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Sample records for el-bagre colombia south

  1. Human eyelid meibomian glands and tarsal muscle are recognized by autoantibodies from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S.; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previously, we described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF). Objective Continuing our characterization of this variant of EPF, we now focus on one of our previously reported clinical findings: the presence of ocular lesions. These ocular lesions are seen in patients having extensive skin involvement, as measured by the Lund and Browder scale, which is generally used for patients with skin burns. Methods We specifically searched for evidence of autoreactivity to various eyelid structures in these patients and correlated our immunologic data with the clinical findings. We performed indirect immunofluorescence studies using normal-appearing human eyelid skin from routine blepharoplasties as substrate tissue. We tested sera from 12 patients with El Bagre-EPF and ocular lesions, 5 patients with sporadic (nonendemic) pemphigus foliaceus, and 20 healthy control subjects (10 from the El Bagre-EPF endemic area and 10 from nonendemic areas). We used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated goat antiserum to human total IgG/IgA/IgM as a secondary antibody. In addition, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated antibodies to human fibrinogen, albumin, IgG, IgE, C1q, and C3, Texas Red (Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc, Gilbertsville, PA), Alexa Fluor 555, or Alexa Fluor 594 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker) was used to determine the cell proliferation rate, and nuclear counterstaining was performed with either 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole or Topro III (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Results We observed autoreactivity to multiple eyelid structures, including meibomian glands and tarsal muscle bundles at different levels, and some areas of the epidermis and the dermis close to the isthmus of the eyelids. Tarsal plate autoreactivity was seen in 10 of 12 of the El Bagre-EPF sera and in one control with pemphigus erythematosus. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation using an eyelid sample as a

  2. [Pneuropsychological disorders after occupational exposure to mercury vapors in El Bagre (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Tirado, V; García, M A; Moreno, J; Galeano, L M; Lopera, F; Franco, A

    The department of Antioquia in Columbia is the main producer of gold in Columbia. In the gold-producing regions the population is exposed to high levels of mercury used in the processes of extraction and purification. Studies done in Columbia on neurotoxicity underline the hazards of mercury from the environmental and occupational-health point of view, but the effect of long-term exposure on cognitive function has not been studied. To determine whether the miners of El Bagre (Antioquia, Columbia) have neuropsychological and/or behavior disorders as a result of occupational exposure to toxic mercury vapor. The sample was made up of 22 right-handed men, residents of El Bagre, aged between 20 and 45 years old who had been exposed to mercury vapor for at least three years. The control group consisted of 22 men who lived in the non-mining regions of the department and had not been exposed to mercury, paired with the cases considered for age and educational status. Neuropsychological assessment, a medical examination and behavioral performance tests were applied to all the men (in both groups). In the study group alterations were seen and classified as: intellectual damage (mainly alteration of executive function and constructional praxis); emotional changes (symptoms of depression and anxiety) and neurological changes (amnesia, insomnia and tremor of the tongue). No changes were found in the control group. Exposure to mercury causes specific neuropsychological and behavior disorders in the absence of clinically detectable physical or physiological damage.

  3. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana María; Robles, Edinson Villa; Howard, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Aims: Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA) and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. Materials and Methods: The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA), Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females) tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Results Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. Conclusion: The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439) in the control group. PMID:22666691

  4. Moisture origin and transport processes in Colombia, northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, I.; Dominguez, F.; Cañón-Barriga, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    We assess the spatial structure of moisture flux divergence, regional moisture sources and transport processes over Colombia, in northern South America. Using three independent methods the dynamic recycling model (DRM), FLEXPART and the Quasi-isentropic back-trajectory (QIBT) models we quantify the moisture sources that contribute to precipitation over the region. We find that moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and terrestrial recycling are the most important sources of moisture for Colombia, highlighting the importance of the Orinoco and Amazon basins as regional providers of atmospheric moisture. The results show the influence of long-range cross-equatorial flow from the Atlantic Ocean into the target region and the role of the study area as a passage of moisture into South America. We also describe the seasonal moisture transport mechanisms of the well-known low-level westerly and Caribbean jets that originate in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, respectively. We find that these dynamical systems play an important role in the convergence of moisture over western Colombia.

