved education and women's status, and the lack of legal employment opportunities are examined. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  6. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  7. Colombia's "National Project for Sex Education".

    PubMed

    Martinez Mendez, Z

    1996-01-01

    Colombia's National Project for Sex Education, established in 1993, seeks to change negative views of sexuality, further social justice through a redefinition of traditional gender roles, promote reproductive health and sexual responsibility, and encourage respect and self-determination within families. Given the racial and cultural diversity within Colombian society, as well as a trend toward school decentralization and autonomy, there is no single curriculum. To date, more than 2000 teachers have attended 180 workshops on human sexuality. To ensure a future supply of trained teachers, universities are being asked to implement sex education studies. In addition, 36 regional teams have been formed and 145 people have been trained in program development. 12 sexuality education booklets have been prepared, as well as poster displays, media advertisements, and videotapes. Program evaluation will be an important component of this strategy.

  8. Congenital malaria in Urabá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital malaria has been considered a rare event; however, recent reports have shown frequencies ranging from 3% to 54.2% among newborns of mothers who had suffered malaria during pregnancy. There are only a few references concerning the epidemiological impact of this entity in Latin-America and Colombia. Objective The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of congenital malaria in an endemic Colombian region and to determine some of its characteristics. Methods A prospective, descriptive study was carried out in the mothers who suffered malaria during pregnancy and their newborns. Neonates were clinically evaluated at birth and screened for Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear from the umbilical cord and peripheral blood, and followed-up weekly during the first 21 days of postnatal life through clinical examinations and thick smears. Results 116 newborns were included in the study and 80 umbilical cord samples were obtained. Five cases of congenital infection were identified (four caused by P. vivax and one by P. falciparum), two in umbilical cord blood and three in newborn peripheral blood. One case was diagnosed at birth and the others during follow-up. Prevalence of congenital infection was 4.3%. One of the infected newborns was severely ill, while the others were asymptomatic and apparently healthy. The mothers of the newborns with congenital malaria had been diagnosed with malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and also presented placental infection. Conclusions Congenital malaria may be a frequent event in newborns of mothers who have suffered malaria during pregnancy in Colombia. An association was found between congenital malaria and the diagnosis of malaria in the mother during the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and the presence of placental infection. PMID:21846373

  9. Fast shrinkage of tropical glaciers in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Jorge Luis; Euscátegui, Christian; Ramírez, Jair; Cañon, Marcela; Huggel, Christian; Haeberli, Wilfried; Machguth, Horst

    As a consequence of ongoing atmospheric temperature rise, tropical glaciers belong to the unique and threatened ecosystems on Earth, as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Houghton and others, 2001). Worldwide glacier monitoring, especially as part of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), includes the systematic collection of data on such perennial surface ice masses. Several peaks in the sierras of Colombia have lost their glacier cover during recent decades. Today, high-altitude glaciers still exist in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, in Sierra Nevada del Cocuy and on the volcanoes of Nevados del Ruiz, de Santa Isabel, del Tolima and del Huila. Comparison of reconstructions of maximum glacier area extent during the Little Ice Age with more recent information from aerial photographs and satellite images clearly documents a fast-shrinking tendency and potential disappearance of the remaining glaciers within the next few decades. In the past 50 years, Colombian glaciers have lost 50% or more of their area. Glacier shrinkage has continued to be strong in the last 15 years, with a loss of 10-50% of the glacier area. The relationship between fast glacier retreat and local, regional and global climate change is now being investigated. Preliminary analyses indicate that the temperature rise of roughly 1° C in the last 30 years recorded at high-altitude meteorological stations exerts a primary control on glacier retreat. The investigations on the Colombian glaciers thus corroborate earlier findings concerning the high sensitivity of glaciers in the wet inner tropics to temperature rise. To improve understanding of fast glacier retreat in Colombia, a modern monitoring network has been established according to the multilevel strategy of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) within GCOS. The observations are also contributions to continued assessments of hazards from the glacier-covered volcanoes and to integrated global change

  10. Variations in alluvial style of Tertiary units in response to tectonism, Las Monas area, middle Magdalena valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Siemers, C.T.

    1989-03-01

    Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of Tertiary alluvial sandstone outcrops within and east of producing oil fields in the Las Monas area in Colombia, South America, indicate that depositional style changed from fluvial-deltaic to braided streams atop alluvial fans to high-sinuosity meandering streams in response to uplifts in the surrounding areas. Diverse paleocurrent trends in the Tertiary formations in the perimeter area demonstrate that streams flowed northeast and northwest. Streams in the oil field had easterly and southerly components. Source areas contributing sediment were different and reflected uplifts to the west and south of the Las Monas area. Petrographic composition of sandstones that have easterly and southerly paleocurrent trends in the field area contain more feldspar and less polycrystalline strained quartz than sandstones having a northerly trend in the perimeter area. Sandstones in the field area represent an unroofing of a western granitic terrain, possibly in the ancestral Central Cordillera.

  11. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...

  14. 78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission...) are providing notice that the United States and Colombia intend to hold the first meeting of the... implementation of Chapter 18 (Environment) of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) and...

  15. Growing pains in South America.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    1997-08-01

    This article describes some negative effects from modernization and urban growth in South America, including disease, pesticides, occupational hazards, poor environmental controls of water and garbage, sanitation, and environmental degradation. South America is following the global trend toward urbanization and the problems that accompany it. Agricultural expansion led to an expanded market for pesticides that includes the deadly DDT, paraquat, and heptachlor. Brazil and Colombia are the largest consumers. Latin American officials justify use of DDT, which is banned in the US and many European countries, as an effective means of combating mosquitos that carry malaria. Exposure occurs during harvesting, transporting, forestry, livestock farming, and vector control activities. Methyl bromide, which is used post-harvest and as a soil fumigant, is dangerous enough to be banned in the US in 2001, and in developing countries in 2002. Exposure to toxic chemicals can severely inhibit enzyme action that is necessary for neurological functioning. A hot climate, which prevents protective clothing, lack of education on proper application, and absence of water to wash exposed skin, make pesticide protection very difficult. Over 40 million agricultural workers are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Habitat destruction has contributed to increased mosquito infestations. Children in the workplace are at even greater risk of noise pollution and chemical poisoning. South America pollutes almost 11 times more fresh water per capita than Europe. About 70% of domestic garbage is collected, and about 30% is disposed of correctly. Only 10% of urban wastewater is treated before discharge into waterways. The loss of coastal wetlands reduces the ability of waterways to filter and absorb nutrients. Environmental health problems suggest an interlinkage between environmental sustainability, human health, and economic growth. PMID:9347893

  16. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  17. Health care for older persons in Colombia: a country profile.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-09-01

    Colombia is a country of approximately 42 million inhabitants, with some 2.5 million being aged 65 and older. Currently, life expectancy in Colombia is 72.3. By 2025, the population life expectancy at birth will be 77.6 for women and 69.8 for men. The quality of care that people receive as they age in Colombia varies according to where they live. Individuals living in the highly urbanized areas of Colombia receive high-quality care, whereas elderly subjects living in rural areas and in the southern and northern regions are exposed to unemployment, low income, inequity of access to health care, drug trafficking, and armed conflict. In spite of these problems, characteristics of aging of older people in terms of functionality and healthcare access are similar to those of people living in developing countries around the world. This article reviews the particular characteristics of the elderly population in Colombia, especially the significant changes that have happened in recent years, when social instability and conflict have determined that health resources be redirected to other budget priorities such as defense and security. PMID:19515103

  18. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  19. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  20. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

  1. [Drug use among students in Cali, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bergonzoli Peláez, G; Rico, O; Ramírez, A; Paz, M I; Ramírez, J; Rivas, J C; Salinas, A; Rodríguez, O; Salazar, O; Rincón, N

    1989-01-01

    The use of alcohol, tobacco, marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was examined in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 512 secondary-school students enrolled in public and private schools in Cali, Colombia. The overall prevalence of use for any of these substances was 59.38% in the public schools and 36.96% in the private schools (z = 4.6, P less than 0.05). The probability of finding an alcohol user was about 55.26%. The frequency of use for all the substances was 18.9% in the public schools and 7.46% in the private ones. Experience with marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was more frequent in the public schools. The average age of users (19.91 years) was higher than that of non-users (16.25 years): t = 8.34, P less than 0.05. Students in the public schools with a family history of mental illness had almost a ninefold greater risk of being substance users (RR = 8.84, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37); among students in the private schools, having personal conflicts with authority figures (teachers and the police) was a significant risk factor (RR = 2.03, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37). PMID:2525388

  2. Malaria vector species in Colombia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species’ geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  3. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features. PMID:26844434

  4. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  5. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  6. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  7. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  8. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  9. [Psychology as a science and as a profession in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ardila, R

    1975-01-01

    In Colombia, Psychology started associated with Medicine and Education. In a more strict sense, it begins with the founding of the Institute of Applied Psychology at the National University of Colombia, in 1948. This is one of the oldest training centers for Psychologists in Latin America, without interruption until today. The areas of outstanding professional interest are Educational Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Social Psychology. The main research areas are the experimental analysis of behavior, and Social Psychology. There is a professional association the Colombia Federation of Psychology, that has defined the roles and fields of competence of Psychologists, and established the training requirements (5 years, including practical field work and experience and a thesis), to obtain a degree of Psychologist. All Faculties and Departments of Psychology in the country follow the same curricular and requirements model. PMID:1217515

  10. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-11

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  11. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E.; Ruiz-García, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (FST = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia. PMID:20810825

  12. A model of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stanley N.; Meyer, Hansjürgen

    A workshop was held at the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia in Manizales, Colombia, March 28 to April 1, 1988, to review the accumulated data on the disastrous November 13, 1985, eruption and related activity of Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Figure 1). Approximately 30 scientists from eight countries presented data, developed a preliminary model, and addressed the future problems of Ruiz. The volcano (see Figure 2) erupted just prior to the meeting, covering the meeting site with 1-2 mm of ash.The workshop was convened by Stanley N. Williams (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge) and Hansjürgen Meyer (Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia). A special volume of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research is planned for the papers and letters presented at the workshop, with some additional contributions. Publication is expected in mid-1989.

  13. 3D tomographic structure of the north andean subduction zone at the Colombia-Ecuador border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cano, L. C.; Galve, A.; de La Torre, G.; Charvis, P.; Pontoise, B.; Hello, Y.; Anglade, A.; Yates, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    At the latitude of Ecuador - southern Colombia, the Nazca plate converges toward the South American plate along an ~E-W direction at a rate of about 6 cm/yr. Several large subduction earthquakes affected this area during the last century. Near the Ecuador-Colombia border the 500 km long rupture zone of the 1906 event (M = 8.8) was partially reactivated, from south to north, by a sequence of 3 thrust events in 1942 (Mw = 7.8), 1958 (Mw = 7.7) and 1979 (Mw = 8.2). From 1998 to 2005, this zone was the target of five marine geophysical campaigns in order to determine the shallow and deep structure of the margin, its deformation and the possible relation with the rupture zone of the major earthquakes. Bathymetric data, passive and active seismic data were collected off South-Colombia and Ecuador. The data suggest that the interplate earthquakes and the extension of their rupture zone are at least partly controlled by structures on the downgoing and upper plates. To the south the subduction of the buoyant Carnegie Ridge, with a up to 19 km thick crust, is inferred to partially lock the plate interface along central Ecuador. This is illustrated by the rupture zones during the 1942 and 1906 earthquakes that terminated against the subducted northern flank of the ridge. The margin wedge is segmented by transverse crustal faults that correlate with the limits of the earthquake coseismic slip zones at the limit between the 1942 and 1958 rupture zones as well as at the limit between the 1958 and 1979 rupture zones. Furthermore, seaward of the 1958 rupture zone, a 2D profile from the SALIERI experiment (2001) highlights that the margin seems to overthrust a low velocity outer basement high along a splay fault that would decouple the bulk of the margin basement from its frontal part during great earthquake rupture. During, the 3D Esmeraldas experiment, conducted from February to June 2005, 34 3-components portable stations were installed on land and 26 3-components Ocean Bottom

  14. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, David J.; Pacheco, M. Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F.; Schwartz, Rachel S.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  15. Analysis, characterization and identification of the Meta fault (Colombia) from the distribution of resistivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, H.; Martinez L, A.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were performed between the Vichada and Casanare states in eastern Colombia, with Schlumberger arrays using maximum aperture AB = 600 m and 1 m < MN < 150 m in a region whose average elevation was 75m. Each of the eleven profiles was composed of three VES (on average), the separation between VES and the average distance between points were 417m and 6.25 km respectively; and acquisitions were carried out in late 2011 and early 2012. Resistivity values were estimated in the range of 100 Ωm to 10.000 Ωm. The apparent resistivity data were processed using the software IPI2Win, and profiles modeled possible layers with a maximum depth of research of 200 m. To the north of the study area the presence of high resistivity values (5000Ωm - 10000Ωm) is calculated, compared to those found south of the area (<3000 Ω m), these changes in resistivity are associated to changes in lithology between the north and south sections of the study area, which could be associated with the presence of a fault (the Meta fault), which has acted as a tectonic boundary. Map and Volume resistivity in the area of interest (Vichada-Casanare states), the abrupt change in resistivity is observed in the Meta fault (white line).

  16. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Winter, David J; Pacheco, M Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F; Schwartz, Rachel S; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Cartwright, Reed A; Escalante, Ananias A

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America.

  17. Subduction system and flat slab beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; De Gori, Pasquale; Faccenna, Claudio; Speranza, Fabio; Seccia, Danilo; Dionicio, Viviana; Prieto, Germán. A.

    2016-01-01

    Seismicity at the northern terminus of the Nazca subduction is diffused over a wide area containing the puzzling seismic feature known as the Bucaramanga nest. We relocate about 5000 earthquakes recorded by the Colombian national seismic network and produce the first 3-D velocity model of the area to define the geometry of the lithosphere subducting below the Colombian Andes. We found lateral velocity heterogeneities and an abrupt offset of the Wadati-Benioff zone at 5°N indicating that the Nazca plate is segmented by an E-W slab tear, that separates a steeper Nazca segment to the south from a flat subduction to the north. The flat Nazca slab extends eastward for about 400 km, before dip increases to ˜50° beneath the Eastern Cordillera, where it yields the Bucaramanga nest. We explain this puzzling locus of intermediate-depth seismicity located beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia as due to a massive dehydration and eclogitization of a thickened oceanic crust. We relate the flat subducting geometry to the entrance at the trench at ca. 10 Ma of a thick - buoyant oceanic crust, likely a volcanic ridge, producing a high coupling with the overriding plate. Sub-horizontal plate subduction is consistent with the abrupt disappearance of volcanism in the Andes of South America at latitudes > 5°N.

  18. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  19. Education in Colombia. Bulletin, 1946, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbay, John H.

    1946-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Education has undertaken the preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a number of Central and South American countries under the sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of a program to promote understanding of educational conditions in…

  20. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  1. [Why are diagnosis-related groups unpopular in Colombia?].

    PubMed

    Gorbanev, Iouri; Cortés, Ariel; Agudelo, Sandra; Yepes, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of non-implementation of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) by hospitals in Colombia. A qualitative case was carried out to analyze the directors' perceptions in six hospitals with and without DRGs in Bogotá. The interviews are based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory. The directors had similar perceptions of the determinates. DRGs were seen as positive, but encountered organizational and institutional obstacles. Without a targeted public policy, the likelihood of implementing DRGs in Colombia is slight.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E

  3. Abrupt climate changes in northwestern Colombia during the Lateglacial and Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez Ruiz, C.

    2013-05-01

    High resolution pollen/spores records from Paramo de Frontino (6, 29N, 76, 6W) and Paramo de Belmira (6,42'N, 75,40'W) in Colombia (Velásquez C. and H. Hooghiemstra, Paleobotany, 2012 in press; Velásquez C., et al., in preparation) spanning 17300 and 34000 cal yr BP; are studied for abrupt climatic change and compared with a La Cocha diatom record (Gonzalez, Z, et al., 2012), Frontino and Cariaco Basin (offshore Venezuela) titanium records and a Cariaco sea surface temperatures record (Gorin, G., et al, in preparation; Haug, et al., 2001; Lea D., et al., 2003; respectively); in reference to detected vegetation and climate variations. The most remarkable events occurred at 8200, 9300, 10400, 12000, 13500, 14.5-14.7, 16.2 and 21.4 cal yr BP. Low frequency cycles of 1500-2500 yr are present along the records suggesting that the North Atlantic Bond Cycles are also registered in northwestern South American terrestrial records. Some of these changes were dry while others wet, showing that both patterns "Cold poles, dry tropics" and "Cold poles, wet tropics" can be expressed. It was also found that the estimated temperatures from Paramo de Frontino (pollen based) and sea surface temperatures in Cariaco followed a similar trend during the the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. However, in the case of moisture, the Titanium record (indicative of rainfall) from the Cariaco Basin, the aquatic vegetation pollen and titanium records from Paramo de Frontino and diatoms record from La Cocha lake, showed a clear antiphase behavior during the same periods. Position and shape of Intertropical Convergence Zone are postulated as responsible for this variation. Keywords: palinology, Intertropical Convergence Zone, titanium, Colombia, climatic and vegetation changes.

  4. [Environmental factors associated with habitat preferences by caddisfly larvae in tropical dry forest watersheds (Tolima, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ramos, Jesús M; Guevara-Cardona, Giovany; Reinoso-Flórez, Gladys

    2014-04-01

    River ecosystems, mainly those draining tropical dry forests, are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems and a major conservation priority in South America, as elsewhere. In this study, we assessed the influence of environmental factors (e.g., precipitation) and riparian vegetation on Trichoptera larval assemblages colonizing four substrates (rock, gravel, sand, and litter) in the Venadillo and Opia watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). In each river, five 20m reaches nested into two 100m segments (one at -550 and another at -250masl), were surveyed for benthic invertebrates in the above mentioned substrates. In addition, water samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and the QBR index ("qualitat del bosc de ribera" or riparian forest quality) was applied in both rivers. A total of 6,282 larvae were collected, belonging to 11 families and 22 genera, representing 73.30% and 43.13% of the Trichoptera fauna reported to Colombia, respectively. The most abundant families were Hydropsychidae (49.86%) and Philopotamidae (25.44%) and the least abundant Odontoceridae (0.16%) and Hydrobiosidae (0.06%). The genera Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia, and Leptonema, were common during dry and rainy seasons. The main factors related to changes in composition, richness, and abundance of larval Trichoptera were seasonality and riparian vegetation, which can influence organic matter supply, availability and stability of substrates, and colonization and population dynamics. Trichoptera assemblages showed no significant differences among substrates. However sampling points located at high elevation and in non-urbanized areas offered the largest variety of substrates and richness. Our results indicate that Trichoptera larvae are an important biotic element in freshwater ecosystems and that they are sensitive to environmental changes. Hence, our study suggests that caddisflies may be used as potential organisms for the biomonitoring of tropical dry forest rivers

  5. [Environmental factors associated with habitat preferences by caddisfly larvae in tropical dry forest watersheds (Tolima, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ramos, Jesús M; Guevara-Cardona, Giovany; Reinoso-Flórez, Gladys

    2014-04-01

    River ecosystems, mainly those draining tropical dry forests, are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems and a major conservation priority in South America, as elsewhere. In this study, we assessed the influence of environmental factors (e.g., precipitation) and riparian vegetation on Trichoptera larval assemblages colonizing four substrates (rock, gravel, sand, and litter) in the Venadillo and Opia watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). In each river, five 20m reaches nested into two 100m segments (one at -550 and another at -250masl), were surveyed for benthic invertebrates in the above mentioned substrates. In addition, water samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and the QBR index ("qualitat del bosc de ribera" or riparian forest quality) was applied in both rivers. A total of 6,282 larvae were collected, belonging to 11 families and 22 genera, representing 73.30% and 43.13% of the Trichoptera fauna reported to Colombia, respectively. The most abundant families were Hydropsychidae (49.86%) and Philopotamidae (25.44%) and the least abundant Odontoceridae (0.16%) and Hydrobiosidae (0.06%). The genera Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia, and Leptonema, were common during dry and rainy seasons. The main factors related to changes in composition, richness, and abundance of larval Trichoptera were seasonality and riparian vegetation, which can influence organic matter supply, availability and stability of substrates, and colonization and population dynamics. Trichoptera assemblages showed no significant differences among substrates. However sampling points located at high elevation and in non-urbanized areas offered the largest variety of substrates and richness. Our results indicate that Trichoptera larvae are an important biotic element in freshwater ecosystems and that they are sensitive to environmental changes. Hence, our study suggests that caddisflies may be used as potential organisms for the biomonitoring of tropical dry forest rivers

  6. First Detection of the Plasmid-Mediated Class A Carbapenemase KPC-2 in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from South America

    PubMed Central

    Virginia Villegas, Maria; Lolans, Karen; Correa, Adriana; Jose Suarez, Carlos; Lopez, Jaime A.; Vallejo, Marta; Quinn, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The plasmid-mediated class A carbapenemase KPC-2 was isolated from unrelated Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Medellin, Colombia. These KPC enzymes are the first from South America and the second isolation outside of the United States. The expanding geographic spread of KPC carbapenemases underscores the importance of clinical recognition of these enzymes. PMID:16870793

  7. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  8. Cretaceous sequence stratigraphy of the Northern South American Passive Margin: Implications for tectonic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, E.G.; Villamil, T.; Johnson, C.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The passive margin of northern South America, from Colombia to northeastern Venezuela, was relatively stable through the Cretaceous and only broadly affected by the entry of the Caribbean Plate into the Protocaribbean Basin. This region offers a unique opportunity to test the relative effects of global sealevel change, autocyclic sedimentologic processed, and regional tectonics in shaping the stratigraphic record of Cretaceous passive margins. High-resolution stratigraphic studies of Colombia and Venezuela have established a precise system of regional chronology and correlation with resolution <1 Ma (50-500 ka for the middle Cretaceous). This allows precise separation of allocyclic and autocyclic controls on facies development. This new chronology integrates assemblage zone biostratigraphy with event/cycle chronostratigraphy. Newly measured Cretaceous sections in Venezuela and throughout Colombia are calibrated to this new chronology, and sequence stratigraphic units independently defined to the third-order of resolution. Graphic correlation of all sections is used to identify sequences with regional stratigraphic expression, and those which correlate to sequence stratigraphic standards of North America, Europe and the global cycles of Hag et al. (1988). 50-60 percent of the stratigraphic sequences across the South American passive margin correlate to other continents and to the global sequence stratigraphic standard, reflecting strong eustatic influence on Cretaceous sedimentation across northern South America. The remaining sequences in this region reflect tectonic modification of the passive margin and autocyclic sedimentary processes.

  9. Tectonic implications of tomographic images of subducted lithosphere beneath Northwestern South America

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Hilst, R. ); Mann, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Tomographic images and deep seismicity of the mantle beneath northwestern South America support the existence of extensive and continuous subducted slabs which may be important controls on the neotectonic deformation of the overriding South America plate. Using tomographic data, we have estimated lateral continuity, regional dip, downdip length and approximate convergence direction of two, largely aseismic slabs. Tomographic data suggests that the Cauca slab, previously defined using earthquakes beneath southern Colombia, extends 300 km into the mantle beneath northern Colombia, has an average dip of 50[degrees], and is the downdip extension of Eocene to Miocene Panama island arc and Oligocene-Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate. The Maracaibo slab of northern Colombia and western Venezuela extends up to 450 km into the mantle at an average angle of 16[degrees] and is the downdip extension of Late Cretaceous oceanic plateau crust of the Caribbean Sea. The boundary between the two slabs is less than 50 km in width. The Maracaibo and northern Cauca slabs are generally aseismic and not associated with an overlying volcanic arc. Instead, both slabs are overlain by broad zones of diffuse active faulting and topography in the northern Andes. The shallow dip, angle of oblique subduction and thickness of the Maracaibo slab may produce crustal deformation including northward tectonic escape of the Maracaibo block, a triangular wedge of continental crust in the overriding South America plate.

  10. Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

  11. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia.

  12. Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

  13. English Teaching and the Economic Development of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    To supply the large number of workers qualified for complex jobs, a demand created by the growing needs of a rapidly growing population, Colombia must make provisions for an expanded system of higher education. This can be accomplished by sending students abroad to study at the university level. The large number of students coming to the United…

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  15. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  16. [Trends, determinants, and implications of mortality in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bayona Nunez, A

    1985-06-01

    Trends and patterns of mortality in Colombia during the twentieth century are investigated. Mortality differentials are analyzed by sex, age, rural or urban area, department, and cause of death. The impact on mortality of various factors associated with modernization is examined, and effects on demographic, economic, and social behavior are considered.

  17. Leadership, Education and Agricultural Development Programs in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dale W.

    1968-01-01

    The lack of qualified leadership to direct, plan, and do research in agricultural agencies is an important restraint on rural development in countries like Colombia. An increase in the number of students attending institutions for agricultural education has been often viewed as the solution to this problem. It is argued here that an increase in…

  18. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  19. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  20. The Urgent Situation of the Cuiva Indians of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcand, Bernard

    The Cuiva Indians of Colombia are now threatened with cultural and physical extermination at the hands of Colombian cattle herders. The Cuiva build no permanent houses and have no permanent settlements. They do not practice agriculture, obtaining their food from hunting and gathering. For more than 4 centuries after their discovery, little has…

  1. Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…

  2. Curriculum Diversification in Colombia and Tanzania: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of over 12,000 Colombian and Tanzanian high school seniors plus 3-year follow-up found that, compared to standard (academic) curricula, diversified (academic plus vocational) curricula were costly and difficult to implement; increased lower-class enrollments; increased academic achievement (in Colombia); had little effect on employment…

  3. Teacher Training in Colombia: A Need for Continuous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.

    2007-01-01

    Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals…

  4. Present state of studies of volcanic risk in Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvajal, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in the last days of 1984, we began studies whose purpose was directed toward the identification of hte risks that accompanied such volcanic activity. As a result of these investigations there appeared a preliminary map of volcanic risk in Octoer 7, 1985, the first map of its kind in Colombia  

  5. Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Meri L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

  6. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  7. Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

  8. Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Raúl Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their…

  9. Colombia uses water to wake an old, tired giant

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, F.

    1985-01-01

    Ecopetrol is about to begin a $375-million secondary recovery project to bring an additional 70 million barrels of oil out of Casabe field in the Middel Magdalena Valley of Colombia. The 16-year project will begin with 243,600 bwpd injected into 500 wells.

  10. Working with Urban Youth: Experiences from Medellin, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    In the slums of Medellin, Colombia, a program seeks to improve children's physical health, intellectual development, and self-concept through such activities as carpentry, breadmaking, and sports and literature clubs. These activities help develop ethical and moral values, planning and organizing skills, and a future orientation. (SK)

  11. 76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... transmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress. Dated: August 11, 2011. Hillary Rodham Clinton... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary...

  12. A new termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae, Macuxitermes) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Postle, Anthony C.; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of termite, Macuxitermes colombicus Postle & Scheffrahn is described from soldiers and workers collected from Departamento Magdalena, Colombia. The soldier of Macuxitermes colombicus differs from its lone congener in having no protuberances on the head capsule. PMID:27408525

  13. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  14. Molecular diagnosis and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis in asymptomatic children from a rural area in central Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M; Moncada, Ligia Inés; Reyes, Patricia; Pinilla, Análida Elizabeth; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2015-06-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic infection that affects around 200 million people worldwide. This parasite presents a remarkable genetic variability observed in 8 genetic clusters named as 'assemblages' (A-H). These assemblages are host restricted and could be zoonotic where A and B infect humans and animals around the globe. The knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of human giardiasis in South-America is scarce and also the usefulness of PCR to detect this pathogen in fecal samples remains controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to compare the molecular targets employed for the molecular diagnosis of Giardia DNA and to discriminate the parasite assemblages circulating in the studied population. We analyzed 181 fecal samples from Children at La Virgen, Cundinamarca, Colombia that were DNA-extracted and analyzed by SSU rDNA, tpi and gdh loci. We observed positivity by microscopy of 13% and by PCR around 76-80% depending on the molecular marker. Additionally, a lack of statistical concordance between microscopy and PCR was detected. Regarding the genetic assemblages, we detected assemblage A (3%), assemblage B (90%) and mixed infections assemblages A+B (7%). Hence, the sub-assemblages were typed as AI, AII, BIII and BIV across the population. This study represents a reliable attempt to understand the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis in Colombia and the use of PCR to detect cryptic infections. The epidemiological implications are herein discussed.

  15. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  16. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  17. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  18. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia. PMID:25947792

  19. Occurrence of hydrophobic organic pollutants (BFRs and UV-filters) in sediments from South America.

    PubMed

    Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Gorga, Marina; Rudolph, Ignacio; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Díaz-Cruz, Sílvia; Barra, Ricardo; Ocampo-Duque, William; Páez, Martha; Darbra, Rosa María; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2013-07-01

    In the present study the occurrence of emerging hydrophobic organic pollutants in sediment samples from South America (Chile and Colombia) was investigated for the first time. Nineteen Chilean and thirteen Colombian sediment samples were analyzed in order to determine their content of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (including PBDEs and emerging BFRs) as well as UV filters (UV-F). Samples were collected from neighboring aquatic ecosystems highly urbanized and industrialized in Colombia (Magdalena River area) and Chile (Biobio region). Different analytical procedures were applied depending on the selected analytes, based on chromatographic and mass spectrometric methodologies (GC-MS and LC-MS-MS). In general, concentration levels of both BFRs (up to 2.43 and 143ngg(-1) dw of PBDEs in Chile and Colombia, respectively) and UV-F (nd-2.96 and nd-54.4ngg(-1) dw in Chile and Colombia, respectively) were in the low range of published data, and the contribution of BFRs was higher than that of UV-F for almost all the sampled sediments. PMID:23602656

  20. Occurrence of hydrophobic organic pollutants (BFRs and UV-filters) in sediments from South America.

    PubMed

    Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Gorga, Marina; Rudolph, Ignacio; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Díaz-Cruz, Sílvia; Barra, Ricardo; Ocampo-Duque, William; Páez, Martha; Darbra, Rosa María; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2013-07-01

    In the present study the occurrence of emerging hydrophobic organic pollutants in sediment samples from South America (Chile and Colombia) was investigated for the first time. Nineteen Chilean and thirteen Colombian sediment samples were analyzed in order to determine their content of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (including PBDEs and emerging BFRs) as well as UV filters (UV-F). Samples were collected from neighboring aquatic ecosystems highly urbanized and industrialized in Colombia (Magdalena River area) and Chile (Biobio region). Different analytical procedures were applied depending on the selected analytes, based on chromatographic and mass spectrometric methodologies (GC-MS and LC-MS-MS). In general, concentration levels of both BFRs (up to 2.43 and 143ngg(-1) dw of PBDEs in Chile and Colombia, respectively) and UV-F (nd-2.96 and nd-54.4ngg(-1) dw in Chile and Colombia, respectively) were in the low range of published data, and the contribution of BFRs was higher than that of UV-F for almost all the sampled sediments.

  1. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  2. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  3. South Polarscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a spectacular summertime view of a portion of the south polar residual cap. Large, semi-continuous mesas are separated by circular and other oddly-shaped depressions. These features are all formed in frozen carbon dioxide; the scarps which bound the mesas and pit walls retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (a little more than 3 yards) each martian southern summer.

    Location near: 87.7oS, 357.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  4. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  5. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  6. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  7. [Colombia. Prevalence, Demography and Health Survey 1990].

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Colombia's 1990 Survey of Prevalence, Demography, and Health (EPDS) was intended to provide data on the total population and on the status of women's and children's health for use in planning and in formulating health and family planning policy. 7412 household interviews and 8647 individual interviews with women aged 15-49 years were completed. This document provides a brief description of the questionnaire, sample design, data processing, and survey results. More detailed works on each topic are expected to follow. After weighing, 74.8% of respondents were urban and 25.2% rural. 3.2% were illiterate, 36.6% had some primary education, 50.2% had secondary educations, and 9.9% had high higher educations. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 98.2% and 997% knew some contraceptive method, 94.1% and 97.9% knew some source of family planning, 57.6% and 86.0% had ever used a method, and 39.9% and 66.1% were currently using a method. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 52.2% and 78.9% had ever used a modern method and 33.0% and 54.6% were currently using a modern method. Among women in union, 14.1% currently used pills, 12.4% IUDs, 2.2% injectables, 1.7% vaginal methods, 2.9% condoms, 20.9% female sterilization, .5% vasectomy, 11.5% some tradition method, 6.1% periodic abstinence, 4.8% withdrawal, and .5% others. Equal proportions of rural and urban women were sterilized. The prevalence of female sterilization declined with education and increased with family size. Modern methods were used by 57.5% of urban and 47.7% of rural women, 44.0% of illiterate women, 51.8% of women with primary and 57.8% with secondary educations. Among women in union, 10.9% wanted a child soon, 19.7% wanted 1 eventually, 3.6% were undecided, 42.6% did not want 1, 21.4% were sterilized, and 1.2% were infertile. Among women giving birth in the past 5 years, the proportion having antitetanus vaccinations increased from 39% in 1986

  8. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. PMID:25087863

  9. [International classification of functioning, disability and disability certification in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Reyes, Edgar; Riveros, Leidy T; Pineda-Ortiz, Gustavo A

    2013-01-01

    Certifying disability in Colombia has been demanded by disabled people; the country has assumed such challenge within the frame work of current legislation and international agreements signed by Colombia. A model of international classification of functioning (ICF), disability and healthwas thus adopted as it has been validated internationally in several studies; it incorporates international standards thereby allowing reliable evaluation of individuals' functional status. This essayinitially defines the concept of disabilityand locates it within a historical context leading to current ICF domain structure and categories. Such instrument provides a common, wide-ranging framework for providing suitable allocation of services and general and specific benefits, while assessing the differential between disabled people's current performance and their potential.

  10. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems.

  11. Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

  12. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  13. Colombia: reasons to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2004-01-01

    All modern nations are concerned with their independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support countries which are in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields which hold promise for our future. The present moment is one of serious crises in Colombia's history. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how the nation could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  14. Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Dengue in Urban Medellin, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Beatty, Mark E.; Goez, Yenny; Ramirez, Ruth E.; Letson, G. William; Diaz, Francisco J.; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3%) were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77%) and -3 (23%) were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1%) febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing. PMID:24987421

  15. Challenges of modeling current very large lahars at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, M.; Pulgarín, B.

    2012-03-01

    Nevado del Huila, a glacier-covered volcano in the South of Colombia's Cordillera Central, had not experienced any historical eruptions before 2007. In 2007 and 2008, the volcano erupted with phreatic and phreatomagmatic events which produced lahars with flow volumes of up to about 300 million m3 causing severe damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. The magnitude of these lahars and the prevailing potential for similar or even larger events, poses significant hazards to local people and makes appropriate modeling a real challenge. In this study, we analyze the recent lahars to better understand the main processes and then model possible scenarios for future events. We used lahar inundation depths, travel duration, and flow deposits to constrain the dimensions of the 2007 event and applied LAHARZ and FLO-2D for lahar modeling. Measured hydrographs, geophone seismic sensor data and calculated peak discharges served as input data for the reconstruction of flow hydrographs and for calibration of the models. For model validation, results were compared with field data collected along the Páez and Simbola Rivers. Based on the results of the 2007 lahar simulation, we modeled lahar scenarios with volumes between 300 million and 1 billion m3. The approach presented here represents a feasible solution for modeling high-magnitude flows like lahars and allows an assessment of potential future events and related consequences for population centers downstream of Nevado del Huila.

  16. Health insurance doesn't seem to discourage prevention among diabetes patients in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Vecino Ortiz, Andres Ignacio; Ruiz Gómez, Fernando; Steinhardt, Laura C

    2010-12-01

    In the South American nation of Colombia, as elsewhere, patients with type 2 diabetes often avoid care that could prevent their condition from worsening. Availability of health insurance may play a role in explaining this behavior. Some patients with diabetes skip preventive measures because they have insurance and calculate that they can access curative services later in life. Insurers may limit preventive services coverage because they can't be assured of sharing in the eventual savings that emerge when a chronic condition such as diabetes is managed properly. Our analysis of a nationally representative sample of Colombians who have type 2 diabetes and who pay premiums into the country's "contributory" insurance program, found no evidence that insurance influences those individuals to avoid preventive services. The evidence is less clear for those participating in a different, fully subsidized insurance program, who-despite the availability of preventive care-are no more likely to seek preventive visits than are uninsured patients. We propose controlled experiments to identify and measure the true causal effects of insurance on prevention and, more broadly, steps to increase patients' understanding of the benefits of prevention.

  17. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  18. The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martínez, Mónica Flórez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

  19. Essential oil of Galinsoga parviflora leaves from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Gaviria, Mauricio; Quevedo-Vega, Juana; García-Lesmes, Laura; Quijano-Celis, Clara E

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) from Colombia was studied by GC and GC/MS. Eighty-eight volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (21.7%), beta-caryophyllene (12.4%), and 6-demethoxy-ageratochrome (14%). The leaf oil presented antimicrobial activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus.

  20. An annotated checklist of the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kotov, Alexey A; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2015-11-20

    Based on the revision of available literature on the Colombian Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), we present an annotated checklist, with taxonomical comments for all taxa recorded since the start of research on this group in the country in 1913. We have listed 101 valid taxa, of which most records belong to the Caribbean region of Colombia. The situation in Colombian Cladocera taxonomy is, at present, unfavorable for any realistic conclusions on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography.

  1. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Constenla, D.; Carvalho, A.; Alvis Guzmán, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods. A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results. The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions. Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak. PMID:26688825

  2. The development of a new breed of sheep in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Scott, H M; Ospina, O; Williams, H L

    1990-01-01

    A new breed of sheep has been developed in Colombia by crossing Scottish Blackface rams with the indigenous Criolla ewes and then interbreeding the progeny, with selection based on performance. It has been given the name Manchada Paramuna. The breed has been developed to provide the small producer (campesino) with a breeding ewe which has a high level of fertility, a good fleece, and which produces lambs with high survival rate and good growth rate. PMID:2331588

  3. Potential of a hand transplantation program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, C; Bermúdez, J; Latorre, L F; DeBedout, R

    2011-11-01

    The protocols and published results on hand transplantation show acceptable results of this technology. None of the registered groups, however has a sufficient number of patients to allow continuity of the process. In Colombia the main problems are violence, drug traffic, and guerrillas. Thanks to the profitability of drug traffic, guerrillas, who initially were created based on ideologic differences, have become terrorist groups whose main source of income is drug traffic. From that interest comes the use of landmines to protect illicit crops. Colombia is the most mined country in the world, followed by Cambodia and Afghanistan, and the only country in Latin America where there are still landmines. The mines, violence, and trauma produce a large number of people with disabilities and amputations. From 1990 to 2006, the number of victims rose from 21 to 1,041 per year. In Colombia, amputations are more frequently due to trauma than to disease. The fact that 88% of the victims are children and people of working age, affects the political and economic development. These alarming numbers generate a challenge for government, which has led to the creation of policies and laws aimed at comprehensive action against mines. This program under the Presidency has among its objectives assistance to victims, including integrated treatment, prostheses, and other procedures, financed entirely by the government. The number, type of victims, and their motivation to be transplanted, along with government programs directed to their attention, are key factors that we think will enable the continuity of our hand transplantation program at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, giving Colombia the unfortunate privilege of having the largest number of potential patients for transplantation. PMID:22099834

  4. The El Niño Southern Oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Alexandre S.; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E.; Bush, Andrew B.

    2002-05-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the climatic anomalies it engenders, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the world-wide increase in incidence of this mosquito-transmitted disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using ENSO forecasts for improving malaria control. This paper analyses the relationship between ENSO events and malaria epidemics in a number of South American countries (Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela). A statistically significant relationship was found between El Niño and malaria epidemics in Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. We demonstrate that flooding engenders malaria epidemics in the dry coastal region of northern Peru, while droughts favor the development of epidemics in Colombia and Guyana, and epidemics lag a drought by 1 year in Venezuela. In Brazil, French Guiana, and Ecuador, where we did not detect an ENSO/malaria signal, non-climatic factors such as insecticide sprayings, variation in availability of anti-malaria drugs, and population migration are likely to play a stronger role in malaria epidemics than ENSO-generated climatic anomalies. In some South American countries, El Niño forecasts show strong potential for informing public health efforts to control malaria.

  5. Alcohol use disorders and psychiatric diseases in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Alejandro; Prada, Sergio I

    2016-01-01

    Background: An accurate understanding of co-occurrence and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Colombia is crucial for public health. Objective: A secondary analysis was conducted, using a 2003/2004 government´s population database to determine the lifetime associations between AUD and other mental and addictive disorders in people of Colombia aged 18-65 years. Methods: Several statistical analysis were performed: testing prevalence difference in mental disorders by whether the individual had an AUD; a stratified analysis by gender and logistic regression analyses accounting for differences in demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and self-reported health status variables. Results: People with AUD comprised 9% of the population, of which 88% were males and on average 37 years old. They were more likely to be males, be working, and be current smokers; and less likely to be at home or retired. The population with AUD had greater chance to comply with criteria for all disorders but minor depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence, and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population with AUD in Colombia. The findings highlight the importance of comorbidity as a sign of disease severity and impact on public health and supports the need for training of more professionals and developing appropriate interventions and services. PMID:27226662

  6. Women's status and infant mortality in rural Colombia.

    PubMed

    Florez, C E; Hogan, D P

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, wage labor and occupation, economic stratum, place of residence, and whether the mother is living with a husband. The life history data for the study (involving 4,928 births) were collected in 1986 from a representative sample of two cohorts of women resident in rural central Colombia. Overall differentials in infant mortality by measures of women's status are small and are in good part associated with the differing reproductive behaviors of the women and variations in breastfeeding practices. The sharp declines in infant mortality recorded in rural Colombia in recent years appear less related to improved status of women than to reductions in fertility that enhance infant survivorship and to public health interventions shared by all segments of the population.