  5. Colombia.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers.

  6. Spatial pattern recognition of seismic events in South West Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, Hernán D.; Flórez, Juan F.; Duque, Diana P.; Benavides, Alberto; Lucía Baquero, Olga; Quintero, Jiber

    2013-09-01

    Recognition of seismogenic zones in geographical regions supports seismic hazard studies. This recognition is usually based on visual, qualitative and subjective analysis of data. Spatial pattern recognition provides a well founded means to obtain relevant information from large amounts of data. The purpose of this work is to identify and classify spatial patterns in instrumental data of the South West Colombian seismic database. In this research, clustering tendency analysis validates whether seismic database possesses a clustering structure. A non-supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm creates groups of seismic events. Given the sensitivity of fuzzy clustering algorithms to centroid initial positions, we proposed a methodology to initialize centroids that generates stable partitions with respect to centroid initialization. As a result of this work, a public software tool provides the user with the routines developed for clustering methodology. The analysis of the seismogenic zones obtained reveals meaningful spatial patterns in South-West Colombia. The clustering analysis provides a quantitative location and dispersion of seismogenic zones that facilitates seismological interpretations of seismic activities in South West Colombia.

  7. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  8. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  9. The hydrocarbon habitat of northern South America: Colombia-Venezuela-Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    James, K.H.

    1996-08-01

    A prolific hydrocarbon province extends across the northern margin of South America from Colombia to east of Trinidad. Two key components are a world-class source rock, formed on a regional Late Cretaceous passive margin, and a complex tectonic setting in which a variety of structural and stratigraphic traps, reservoirs, seals and hydrocarbon kitchens have evolved through time. Convergence between the Farallon and Caribbean plates with South America culminated in the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene with emplacement of Colombia`s Central Cordillera in the west and a nappe-foreland basin system in the north. Regional hydrocarbon generation probably occurred below associated basins. Subsequent oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South America, partitioned into strike-slip and compressional strain, generated an eastward migrating and ongoing uplift-foredeep (kitchen) system from central Venezuela to Trinidad. Similarly, oblique interaction of western Colombia with the Nazca Plate caused segmentation of the earlier orogen, northward extrusion of elements such as the Maracaibo Block, and eastward migration of uplift progressively dividing earlier kitchens into localized foredeeps.

  10. Petroleum potential of oil basins of Colombia, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, N.; Leigh, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Commercial oil production in Colombia dates back to 1918. The country's cumulative production to December 1988 is estimated at 3.0 billion bbl. Even though current oil production averages 400,000 bbl of oil/day, a level of 600,000 bbl of oil/day is expected from 1991 to 2000. Colombia's production comes mainly from the Llanos, Putumayo, Magdalena, and Catatumbo basins, which have an aggregate area of 269,000 km/sup 2/. During the past five years, exploratory drilling in the Llanos and Upper Magdalena basins has contributed to a substantial increase in reserves. Since the 1983 discovery of the giant Cano Limon field by Occidental, the Llanos basin has become the main producing area of the country and the host to the largest remaining reserves. The Magdalena basin leads in cumulative production with 2.0 billion bbl.

  11. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia.

  12. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  13. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  14. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Northern Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Julio A.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C.; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types. PMID:24877071