  7. Implementation and adaptation in Colombia of the Communities That Care.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Trujillo, Juliana; Pérez-Gómez, Augusto; Reyes-Rodríguez, María Fernanda

    2015-12-15

    For more than two years, Corporación Nuevos Rumbos (Colombia) has been carrying out, in eight Colombian communities, a preventive system called Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC), an adaptation of Communities That Care (CTC), created at the University of Washington (Seattle), developed for more than 25 years in the United States of America and implemented in eight countries of America, Oceania, and Europe. The system is based on the public health approach, and the social development strategy for community empowerment. The core idea is to teach communities how to make decisions based on data regarding drugs and alcohol consumption and the identification of protective and risk factors, on the basis of the original survey validated in Colombia: these will allow communities to choose the best preventive interventions, tailored for each of them according to their needs. This paper describes the process of implementation of CQC in Colombia, its differences with CTC, the creation of Colombian cut-points, the main difficulties and how these were solved. CQC seems to be a preventive system with a wide potential applicability in other Latin American countries.

  8. Women's status and infant mortality in rural Colombia.

    PubMed

    Florez, C E; Hogan, D P

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of maternal demographic characteristics and social and economic statuses on infant mortality in rural Colombia. Demographic characteristics include the age of the mother, parity and length of preceding interbirth interval, and sex of infant. Measures of women's status at the time of birth include education, wage labor and occupation, economic stratum, place of residence, and whether the mother is living with a husband. The life history data for the study (involving 4,928 births) were collected in 1986 from a representative sample of two cohorts of women resident in rural central Colombia. Overall differentials in infant mortality by measures of women's status are small and are in good part associated with the differing reproductive behaviors of the women and variations in breastfeeding practices. The sharp declines in infant mortality recorded in rural Colombia in recent years appear less related to improved status of women than to reductions in fertility that enhance infant survivorship and to public health interventions shared by all segments of the population. PMID:2093232

  9. Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ross, T

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded. PMID:12321767

  10. The grand aurorae borealis seen in Colombia in 1859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Cárdenas, Freddy; Cristancho Sánchez, Sergio; Vargas Domínguez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9°N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia allowed the identification of a narrative from Montería, Colombia (8° 45‧N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling glares, and the appearance of an immense S-like shape in the sky. The very low latitude of the geomagnetic north pole in 1859, the lowest value in over half a millennia, is proposed to have allowed the observations of auroral events at locations closer to the equator, and supports the historical description found in Colombia. The finding of such chronicle represents one of the most complete descriptions of low-latitude sightings of aurorae caused by the Carrington Event.

  11. Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: a review.

    PubMed

    Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2014-03-01

    The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 μg/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact.

  12. Implementation and adaptation in Colombia of the Communities That Care.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Trujillo, Juliana; Pérez-Gómez, Augusto; Reyes-Rodríguez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    For more than two years, Corporación Nuevos Rumbos (Colombia) has been carrying out, in eight Colombian communities, a preventive system called Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC), an adaptation of Communities That Care (CTC), created at the University of Washington (Seattle), developed for more than 25 years in the United States of America and implemented in eight countries of America, Oceania, and Europe. The system is based on the public health approach, and the social development strategy for community empowerment. The core idea is to teach communities how to make decisions based on data regarding drugs and alcohol consumption and the identification of protective and risk factors, on the basis of the original survey validated in Colombia: these will allow communities to choose the best preventive interventions, tailored for each of them according to their needs. This paper describes the process of implementation of CQC in Colombia, its differences with CTC, the creation of Colombian cut-points, the main difficulties and how these were solved. CQC seems to be a preventive system with a wide potential applicability in other Latin American countries. PMID:26706808

  13. Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ross, T

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded.

  14. Preface to the special issue on "Regional moment tensors and stress field in South and Central America"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck; Zahradnik, Jiri; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This special issue follows from the Symposium "Regional Moment Tensor Solutions: advances and new applications" held in Bogotá, Colombia, at the I Regional Assembly of the IASPEI's Latin American and Caribbean Seismological Commission (LACSC) in 2014. Seven papers are presented dealing with determination of moment tensors, focal mechanisms and the stress field in Central and South America. The study areas of each paper are indicated in the index Map of Fig. 1.

  15. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  16. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects.

  17. Anastomosing river deposits, sedimentation rates and basin subsidence, Magdalena River, northwestern Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derald G.

    1986-02-01

    Situated in a tectonically active foreland basin, the Magdalena River consists of vertically accreting, levee-confined channels and adjacent extensive wetlands, which are interpreted as an anastomosing river sedimentary system. Equivalent rates of basin filling and subsidence average 3.8 mm yr -1 based on 18 14C dates from five bore holes drilled to depths of 55 m and sediment transport budgets from 35 years of measurement. Located in a savanna-tropical climate, anastomosing river deposits of the Magdalena are remarkably similar to the anastomosing deposits of the upper Columbia River in a temperate-cold climate in western Canada, suggesting that climate is not a controlling factor of anastomosis. The geometry of anastomosing channel-fills in the Magdalena consists of stratigraphically non-uniform, low sinuous, narrow stringers of sand up to 30 m thick by 600 m wide, a width-depth ratio of 20. Thin (1-2 m) off-channel crevasse-splay sand sheets extend laterally up to 10 km distance. When buried, both sand deposits become encased by lacustrine or marsh mud to form stratigraphic traps. While there are few modern anastomosing river systems as compared to braiding and meandering, there may be a disproportionately large number of ancient anastomosed fluvial rock sequences due to the rapid rate of vertical accretion. Such a different depositional style and geometry of sand bodies have considerable significance in the interpretation of some ancient fluvial rock sequences because it provides an alternative to the meandered and braided-river deposition models.

  18. An optimization model to agroindustrial sector in antioquia (Colombia, South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops a proposal of a general optimization model for the flower industry, which is defined by using discrete simulation and nonlinear optimization, whose mathematical models have been solved by using ProModel simulation tools and Gams optimization. It defines the operations that constitute the production and marketing of the sector, statistically validated data taken directly from each operation through field work, the discrete simulation model of the operations and the linear optimization model of the entire industry chain are raised. The model is solved with the tools described above and presents the results validated in a case study.

  19. Geologic implications in the distribution of endemic goiter in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J D; Gaitan, E; Merino, H; DeRouen, T

    1978-03-01

    A survey of 37 communities supplied by stream water and receiving iodised salt for the last 10-20 years indicates that the presence of sedimentary rocks in the watersheds of streams more closely correlates with goiter prevalence than 12 other possible causative variables. These results support the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens.

  20. Elaphopsocoides, a new genus of Psocidae (Psocodea: ´Psocoptera´) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Román-P, Cristian; García Aldrete, Alfonso N; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-10-14

    Two new species of Elaphopsocoides n. gen. from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. The new genus is related to Elaphopsocus Roesler, but differs from it mostly in the hypandrial projections and in phallosome structure. The female subgenital plate has a distinct, median, posterior projection. The types are deposited in the Entomology Museum, Universidad del Valle (MUSENUV), Santiago de Cali, Colombia.

  1. Re-Imagining Teacher Professional Development and Citizenship Education: Lessons for Import from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of teachers in the implementation of citizenship education in Colombia. Consistent with its highly-decentralized school system, Colombia's National Program of Citizenship Competencies was developed with the participation of many local, national, and international partners. Among the most involved and most critical…

  2. Developing the Intercultural Perspective in Foreign Language Teaching in Colombia: A Review of Six Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar

    2014-01-01

    The steadfast spread of English as the dominant world language has heightened the need to integrate culture in the foreign language teaching (FLT) curriculum, but how does this process crystallize in countries such as Colombia? The results of this review provide insight on the status of the intercultural perspective in FLT in Colombia by looking…

  3. 75 FR 67011 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Congress of this determination. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, August 10, 2010 [FR Doc..., 2010 Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the..., with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be...

  4. 77 FR 50557 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Congress of this determination. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, August 10, 2012. [FR Doc...--Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia #0; #0; #0; Presidential..., 2012 Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for...

  5. 76 FR 53299 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, August 10, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-21959 Filed 8-24-11; 11:15 am... Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of... for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia,...

  6. Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

  7. Tectonic and Sedimentary Interactions on the Initiation and the Architecture of the Accretionary Wedges in the Southwestern Edge of the Caribbean, off Panama and Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Maurin, T.; Barat, F.; Auxietre, J.

    2013-12-01

    The structurally and stratigraphically complex area of North Panama deformed belt, Sinu-Uraba accretionary prism and south Caribbean deformed belt holds the key to understand the plate tectonic evolution of the southwestern margins of the Caribbean Sea. New geological fieldworks, sedimentary and structural analysis, detailed offshore and onshore seismic interpretation provide insights into the regional structural and stratigraphic evolution of those margins. Detailed results constraint the geodynamic history of these complex wedge architecture which registered successive changes of sedimentary supplies and gravity collapses. During the Paleocene and Eocene time, the southeastward subduction of the Caribbean plate below the northwestern edge of South America is characterized by the development of an accretionary wedge off the Caribbean margin of Colombia, due to the accumulation of a large amount of sediments provided by the Magdalena and the Sinu rivers. The Atrato river, at that time, was providing sediments to the basins restricted within the Panama Isthmus. During the Middle Miocene, the Panama Isthmus began to collide against South America, inducing the uplift of the San Jacinto/Sinu Belt in Colombia. As a consequence, the Magdalena river was deviated northward. The Sinu river was also deviated to the North and started to load the back of the the Sinu accretionary wedge which then began to collapse as convergence has ceased. In the same way, the uplift of the Darien Shear Zone, east of the Atrato basin, has deflected the sedimentary supply from the Chucunaque/Tuira basins to the northern margin of the isthmus, allowing the development of a sedimentary basin and the initiation of the North Panama Deformed Belt. Thus, on one hand, the structure of the Colombian Wedge, the Sinu Wedge and the North Panama Deformed belt, was controlled by the tectonic forces, a consequence of the convergence and progressive accretion of the Central American isthmus against the

  8. Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erler, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia.…

  9. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. High genetic diversity on a sample of pre-Columbian bone remains from Guane territories in northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Gómez, Alberto; Briceño, Ignacio; Díaz-Matallana, Marcela; Bernal, Jaime E; Rodríguez, José Vicente

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA was recovered from 17 individuals found in a rock shelter in the district of "La Purnia" (Santander, Colombia). This region is the homeland of pre-Columbian Guane, whom spread over the "Río Suarez" to the "Río de Oro", and were surrounded to the west by the Central Andes, south and east by foothills of Eastern Andes, and north by the "Chicamocha" river canyon. Guanes established in a region that straddles the Andes and the northern Amazon basin, possibly making it an unavoidable conduit for people moving to and from South America. We amplified mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVI) segments from ancient bone remains, and the resulting sequences were compared with both ancient and modern mitochondrial haplogroups from American and non-American populations. Samples showed a distribution of 35% for haplogroup A, 41% for haplogroup B and 24% for haplogroup D. Nine haplotypes were found in 17 samples, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity on a single site ancient population. Among them, three haplotypes have not been previously found in America, two are shared in Asia, and one is a private haplotype. Despite geographical barriers that eventually isolated them, an important influence of gene flow from neighboring pre-Columbian communities, mainly Muiscas, could explain the high genetic polymorphism of this community before the Spanish conquest, and argues against Guanes as being a genetic isolate.

  11. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    PubMed

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  12. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    PubMed

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26. PMID:27030145

  13. Deformation Analysis of Curved Folds in the Southern Upper Magdalena Valley. Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, G.; Bayona, G. A.; Silva, C.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2008-12-01

    In the Upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia there are folds with changes in the strike of their axes (e.g La Hocha Anticline), the origin of which was studied by integrating field, paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy data. Two structural domains were defined: the northern is a symmetrical fold and has a strike N10W, whereas the southern is an asymmetrical fold and has a N30E strike. The principal fault is the San Jacinto Fault, which is a reverse fault with slikensides indicating also a horizontal component of displacement. In the hanging wall of the San Jacinto Fault Mesozoic rocks crops out forming an anticline, whereas in the footwall Cenozoic rocks with vertical and locally overturned beds are exposed. Four magnetic components were isolated, being the low coercivity/temperature component similar to the present field. A characteristic component isolated in Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks is a pre-fold but post-Oligocene component (n=5, D=0.8, I=2.4, K=62.33, a95=9.8). Two characteristic components were isolated in Jurassic rocks. The directions of the first are similar between domains (north domain: n=10 D=20.7 I=35.6 K=13 a95=12.5; south domain: n=6 D=12 I=28.9 K=16 a95=9.5), suggesting no relationship between strike changes and declination variation. The other component has negative inclination (n=2 D=13.8 I=-27.1 K=61.42 a95=11.8) indicating a mean paleolatitude of 14.4S in Jurassic time. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the curved fold is controlled by the geometry of the paleobasin and support the northward translation of accreted terranes along the Western margin of South America during the Jurassic. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analysis in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks document three magnetic fabrics: (1) Undeformed fabrics are located in the back limb of La Hocha Anticline; (2) tectonics fabrics are associated to reverse fault planes in the north and south domains and indicated a relationship between the anisotropy ellipsoid with the local stress

  14. An overview of the South American fossil squamates.

    PubMed

    Albino, Adriana María; Brizuela, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms. Paleogene and Neogene squamate remains have been recognized from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Paleogene lizard record appears to be scarce in comparison to that of the Mesozoic, whereas snakes show an important Paleogene diversity. At least two extant boid snakes appeared during this epoch (Boa and Corallus). The South American Miocene included some extant genera of Iguania, Teiidae, and Boidae but extinct genera were also present. "Colubrids" appeared at the early Miocene, whereas the first viperid is known from the late Miocene. Most of the Paleogene and early Neogene squamate families and genera have been recognized outside their current range of distribution following favorable climatic conditions for ectothermic vertebrates. During the latest Miocene and Pliocene few extant squamate taxa are found to occur outside their present distribution. The earliest amphisbaenian of South America is known from the Pliocene. Most Pleistocene and Holocene squamate remains are assigned to living genera, and some extant species were recognized.

  15. Petroleum system of the Cano Limon field, Llanos Basin, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, J.

    1996-08-01

    The Chipaque-Lower Carbonera({circ}) Petroleum System of the northernmost Llanos Basin of Colombia, covers 11,100 km{sup 2} and includes two major oil fields: Caho Limon in Colombia, and Guafita in Venezuela, jointly with three more relatively small fields in Colombia: Redondo, Cano Rondon, and Jiba. Ultimate recoverable reserves are in the order of 1.4 BBO. The sedimentary section penetrated in the Northern Llanos has been informally subdivided into four Cretaceous formations: K3, K2B, K2A, and Lower K1 deposited during the Albian-Senonian, and into four Tertiary formations: Lower Carbonera, Upper Carbonera, Leon, and Guayabo deposited during the Late Eocene to Pliocene time. The main reservoir is the Lower Carbonera Formation, which contains 81% of the total reserves. The Cretaceous K2A and Lower K1 reservoirs contain 6% and 8%, respectively of the reserves. Minor reserves are accumulated in the discontinuous sandstones of the Oligocene Upper Carbonera Formation Geochemical analyses of the Cano Limon/Guafita oils indicate that these are aromatic intermediate to paraffinic-naphthenic, non degradated, genetically related to a common marine-derived type of kerogen. These oils were generated by a mature, marine clastic source rock with a small contribution of continental organic matter. The geochemistry of the hydrocarbon suggest a genetic relationship with the shales of the Chipaque formation, basin-ward equivalent of the K2 Formation, which presents kerogen type II organic matter and has been recognized as a good source rock. The petroleum system is hypothetical because a definite oil-source rock correlation is lacking. The development of the petroleum system is directly related to the history of movement of the Santa Maria, La Yuca, Caho Limon, and Matanegra wrench faults. It has been determined that these faults of pre-Cretaceous rifting origin, created the Santa Maria Graben of which the Espino Graben is the continuation in Venezuela.

  16. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  17. Social effects of labour migration: the Colombia experience.

    PubMed

    Cely Martinez, J N

    1989-06-01

    Colombia has traditionally been classified as a net exporter of manpower. However, the US's restrictions on immigration and the economic crisis in Venezuela, Colombia's sister republic, have affected both the volume and composition of emigration. It could be initially concluded that despite domestic difficulties and external problems, favorable economic prospects explain the present reduced outflow of immigrants. On the basis of a sample survey of applications taken during the last 2 years, 94% of arrivals were classified as professionals and technicians; the remainder were administrative workers. This achievement (which contrasts with high levels of unemployment among Colombian professionals) reflects new technological innovations. It appears that while Colombia exports engineers, it imports engineering. Opinion surveys conducted among employers, migrants, and educational authorities show that costs are not fully compensated by the migrant's improved standard of living in the country of destination, even if he has sent remittances to his country of origin. Investments in education and training yield no returns to the country if the recipient emigrates. The advantages of emigration, identified in the same surveys, include 1) reduction in internal pressure on the labor market, 2) improvement in the incomes of those who do not emigrate, and 3) resolution of economic problems for migrants. The Social Economics Plan implemented by the current government indirectly affects migratory processes by focusing on: 1) eradication of poverty; 2) the National Rehabilitation Plan, by which regional growth is stimulated in poor and economically precarious districts; and 3) the Integral Rural Development Plan which aims to eradicate poverty and improve production and commercialization in small-holding areas. The author concludes that the effects of migration on social structures must be examined in depth.

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to antimalarials in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diana; Segura, César; Arboleda, Margarita; Garavito, Giovanny; Blair, Silvia; Pabón, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 30 isolates of Plasmodium vivax to a number of antimalarials (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine, amodiaquine, quinine, and artesunate [AS]) were evaluated. The isolates came from the region of Urabá in Colombia, in which malaria is endemic, and were evaluated by the schizont maturation test. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.6 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 1.0 nM) for artesunate, 8.5 nM (95% CI, 5.6 to 13.0 nM) for amodiaquine, 23.3 nM (95% CI, 12.4 to 44.1 nM) for chloroquine, 55.6 nM (95% CI, 36.8 to 84.1 nM) for mefloquine, and 115.3 nM (95% CI, 57.7 to 230.5 nM) for quinine. The isolates were classified according to whether the initial parasites were mature or immature trophozoites (Tfz). It was found that the IC50s for chloroquine and artesunate were significantly different in the two aforementioned groups (P < 0.001). The IC50s of CQ and AS were higher in the isolates from mature Tfz (CQ, 39.3 nM versus 17 nM; AS, 1.4 nM versus 0.3 nM), and 10% of the isolates showed lower susceptibilities to one of the antimalarial drugs, 13.3% to two antimalarial drugs, and 3.3% to more than three antimalarial drugs. It should be highlighted that despite the extensive use of chloroquine in Colombia, P. vivax continues to be susceptible to antimalarials. This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing in vitro susceptibilities of P. vivax isolates to antimalarials in Colombia.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

  20. The Use of CHIRPS to Analyze Historical Rainfall in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Rojas, A.; Funk, C.; Peterson, P.; Landsfeld, M. F.; Husak, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    The climate of Colombia is characterized by a high spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, temperature, and wind due to its tropical location, a complex terrain (coastal regions, plains, and three mountain ranges with strong gradients of elevation [0 - 4500 m]), and the influence of two oceans. Given the high variability of rainfall, achieving a complete and accurate coverage of the country based on in-situ measurements becomes a difficult task, so satellite measurements provide a good alternative. The Meteorological Office of Colombia has joined forces with the U.S. Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network program to integrate historical data from rainfall stations with the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations satellite-derived rainfall estimates to develop a historical database from 1981-2013 at a temporal resolution of 5 days and a spatial resolution of 5 km. This database accurately describes key characteristics of precipitation such as bimodal and single mode regimes, for example 1) regions such as the western part of the country and the mountainous region of the Andes in which a bimodal regime is present showing two rainy seasons, the first rainy season between the months of April and May and a second season from September to November, and 2) areas with a single mode regime during July-August in the eastern plains of the country and another focused on May-October for the Caribbean region in the northern part of the country. Furthermore, correlating the sea surface temperature in El Niño 3.4 region and the new historical rainfall database corroborated results from previous studies showing, with high statistical significance, a negative correlation over central, western and northern Colombia, as well as a positive correlation for the eastern and southern parts of the country. The study also confirms that the relationship mentioned above is stronger (greater correlation) in the months of lowest precipitation.

  1. Timing and tectonic processes associated to the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene transition from collision to subduction in the Northern margin of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Bayona, G.; Jaramillo, S.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Silva, J.; Valencia, V.; Vanegas, J.; Zapata, S.

    2013-05-01

    Large scale plate tectonic scale models of the Caribbean-South American interactions have suggest the existence of different Late Cretaceous to Eocene collisional and subduction events associated to the Caribbean and South American plates interactions. We integrate field, petrological and geochronological results from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks from northeastern Colombia Guajira and Santa Margin in order to accurately discriminate the timing and understand with more details the processes associated to the evolution from collision to subduction and oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America. Geochronological data from metamorphic units in the Santa Marta and Guajira regions document Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene deformational events link to the collision of the Caribbean plate margin and the subsequent inversion of the upper plate during subduction initiation. Contemporaneous with these metamorphic events, inland basins experienced two major peaks of subsidence that can be related to the advance and overthrusting of the continental plate within the same tectonic scenario of collision and renewed subductions. This was followed by the construction of an Early Eocene magmatic arc located within the upper plate in a near trench position. Shallow and "fore arc" melting was related to the early astenospheric influx under the upper plate during the early stages of subduction. Another Late Eocene-Oligocene deformation is related to thrusting of the arc, exhumation and inland migration of deformation. This event may be related to major changes in the rates and directions of plate convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates.