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates from northern Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Julio A; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia C; Arzuza, Octavio; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are major causes of childhood diarrhea in low and middle income countries including Colombia, South America. To understand the diversity of ETEC strains in the region, clinical isolates obtained from northern Colombia children were evaluated for multiple locus sequencing typing, serotyping, classical and nonclassical virulence genes, and antibiotic susceptibility. Among 40 ETEC clinical isolates evaluated, 21 (52.5%) were positive for LT gene, 13 (32.5%) for ST gene, and 6 (15%) for both ST and LT. The most prevalent colonization surface antigens (CS) were CS21 and CFA/I identified in 21 (50%) and 13 (32.5%) isolates, respectively. The eatA, irp2, and fyuA were the most common nonclassical virulence genes present in more than 60% of the isolates. Ampicillin resistance (80% of the strains) was the most frequent phenotype among ETEC strains followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance (52.5%). Based on multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST), we recognize that 6 clonal groups of ETEC clinical isolates circulate in Colombia. ETEC clinical isolates from children in northern Colombia are highly diverse, yet some isolates circulating in the community belong to well-defined clonal groups that share a unique set of virulence factors, serotypes, and MLST sequence types.

  16. [Nutritional status of children with malaria in northwest Colombia].

    PubMed

    Uscátegui, Rosa Magdalena; Correa, Adriana María

    2007-12-01

    Malaria and malnutrition coexist within the poorest regions of the world. In the regions of Colombia where malaria is endemic, malnutrition is also a public health problem. The prevalence of malnutrition in children with malaria was determined and several factors associated with malnutrition were identified. A total of 93 children with malaria were included. They resided in the municipalities of Turbo and El Bagre (Antioquia, Colombia) and volunteered for an experimental, study to evaluate the outcome of an antimalarial treatment with a vitamin A supplement and an anti-intestinal parasite treatment administered as a single dose. At enrollment, the nutritional status was evaluated by anthropometry, and a survey questionnaire was administered about economic and social conditions of the family. Prevalence of moderate or severe chronic malnutrition was 22.6%-10.8% of children had moderate or severe global malnutrition and 2.3% had acute malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher in males and in children from Turbo. Prevalence of malnutrition was higher than previously reported by the National Health and Demography Survey (2005) and, in Turbo, the prevalence was higher than that reported for the rest of the Urabá region of Antioquia.

  17. Phylogenetic evidence of a new canine distemper virus lineage among domestic dogs in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2014-08-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America.

  18. Pediatric SCI/D caregiver mental health and family dynamics in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Sarah T; Perrin, Paul B; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Otálvaro, Nadezda Yulieth Méndez; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between family dynamics and the mental health of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) caregivers from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that lower family functioning would be associated with poorer caregiver mental health. A cross-sectional study of self-report data collected from caregivers through the Hospital Universatario Hernando Moncaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty caregivers of children with SCI/D from Nevia, Colombia who were a primary caregiver for ≥3 months, providing care for an individual who was ≥6 months post-injury/diagnosis, familiar with the patient's history, and without neurological or psychiatric conditions. Caregivers' average age was 41.30 years (SD = 10.98), and 90% were female. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their own mental health and family dynamics. Family dynamics explained 43.2% of the variance in caregiver burden and 50.1% of the variance in satisfaction with life, although family dynamics were not significantly associated with caregiver depression in the overall analysis. Family satisfaction was the only family dynamics variable to yield a significant unique association with any index of caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life). If similar findings emerge in future intervention research, interventions for pediatric SCI/D caregivers in Colombia and other similar global regions could benefit from including techniques to improve family dynamics, especially family satisfaction, given the strong potentially reciprocal connection between these dynamics and caregiver mental health. The degree of disability resulting from SCI/D can vary greatly depending on the severity and level of the lesion, though permanent impairment is often present that profoundly impacts both physical and psychological functioning. Very little is known about the impact of pediatric SCI/D in developing countries, despite the high rates of

  19. Gnss Geodetic Monitoring as Support of Geodynamics Research in Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; Acero-Patino, N.; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, J. S.; Diederix, H.; Bohorquez-Orozco, O. P.; Martinez-Diaz, G. P.; Diaz-Mila, F.; Giraldo-Londono, L. S.; Cardozo-Giraldo, S.; Vasquez-Ospina, A. F.; Lizarazo, S. C.