  2. Star parties in Mexico, extended to Colombia and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Franco, Jose

    2015-08-01

    Sparked by the enthusiasm of the International Year of Astronomy, a set of simultaneous star parties have been held since 2008 in several cities in Mexico. These star parties have raised big expectations among the population and they have been repeated at least yearly. The activity has increased in size and participating sites. The most recent one took place on November 29th 2014, and it included 55 locations across Mexico as well as 5 in Colombia and one in China. To organize this activity a Mexican National Committee was created formed by several universities, the French Embassy, related industries and astronomical societies. We present more information on this activity.

  3. [Health reform, equity and the right to health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The author develops a long-term perspective to assess advances in equity and the right to health in the Colombian health system reform. In a restricted political system, actors in the field of health in Colombia have chosen individualistic alternatives to legalize inequities in individual purchasing power for services. Despite the complex regulations established in the General System for Social Security in Health, there is a trend towards consolidating traditional inequities and to further restrict opportunities for achieving the right to health with full, equitable, universal guarantees. PMID:12118306

  4. [Health reform, equity and the right to health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The author develops a long-term perspective to assess advances in equity and the right to health in the Colombian health system reform. In a restricted political system, actors in the field of health in Colombia have chosen individualistic alternatives to legalize inequities in individual purchasing power for services. Despite the complex regulations established in the General System for Social Security in Health, there is a trend towards consolidating traditional inequities and to further restrict opportunities for achieving the right to health with full, equitable, universal guarantees.

  5. Gynandromorphs in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María E; Barreto, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Gynandromorphs of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (2), Cx. pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin (1) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (2) are described. Two individuals of the latter species were reared in the laboratory, while the remaining three specimens were wild-caught with different traps in rural areas in Valle del Cauca department, southwestern Colombia. All of the individuals were mounted on microscopic slides with Canada balsam. From each mosquito, main morphological characteristics are described and illustrated. Due to the paucity of information about this subject, these findings as well as other relevant cases are discussed.

  6. [Environmental health: the evolution of Colombia's current regulatory framework].

    PubMed

    García-Ubaque, Cesar A; García-Ubaque, Juan C; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L

    2013-01-01

    This essay presents an analysis of the evolution of environmental health management in Colombia, covering the period from the introduction of the Colombian Healthcare Code (1979) to laws 99 and 100 in 1993 and the introduction of Environmental Health Policy in Bogotá DC (2011). It proposes a conceptual model for environmental health management at three levels: proximal (physical, chemical and biological setting), intermediate (natural and cultural environment) and distal (economic, political and social structures). Relevant aspects of environmental health policy in Bogotá are analysed based on the proposed model.

  7. Enhanced Orographic Tropical Rainfall: An Study of the Colombia's rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñaranda, V. M.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.; Mesa, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    Convection in tropical regions may be enhanced by orographic barriers. The orographic enhancement is an intensification of rain rates caused by the forced lifting of air over a mountainous structure. Orographic heavy rainfall events, occasionally, comes along by flooding, debris flow and substantial amount of looses, either economics or human lives. Most of the heavy convective rainfall events, occurred in Colombia, have left a lot of victims and material damages by flash flooding. An urgent action is required by either scientific communities or society, helping to find preventive solutions against these kind of events. Various scientific literature reports address the feedback process between the convection and the local orographic structures. The orographic enhancement could arise by several physical mechanism: precipitation transport on leeward side, convection triggered by the forcing of air over topography, the seeder-feeder mechanism, among others. The identification of the physical mechanisms for orographic enhancement of rainfall has not been studied over Colombia. As far as we know, orographic convective tropical rainfall is just the main factor for the altitudinal belt of maximum precipitation, but the lack of detailed hydro-meteorological measurements have precluded a complete understanding of the tropical rainfall in Colombia and its complex terrain. The emergence of the multifractal theory for rainfall has opened a field of research which builds a framework for parsimonious modeling of physical process. Studies about the scaling behavior of orographic rainfall have found some modulating functions between the rainfall intensity probability distribution and the terrain elevation. The overall objective is to advance in the understanding of the orographic influence over the Colombian tropical rainfall based on observations and scaling-analysis techniques. We use rainfall maps, weather radars scans and ground-based rainfall data. The research strategy is

  8. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species.  PMID:25661025

  9. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  10. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  11. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia. PMID:23579795

  12. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.

  13. New South Wales

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 80 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured ... at JPL December 30, 2001 - Smoke from wildfires covers New South Wales. project:  MISR ...

  14. Latinos in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily Elliott, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains five articles about the growing Latino population in the South and its impact on communities, particularly in rural areas. "Social Capital of Mexican Communities in the South" (Ruben Hernandez-Leon, Victor Zuniga) argues that, to understand and advocate for Mexican newcomer communities in the South, scholars,…

  15. Internal travel and risk of dengue transmission in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Pablo E; de la Hoz, Fernando; Lozano Becerra, Juan C; Repetto, Silvia A; Alba Soto, Catalina D

    2014-09-01

    Human behavior plays a key role in the dynamics of dengue transmission. However, research on the relationship between human movement and dengue transmission within endemic countries is limited. From January 2008 to December 2011, the authors of this study conducted a retrospective analysis of imported dengue infections in Bogotá, Colombia. Bogotá is a vector-transmission-free city that is also the capital district and most populated municipality in Colombia. The study revealed that 1) Bogotá inhabitants acquired dengue infection in diverse localities throughout the country but the largest proportion of cases (35.6%) were contracted at popular tourist destinations in dengue-endemic areas near Bogotá (<200-km radius from city limits), and 2) the number of imported dengue cases increased after major holidays, a transmission pattern not seen in dengue-endemic areas, where disease incidence correlates with rainy periods. It is therefore recommended that physicians consider the effect of travel when diagnosing their patients' illnesses, especially outside dengue-endemic areas where diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its nonspecific symptoms. The study also showed that analysis of dengue cases imported to regions free of vector transmission can generate an evidence-based model for characterizing the impact of human movement on the spread of diseases like dengue in countries where they are endemic. PMID:25418771

  16. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  17. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  18. Burden of disease in Nariño, Colombia, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-Montalvo, Elizabeth; Hidalgo-Patiño, Carlos; Hidalgo-Eraso, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to measure burden of disease and identifies health priorities from the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) indicator. Methods: This is the first study on burden of disease for a department in Colombia by using a standardized methodology. By using the DALYs indicator, burden of disease was identified in the department of Nariño according to the guidelines established by the World Health Organization. Results: The DALYs in the Department of Nariño highlight the emergence of communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional diseases during the first years of life; of accidents and lesions among youth, and non-communicable diseases in older individuals. Also, accidents and lesions are highlighted in men and non-communicable diseases in women. Conclusions: This study is part of the knowledge management process in the Departmental Health Plan for Nariño - Colombia 2012-2015 and contributes to the system of indicators of the 2012 ten-year public health plan. This research evidences that communicable diseases generate the biggest part of the burden of disease in the Department of Nariño, that DALYs due to non-communicable diseases are on the rise, and that accidents and lesions, especially due to violence are an important cause of DALYs in this region, which is higher than that of the country. PMID:25386034

  19. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira.

  20. Molecular Evidence of Different Rickettsia Species in Villeta, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Forero-Becerra, Elkin; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Escandón, Patricia; Rodas, Juan D; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to detect and identify Rickettsia species in ticks collected in rural areas of Villeta, Colombia. Tick specimens were collected from domestic animals and walls of houses in five rural villages of Villeta town and from humans in Naranjal village (same town). Moreover, a flea collected from the same area was also processed. DNA was extracted and tested by conventional, semi-nested, and nested PCR reactions targeting rickettsial genes. In the ticks collected from humans from Naranjal village, a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato was amplified using primers for ompA and sequenced (100% identity with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii"). Last, three amplicons from the Ctenocephalides felis flea, corresponding to gltA, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes, showed high identity with R. felis (98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.2%, respectively) and "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" (99.7% and 100%, respectively). To our knowledge, these results correspond to the first molecular detection in Colombia of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and "Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis" in fleas.

  1. [Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms. PMID:25597727

  2. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    PubMed

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  3. Allochthonous Matter Input in Five Headwater Streams in Southwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chara, J.; Baird, D.; Telfer, T.

    2005-05-01

    In order to determine the interactions between riparian vegetation and the stream environment in relation to the provision and seasonality of allochthonous energy, a study was done measuring the amount of litter inputs in five streams at mid altitude in southwestern Colombia during one year. Direct and lateral litter traps were placed in a 100m reach of each stream. Total amount of litter fall ranged from 1406 to 2812 g-m-2 year-1. Leaves were the most important component of the litter representing between 56 to 72% of direct and between 68 to 81% of lateral inputs. Seasonality of litter fall was minimal and only in one stream direct input was negatively correlated with rainfall (r=-0.62; p=0.033). According to these results, low-order streams in middle altitude in Colombia receive one of the highest amounts of litter fall reported so far. This supply is constant throughout the year providing a continuous source of food and substrate for the stream environment. As in temperate streams litterfall in the Andean zone is an important link between streams and the riparian environment. The higher amount recorded and the constant supply demonstrate that deforestation of riparian forests may be more negative for the streams in tropical areas.

  4. [Colombia: what has happened with its health reform?].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arias, Rubén Darío; Nieto, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The health reform adopted in Colombia in 1993 was promoted by different agencies as the model to follow in matters of health policy. Following the guidelines of the Washington Consensus and the World Bank, the Government of Colombia, with the support of national political and economic elites, reorganized the management of health services based on market principles, dismantled the state system, increased finances of the sector, assigned the management of the system to the private sector, segmented the provision of services, and promoted interaction of actors in a competitive scheme of low regulation. After 20 years of implementation, the Colombian model shows serious flaws and is an object of controversy. The Government has weakened as the governing entity for health; private groups that manage the resources were established as strong centers of economic and political power; and violations of the right to health increased. Additionally, corruption and service cost overruns have put a strain on the sustainability of the system, and the state network is in danger of closing. Despite its loss of prestige at the internal level, various actors within and outside the country tend to keep the model based on contextual reforms.

  5. Phylogenetic reconstruction of dengue virus type 2 in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is perhaps the most important viral re-emergent disease especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries, affecting about 50 million people around the world yearly. In Colombia, dengue virus was first detected in 1971 and still remains as a major public health issue. Although four viral serotypes have been recurrently identified, dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been involved in the most important outbreaks during the last 20 years, including 2010 when the fatality rate highly increased. As there are no major studies reviewing virus origin and genotype distribution in this country, the present study attempts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of DENV-2 using a sequence analysis from a 224 bp PCR-amplified product corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of the envelope (E) gene from 48 Colombian isolates. Results As expected, the oldest isolates belonged to the American genotype (subtype V), but the strains collected since 1990 represent the American/Asian genotype (subtype IIIb) as previously reported in different American countries. Interestingly, the introduction of this genotype coincides with the first report of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Colombia at the end of 1989 and the increase of cases during the next years. Conclusion After replacement of the American genotype, several lineages of American/Asian subtype have rapidly spread all over the country evolving in new clades. Nevertheless, the direct association of these new variants in the raise of lethality rate observed during the last outbreak has to be demonstrated. PMID:22405440

  6. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:25946157

  7. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  8. Forecasting of Average Monthly River Flows in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, O. J.; Poveda, G.

    2006-05-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a marked increase in our knowledge of the causes of interannual hydroclimatic variability and our ability to make predictions. Colombia, located near the seat of the ENSO phenomenon, has been shown to experience negative (positive) anomalies in precipitation in concert with El Niño (La Niña). In general besides the Pacific Ocean, Colombia has climatic influences from the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea through the tropical forest of the Amazon basin and the savannas of the Orinoco River, in top of the orographic and hydro-climatic effects introduced by the Andes. As in various other countries of the region, hydro-electric power contributes a large proportion (75 %) of the total electricity generation in Colombia. Also, most agriculture is rain-fed dependant, and domestic water supply relies mainly on surface waters from creeks and rivers. Besides, various vector borne tropical diseases intensify in response to rain and temperature changes. Therefore, there is a direct connection between climatic fluctuations and national and regional economies. This talk specifically presents different forecasts of average monthly stream flows for the inflow into the largest reservoir used for hydropower generation in Colombia, and illustrates the potential economic savings of such forecasts. Because of planning of the reservoir operation, the most appropriated time scale for this application is the annual to interannual. Fortunately, this corresponds to the scale at which hydroclimate variability understanding has improved significantly. Among the different possibilities we have explored: traditional statistical ARIMA models, multiple linear regression, natural and constructed analogue models, the linear inverse model, neural network models, the non-parametric regression splines (MARS) model, regime dependant Markovian models and one we termed PREBEO, which is based on spectral bands decomposition using wavelets. Most of the methods make

  9. Mapping of b-values, earthquake relocation, and Coulomb stress changes during 1992-2007 in the Murindó seismic zone, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionicio, Viviana; Sánchez, John J.

    2012-07-01

    Seismicity in the Murindó seismic zone, Colombia (6° to 8° and - 75.5° to - 78.0°) during 1992-2007 included the occurrence of the M W 6.6 foreshock on October 17, and M W 7.1 mainshock on October 18, 1992, and aftershocks, which caused severe damage throughout the region. We modeled this seismic sequence by means of Coulomb stress changes imparted by slip along two semi-vertical fault planes with left-lateral motion and subdivided slip. Seismicity thereafter (1993-2007) was characterized by earthquakes magnitude in the range 0.7-6.1 for which a magnitude of completeness M C = 2.7 was determined. b-values are relatively high to the south of the study region and relatively low to the north and northwest. The relocation of epicenters indicates that recent seismicity may be occurring on a fault that is yet to be mapped under the Atrato river valley. We conclude that the 1992 seismic sequence was a case of a major earthquake facilitated by the stress changes imparted during a strong rupture the previous day and that the aftershocks and background seismicity in the region can be explained by static Coulomb stress changes up to 50.1 bar. Our results have implications for hazard in Colombia and serve as basis to foster future investigations.

  10. Deaths and injuries in the eruption of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, 14 January 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Gresham, Austin

    1997-05-01

    Six volcanologists and three tourists were killed in the crater of Galeras Volcano, Colombia, when it erupted without warning. The scientists were attending the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Workshop which had been convened to improve monitoring, research and disaster mitigation at Galeras, at the time the most active and one of the most hazardous volcanoes in South America. Information on the events surrounding the eruption was obtained by sending a questionnaire to twelve scientists who had been inside the caldera at the time of the eruption or who had assisted in the search and rescue operation. The autopsy reports on the five corpses, and the few pieces of equipment and clothing retrieved from the crater area, were also studied. The main causes of death and injury were the forces at the eruptive vent and the bombardment by hot rocks ejected in the first 15 min of the eruption, ranging from blocks over 1 m in size to pea-sized lapilli which fell last. Some conclusions can be drawn for the future safety of volcanologists working in craters at high altitude. Hard hats would protect against concussion from blows to the head during escape from the danger area, and a lightweight, heat-resistant and water-repellent coverall would limit the skin burns and the risk of clothing being ignited from contact with incandescent, falling ejecta. The coverall could also be life saving by protecting immobilised casualties from hypothermia due to the rain and wind whilst waiting to be rescued, especially as the volcanic activity, cloud cover or nightfall could curtail rescue efforts. Work in hazardous craters should be strictly limited to essential tasks and periods of good visibility, and a climbing team should leave the area at least four hours before nightfall in case rescue is needed. Tourists must be warned against visiting active crater areas.

  11. Classification and Space-Time Analysis of Precipitation Events in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez Hincapie, J. N.; Vélez, J.; Romo Melo, L.; Chang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Manizales is a mid-mountain Andean city located near the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in west-central Colombia, this location exposes it to earthquakes, floods, landslides and volcanic eruptions. It is located in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and presents a climate with a bimodal rainfall regime (Cortés, 2010). Its mean annual rainfall is 2000 mm, one may observe precipitation 70% of the days over a year. This rain which favors the formation of large masses of clouds and the presence of macroclimatic phenomenon as "El Niño South Oscillation", has historically caused great impacts in the region (Vélez et al, 2012). For example the geographical location coupled with rain events results in a high risk of landslides in the city. Manizales has a hydrometeorological network of 40 stations that measure and transmit data of up to eight climate variables. Some of these stations keep 10 years of historical data. However, until now this information has not been used for space-time classification of precipitation events, nor has the meteorological variables that influence them been thoroughly researched. The purpose of this study was to classify historical events of rain in an urban area of Manizales and investigate patterns of atmospheric behavior that influence or trigger such events. Classification of events was performed by calculating the "n" index of the heavy rainfall, describing the behavior of precipitation as a function of time throughout the event (Monjo, 2009). The analysis of meteorological variables was performed using statistical quantification over variable time periods before each event. The proposed classification allowed for an analysis of the evolution of rainfall events. Specially, it helped to look for the influence of different meteorological variables triggering rainfall events in hazardous areas as the city of Manizales.

  12. Assessing the deep drilling potential of Lago de Tota, Colombia, with a seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. W.; Wattrus, N. J.; Fonseca, H.; Velasco, F.; Escobar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconciling orbital-scale patterns of inter-hemispheric South American climate during the Quaternary requires continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records that span multiple glacial cycles from both hemispheres. Southern Andean Quaternary climates are represented by multi-proxy results from Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) spanning the last 400 ka and by pending results from the Lago Junin Drilling Project (Peru). Although Northern Andean sediment records spanning the last few million years have been retrieved from the Bogota and Fúquene Basins in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, climatic reconstructions based on these cores have thus far been limited to pollen-based investigations. When viewed together with the Southern Hemisphere results, these records suggest an anti-phased hemispheric climatic response during glacial cycles. In order to better assess orbital-scale climate responses, however, independent temperature and hydroclimate proxies from the Northern Hemisphere are needed in addition to vegetation histories. As part of this objective, an effort is underway to develop a paleoclimate record from Lago de Tota (3030 m asl), the largest lake in Colombia and the third largest lake in the Andes. One of 17 highland tectonic basins in Eastern Cordillera, Lago de Tota formed during Tertiary uplift that deformed pre-foreland megasequences, synrift and back-arc megasequences. The precise age and thickness of sediments in the Lago de Tota basin has not previously been established. Here, we present results from a recent single-channel seismic reflection survey collected with a small (5 cubic inch) air gun and high-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom data. With these data, we examine the depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of Lago de Tota and assess its potential as a deep drilling target.

  13. Molecular characterization, distribution, and dynamics of hepatitis C virus genotypes in blood donors in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mora, Mónica Viviana Alvarado; Romano, Camila Malta; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a frequent cause of acute and chronic hepatitis and a leading cause for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified in six major genotypes and more than 70 subtypes. In Colombian blood banks, serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using a third-generation ELISA. The aim of this study was to characterize the viral sequences in plasma of 184 volunteer blood donors who attended the "Banco Nacional de Sangre de la Cruz Roja Colombiana," Bogotá, Colombia. Three different HCV genomic regions were amplified by nested PCR. The first of these was a segment of 180 bp of the 5'UTR region to confirm the previous diagnosis by ELISA. From those that were positive to the 5'UTR region, two further segments were amplified for genotyping and subtyping by phylogenetic analysis: a segment of 380 bp from the NS5B region; and a segment of 391 bp from the E1 region. The distribution of HCV subtypes was: 1b (82.8%), 1a (5.7%), 2a (5.7%), 2b (2.8%), and 3a (2.8%). By applying Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation, it was estimated that HCV-1b was introduced into Bogotá around 1950. Also, this subtype spread at an exponential rate between about 1970 to about 1990, after which transmission of HCV was reduced by anti-HCV testing of this population. Among Colombian blood donors, HCV genotype 1b is the most frequent genotype, especially in large urban conglomerates such as Bogotá, as is the case in other South American countries.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Southern Cone of South America.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2012-12-21

    A genetic analysis of partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S and 12S rDNA genes of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected in the Southern Cone of South America was carried out. Also, sequences of ticks belonging to this taxon from Europe, Africa and other South American localities were included. TCS networks constructed with 16S rDNA sequences showed two clusters of haplotypes, namely, Southern lineage (ST) and Northern lineage (NT). Haplotypes representing the specimens coming from localities of Argentina, Uruguay and Chile were included in the ST lineage, while haplotypes from Brazil, Paraguay, Colombia, South Africa, Mozambique and from two localities of Northern Argentina were grouped in the NT lineage. The phylogenetic trees obtained with both 16S and 12S sequences showed two distinct clades, one containing R. sanguineus s.l from Argentina, Uruguay, Chile (ST lineage) and Western Europe (Italy and France), and a second clade including R. sanguineus s.l from Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia (NT lineage), South Africa and Mozambique. The results herein reported revealed that the taxon R. sanguineus s.l is represented by two lineages in the Southern Cone of South America. According with the genetic comparative analysis, NT lineage and the ticks from Mozambique and South Africa represent a species that is not R. sanguineus s.s, while R. sanguineus s.l ticks from Western Europe and Southern South America (ST lineage) probably represent true R. sanguineus, because the type locality of R. sanguineus s.s is located in France. The taxonomic issue described for R. sanguineus s.l in the South America has epidemiological implications. Difference in the vectorial competence for Ehrlichia canis between the two lineages of R. sanguineus s.l was found in previous works. Further investigations are needed in order to verify a possible different vectorial competence for the other pathogens transmitted by these ticks.

  15. First Record of the Scarab Beetle, Phyllophaga lissopyge from South America, with Descriptions of Adult Seasonal Activity and Male Response to Sex Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Rodriguez, Anuar; Peck, Daniel C.; Robbins, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllophaga lissopyge (Bates) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is reported for the first time from South America. Male sex pheromone response is described for P. lissopyge and two other co-occurring Phyllophaga species. Adults of P. lissopyge and P. menetriesi (Blanchard) flew to traps baited with methyl 2-(methylthio) benzoate whereas adults of P. obsoleta (Blanchard) flew irregularly to four different pheromone compounds. Adult seasonal activity is described from males captures in Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. PMID:21529153

  16. New species of Euplocania Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Ptiloneuridae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Gironza, Nancy Carrejo

    2015-10-27

    Seven species of Colombian Euplocania, are here described and illustrated, they increase to 16 the number of species in the genus, eight of which are endemic to Colombia. A new species group is also described.

  17. The genus Elaphopsocus Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae) with six new species from Brazil and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Román-P, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2015-05-14

    Six new species of Elaphopsocus Roesler from Brazil and Colombia are described and illustrated. Revised generic diagnoses are provided for Elaphopsocoides and Elaphopsocus; based on the structure of the male hypandrium and phallosome three species groups are recognized in Elaphopsocus.

  18. Notes on the genus Chionolaena in Colombia with a new species Chionolaena barclayae (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species and a new record for Chionolaena are recorded from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia adding to the two species of the genus already known from that mountain complex. PMID:25878550

  19. The centipedes (Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Chilopoda) from Colombia: Part I. Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Amazonas; Chaparro, Elisa; Jiménez, Sebastián Galvis; Triana, Hernán Darío Triana; Flórez D, Eduardo; Seoane, José Carlos Sícoli

    2014-03-14

    This study presents an updated list of centipedes of the orders Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha from Colombia based on data from the literature, the World Catalogue of Centipedes (CHILOBASE), and specimens examined in museum collections. Four families, nine genera, 37 species and four subspecies are listed. One species belongs to Scutigeromorpha, and 36 species and four subspecies to Scolopendromorpha. Eleven species and four subspecies of scolopendromorphs are recorded for the first time from Colombia. Newportia Gervais, 1847 is the most diverse genus with 12 species and three subspecies. Six species of Scolopendromorpha are endemic. Three species-Otostigmus inermis Porat, 1876, O. scabricauda (Humbert & Saussure, 1870) and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902-are deleted from the fauna of Colombia. The Andean Región in Colombia has the most records of Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. Maps showing the geographical distribution are given for the orders, genera, and some species.

  20. A detailed paleomagnetic investigation of Cretaceous igneous rocks: New contributions from Colombia and Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, Lisa; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Cejudo Ruiz, Ruben; Sanchez Bettucci, Leda; Irurzun, Alicia; Carrancho, Ángel; Gogichaishvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Sinito, Ana; Mejia, Victoria; Nivia Guevara, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    We present rock magnetic results, paleodirections and -intensities from Cretaceous samples from two locations from South America. On the one hand we report paleomagnetic results from the Western Cordillera of Colombia from 15 sites north of Cali. These volcanic rock samples were related to age determinations from close localities of 92.5 ± 1.1 Ma on average, occuring during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS). On the other hand we show results from an alkaline dike swarm in the Asunción Rift, Eastern Paraguay. Previous investigations suggest that these dikes extruded in a rather short period of 126-127 Ma, during normal and reversed polarity field configuration, right before the onset of the CNS. Rock magnetic measurements of both sites show that the main magnetic component is a low-coercivity mineral, e.g., (titanium)magnetite, with a large range of grain sizes from multi- to single domain, or mixtures of several grain sizes in a sample. For the Colombian site we obtained an average Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP), whose latitude compares well with those for South and North America of Besse and Courtillot (2002) with a similar age. For the determination of the Virtual Dipole Moments (VDMs) the Thellier-Coe method did not give successful results, probably due to minerals in the range of multidomain grain size. Therefore, we applied the multispecimen protocol on ten specimens. Six successful determinations produced an average VDM of 2.3 x 10‑22 Am2. This value is rather low, but in good agreement with other data from the same time period. Directional investigation of the Eastern Paraguayan dike swarm show highly clustered promising results with six out of 22 sites having an α95 ≤ 10.0° . Most of these sites show a reversed polarity; however, one intermediate polarity site has a very reliable direction as well. This and the occurrence of normal polarity sites suggest that the dikes may have not appeared at the same time but rather during the transition from

  1. A detailed paleomagnetic investigation of Cretaceous igneous rocks: New contributions from Colombia and Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapper, Lisa; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Cejudo Ruiz, Ruben; Sanchez Bettucci, Leda; Irurzun, Alicia; Carrancho, Ángel; Gogichaishvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Sinito, Ana; Mejia, Victoria; Nivia Guevara, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    We present rock magnetic results, paleodirections and -intensities from Cretaceous samples from two locations from South America. On the one hand we report paleomagnetic results from the Western Cordillera of Colombia from 15 sites north of Cali. These volcanic rock samples were related to age determinations from close localities of 92.5 ± 1.1 Ma on average, occuring during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS). On the other hand we show results from an alkaline dike swarm in the Asunción Rift, Eastern Paraguay. Previous investigations suggest that these dikes extruded in a rather short period of 126-127 Ma, during normal and reversed polarity field configuration, right before the onset of the CNS. Rock magnetic measurements of both sites show that the main magnetic component is a low-coercivity mineral, e.g., (titanium)magnetite, with a large range of grain sizes from multi- to single domain, or mixtures of several grain sizes in a sample. For the Colombian site we obtained an average Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP), whose latitude compares well with those for South and North America of Besse and Courtillot (2002) with a similar age. For the determination of the Virtual Dipole Moments (VDMs) the Thellier-Coe method did not give successful results, probably due to minerals in the range of multidomain grain size. Therefore, we applied the multispecimen protocol on ten specimens. Six successful determinations produced an average VDM of 2.3 x 10-22 Am2. This value is rather low, but in good agreement with other data from the same time period. Directional investigation of the Eastern Paraguayan dike swarm show highly clustered promising results with six out of 22 sites having an α95 ≤ 10.0° . Most of these sites show a reversed polarity; however, one intermediate polarity site has a very reliable direction as well. This and the occurrence of normal polarity sites suggest that the dikes may have not appeared at the same time but rather during the transition from

  2. Zircon U-Pb age of the Paramo Rico tonalite-granodiorite, Santander Massif (Cordillera Oriental, Colombia) and its geotectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörr, W.; Grösser, J. R.; Rodriguez, G. I.; Kramm, U.

    1995-04-01

    We present the first U-Pb data, which document the existence of early Mesozoic magmatism in the Santander Massif, within the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Zircon fractions separated from a tonalite and a granodiorite of the Paramo Rico intrusion yield crystallization ages of 205-210 Ma. Biotite K-Ar ages of other intrusions in this region range from 177 to 210 Ma, overlapping these data, but are reinterpreted as cooling ages after the solidification of the magmatic melts. The Late Triassic/Early Jurassic magmatic activity documented here indicates that the geotectonic position of the Cordillera Oriental was similar to the present-day position of the South American plate to the Nazca plate, (i.e., subduction related).

  3. Spatial variation of coda wave attenuation in northwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos A.; Ugalde, Arantza; Pujades, Lluís G.; Canas, José A.

    2004-08-01

    One thousand seven hundred and eighty-six vertical-component, short-period observations of microearthquake codas from regional earthquakes recorded by 17 stations belonging to the National Seismological Network of Colombia were used to estimate seismic wave attenuation in Colombia. Local magnitudes range from 2.9 to 6.0 and only events occurring at hypocentral distances up to 255 km were considered for the analysis. The frequencies of interest lay between 1 and 19 Hz and the analysis was performed for each seismic station separately. Coda-wave attenuation (Q-1c) was estimated by means of a single-scattering method whereas the separation of intrinsic absorption (Q-1i) and scattering attenuation (Q-1s) from total attenuation (Q-1t) was performed using a multiple lapse time-window analysis based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering and uniform distribution of scatterers. A regionalization of the estimated Q0 (Qc at 1 Hz) values was performed and a contour map of seismic coda attenuation in Colombia is presented, where four zones with significant variations of attenuation related to different geological and tectonic characteristics can be observed. The highest attenuation is linked to the central and western regions (Q0 around 50 and 56) whereas a lower attenuation (Q0 around 69 and 67) is assigned to the northern and eastern regions. Results show that the Q-1 values are frequency dependent in the considered frequency range, and are approximated by a least-square fit to the power law Q-1(f) =Q-10(f/f0)-η. The exponents of the frequency dependence law ranged from η= 0.65 to 1.01 for Q-1c, η= 0.62 to 1.78 for Q-1i, η= 0.28 to 1.49 for Q-1s, and η= 0.53 to 1.67 for Q-1t. On the other hand, intrinsic absorption is found to dominate over scattering in the attenuation process for most of the stations and frequency bands analysed. Some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical model and the observations for some frequency bands which indicate

  4. Characterization of a malaria outbreak in Colombia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although malaria has presented a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality worldwide during the last decade, it remains a serious global public health problem. In Colombia, during this period, many factors have contributed to sustained disease transmission, with significant fluctuations in an overall downward trend in the number of reported malaria cases. Despite its epidemiological importance, few studies have used surveillance data to describe the malaria situation in Colombia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of malaria cases reported during 2010 to the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) of the National Institute of Health (INS) of Colombia. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using malaria information from SIVIGILA 2010. Cases, frequencies, proportions, ratio and measures of central tendency and data dispersion were calculated. In addition, the annual parasite index (API) and the differences between the variables reported in 2009 and 2010 were estimated. Results A total of 117,108 cases were recorded by SIVIGILA in 2010 for a national API of 10.5/1,000 habitants, with a greater number of cases occurring during the first half of the year. More than 90% of cases were reported in seven departments (=states): Antioquia: 46,476 (39.7%); Chocó: 22,493 (19.2%); Cordoba: 20,182 (17.2%); Valle: 6,360 (5.4%); Guaviare: 5,876 (5.0%); Nariño: 4,085 (3.5%); and Bolivar: 3,590 (3.1%). Plasmodium vivax represented ~71% of the cases; Plasmodium falciparum ~28%; and few infrequent cases caused by Plasmodium malariae. Conclusions Overall, a greater incidence was found in men (65%) than in women (35%). Although about a third of cases occurred in children <15 years, most of these cases occurred in children >5 years of age. The ethnic distribution indicated that about 68% of the cases occurred in mestizos and whites, followed by 23% in Afro-descendants, and the remainder (9%) in indigenous communities. In over half of the cases

  5. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  6. Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

  7. Precipitation of Continental Origin over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Amazon forest receives high amounts of moisture from the tropical Atlantic. A significant part of this moisture is returned back to the atmosphere by the forest, and further redistributed to the rest of the continent by the meridional flow imposed by the Andes. Thus, the land-atmosphere interaction between the Amazon forest and the large-scale flow affects not only the forest itself but also the downstream regions. We develop a method to quantify the precipitation of continental origin over South America, and identify the contribution that selected source regions make to continental precipitation. The average annual cycle of precipitation of continental origin for the five-year period 2000-2004 shows a band of high values aligned along the northwest-southeast direction, from southern Peru to northeastern Argentina. The lowest values of precipitation of continental origin occur upstream, over the northeastern coast of South America. Precipitation that originates as moisture from the Amazon forest shows maximum values over the western side of the Amazon, east of the Andes, especially over southern Peru. The Amazon forest also contributes to precipitation over La Plata River Basin (LPRB) and the Pacific coast of Colombia. During its dry season, up to 29.3% of the precipitation over LPRB originates as moisture from the Amazon forest. Throughout the year, the contributions to precipitation over LPRB by the Amazon forest and LPRB (recycled precipitation) are in the same range, but out of phase. The average contribution of the rest of the continent to precipitation over LPRB is smaller but of the same order as that of the Amazon and LPRB.

  8. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed high diversity within and between populations.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, C; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-01

    Recent population studies revealed that a few major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma gondii dominate in different geographical regions. The Type II and III lineages are widespread in all continents and dominate in Europe, Africa and North America. In addition, the type 12 lineage is the most common type in wildlife in North America, the Africa 1 and 3 are among the major types in Africa, and ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #9 is the major type in China. Overall the T. gondii strains are more diverse in South America than any other regions. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one country in Caribbean (Grenada) and five countries from South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile, and Argentina). The multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based genotyping of 11 polymorphic markers (SAG1, SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico) were applied to 148 free-range chicken (Gallus domesticus) isolates and 16 isolates from domestic cats (Felis catus) in Colombia; 42 genotypes were identified. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated more frequent genetic recombination in populations of Nicaragua and Colombia, and to a lesser degree in populations of Costa Rica and Argentina. Bayesian structural analysis identified at least three genetic clusters, and phylogenetic network analysis identified four major groups. The ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #7, Type III and II were major lineages identified from Central and South America, with high frequencies of the closely related ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #7 and Type III lineages. Taken together, this study revealed high diversity within and between T. gondii populations in Central and South America, and the dominance of Type III and its closely related ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #7 lineages.

  9. Subduction Dynamics in Northwestern South America from SKS and Local S-wave Splitting Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idarraga Garcia, J.; Kendall, J. M.; Vargas Jiménez, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate subduction dynamics between the South America continent and the oceanic Nazca and Caribbean plates, we have obtained 257 high-quality splitting measurements from teleseismic SKS phases and 85 splitting results from slab-related local Sphases arriving at 38 seismic stations in northwestern South America. We used data primarily from the Colombia National Seismological Network. Our first observation is that delay times obtained from SKS splitting (mean value of 1.15 s) are consistently greater than those from the local S splitting (mean value of 0.31 s). This implies that most of the SKSsplitting is due to upper mantle anisotropy beneath or within the subducting slabs. In contrast, the polarizations of local S-waves are consistently aligned with crustal-scale fault systems, which implies that the anisotropy above the slabs is dominated by tectonic features in the overriding crust or lithosphere, and that the mantle wedge is not contributing significantly to the measured splitting. We identify a clear change in SKS fast directions at the trace of the so-called Caldas Tear (~5°N), which represents a boundary in the style of subduction. To the north of Caldas Tear fast directions are consistently parallel to the direction of convergence of the Caribbean plate and Panama arc with South America. Our results support the idea of Caribbean subduction beneath northwestern Colombia, a hotly debated topic in recent years. Fast directions south of the Caldas tear are subparallel to the direction of Nazca-South America convergence. Entrained mantle flow and deformation beneath the subducting Nazca and Caribbean plates are the main cause of the measured SKS splitting. Further inland, the SKS splitting is consistent with mantle flow parallel to the trend of the Eastern Cordillera. We speculate that a change in slab dip may lead to a change in mantle flow and may be responsible for the intermediate-depth nests of seismicity observed beneath Eastern Cordillera.

  10. [Training in psychiatry for health teams in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Climent, C E; de Arango, M V; León, C A

    1983-01-01

    About 90% of the 40 million victims of mental disorders in the developing countries receive no treatment, and little progress is being made in this respect. This article examines the use of new strategies for solving the problem. It is obvious that the traditional methods of mental health care have been ineffective and that new programs should now be undertaken that can ensure proper service within the coming decades for those being neglected. Based on the results of a practical experiment carried out in Colombia, the authors, without making any definitive recommendations, point to the usefulness of training auxiliary staff of urban and rural health centers to work as a team (under the supervision of a physician or a graduate nurse) in the care and management of psychiatric patients. They enumerate the advantages offered by training programs on various aspects of mental health for general practitioners (who usually have little interest in psychiatry), psychiatry residents, nurses, and auxiliaries.

  11. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Di Giunta, Laura; Tirado, Liliana M. Uribe; Márquez, Luz A. Araque

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 108 Colombian families. Results Fathers reported higher uncontrollable success attributions and higher authoritarian attitudes than did mothers, whereas mothers reported higher modernity of attitudes than did fathers; only the gender differences related to parental attitudes remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for attributions regarding uncontrollable success and progressive attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions This work elucidates ways that parent gender relates to attributions regarding parents’ success and failure in caregiving and to progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes in Colombia. PMID:21927585

  12. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine. PMID:26230133

  13. Burns due to acid assaults in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Linda

    2013-08-01

    Acid burns are not very frequent, occupying between 3% and maximum 14% of all etiologies. They mostly occur at home or at work, however there has been an increase in publications outlining chemical burns where aggression is the cause of this burn. There is a different epidemiological profile between developed countries and developing ones. It seems an ongoing upsurge is occurring in the number of registered attacks within developing countries in recent years. A cross sectional retrospective review of attacks by acid was done in Bogota, Colombia from 1995 to the first trimester 2012. A cumulative number of 35 burn patients were registered during the study period. It is found that the main target, almost the unique target, of this attack are young women belonging to low socioeconomic status with low education degree and high dependence on her partner. The patient's age mean was 22.7 years, ranging from 13 to 41 years. The physical and psychological scars were very severe.

  14. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection in Sincelejo, Colombia: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Villamil-Gómez, Wilmer; Alba-Silvera, Luz; Menco-Ramos, Antonio; Gonzalez-Vergara, Alfonso; Molinares-Palacios, Tatiana; Barrios-Corrales, María; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2015-10-01

    Congenital chikungunya virus (CHIK) infection has been infrequently reported, even more so during the current 2013-15 outbreak in Latin America. In this study, the consequences of CHIK on pregnancy outcomes and particularly consequences in infants born to infected women were assessed in a case series from a single private institution in the north of Colombia. During September 2014 to February 2015, seven pregnant women with serological and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive test for CHIK delivered eight infants with CHIK. These newborns required admission to pediatric intensive care, and related support, owing to severe clinical manifestations, which included respiratory distress, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, edema, bullous dermatitis and pericarditis. There were three deaths (case fatality rate of 37.5%). Pregnant women and newborns with CHIK long term should be followed up, given the implications of chronic sequelae (e.g. chronic inflammatory rheumatism in women) as well as recently described neurocognitive impairment in infants.

  15. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  16. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  17. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

  19. Climate-based risk models for Fasciola hepatica in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Valencia-López, Natalia; Malone, John B; Carmona, Catalina Gómez; Velásquez, Luz E

    2012-09-01

    A predictive Fasciola hepatica model, based on the growing degree day-water budget (GDD-WB) concept and the known biological requirements of the parasite, was developed within a geographical information system (GIS) in Colombia. Climate-based forecast index (CFI) values were calculated and represented in a national-scale, climate grid (18 x 18 km) using ArcGIS 9.3. A mask overlay was used to exclude unsuitable areas where mean annual temperature exceeded 25 °C, the upper threshold for development and propagation of the F. hepatica life cycle. The model was then validated and further developed by studies limited to one department in northwest Colombia. F. hepatica prevalence data was obtained from a 2008-2010 survey in 10 municipalities of 6,016 dairy cattle at 673 herd study sites, for which global positioning system coordinates were recorded. The CFI map results were compared to F. hepatica environmental risk models for the survey data points that had over 5% prevalence (231 of the 673 sites) at the 1 km2 scale using two independent approaches: (i) a GIS map query based on satellite data parameters including elevation, enhanced vegetation index and land surface temperature day-night difference; and (ii) an ecological niche model (MaxEnt), for which geographic point coordinates of F. hepatica survey farms were used with BioClim data as environmental variables to develop a probability map. The predicted risk pattern of both approaches was similar to that seen in the forecast index grid. The temporal risk, evaluated by the monthly CFIs and a daily GDD-WB forecast software for 2007 and 2008, revealed a major July-August to January transmission period with considerable inter-annual differences.

  20. [Transmission of urban malaria in Buenaventrua, Colombia: entomological features].

    PubMed

    Olano, V; Carrasquilla, G; Méndez, F

    1997-04-01

    During the past several years, there has been an increase in the cases of urban malaria in Buenaventura, Colombia, from 576 in 1987 to 3296 in 1991 and 2017 in 1992; therefore, an epidemiological study to identify transmission patterns was carried out in this municipality on Colombia's Pacific coast. This paper describes the entomological findings regarding vectors, potential breeding sites and behavior of Anopheles species during the period from June 1993 to May 1994. Of the 469 potential breeding sites identified in the urban area, 28 were positive for anophelines, while in the neighboring rural zone, 20 out of 80 potential breeding sites were positive for the immature forms of Anopheles. Mining excavations, lakes and breeding ponds for fish or shrimp were the places where A. albimanus was more frequently found. For A. nuñeztovari, the breeding sites were rain puddles and ponds for breeding fish or shrimp. A. neivai was also identified in the urban area and larvae were collected from bromeliaceous plants. Both inside and outside the households mosquito collections were carried out, and 90% of the collected mosquitoes were identified as A. albimanus. Of the female A. albimanus 54.8% were parous. This species was found to have peak peridomiciliary activity between 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. The highest biting rate in the peridomiciliary area was 7.1 and was observed during March. It is expected that this entomological information will permit the launching of a strong community participation process and the implementation of control measures in accordance with the entomological findings related to malaria in the urban area of Buenaventura.