    2013-05-01

    To support the geodynamics research at the northwestern corner of South America, GEORED, the acronym for "Geodesia: Red de Estudios de Deformación" has been adopted for the Project "Implementation of the National GNSS Network for Geodynamics" carried out by the Colombian Geological Survey, (SGC), formerly INGEOMINAS. Beginning in 2007, discussions within the GEORED group led to a master plan for the distribution of the base permanent GPS/GNSS station array and specific areas of interest for campaign site construction. The use of previously identified active faults as preferred structures along which stresses are transferred through the deformational area led to the idea of segmentation of the North Andes within Colombia into 20 tectonic sub-blocks. Each of the 20 sub-blocks is expected to have, at least, three-four permanent GPS/GNSS stations within the block along with construction of campaign sites along the boundaries. Currently, the GEORED Network is managing 46 continuously including: 40 GEORED GPS/GNSS continuously operating stations; 4 GNSS continuously operating stations provided by the COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) Project; the Bogotá IGS GPS station (BOGT), installed in 1994 under the agreement between JPL-NASA and the SGC; and the San Andres Island station, installed in 2007 under the MOU between UCAR and the SGC. In addition to the permanent installations, more than 230 GPS campaign sites have been constructed and are being occupied one time per year. The Authority of the Panama Canal and the Escuela Politecnica de Quito have also provided data of 4 and 5 GPS/GNSS stations respectively. The GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and the GPS time series of daily station positions give fundamental information for both regional and local geodynamics studies. Until now, we have obtained 100 quality vector velocities for Colombia, 23 of them as part of the permanent network. The GPS/GNSS stations

  20. Distribution and abundance of flatfish on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manickchand-Heileman, Sherry C.

    This study is based on data collected during four trawl surveys conducted in 1988 on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia. Members of four flatfish families were caught in depths ranging from 15 to 410 m at 264 of the 1200 stations trawled: Bothidae (13 genera, 30 species), Cynoglossidae (1 genus, 4 species), Soleidae (3 genera, 4 species) and Pleuronectidae (1 genus, 3 species). Flatfish comprised less than 5% of total catch by weight at most stations. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed between 4 and 6 groups of stations in each survey characterized according to depth, temperature and species associations. Cynoglossids, soleids and some bothids characterized shallow-water stations while bothids and pleuronectids characterized intermediate and deep-water stations. Highest catches were taken off northern Venezuela and Colombia during times of increased upwelling and in areas influenced by river runoff. Mean density of flatfish was less than 0.0005 ind·m -2. The major species caught were Paralichthys tropicus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Cyclopsetta chittendeni, Syacium micrurum, Syacium papillosum,, Syacium sp. and Symphurus plagiusa and range extensions were found for six species.

  1. [Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in South America: The experience of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Casas-Figueroa, Luz Ángela

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, 8.3% of the world population suffers from diabetes mellitus, and it is expected that the number of individuals with the disease will increase to over 592 million. In South and Central America, it is estimated that the increase in the number of cases diagnosed in the period from 2013 to 2035 will be 59.8% (from 24 to 38.5 millions). According to the World Health Organisation, the prevalence of fasting hyperglycaemia in the region of the Americas in 2014 was 9.3% in men and 8.1% in women. The countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adults ≥18years were: Guyana, Surinam, Chile, and Argentina. In Colombia, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is variable, depending on the population range assessed and the diagnostic criteria used.

  2. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-02-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the implementation of teacher education that aims at those objectives. None of these countries have rigorous selection criteria for candidates for science teacher education programs, although each has some type of certification or test requirement before entry into the public education system is permitted. The three countries have similar teacher training programs, with instruction programs lasting between 4 and 5 years; programs entail both disciplinary instruction and pedagogical instruction that starts in the first year. Data from the three countries show that a high percentage of instruction in the training programs is devoted to general pedagogy with less instruction time devoted to specific preparation for teaching science. Disciplinary instruction accounts for nearly 50 % of the instruction program among secondary teachers. Training in other subjects such as nature of science, history of science and scientific inquiry is poorly developed. In general, there are few opportunities for research on practicum, as these opportunities tend to occur at the end of the training program. The generation of instruction standards by governments as well as the increase in the number of scholars dedicated to the investigation of science education and the education of science teachers suggests that some of these shortcomings could be remedied in the future.