  1. Chocó, Colombia: a hotspot of human biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Rivas, Miguel A.; Norris, Emily T.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Conley, Andrew B.; Medrano-Trochez, Camila; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Jordan, I. King

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chocó is a state located on the Pacific coast of Colombia that has a majority Afro-Colombian population. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic ancestry, admixture and diversity of the population of Chocó, Colombia. Methodology Genetic variation was characterized for a sample of 101 donors (61 female and 40 male) from the state of Chocó. Genotypes were determined for each individual via the characterization of 610,545 single nucleotide polymorphisms genome-wide. Haplotypes for the uniparental mitochondrial DNA (female) and Y-DNA (male) chromosomes were also determined. These data were used for comparative analyses with a number of worldwide populations, including putative ancestral populations from Africa, the Americas and Europe, along with several admixed American populations. Results The population of Chocó has predominantly African genetic ancestry (75.8%) with approximately equal parts European (13.4%) and Native American (11.1%) ancestry. Chocó shows relatively high levels of three-way genetic admixture, and far higher levels of Native American ancestry, compared to other New World African populations from the Caribbean and the United States. There is a striking pattern of sex-specific ancestry in Chocó, with Native American admixture along the female lineage and European admixture along the male lineage. The population of Chocó is also characterized by relatively high levels of overall genetic diversity compared to both putative ancestral populations and other admixed American populations. Conclusion These results suggest a unique genetic heritage for the population of Chocó and underscore the profound human genetic diversity that can be found in the region. PMID:27668076

  2. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  3. Hospital medication errors in a pharmacovigilance system in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Machado Alba, Jorge Enrique; Moreno Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea; Moncada Escobar, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: analizar los errores de medicacion reportados en un sistema de farmacovigilancia en 26 hospitales para pacientes del sistema de salud de Colombia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que evaluo las bases de datos sistematizadas de reportes de errores de medicacion entre el 1 de enero de 2008 y el 12 de septiembre de 2013 de los medicamentos dispensados por la empresa Audifarma S.A a hospitales de Colombia. Se utilizo la clasificacion taxonomica del National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP). El analisis de los datos se realizo mediante SPSS 22.0 para Windows Se determino como nivel de significacion estadistica una p < 0,05. Resultados: se reportaron 9.062 EM en 45 servicios farmaceuticos hospitalarios. El 51,9% (n = 4.707) de los errores realmente se produjeron, de los cuales el 12,0% (n = 567) afectaron al paciente (categorias C a I) y causaron dano (categorias E a I) a 17 (0,36%). El proceso implicado en los EM ocurridos (categorias B a I) con mayor frecuencia fue la prescripcion (n = 1.758, 37,3%), seguido por la dispensacion (n = 1.737, 36,9%), la transcripcion (n = 970, 20,6%) y, por ultimo, la administracion (n = 242, 5,1%). Los errores relacionados con los procesos de administracion aumentaban 45,2 veces el riesgo de que el medicamento erroneo afectara al paciente (IC 95% 20,2-100,9). Conclusiones: es necesario aumentar la cobertura de los sistemas de reporte de errores de medicacion, y crear estrategias para su prevencion, especialmente en la etapa de administracion del medicamento.

  4. [Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena

    2010-09-01

    For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table.

  5. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  6. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  7. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 13. OBLIQUE OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTH TRUSS SPAN, SOUTH APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE OF UNDERSIDE OF SOUTH TRUSS SPAN, SOUTH APPROACH SPAN, AND SOUTH PIER, SHOWING FLOOR SYSTEM AND BEARINGS. LOOKING NORTH. - Flintville Bridge, Spanning Broad Creek at Flintville Road (Maryland Route 623), Castleton, Harford County, MD

  9. 118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Stage basement. View, facing south, of the south hydraulic ram (type D) in the middle row. Photo was taken before the stage flooring was removed. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. 253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, AND 1829, SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south abutment and south railing panel looking east - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  13. An Integrated approach for in situ stress prediction - Fault Block Scale Case Study for the northern Central Cordillera of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehill, C. S.; Cobos, D.; Vargas, C. A.; Martinez, M.

    2013-05-01

    This study develops an integrated, geological approach for evaluation of in situ stress, and presents a case study of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The case study considers the effect of the complex tectonic interplay between Nazca-South American subduction, Panamanian indention, continental volcanism and crustal deformation. Regional stress fields and the related potential geo-hazards for this region are constrained by the limited structural control at depth on the primary deterministic features, sparse paleoseismology and active strain measurements on fault slip. In the absence of data needed for the traditional approach to this kind of problem; we model the system from a geo-mechanical perspective that allows us to vary parameters controlling in-situ stress fields at both the fault block scale and the discrete fracture network scale. The approach presented in this paper focuses on in situ stress estimation at the fault block scale. Using available fault geometry, earthquake focal mechanism, subsurface, stratigraphic, GIS, GPS, topographic and paleoseismology data, we utilize FracMan® technology to model variations on stress field analyses along strike on the dominant structures. We interpret relative intensities and the probability for seismic release along several key faults such as the Romeral Norte, Cauca, Ibagué, Fallas de Magdalena, Murindo, Armenia and Palestina faults each with significant (Mw > 6) displays of historic seismicity.

  14. Haplotypes associated with resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum in two malaria endemic locations in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Diana Carolina; Guerra, Angela Patricia; Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Barrera, Sandra Milena

    2013-08-01

    Colombia has four main malaria transmission zones. In vivo efficacy studies carried out in these areas showed big differences in the response of Plasmodium falciparum to treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. In addition, there is still insufficient information about the genetics of P. falciparum populations. The objective of this study was to determine the haplotypes in dhfr and dhps genes of P. falciparum circulating in two distinct endemic zones. Samples from patients with non-complicated P. falciparum malaria were collected: 135 from Tumaco and 206 from Tierralta. Alleles 108 and 51 of the dhfr gene, and 437 and 540 of the dhps gene were analyzed by PCR/enzymatic restriction, while alleles 59 and 164 (dhfr), and 581(dhps) by PCR/dot blot/hybridization. Five different haplotypes were found, of which the triple mutant 51I/C59/108N/I164/437G/K540/A581 was the most frequent (54.6%). In Tumaco, the parasites with wild haplotype predominated, while mutant parasites predominated in Tierralta. Another interesting finding is the presence of the C59R mutation in the dhfr gene in two samples, a mutation rarely found in South America. These data provide information about parasite population genetics and highlight the importance of starting a long term molecular surveillance program. PMID:23714094

  15. Eruption of the Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas Flux and Fluid Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stanley N.; Stoiber, Richard E.; Garcia P., Nestor; Londono C., Adela; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Lowe, Donald R.; Connor, Charles B.

    1986-08-01

    The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive stages of other volcanoes. Thermal water analyses revealed increases in magnesium, calcium, and potassium and an increase in the magnesium/chlorine ratio, suggesting that these elements may have been leached from new magma. Ash leachate data showed sulfate and chloride concentrations and ratios that would be expected for the late stages of a major Plinian eruption. Water from the lahar contained high concentrations of sulfate and had a sulfur/chlorine ratio of 4.67, suggesting that water ejected from the crater lake and turbulent mixing of pyroclasts and glacial ice triggered the lahar. Microprobe analyses of pumice from this eruption and the most recent previous event showed similar mixed andesites. The uniform composition of the pumices and the unusually high ratio of gas to magma suggest that, although a new batch of magma triggered this eruption, the pumice that erupted may actually be old. Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south.

  16. Prolonged co-circulation of two distinct Dengue virus Type 3 lineages in the hyperendemic area of Medellin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Marta C; Diaz, Francisco J; Osorio, Jorge E

    2010-09-01

    During the past two decades, Dengue virus-3 (DENV-3) has re-emerged in the Western Hemisphere causing significant epidemics of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In an effort to understand the molecular evolution of DENV-3 and their relationships to other DENV-3 circulating in the western hemisphere, we conducted a phylogenetic study on DENV-3 isolates made between 2002 and 2007 in the metropolitan area of Medellín, Colombia. An unexpected co-circulation of two different variants of DENV-3 subtype III during at least 5 years in Medellín was found. In addition, a more complete analysis of DENV-3 viruses isolated in other South American regions revealed the existence of three different subtype III lineages, all derived from independent introductions. This study documents significant genetic diversity of circulating viruses within the same subtype and an unusual capacity of the population of this city to support continuous circulation of multiple variants of dengue virus.

  17. Multiple plates subducting beneath Colombia, as illuminated by seismicity and velocity from the joint inversion of seismic and gravity data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Syracuse, Ellen M.; Maceira, Monica; Prieto, German A.; Zhang, Haijiang; Ammon, Charles J.

    2016-04-12

    Subduction beneath the northernmost Andes in Colombia is complex. Based on seismicity distributions, multiple segments of slab appear to be subducting, and arc volcanism ceases north of 5° N. Here, we illuminate the subduction system through hypocentral relocations and Vp and Vs models resulting from the joint inversion of local body wave arrivals, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data. The simultaneous use of multiple data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in velocity models that have improved resolution at both shallower and deeper depths than would result from traditional travel time tomography alone.more » The relocated earthquake dataset and velocity model clearly indicate a tear in the Nazca slab at 5° N, corresponding to a 250-km shift in slab seismicity and the termination of arc volcanism. North of this tear, the slab is flat, and it comprises slabs of two sources: the Nazca and Caribbean plates. The Bucaramanga nest, a small region of among the most intense intermediate-depth seismicity globally, is associated with the boundary between these two plates and possibly with a zone of melting or elevated water content, based on reduced Vp and increased Vp/Vs. As a result, we also use relocated seismicity to identify two new faults in the South American plate, one related to plate convergence and one highlighted by induced seismicity.« less

  18. Multiple plates subducting beneath Colombia, as illuminated by seismicity and velocity from the joint inversion of seismic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syracuse, Ellen M.; Maceira, Monica; Prieto, Germán A.; Zhang, Haijiang; Ammon, Charles J.

    2016-06-01

    Subduction beneath the northernmost Andes in Colombia is complex. Based on seismicity distributions, multiple segments of slab appear to be subducting, and arc volcanism ceases north of 5° N. Here, we illuminate the subduction system through hypocentral relocations and Vp and Vs models resulting from the joint inversion of local body wave arrivals, surface wave dispersion measurements, and gravity data. The simultaneous use of multiple data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in velocity models that have improved resolution at both shallower and deeper depths than would result from traditional travel time tomography alone. The relocated earthquake dataset and velocity model clearly indicate a tear in the Nazca slab at 5° N, corresponding to a 250-km shift in slab seismicity and the termination of arc volcanism. North of this tear, the slab is flat, and it comprises slabs of two sources: the Nazca and Caribbean plates. The Bucaramanga nest, a small region of among the most intense intermediate-depth seismicity globally, is associated with the boundary between these two plates and possibly with a zone of melting or elevated water content, based on reduced Vp and increased Vp/Vs. We also use relocated seismicity to identify two new faults in the South American plate, one related to plate convergence and one highlighted by induced seismicity.

  19. South Africa's Constitutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes the striking dichotomy of South Africa's beauty and the squalor resulting from the apartheid policies of the government. Reviews reactions of black South Africans to recent constitutional changes and details efforts to secure more sweeping reform. Includes stories of several individuals who have taken actions which oppose the system of…

  20. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  1. South Persian Gulf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This oblique view of the south Persian Gulf region (26.0N, 54.0E) was taken over Iran looking west across the south Persian Gulf into the Trucial Coast of the United Arab Emirates and the prominent Qatar peninsula. Rich in petroleum resources, this region supplies much of the world's oil needs from its many ports and off shore loading facilities.

  2. Historical Capsule: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Briefly traces the history of South Africa from British acquisition in 1815 through the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Presents a chronicle of the year 1900 to show part of the European achievement in close-up. Lists accomplishments in literature, fine arts, science, technology, music, theater, and dance. (GEA)

  3. Subduction zone locking, strain partitioning, intraplate deformation and their implications to Seismic Hazards in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Pontbriand, C. W.; Klein, E.; Wang, F.; Shabestari, K.; Yang, W.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze active crustal deformation in South America (SA) using published GPS observations and historic seismicity along the Nazca Trench and the active Ecuador-Colombia-Venezuela Plate boundary Zone. GPS-constrained kinematisc models that incorporate block and continuum techniques are used to assess patterns of regional tectonic deformation and its implications to seismic potential. We determine interplate coupling distributions, fault slip-rates, and intraplate crustal strain rates in combination with historic earthquakes within 40 seismic zones crust to provide moment rate constraints. Along the Nazca subduction zone, we resolve a series of highly coupled patches, interpreted as high-friction producing "asperities" beneath the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These include areas responsible for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. Predicted tectonic block motions and fault slip rates reveal that the northern part of South America deforms rapidly, with crustal fault slip rates as much as ~20 mm/a. Fault slip and locking patterns reveal that the Oca Ancón-Pilar-Boconó fault system plays a key role in absorbing most of the complex eastward and southward convergence patterns in northeastern Colombia and Venezuela, while the near-parallel system of faults in eastern Colombia and Ecuador absorb part of the transpressional motion due to the ~55 mm/a Nazca-SA plate convergence. These kinematic models, in combination with historic seismicity rates, provide moment deficit rates that reveal regions with high seismic potential, such as coastal Ecuador, Bucaramanga, Arica and Antofagasta. We eventually use the combined information from moment rates and fault coupling patterns to further constrain stochastic seismic hazard models of the region by implementing realistic trench rupture scenarios (see Mahdyiar et al., this volume).

  4. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    PubMed Central

    Schmunis, G. A.; Zicker, F.; Pinheiro, F.; Brandling-Bennett, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six screened some donors for syphilis. Estimates of the risk of acquiring HIV through blood transfusion were much lower than for acquiring HBV, HCV, or T. cruzi because of significantly higher screening and lower prevalence.rates for HIV. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. The risks were lower in Honduras (nine per 10,000), Ecuador (16 per 10,000), and Paraguay (19 per 10,000). While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply. Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay. Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries. PMID:9452393

  5. Integrated Provenance Studies in Northwestern South America, Linking Tectonic and Sedimentary Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.; Ramirez, V. O.; Bayona, G.; Ayala, C.; Valencia, V.

    2009-12-01

    Post-collisional late Eocene to Oligocene extensional basins (Plato-San Jorge basin in Colombia) and syn-collisional basins to the east contain the record of drainages and source areas as a former passive margin obliquely collided with the Caribbean deformation front. A 2 to 8 km thick, shallowing-upward and almost entirely fine-grained, upper Eocene and younger sedimentary sequence contains the record of post-collisional paleogeography behind the advancing deformation front. Sedimentation in the syn-collisional margin is fragmentary along the northern margins of Colombia and Venezuela in the Guajira province. An integrated provenance approach is being undertaken with detrital zircon geochronology, whole rock geochemistry, heavy mineral analysis and tectonic modeling. Source areas contain distinctive assemblages that should be diagnostic and include cratonic contributions with Grenville and older provinces, Andean contributions with Mesozoic-age signatures and Caribbean contributions with latest Cretaceous and Paleogene contributions. The complex Paleogene tectonic interactions along the northwestern South American margin include the simultaneous opening of basins (Plato-San Jorge basin in Colombia), micro-block rotation (Santa Marta massif), shortening and mountain building (Perija range) and oblique accretionary wedges along the margin (Sinu-San Jacinto deformed belts). Rivers draining the interior of South America to the north would have been deflected by this Paleogene configuration, and local drainages would have similarly developed in response to changing depocenters. Distinctive signatures should have developed in the sedimentary sequence as the sources dynamically changed from cratonic (Grenville and older cratonic) to Andean (Mesozoic continental crust and reworked) to Caribbean (volcanic arcs and collision zones).

  6. Colombia, Many Countries in One: Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability, Sociocultural Divergence and Biodiversity. Profile and Paradox. Volumes I and II. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1997 (Colombia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This Fulbright Summer Seminar focused on the environmental challenge posed by Colombia's biodiversity and addressed the relationship between the last decade of Colombian economic development and the country's sociocultural situation, taking into account its historical background and the role of natural resources in a context of sustainable…

  7. Bluetongue virus in South America: overview of viruses, vectors, surveillance and unique features.

    PubMed

    Lager, I A

    2004-01-01

    Since the first published report of bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) infection in South America from Brazil in 1978, serological surveys have determined that the infection is widespread in sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo but generally without clinical signs. Only four outbreaks of BT disease have been reported so far in Brazil. Brazil and Argentina are the only countries in South America where BTV serotypes 12 and 4 have been isolated, respectively. By serology, serotypes 4, 6, 14, 17, 19 and 20 were detected in Brazil, 12, 14 and 17 in Colombia, 14 and 17 in Guyana and 6, 14 and 17 in Suriname. Culicoides insignis is the predominant vector in the area, but C. pusillus could also be a BTV vector. The virus has not yet been isolated from the vector in the region.

  8. Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.

    PubMed

    Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

    2013-07-01

    Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas. PMID:23297112

  9. Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.

    PubMed

    Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

    2013-07-01

    Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas.

  10. Evaporite deposits of Bogota area, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Donald H.

    1972-01-01

    Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically. Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts. Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it. The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds. Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones. All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these

  11. The diversity of flower flies (Diptera: syrphidae) in Colombia and their neotropical distribution.

    PubMed

    Montoya, A L; Pérez, S P; Wolff, M

    2012-02-01

    In Colombia, like most Neotropical countries, faunistic studies on flower flies have been occasional and most of them have been primarily focused on taxonomy. Colombia is the second-most species-rich country in flower fly diversity in the Neotropics after Brazil, and has one of the highest numbers of species per unit area (2.49 per 10,000 km²), based on a review of literature and national collections. Including new data presented here, a total of 47 genera and 300 species are recorded in Colombia. The genera Scaeva Fabricius and Lycastrirhyncha Bigot, as well as 101 species are recorded here for the first time. The altitudinal range and the distribution of the flower fly genera in Colombia are presented. A preliminary comparison of the fauna of Colombia with that of other Neotropical countries is given. A historical perspective is also provided in order to illustrate how Colombian Syrphidae knowledge has progressed over the last 168 years. Information presented here will be useful for ongoing and future biodiversity research as well as conservation projects on Syrphidae in the Neotropical region.

  12. Checklist of tortoise beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Colombia with new data and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Lech; Świętojańska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given. PMID:26448702

  13. 77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Register of December 4, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-29306 on page 71778, first column, correct the subject... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia... Register of December 4, 2012 regarding the U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama May...

  14. Fog Collection and its Variability in the Andean Mountain Range of Colombia: A Possible Source for Water Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrological droughts occur naturally in some regions of the Colombian Andean watersheds, some of them associated with large-scale climatic phenomena like El Nino. The associated water scarcity is aggravated by an advancing deforestation of the native highland forests. These events have negative consequences for the environment and for human development. Low water availability in arid/semiarid regions and water scarcity in surface sources in mountainous zones could be managed partially by means of water from fog collection. To date, fog collection variability and potential use of fog water as an alternative for water supply has not been evaluated in Colombia. This study evaluates the spatial and temporal fog collection variability and analyses the potential use of fog as an alternative source of water supply in an Andean rural region of southern Colombia, which is highly affected by droughts and low water availability. Fog collection experiments were carried out, and data collection covered both dry and rainy seasons in the period 2003 - 2005, with daily data registration of fog collection and drizzle/precipitation. Twelve Standard Fog Collectors (SFC), built from polypropylene mesh with a vertical collection surface of 1.0 m2, were installed in a mountainous zone with an area of approximately 500 ha, ranging from 1,680 to 1,850 m a.s.l. Chilean meshes with several shade coefficients were tested. In order to assess the spatial fog variability, isolines of fog-water collection rates were estimated using Kriging as the interpolation method. Our results suggest a high potential for the use of fog to supply domestic water requirements in rural areas. Also, the observed collection yields are consistent with some experimental results of fog harvesting from other countries in South America. Annual average collection rates amounted to 4.2 l/m2/day for precipitation + fog, and 3.3 l/m2/day for fog only. The temporal analysis indicates that the most important month for fog

  15. [Travel destinations South America].

    PubMed

    Neumayr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The number of tourists visiting South America comprises only a small fraction of the worldwide stream of international travellers (approx. 980 Mio. in 2011). Nevertheless, their number has markedly increased in the last years (2000: 15.3 Mio.; 2005: 18.3 Mio.; 2010: 23.6 Mio.; 2011: 26.1 Mio.) and in 2011, South America was ranked top in the list of worldwide travel destinations with the highest increase in annual international tourist arrivals (10.4 %)[1]. This article aims at providing a practice-oriented overview on vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, and other relevant health risks to be considered when counselling travellers visiting South America.