  3. Pollination ecology of Disterigma stereophyllum (Ericaceae) in south-western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Navarro, L; Guitián, P; Ayensa, G

    2008-07-01

    Several authors have recently expressed doubts that the 'pollination syndromes' as usually expressed are an adequate description of correlated suites of floral characters, or that they adequately describe evolutionary or ecological associations of plants with pollinators. Disterigma stereophyllum is a neotropical Ericaceae with floral characteristics intermediate between the 'entomophilous' syndrome and the 'ornithophilous' syndrome: the corolla is short, white and urceolate, but flowers produce large amounts of dilute nectar. We studied the pollination ecology of this species in south-western Colombia, and found it to be pollinated almost exclusively by hummingbirds at our study site. Two hummingbird species were responsible for about 75 of visits. Despite the fact that nectar standing crop remained more or less constant throughout the day, visit frequencies were highest in the morning and declined throughout the day. Pollinator efficiency, measured as the number of pollen grains deposited on a virgin stigma by each visitor after one visit, did not differ among the species of hummingbirds, but was lower for a nectar-robbing bird, Diglossa albilatera. This species does not contact the surface of the stigma during nectar robbing, but can produce some self-pollination indirectly because it shakes branches vigorously while piercing the flower. These findings indicate a need for further studies of neotropical Ericaceae in order to elucidate whether floral visitors of species like D. stereophyllum fluctuate through time or space, and whether floral characteristics reflect a compromise between such different visitors, or a transitional stage between pollination syndromes, or some other possibility.

  4. [Historical review of the plague in South America: a little-known disease in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Sotomayor, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    The plague is an infectious disease that has transcended through history and has been responsible for three pandemics with high mortality rates. During the third pandemic that started in Hong Kong (1894), the disease spread through maritime routes to different regions in the world, including South America. In this region, approximately 16 million people are thought to be at risk in relation to this disease due to specific situations like human-rodent coexistence inside houses in rural areas, homes built with inadequate materials that are vulnerable to invasion by these animals, inappropriate storage of crops and an increase in rainfall and deforestation, which allows for the displacement of wild fauna and man invasion of the natural foci of the disease. Between 1994 and 1999, five countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and the United States of America, reported approximately 1,700 cases with 79 related deaths. In Colombia we have historical data about an "infectious pneumonia" with high mortality rates that occurred during the same months, for three consecutive years (1913 to 1915) in the departments of Magdalena, Atlántico and Bolívar, located in the Colombian Atlantic coast, which suggested plague, but could not be confirmed.

  5. The first South American sandownid turtle from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sandownids are a group of Early Cretaceous-Paleocene turtles that for several decades have been only known by cranial and very fragmentary postcranial elements. Here I report and describe the most complete sandownid turtle known so far, including articulated skull, lower jaw and postcranial elements, from the Early Cretaceous (upper Barremian-lower Aptian, >120 Ma), Paja Formation, Villa de Leyva town, Colombia. The new Colombian sandownid is defined here as Leyvachelys cipadi new genus, new species and because of its almost identical skull morphology with a previously reported turtle from the Glen Rose Formation, Texas, USA, both are grouped in a single and officially (ICNZ rules) defined taxon. Phylogenetic analysis including L. cipadi supports once again the monophyly of Sandownidae, as belonging to the large and recently redefined Pan-Chelonioidea clade. The morphology of L. cipadi indicates that sandownids were not open marine turtles, but instead littoral to shallow marine durophagous dwellers. Leyvachelys cipadi not only constitutes the first record of sandowinds in South America, but also the earliest global record for the group. PMID:26713227