  16. Neosporosis in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  17. View looking south out the door opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south out the door opening from the south side of the rotunda extension onto the "dog house" or vestibule positioned where the west Verandah of the south wing turns ninety degrees and continues along the south wall of the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  19. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  20. Leishmania (Viannia) Infection in the Domestic Dog in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Santaella, Julián; Ocampo, Clara B.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Méndez, Fabián; Góngora, Rafael; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Quinnell, Rupert J.

    2011-01-01

    Peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly reported and dogs may be a reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) in this setting. We investigated the prevalence of infection in dogs in Chaparral County, Colombia, the focus of an epidemic of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Two (0.72%) of 279 dogs had lesions typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis that were biopsy positive by kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting. Seroprevalence was 2.2% (6 of 279) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Buffy coat and ear skin biopsy specimens were positive by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting in 7.3% (10 of 137) and 11.4% (12 of 105) of dogs, respectively. Overall 20% of dogs (21 of 105) showed positive results for one or more tests. Amplification and sequencing of the Leishmania 7SL RNA gene identified L. guyanensis in one dog and L. braziliensis in two dogs. No association was identified between the risk factors evaluated and canine infection. Dogs may contribute to transmission but their role in this focus appears to be limited. PMID:21540374

  1. Styles of Knowledge Production in Colombia, 1850-1920.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica; Pohl-Valero, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Argument Using the notion of styles of knowledge we refer to the ways diverse scientific communities claim to produce true knowledge, their understandings regarding the attitudes and values that scientists should have in order to grasp natural and social reality, and the practices and technologies developed within such styles. This paper analyzes scientific and medical enterprises that explored the relationship between environment, population, and society in Colombia between 1850 and 1920. We argue that similar styles of knowledge production were shared in human geography, medical geography, and climatic physiology at the mid-nineteenth century; and that some physicians working in bacteriology and physiology since the 1880s established epistemic boundaries between their work and earlier scientific activities, while others found these distinctions irrelevant. However, the historical actors committed to any of the styles of knowledge production explored in this article agreed on the local specificity of their objects of inquiry, therefore questioning European science. These styles of knowledge production also shaped different ways of perceiving and addressing national problems. Hence, this article is a contribution to the recent literature on both historical epistemology and social and cultural history of science and medicine. PMID:27574000

  2. [Socioeconomic determinants of dental care during pregnancy in Cali, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Corchuelo-Ojeda, Jairo; Pérez, Guillermo Julián González

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of dental care for pregnant women in Cali, Colombia, and to identify socioeconomic and health services factors associated with access to dental care during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 993 postpartum women who had given birth in public and private clinics in 2012. Multivariate analysis showed that dental care was associated with: economic resources (86.6% sufficient resources versus 72.5% insufficient resources; OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-2.8), schooling (88% complete versus 74% incomplete secondary school, OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7), and receiving information on oral health and dental care during prenatal care (86.4%: yes versus 42.9%: no, OR = 5.7; 95%CI: 3.1-10.0). Access to dental care was less frequent among pregnant women with low socioeconomic status as compared to those with better living conditions.

  3. The hydrothermal system of Volcan Puracé, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Williams, Stanley N.; Sano, Yuji

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents chemical and isotopic data for thermal waters, gases and S deposits from Volcan Puracé (summit elevation ˜4600 m) in SW Colombia. Hot gas discharges from fumaroles in and around the summit crater, and thermal waters discharge from three areas on its flanks. The waters from all areas have δD values of-75±1, indicating a single recharge area at high elevation on the volcano. Aircorrected values of3He/4He in thermal waters range from 3.8 to 6.7 RA, and approach those for crater fumarole gas (6.1 7.1 RA), indicating widespread addition of magmatic volatiles. An economic S deposit (El Vinagre) is being mined in the Rio Vinagre fault zone at 3600 m elevation. Sulfur isotopic data are consistent with a magmatic origin for S species in thermal waters and gases, and for the S ore deposit. Isotopic equilibration between S species may have occurred at 220±40°C, which overlaps possible equilibration temperatures (170±40°C) determined by a variety of other geothermometers for neutral thermal waters. Apparent CH4-CO2 equilibration temperatures for gases from thermal springs (400±50°C) and crater fumaroles (520±60°C) reflect higher temperatures deeper in the system. Hot magmatic gas ascending through the Rio Vinagre fault zone is though to have precipitated S and generated thermal waters by interaction with descending meteoric waters.

  4. Attainments and limitations of an early childhood programme in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J; Trujillo, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    The Growth and Development Monitoring Programme is a longstanding early childhood social intervention in Colombia. The programme's goal is the prevention and early identification of problems affecting children's health and nutrition. To achieve this aim, the programme's basic strategy is to educate parents about the overall health care of infants. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of this programme on children's nutrition and health status and maternal child-care practices. To address potential selection bias, we employ quasi-experimental techniques. This article uses data from the Demographic Health Survey of 2010. The evidence suggests that the programme improved immunization status and the likelihood of health care for acute respiratory infection or fever. As expected, the programme has a greater impact on children from among the poorest people in the country. In the most advanced regions and for the beneficiaries of private health care, the effects of the programme have tended to be negligible. In this sense, our central policy recommendation is to optimize the programme for the poorest households in the country.

  5. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  6. Child mortality and fertility in Colombia: individual and community effects.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, M R; Schultz, T P

    1982-03-01

    The education of a mother is strongly and positively correlated with the survival rate of her children. This paper combines household data from the Colombian Census of 1973 and characteristics of the 900 residential areas in Colombia, to test various hypotheses concerning the mechanism by which mother's education and public policies affect child survival and the distribution of health benefits resulting from policy interventions. The hypothesis is advanced that education provides people with skills in acquiring and decoding new information and thus effectively lowers the costs of using more beneficial child health and contraceptive technologies. Since a primary function of health and family planning programs is to disseminate information on these same technologies, the hypothesis is tested that mother's education and these program interventions may substitute for each other in improving child health and reducing family size. The empirical analysis confirms that in urban areas the availability of medical services, family planning activities, transportational infrastructure and climate, in addition to mother's education, are associated with child mortality ratios and fertility within a birth cohort of mothers. The least educated mothers are the most strongly affected, in terms of their reduced fertility and increased child survival rates, by the local urban health programs. The evidence is, thus, consistent with the substitution hypothesis. No effects of program interventions and medical facilities are found on rural populations, though both child mortality ratios and fertility are lower for more educated rural women. PMID:10256651

  7. Regional frontier exploration in Sinu basin, northwestern Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, F.A.; Ellis, J.M.; Dekker, L.L.

    1989-03-01

    In 1983, Gulf and Ecopetrol undertook a regional hydrocarbon evaluation of northwestern Colombia, during the course of which much of the Sinu basin was mapped by field geologists aided by low-altitude aerial photographs. Additional seismic and airborne radar data were acquired to assist in developing a regional structural model. The dominant structures of the Sinu basin were produced by westward-vergent thrust faults, which are offset on the order of 10 to 20 km by northwest-southeast-trending compartmental faults. Numerous mud volcanos are surface expressions of overpressured shales, which migrate upward along both thrust and strike-slip faults. Thrust faults are expressed, on the surface, by steep-sided, asymmetrical anticlines, which are separated by broad synclines filled with clastics shed during Tertiary thrusting. The extremely thick section of Tertiary sediments is dominated by shale but contains some potential reservoir sandstones. These resistive sandstones could be accurately mapped on the radar imagery and projected into the subsurface allowing traps to be better defined. Combining field geology with geologic interpretation of aerial photographs and radar images was very effective in developing a regional structural framework of the Sinu basin.

  8. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  9. Microplastic resin pellets on an urban tropical beach in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Coley, Isabel; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Microplastics are a problem in oceans worldwide. The current situation in Latin America is not well known. This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of microplastics on an urban Caribbean beach in Cartagena, Colombia. Pellet samples were collected from a tourist beach over a 5-month period covering both dry and rainy seasons. Pellets were classified by color and their surface analyzed by stereomicroscopy, and some were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The most abundant pellets were white, presenting virgin surfaces, with few signs of oxidation. This is congruent with a short residence time in the marine environment and primary sources possibly located nearby. The frequency of white pellets did not change with sampling period. Surface features identified in the pellets included cracks, material loss, erosion, adhesion, granulation, color change, and glazed surfaces. Reticulated granular pellets exhibited the greatest degradation, easily generating submicroplastics. Sample composition was mostly polyethylene, followed by polypropylene. This pollution problem must be addressed by responsible authorities to avoid pellet deposition in oceans and on beaches around the world.

  10. Characterization of a Zika Virus Isolate from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lahon, Anismrita; Arya, Ravi P.; Kneubehl, Alexander R.; Vogt, Megan B.; Dailey Garnes, Natalie J. M.; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus (Flavivirus genus) is the first mosquito-borne virus known to cause high rates of microcephaly and abortion in humans. Typically, Zika virus causes a self-limiting, systemic illness; however, the current outbreak of Zika virus in the Americas has been associated with increased rates of fetal malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Very few Zika virus isolates have been described in the literature, and live viruses are needed to perform studies of pathogenesis and to develop vaccines and treatments. Methodology/Clinical findings We isolated Zika virus, strain FLR, directly from the serum of an individual infected in Barranquilla, Colombia (December, 2015). Here, we describe the patient’s clinical course and characterize strain FLR by its growth characteristics in mosquito and mammalian cells and its partial resistance to UV-inactivation. The full genome sequence of FLR was also analyzed (including the 3’ un-translated region), to determine its probable geographic origin, and to pinpoint structural differences from other Zika virus strains. Conclusions/Significance We anticipate that the study of this low passage, clinical isolate of Zika virus, which is available for worldwide distribution, will help uncover the mechanisms of viral replication and host immune responses contributing to the varied and sometimes severe clinical presentations seen during the current epidemic in the Americas. PMID:27654889

  11. Hydrodynamic Entrapment of Petroleum within the Llanos Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, M. A.; Villamil, T.; Gable, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to evaluate hydrodynamic effects on secondary oil migration within the Llanos Basin, Colombia (Fig. 1a). Hydrodynamic stagnation zones formed within the Carbonara reservoir (Fig. 1b) in the eastern portion of the Llanos Basin where structural slopes are low and hydraulic head mounds associated with river networks drives ground water flow eastward down structural dip. Computed Hubbert oil potentials within the Carbonara-7 reservoir indicate a hydrodynamic stagnation zone formed in the vicinity of the Rubiales oil field (gray pattern, Fig. 1b); a giant, enigmatic hydrocarbon accumulation with no known structural closure. Flat to titled oil water contacts predicted by Hubbert oil potentials (Fig. 1c) were found to be consistent with observed oil-water contacts (Fig. 1d). Best agreement for the location of this stagnation zone occurred when using an oil density of API 12 suggesting that the Rubiales field's position is in dynamic equilibrium with modern head conditions and present-day oil densities.

  12. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  13. Leishmania (Viannia) infection in the domestic dog in Chaparral, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Santaella, Julián; Ocampo, Clara B; Saravia, Nancy G; Méndez, Fabián; Góngora, Rafael; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Munstermann, Leonard E; Quinnell, Rupert J

    2011-05-01

    Peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly reported and dogs may be a reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) in this setting. We investigated the prevalence of infection in dogs in Chaparral County, Colombia, the focus of an epidemic of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Two (0.72%) of 279 dogs had lesions typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis that were biopsy positive by kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction-Southern blotting. Seroprevalence was 2.2% (6 of 279) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Buffy coat and ear skin biopsy specimens were positive by polymerase chain reaction-Southern blotting in 7.3% (10 of 137) and 11.4% (12 of 105) of dogs, respectively. Overall 20% of dogs (21 of 105) showed positive results for one or more tests. Amplification and sequencing of the Leishmania 7SL RNA gene identified L. guyanensis in one dog and L. braziliensis in two dogs. No association was identified between the risk factors evaluated and canine infection. Dogs may contribute to transmission but their role in this focus appears to be limited.

  14. Nematode infection in fish from Cartagena Bay, North of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Verbel, Jesús Olivero; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara

    2011-04-19

    Parasitic nematode infection indices were recorded in different fish species collected at Cartagena Bay, North of Colombia. Among 19 studied species, the Mugil genus presented the highest prevalence (83.9-100%), although Sciades herzbergii, Caranx hippos and Centropomus undecimalis were also found infected with nematodes. Parasites were found in the liver, intestinal mesenteries and encysted near the intervertebral joints, with an average parasite abundance of 4.0 ± 0.3 nematodes per fish. Morphological analysis allowed the identification of these nematodes as Contracaecum sp. A small, but positive correlation was found between parasite abundance and length (R=0.294, P<0.001) and weight (R=0.244, P<0.001). In contrast, the correlation between parasite abundance and condition factor was negative (R=-0.191, P<0.001). These results are the first describing the presence of nematodes in several fish species of this ecosystem, and it highlights the need for monitoring parasitism in Mugil species in order to avoid parasite ingestion during fish consumption.

  15. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment. PMID:25763024

  16. Styles of Knowledge Production in Colombia, 1850-1920.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica; Pohl-Valero, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Argument Using the notion of styles of knowledge we refer to the ways diverse scientific communities claim to produce true knowledge, their understandings regarding the attitudes and values that scientists should have in order to grasp natural and social reality, and the practices and technologies developed within such styles. This paper analyzes scientific and medical enterprises that explored the relationship between environment, population, and society in Colombia between 1850 and 1920. We argue that similar styles of knowledge production were shared in human geography, medical geography, and climatic physiology at the mid-nineteenth century; and that some physicians working in bacteriology and physiology since the 1880s established epistemic boundaries between their work and earlier scientific activities, while others found these distinctions irrelevant. However, the historical actors committed to any of the styles of knowledge production explored in this article agreed on the local specificity of their objects of inquiry, therefore questioning European science. These styles of knowledge production also shaped different ways of perceiving and addressing national problems. Hence, this article is a contribution to the recent literature on both historical epistemology and social and cultural history of science and medicine.

  17. Understanding Seismotectonic Aspects of Central and South American Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Jiménez, Carlos A.; Monsalve-Jaramillo, Hugo; Huérfano, Victor

    2004-10-01

    The Circum-Pacific, and particularly the Central and South America, subduction zones are complex structures that are subject to frequent, large-magnitude earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, and geological hazards. Among these natural hazards, earthquakes produce the most significant social and economic impacts in Latin America, and the subduction zones therefore demand constant vigilance and intensive study. The American continent has witnessed serveral earthquakes that rank among the most destrive in the world. Earthquakes such as the ones that occurred in Colombia-Ecuador [Mw = 8.9, 1906], Chile [Mw = 9.6, 1960; Mw = 8.9, 1995], Mexico [Mw = 9.6, 1985], and Peru [Mw = 8.0, 2001], as well as a number of destuctive events related to crustal fault systems and volcanic eruptions [e.g., Soufrière, El Ruiz, Galeras, ect.], have produced significant human and economic loss.The latent seismic hazards in the Caribbean, and Central and South America demand from the regional Earth sciences community accurate models to explain the mechanisms of these natural phenomena.

  18. Neotectonic provinces and joint orientations of northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidegger, A. E.; Schubert, C.

    The data on the stress field in northern South America are reviewed and complemented by new measurements. These data are based on the interpretation of orientations of joints, earthquake fault planes, and stylolites. The maximum tectonic pressure direction is constant throughout the mountain regions from the Colombia/Ecuador border to the Cordillera de la Costa in Venezuela. Its orientation is 130° to 151°, which is roughly normal to the strike of the eastern front of the Andes. This whole area ust therefore be considered as a single geotectonic province. In the anterior — i.e., from the Colombian Llanos to the Guayana Shield in Venezuela, again a consistent tectonic stress direction of 161° to 166°E is found; this, threfore, is a second tectonic province. Possibly, this direction represents the regular intraplate stress direction which is gradually rotated toward the Andes so as to become normal to its front. Finally, the maximum tectonic stress north directions north eof the Oca and ther Morón-El Pilar fault zones are quite varied, which may be an indication of the perturbations causedby the presence of the bondary between the South American and Caribbean tectonic plates.

  19. Ladybugs of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 79 species of Coccinellidae occurring in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-familial classification, and lengths and widths....

  20. South African Particulates

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. ... 2000 - Airborne particulates over South Africa. project:  MISR category:  gallery date:  ...

  1. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  2. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  3. The sexual and reproductive rights of internally displaced women: the embodiment of Colombia's crisis.

    PubMed

    Alzate, Mónica M

    2008-03-01

    As of 30 June 2006, more than 3.5 million Colombians are internally displaced persons (IDPs), the second largest IDP population in the world after that of Sudan. While most IDP studies treat the plight of internally displaced women (IDW) as an isolated phenomenon, this paper demonstrates that their situation reflects Colombia's chronic cultural, political and socio-economic crisis. This paper uses a sexual and reproductive rights framework to establish a connection between IDW and Colombia's culture of violence, discrimination and inequality. The effects of this culture of violence, discrimination and inequality are highlighted during a discussion of the rights to health, reproduction, privacy, physical integrity, education, and freedom from violence and sexual exploitation. This paper argues that a holistic understanding of Colombia's humanitarian emergency is essential to improving the lives of IDPs. It ends with some concrete, short-term recommendations to meet some of the needs of IDPs and other vulnerable populations. PMID:18217922

  4. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Emilio J

    2013-09-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Emilio J.

    2013-01-01

    The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest. PMID:24130438

  6. Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2010-07-15

    The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

  7. Spatial association between malaria vector species richness and malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas O; Alimi, Temitope; Herrera, Socrates; Beier, John C; Quiñones, Martha L

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission in Colombia is highly variable in space and time. Using a species distribution model, we mapped potential distribution of five vector species including Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neivai, and Anopheles nuneztovari in five Departments of Colombia where malaria transmission remains problematic. We overlaid the range maps of the five species to reveal areas of sympatry and related per-pixel species richness to mean annual parasite index (API) for 2011-2014 mapped by municipality (n = 287). The relationship between mean number of vector species per municipality and API was evaluated using a Poisson regression, which revealed a highly significant relationship between species richness and API (p = 0 for Wald Chi-Square statistic). The results suggest that areas of relatively high transmission in Colombia typically contain higher number of vector species than areas with unstable transmission and that future elimination strategies should account for vector species richness.

  8. Survey for Toxoplasma gondii by PCR detection in meat for human consumption in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hernandez, Erika N; Acosta, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The overall risk for toxoplasmosis in meat produced in Colombia is unknown. We analyzed by PCR assay meat samples for human consumption in two types of plants in Colombia: 120 samples from class I plants (60 samples from chicken, 30 from swine and 30 from beef) and 60 from class II plants (30 samples from beef and 30 from swine). Presence of Toxoplasma DNA was established by targeted B1 nested PCR assay. We detected 79 (43%) samples that were positive by B1 nested PCR (33 from chicken, 22 from beef, and 24 from pork). No differences were found by region or species. Eleven positive samples were confirmed by sequencing of the B1 repeated region. Some polymorphisms were detected without relation with clonal groups nor meat species. Food animals are highly exposed to Toxoplasma in Colombia. Detailed studies are needed to establish the reasons for differences in Toxoplasma prevalence between farms, regarding practices of animal food production.

  9. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  10. The sexual and reproductive rights of internally displaced women: the embodiment of Colombia's crisis.

    PubMed

    Alzate, Mónica M

    2008-03-01

    As of 30 June 2006, more than 3.5 million Colombians are internally displaced persons (IDPs), the second largest IDP population in the world after that of Sudan. While most IDP studies treat the plight of internally displaced women (IDW) as an isolated phenomenon, this paper demonstrates that their situation reflects Colombia's chronic cultural, political and socio-economic crisis. This paper uses a sexual and reproductive rights framework to establish a connection between IDW and Colombia's culture of violence, discrimination and inequality. The effects of this culture of violence, discrimination and inequality are highlighted during a discussion of the rights to health, reproduction, privacy, physical integrity, education, and freedom from violence and sexual exploitation. This paper argues that a holistic understanding of Colombia's humanitarian emergency is essential to improving the lives of IDPs. It ends with some concrete, short-term recommendations to meet some of the needs of IDPs and other vulnerable populations.

  11. From War on Drugs to War against Terrorism: modeling the evolution of Colombia's counter-insurgency.

    PubMed

    Banks, Catherine M; Sokolowski, John A

    2009-03-01

    Strategic and tactical planning for military intervention needs revision as the causes, methods, and means of conflict have evolved. Counter-insurgent engagement is one such intervention that governments, militaries, and non-governmental organizations seek to better understand. Modeling insurgencies is an acceptable means to gain insight into the various characteristics of asymmetric warfare to proffer prescriptive resolutions for mitigating their effects. Colombia's insurgency poses the challenge of assessing population behavior in a non-traditional revolutionary climate. Factors prevalent in traditional insurgency are not applicable in Colombia, specifically between the years 1993 and 2001 with the democratization of the drug cartels. The catastrophic events of September 11th reverberated in Colombia resulting in a new policy and strategy to the waging the counter-insurgency there. This research introduces a structured methodology to modeling the Colombian counter-insurgency incorporating qualitative assessment, mathematical representation, and a System Dynamics approach to represent the effects of the policy change.

  12. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  13. Survey for Toxoplasma gondii by PCR detection in meat for human consumption in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hernandez, Erika N; Acosta, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The overall risk for toxoplasmosis in meat produced in Colombia is unknown. We analyzed by PCR assay meat samples for human consumption in two types of plants in Colombia: 120 samples from class I plants (60 samples from chicken, 30 from swine and 30 from beef) and 60 from class II plants (30 samples from beef and 30 from swine). Presence of Toxoplasma DNA was established by targeted B1 nested PCR assay. We detected 79 (43%) samples that were positive by B1 nested PCR (33 from chicken, 22 from beef, and 24 from pork). No differences were found by region or species. Eleven positive samples were confirmed by sequencing of the B1 repeated region. Some polymorphisms were detected without relation with clonal groups nor meat species. Food animals are highly exposed to Toxoplasma in Colombia. Detailed studies are needed to establish the reasons for differences in Toxoplasma prevalence between farms, regarding practices of animal food production. PMID:26481490

  14. Incorporation of island-arc rocks into a Caribbean subduction channel: Geochemical constraints from eclogite boulders and greenschist rocks, Guajira region, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Altenberger, U.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Valencia, V.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.

    2009-12-01

    Characterization of the protoliths of a subduction-accretion complex can provide major insights into the dynamics of the subduction channel. Geochemistry of eclogites found as boulders in a Tertiary conglomerate from the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia, indicate that these rocks are mainly metamorphosed basalts. A negative Nb-anomaly and flat to enriched REE patterns suggest that the eclogite protoliths evolved in a subduction related tectonic setting, with island arc affinities. The geochemical characteristics are similar to low-grade greenschists from the nearby Etpana Formation, which is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. This further supports evidence that the deposition and metamorphism of these units record the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin beneath the advancing Caribbean arc. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates. Arc-rocks were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge, either though influx of tectonically eroded arc material (subduction erosion) or incorporation into the accretionary wedge during arc-continent collision.

  15. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  16. Highlights of NASA/DOE photovoltaics market assessment visit to Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A NASA/DOE sponsored photovoltaic market assessment team composed of representatives of NASA-Lewis Research Center, DHR, Inc., and Associates in Rural Development, Inc. recently conducted a month-long study in Colombia (June 28 - July 23). The team contacted government officials and private sector representatives in Bogota and Cali, and visited rural development and agricultural sites in the departments of Cundinamarca, Caldas, Valle, and chada to determine the potential market for American photovoltaic products in the Colombia agricultural and rural sectors.

  17. Sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis in a Cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in central Colombia.

    PubMed

    López, Y; Osorio, L; Alvarez, G; Rojas, J; Jiménez, F; Gómez, C; Ferro, C

    1996-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, 15 other species of the genus Lutzomyia, and one species of Brumptomyia were collected in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a river canyon 450 m above sea-level, in Rio Claro, Antioquia, Colombia. The presence of Lu. longipalpis is associated with the destruction of the primary forest and the development of new farmland and rural settlement in this region. The composition of species identified a different habitat for Lu. longipalpis in Colombia. Lu. yuilli and Lu. longipalpis were predominant (68.26%) followed by Lu. trapidoi, Lu. hartmani, Lu. triramula, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi.

  18. A preliminary survey of the epidemiology of bluetongue in Costa Rica and northern Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Homan, E. J.; Lorbacher de Ruiz, H.; Donato, A. P.; Taylor, W. P.; Yuill, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) virus infection of livestock in scattered localities in the neotropics prompted a serologic survey of cattle in Colombia and Costa Rica. In Costa Rica 48.1% of 1435 bovine animals had BT virus antibody in the agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). In Colombia 51.8% of 635 cattle were AGPT-positive for BT virus. Antibody prevalence ranged from over 50% in the lowlands to 0% in Costa Rica and 19% in Colombian cattle above 2000 m altitude. Neutralization tests indicated that Costa Rican cattle had been exposed to BT virus types 6, 12, 14 and 17. PMID:2989360

  19. Paleomagnetism and magnetic fabric of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Evidence for oblique convergence and non-rotational reactivation of a Mesozoic intra-continental rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Díaz, G.; Speranza, F.; Faccenna, C.; Bayona, G.; Mora, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia (EC) is a double-verging mountain system inverting a Mesozoic rift, and bounded by major reverse faults that locally involve crystalline and metamorphic Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic basement rocks, as well as Upper Paleozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic sequences. In map view the EC is a curved mountain belt with a regional structural strike that ranges from NNE in the southern part to NNW in the northern part. The origin of its curvature has not been studied or discussed so far. We report on an extensive paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) investigation of the EC, in order to address to test its non-rotational vs. oroclinal nature. Fifty-eight sites were gathered from Cretaceous to Miocene marine and continental strata, both from the southern and northern parts of the EC; additionally, we examined the southern Maracaibo plate, at the junction between the Santander Massif and the Merida Andes of Colombia (Cucuta zone). Twenty-three sites reveal no rotation of the EC range with respect to stable South America. In contrast, a 35°±9° clockwise rotation is documented in four post-Miocene magnetically overprinted sites from the Cucuta zone. Magnetic lineations from AMS analysis do not trend parallel to the chain, but are oblique to the main strike of the orogenic belt. By also considering GPS evidence of a ~1 cm/yr ENE displacement of central-western Colombia accommodated by the EC, we suggest that the late Miocene-recent deformation occurred by a ENE oblique convergence reactivating a NNE rift zone. Our data show that the EC is a non-rotational chain, and that the locations of the Mesozoic rift and the mountain chain roughly correspond. One possible solution is that the oblique shortening is partitioned in pure dip-slip shear characterizing thick-skinned frontal thrust sheets (well-known along both chain fronts), and by range-parallel right-lateral strike-slip fault(s), which have not been identified

  20. Secondary Syphilis in Cali, Colombia: New Concepts in Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Adriana R.; Pillay, Allan; Zuluaga, Ana V.; Ramirez, Lady G.; Duque, Jorge E.; Aristizabal, Gloria E.; Fiel-Gan, Mary D.; Jaramillo, Roberto; Trujillo, Rodolfo; Valencia, Carlos; Jagodzinski, Linda; Cox, David L.; Radolf, Justin D.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Venereal syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum (Tp). Herein we describe a cohort of 57 patients (age 18–68 years) with secondary syphilis (SS) identified through a network of public sector primary health care providers in Cali, Colombia. To be eligible for participation, study subjects were required to have cutaneous lesions consistent with SS, a reactive Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR-titer ≥1∶4), and a confirmatory treponemal test (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption test- FTA-ABS). Most subjects enrolled were women (64.9%), predominantly Afro-Colombian (38.6%) or mestizo (56.1%), and all were of low socio-economic status. Three (5.3%) subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV infection at study entry. The duration of signs and symptoms in most patients (53.6%) was less than 30 days; however, some patients reported being symptomatic for several months (range 5–240 days). The typical palmar and plantar exanthem of SS was the most common dermal manifestation (63%), followed by diffuse hypo- or hyperpigmented macules and papules on the trunk, abdomen and extremities. Three patients had patchy alopecia. Whole blood (WB) samples and punch biopsy material from a subset of SS patients were assayed for the presence of Tp DNA polymerase I gene (polA) target by real-time qualitative and quantitative PCR methods. Twelve (46%) of the 26 WB samples studied had quantifiable Tp DNA (ranging between 194.9 and 1954.2 Tp polA copies/ml blood) and seven (64%) were positive when WB DNA was extracted within 24 hours of collection. Tp DNA was also present in 8/12 (66%) skin biopsies available for testing. Strain typing analysis was attempted in all skin and WB samples with detectable Tp DNA. Using arp repeat size analysis and tpr RFLP patterns four different strain types were identified (14d, 16d, 13d and 22a). None of the WB samples had sufficient DNA for typing. The clinical and microbiologic

  1. [SOFT DRINKS CONSUMPTION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN COLOMBIA: FACTORS ASSOCIATED].

    PubMed

    Martínez Torres, Javier; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: examinar los factores asociados al consumo regular de bebidas carbonatadas (BCS) en gestantes colombianas. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, secundario de la información obtenida en la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional 2010 (ENSIN 2010), en 1.865 mujeres embarazas de entre 13 y 49 años de edad. El consumo de BCS y los factores asociados (edad materna, trimestre de embarazo, nivel de Sisbén, región y área geográfica, etnia y escolaridad), se recogieron mediante una encuesta estructurada. Se establecieron asociaciones mediante la construcción de modelos de regresión y factores asociados. Resultados: el 17% de las mujeres embarazadas consumen al menos una bebida BCS diaria. Tener entre 13 y 17 años de edad, pertenecer a la etnia afrocolombiana, cursar el primer trimestre de embarazo y agruparse en el Sisbén nivel II mostraron el mayor patrón de consumo diario (23,8%, 22,8%, 21,4% y 20,9%), respectivamente. Los modelos de regresión muestran que pertenecer al grupo de 13 a 17 años OR 1,92 (IC95% 1,04-3,55), residir en la zona oriental OR 1,85 (IC95% 1,05-3,27) o central OR 1,73 (IC95% 1,01-2,96) y cursar el primer trimestre de gestación OR 1,59 (IC95% 1,01-2,52) se asociaron como factores predisponentes al consumo diario de BCS. Conclusiones: las embarazadas de Colombia presentan una alta prevalencia de consumo diario de BCS, por lo que se recomiendan intervenciones integrales en las que estén involucrados el componente nutricional y educativo.

  2. Structural evolution of the Llanos foothills, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Jaime A.

    2006-09-01

    The Llanos foothills are located in the frontal thrust zone of the Eastern Cordillera in Colombia in a complex environment that BP has been exploring actively since 1988. This exploration has resulted in the discovery of several fields with a variety of hydrocarbon fluids (gas condensate and volatile oil) in very tight quartz-arenites. The structural style and complexity of this fold-and-thrust belt changes along the trend from single frontal structures to an imbricate of up to five thrust sheets in a triangle zone. In highly complex environments, the seismic image quality is poor, and interpretation becomes very challenging. The structural models of the area have evolved as more data have been acquired. The initial structural model required inversion of the basin at the end of the Andean orogeny. The structural style changed to an in-sequence imbricate thrust stack with very long, trailing back limbs that return to regional elevation and finalize in a tighter structures with short back limbs. The concept of early deformation and multiple phases has been introduced. Three main phases have been distinguished: (1) an early event during the deposition of the Lower Carbonera (39-29 Ma), with incipient structures formed to create syntectonic deposition; (2) a phase of steady subsidence that increased notably at the end of the period (29-7 Ma); and (3) the latest phase (7-0 Ma), when most deformation and uplifting occurred. The migration of hydrocarbons happened simultaneously with the deformation, and its final distribution, amount, and variation in composition is related to the structural evolution of the area.

  3. Synanthropy of sarcophagidae (Diptera) in La Pintada, Antioquia-Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yepes-Gaurisas, Daniela; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan David; de Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes; Wolff Echeverri, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Recently, populations of flies have increased in numbers given the elevated levels of organic matter waste produced by anthropic activities and domestication of animals. Such increase represents a worldwide health concern, since flies can be vectors of human diseases. The great variety of feeding and developmental habits of flies of the family Sarcophagidae taking place on animal corpses, feces and decomposed organic matter make them potential vectors of pathogens. Herein, we evaluated the synanthropic index (SI), as well as other ecological aspects of this family, through simultaneous monthly samplings in three areas with different degrees of human disturbance (urban, rural and forest). Each area had four van Someren Rydon traps, each one with a different bait (i.e., human feces, chicken viscera, fish and decomposing onion). Traps were active during 48 hours each month, and specimen collection was made every 12 hours. A total of 7 446 Sarcophagidae individuals were collected (1275 males and 6171 females), belonging to 27 species and nine genera. Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) canuta (Sl = +96.67), Oxysarcodexia taitensis (SI = +93.85), Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (SI = +90.00) and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (SI = +88.76) exhibited the highest values of synanthropy index, revealing a strong preference for human settlements. The most abundant species were Oxysarcodexia conclausa (21.80%), Ravinia effrenata (18.67%), Oxysarcodexia bakeri (11.45%) and Oxysarcodexia taitensis (10.20%), all of which exhibited preference for urban environments. Additionally, we are reporting seven new records of Sarcophagid flies for Colombia: Oxysarcodexia angrensis, Oxysarcodexia bakeri, Oxysarcodexia diana, Oxysarcodexia similata, Oxysarcodexia timida, Peckia (Peckia) pexata and Titanogrypa (Cucullomyia) placida.

  4. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A

    2010-03-01

    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.).

  5. Petroleum geology of the Cusiana Field, Llanos Basin Foothills, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Cazier, E.C.; Hayward, A.B.; Espinosa, G.

    1995-10-01

    Cusiana field is located in the Llanos Foothills, 150 mi (240km) northeast of Bogota, Colombia. Light oil, gas, and condensate in Cusiana occur at drilling depths that average 15,000 ft (4575 m) in an asymmetric, hanging-wall anticlinal trap 15 mi (25 km) long and 3-4 mi (5-6 km) across, formed during the Miocene-Holocene deformation of the Eastern Cordillera. Top and lateral seals are provided by marine mudstones of the Oligocene Carbonera Group, and support a hydrocarbon column of over 1500 ft (460 m). Biomarker data from the hydrocarbons indicate a marine mudstone source interpreted to be the Turonian-Coniacian Gacheta Formation. Over 50% of the reserves occur in upper Eocene Mirador Formation sandstones, which were deposited predominantly in estuarine environments. Additional, deeper reservoirs include estuarine sandstones of the Paleocene Barco Formation and the shallow-marine Santonian-Campanian Upper Guadalupe Sandstone. Porosity in Cusiana is relatively low. Good permeability is retained, however, because the reservoirs are pure quartz-cemented quartzarenites that lack permeability-reducing authigenic clays and carbonate cements. Core and well test analyses indicate matrix permeability, not fracture permeability, provides the high deliverability of Cusiana wells. Cusiana hydrocarbon phases exist in a near-miscible, critical-point state. Reservoir simulation indicates very high liquid hydrocarbon recoveries should be possible from all reservoirs by using the reinjection of produced gas to maintain reservoir pressure and to vaporize residual liquids. The field contains up to 1.5 MSTB of hydrocarbon liquid reserves and 3.4 Tcf of gas.

  6. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  7. First results of the Colombia Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Jesus; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Romero, David; Fabró, Ferran; Taborda, John; Aranguren, Daniel; Torres, Horacio

    2016-04-01

    In April 2015 the 3D Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA) network was installed on Santa Marta area (north of Colombia). The COLMA maps VHF radio emissions of lightning leaders in three dimensions by the time-of-arrival technique (Rison et al., 1999). This array has six sensors with base lines between 5 km to 20 km. The COLMA is the first VHF 3D network operating in the tropics and it has been installed in the frame of ASIM (Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) ESA's mission in order to investigate the electrical characteristics of tropical thunderstorms favorable for the production of Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGF). In this paper we present COLMA data of several storms. We discuss lightning activity, lightning leader altitudes and thunderstorm charge structures compared to data form our ELMA (Ebro Lightning Mapping Array) at the north-east coast of Spain. The data confirm what we expected, lightning leaders can propagate at higher altitudes compared to mid latitude thunderstorms because the higher vertical development of tropical thunderstorms. A simple inspection of a ten minute period of the 16th of November of 2015 storm shows a tripolar electric charge structure. In that case, the midlevel negative charge region was located between 7 to 9 km. The structure presented a lower positive charge below the midlevel negative and centred at 6.5 km and an upper positive charge region extending from 9 km to slightly more than 15 km. This vertical extension of the upper positive charge where negative leaders evolve is significantly larger compared to the storms at the ELMA area in Spain. COLMA has shown frequent activity of negative leaders reaching altitudes of more than 15 km.

  8. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    PubMed Central

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  9. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    PubMed

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  10. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    PubMed

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  11. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  12. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  13. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  14. Cefazolin high-inoculum effect in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from South American hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Sandra; Reyes, Jinnethe; Carvajal, Lina Paola; Rojas, Natalia; Cortés, Fabián; Panesso, Diana; Guzmán, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Adachi, Javier A.; Murray, Barbara E.; Nannini, Esteban C.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical failures with cefazolin have been described in high-inoculum infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) producing type A β-lactamase. We investigated the prevalence of the cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) in MSSA from South American hospitals, since cefazolin is used routinely against MSSA due to concerns about the in vivo efficacy of isoxazolyl penicillins. Methods MSSA isolates were recovered from bloodstream (n = 296) and osteomyelitis (n = 68) infections in two different multicentre surveillance studies performed in 2001–02 and 2006–08 in South American hospitals. We determined standard-inoculum (105cfu/mL) and high-inoculum (107 cfu/mL) cefazolin MICs. PFGE was performed on all isolates that exhibited a cefazolin InE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of part of blaZ were performed on representative isolates. Results The overall prevalence of the cefazolin InE was 36% (131 isolates). A high proportion (50%) of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections exhibited the InE, whereas it was observed in 33% of MSSA recovered from bloodstream infections. Interestingly, Ecuador had the highest prevalence of the InE (45%). Strikingly, 63% of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections in Colombia exhibited the InE. MLST revealed that MSSA isolates exhibiting the InE belonged to diverse genetic backgrounds, including ST5, ST8, ST30 and ST45, which correlated with the prevalent methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones circulating in South America. Types A (66%) and C (31%) were the most prevalent β-lactamases. Conclusions Our results show a high prevalence of the cefazolin InE associated with type A β-lactamase in MSSA isolates from Colombia and Ecuador, suggesting that treatment of deep-seated infections with cefazolin in those countries may be compromised. PMID:23794599

  15. South Polar Scarps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-438, 31 July 2003

    The terrain of the south polar residual ice cap, made up mostly of frozen carbon dioxide, has come to be known by many as 'swiss cheese terrain,' because many areas of the cap resemble slices of swiss cheese. However, not all of the south polar cap looks like a tasty lunch food. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of curving scarps formed by erosion and sublimation of carbon dioxide from the south polar cap. This area is located near 86.3oS, 51.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left; the area is about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide.

  16. The Mw 8.8, 1906 Colombia-Ecuador Subduction Earthquake: Seismic Structure and Thermal Regime of the Plate Boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J.; Marcaillou, B.; Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; D'Acremont, E.

    2007-05-01

    The North Ecuador-SW Colombia active margin underwent four great subduction earthquakes in 1906 (Mw8.8), 1942(Mw7.8), 1958 (Mw7.7) and 1979(Mw8.2). The resulting seismotectonic segmentation of the margin may be a consequence of variable mass transfer, remarkable down-going plate basement relief, and margin transverse and along strike crustal faults. The margin basement consists of accreted oceanic terranes, and is underthrust by the northern flank of the19-km thick Carnegie Ridge, and 7-km-thick and structurally complex, Miocene Malpelo- Yaquina-Buenaventura spreading-transform system of the northern Nazca plate. The oceanic crust is covered by turbidite that strongly vary in thickness along the trench. South of 1°30'N, the oceanic crust shows N35- 75° and N120° faults and lineaments, and a N-trending chain of small seamounts, which delineate en-échelon, small pounded trench basins containing up to 500 m of turbidites. The steep adjacent inner trench slope is devoid of an accretionary wedge, but shows evidences for slope instabilities and mass wasting deposits. A 1-km thick subduction channel that is continuous with the hemipelagic cover of the oceanic crust is imaged landward, over a 30-km distance from the trench. This region shows evidence for thinning of the margin basement by seamount subduction, and correlates with the hypocenter of the 1942 subduction earthquake. North of 1°30'N, an up-to 4-km-thick deep-sea turbidite system has developed in the Colombia trench. The turbidite system is fed by the major Esmeraldas and Patia-Mira canyons and rivers, and dammed to the South by the Galera seamounts. This thick trenchfill appears to be dominantly subducting beneath an erosional margin basement between 1°30'N and 2°30'N, thus forming a km-thick subduction channel that is modulated by the subduction of a buried, large horst and graben structure. This region of thick sediment and rough oceanic crust subduction coincides with the hypocenters of the1958 and1979

  17. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and adding the words ``Chile, Colombia, Costa... CAFTA-DR (Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El 77,494 77,494 7,777,000 Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and...) removing from the definition ``Free Trade Agreement country'' the words ``Chile, Costa Rica'' and...

  18. Local Government and Rural Service Barriers to Economic Development in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felstehausen, Herman

    This study examines how public factors of production fit into the production process and also determines the degree of scarcity of these factors in a rural area of Colombia. Suggestions are offered by which public factors might be increased or improved by institutional reorganization and modern administration in cases where they are found to be…

  19. Access to Higher Education in Colombia: An Assessment of Public Policy and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe Correa, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes a set of national policy initiatives, 2002-2010, regularly referred to as Colombia's "Educational Revolution". Together these policies constitute a Colombian effort to increase access to higher education, an effort in partnership with the World Bank. The dissertation presents findings on policy goals, efforts,…

  20. Spatial Double Generalized Beta Regression Models: Extensions and Application to Study Quality of Education in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we…