  6. Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

  8. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  9. Family needs in caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Quijano, Maria Cristina; Aponte, Monica; Cuervo, Maria Teresa; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Rogers, Heather Lynn; Kreutzer, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the most and least important family needs in a group of family caregivers of individuals with TBI from Cali, Colombia, and to examine which of those needs were more likely to be met and unmet. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Valle University Hospital in Cali, Colombia. Twenty-nine family caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury. The Family Needs Questionnaire, a 40-item questionnaire divided into six sub-scales. Health Information, Community Support Network and Professional Support Network sub-scales were the most important needs reported by this group of Colombian TBI family caregivers. The most frequently met needs in the present study fell within Health Information, Involvement with Care and Instrumental Support sub-scales and the most frequently unmet needs fell within the Emotional Support, Instrumental Support and Professional Support sub-scales. Family needs in caregivers of individuals with TBI from Colombia are similar, but more likely to be unmet, than those reported in previous studies. Interventions designed to meet family caregivers' needs in these areas should be implemented in Colombia.

  10. Measuring homonegativity: psychometric analysis of Herek's attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG) in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alexander; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    The empirical study of negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian people (homonegativity) is a way to understand the reason for its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG). A total of 359 undergraduate students were recruited from two different cities in Colombia, South America. Participants' attitudes toward gays and lesbian people were assessed using the ATLG Scale and the Homophobia Scale; anxiety was measured using a short version of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Internal consistency analyses have shown that the ATLG Scale is a reliable measure of homonegativity in a Colombian sample. In addition, principal components analyses, as well as convergent and divergent validity analyses have confirmed that the ATLG Scale is a valid and reliable measure of homonegativity in the Colombian context and support its use as a research instrument.

  11. Characterization of HIV type 1 envelope sequence among viral isolates circulating in the northern region of Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, José-Luis; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Palacio, Lucy; Peñuela, Martha; Hernández, Robin; Lemay, Guy; Cervantes-Acosta, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    To characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) strains circulating in the Northern region of Colombia in South America, sequences of the viral envelope C2V3C3 region were obtained from patients with different high-risk practices. Close to 60% of the sequences were predicted to belong to macrophage-tropic viruses, according to the positions of acidic amino acids and putative N-linked glycosylation sites. This is in agreement with the fact that most of the patients were recently diagnosed individuals. Phylogenic analysis then allowed assignment of all 35 samples to subtype B viruses. This same subtype was found in previous studies carried out in other Colombian regions. This study thus expands previous analyses with previously missing data from the Northern region of the country. The number and the length of the sequences examined also help to provide a clearer picture of the prevailing situation of the present HIV epidemics in this country.

  12. An integrated approach to evaluating and managing wellbore instability in the Cusiana Field, Colombia, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Last, N.; Plumb, R.; Harkness, R.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated approach to evaluating the causes of severe wellbore instability in the Cusiana field is described. The field is located in a tectonically active region of Colombia. Deterioration of the hole during drilling operations has led to excessive nonproductive time and expensive wells. The scale of the problem is unprecedented in the world. In wells costing tens of millions of dollars, millions per well could be attributed to poor hole conditions. This paper describes how the problem was addressed and what actions were taken to improve operational performance, resulting in reduced drilling costs. The improved understanding has contributed to better well planning, and improved drilling performance, and has underlined the need to consider all aspects of the drilling process to achieve improved hole conditions in a difficult geological setting.

  13. Epidemiology of a decade of Pediatric fatal burns in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Maria Cristina del Rosario; Navarrete, Norberto

    2015-11-01

    Burns represent a serious problem around the world especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, causes and mortality rate of burn deaths in the Colombian pediatric population as well as to guide future education and prevention programs. We conducted an observational, analytical, retrospective population-based study. It was based upon official death certificate data using diagnosis codes for burns (scalds, thermal, electrical, intentional self-harm and not specified), that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Official death certificates of the pediatric population of up to 15 years of age were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics. A total of 1197 fatal pediatric injuries related to burns were identified. The crude and adjusted mortality rate for burns in the pediatric population in Colombia during the length of the study was 0.899 and 0.912 per 100,000, respectively. The mortality rate tended to decrease (-5.17% annual) during the duration of the study. Children under 5 years of age were the most affected group (59.5%). Almost half of them died before arriving at a health facility (47.1%). Fire is the principal cause of death attributable to burns in Colombia, followed by electric burns and hot liquids. This is a first step study in researching the epidemiological features of pediatric deaths after burns. The Public Health's strategies should be oriented toward community awareness about these kind of injuries, and to teach children and families about risk factors and first aid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. The El Abra stadlal in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhry, P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Geel, B.; van der Hammen, T.

    The El Abra stadial is a climatic cooling event defined in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, which corresponds both in timing and intensity to the Younger Dryas climatic oscillation of the northern North Atlantic region. The stadial was preceded by the relatively warm Guantiva interstadial and followed by the warm Holocene. Colder climatic conditions during the El Abra stadial caused a 400 m lowering of the upper Andean forest limit below its altitudinal location during the preceding Guantiva interstadial. Translated in temperature change, this represents a drop in mean annual temperature of approximately 2 to 3°C. The lowering of the upper forest limit and inferred temperature change for the El Abra stadial, compared to Late Holocene conditions, are in the order of 600 m and 4°C, respectively. The transition of the Guantiva interstadial to the El Abra stadial has been radiocarbon dated at 11,210 ± 90 BP and 10,820 ± 60 BP. Climatic warming may have started shortly after 10,380 ± 90 BP, and near present-day temperatures were reached at least as early as 8920 ± 100 BP. Maximum cooling was probably attained between 10,800 BP and 10,300 BP. Further (AMS) radiocarbon dating is planned to establish more exactly the timing of the El Abra stadial. A glacial advance of El Abra age, the Bocatoma stade, has been recognized in the highest part of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. During this advance, glaciers extended some 700 m lower than at present. A climatic cooling event of El Abra age, associated with shifts of the upper Andean forest limit and glacial advances, has also been recognized in other parts of Andean Colombia, including the Central Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.

  15. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  16. Geophysical and botanical monitoring of simulated graves in a tropical rainforest, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K.; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T.

    2016-12-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, currently 80,000 only in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is currently difficult in varying terrain and climates. Within this research we built four simulated clandestine burial styles in tropical rainforests, as this is a common scenario and depositional environment encountered in Latin America, to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. The results of geophysically monitoring these burials using ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity are presented from one to forty three weeks post-burial. Radar survey results with both the 250 MHz and 500 MHz frequency antennae showed good detection of modern simulated burials on 2D profiles and horizontal time slices but poor detection on the other simulated graves. Magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity results were generally poor at detecting the simulated targets. Observations of botanical variations on the test site show rapid regrowth of Malvaceae and Petiveria alliacea vegetation over all burials that are common in these forests, which can make detection more difficult.

  17. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Nicolais, Christina J; Perrin, Paul B; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Cross-sectional. Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. NA. Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population.

  19. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Nicolais, Christina J.; Perrin, Paul B.; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  20. Human exposure to mercury in San Jorge river basin, Colombia (South America).

    PubMed

    Olivero, Jesus; Johnson, Boris; Arguello, Eduardo

    2002-04-22

    During May-September 1999 human hair samples were collected from the village of Caimito, a fishing community of the state of Sucre (Colombia), in the San Jorge River basin area, and analyzed for total mercury (t-Hg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg was measured in both male and female people aged 15-65 years, whose diet mainly consists of fish collected in nearby marshes. Average hair t-Hg concentration in people from Caimito was 4.91 +/- 0.55 microg/g (n = 94), similar to the value previously detected in fishermen living in the gold mining area, 50 km east. Males had similar t-Hg concentrations (4.31 +/- 0.42 microg/g; n = 56) to females (5.78 +/- 1.21 microg/g; n = 38) and there was no difference in t-Hg levels between groups of different age. Mercury content in hair was weakly but significantly associated (R = 0.20, P = 0.05) with fish consumption.

  1. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; López, Sergio A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis of the relationship between monthly mean sea level anomalies near the deltas related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); (4) development of a database of key physical variables; (5) series of correlation calculations to examine which environmental factors control delta morphology; (6) analysis of shoreline changes for the 1986-2000 yr-period; and (7) classification of each delta system based on the relationship between water and sediment discharges and wave and tidal energies. Overall, Colombian deltas are built under destructive physical conditions. The Pacific deltas, San Juan, Mira, and Patía, are tide-influenced deltas although they exhibit definite characteristics of wave-dominated systems such as the presence of barriers and beach ridges. Also, these deltas exhibit the highest marine energy conditions of all Colombian deltas (marine power values between 9.1 and 11.6) due to the interplay of (1) moderate wave conditions as a result of the effect of swells from the SW with a significant height varying from 1.7 in the San Juan delta to 3.0 m and 3.1 m in the Mira and Patía deltas, respectively; (2) meso-tidal ranges; (3) steep subaqueous profiles; (4) low attenuation indexes of deep-water waves; and (5) strong oceanographic manifestations associated with the ENSO, causing regional sea level rises of 20-44 cm during El Niño events. The Caribbean deltas, Magdalena, Sinú and to a lesser extent, the Atrato, are wave-influenced deltas. The Magdalena, with deep and nearshore wave power values of 45 × 10 6 erg s -1 and 35 × 10 6 erg s -1

  2. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  3. Cenozoic tectonic evolution leading to the Choco-South America collision (Panama-Colombia), from seismic profiles interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, F.; Maurin, T.; Auxietre, J.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Salmon, P.; Sosson, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Choco Block is located in eastern Panama and western Colombia, at the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and is mainly characterized by a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic arc overlying the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This block was accreted to South American plate (SAP) during Middle to Late Miocene. Geological, chronological and structural data are scarce in the Choco Block. Our study aims at reconstructing the evolution at a local scale, to provide new constraints to the regional scale tectonic processes that have occurred since the Paleogene. In that perspective, we have interpreted offshore seismic reflection profiles. This interpretation was supported by biostratigraphic data from two wells. We focused our studies in the Uraba Gulf area, a triple junction between the Choco Block, the SAP and the Caribbean oceanic plateau. This poorly understood zone offers rare observation of two accretionary wedges, the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), and the Sinu Belt, located at the margins of the Choco Block and the SAP, respectively. They are the results of two opposite convergent zones, and collide along the active Uramita strike-slip Fault Zone (UFZ), a suture zone between the Choco Block and the SAP. This area may provide information on the ages of both accretionary wedges, on the tectonic processes responsible for the disappearance of the CP, and on the late formation of the Choco Block. Our results evidence a northward propagating deformation along the Choco Block, miocene or older in the South of the Uraba Gulf, pliocene in the North of the Uraba Gulf, and active along the northern margin of Panama. This deformation is the result of the progressive accretion of Choco Block along the SAP. At the Uraba triple junction, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited since late Miocene. North verging progradations suggest that sediments came from the drainage of the western cordillera of Colombia by a Paleo-Sinu river and actual Atrato river

  4. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  5. Mammals and rainfall: paleoecology of the middle Miocene at La Venta (Colombia, South America).

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Madden, R H

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the species richness and macroniche composition of diet, locomotor and body-size classes among 16 nonvolant mammalian faunas in tropical South America reveals numerous significant positive correlations with rainfall. In particular, significant and strong positive correlations with rainfall are found in 18 attributes, including the number of nonvolant mammal species, number of primate species, number of frugivores, primary consumers, arborealists, and the number of species between 100 g to 10 kg in body weight. Estimates of annual rainfall derived from least-squares and polynomial regressions and principal components analysis yield a modal estimate of between 1500 and 2000 mm annual rainfall for the Monkey Beds assemblage at La Venta. This level of rainfall is associated today with the transition between savanna and forest environments in lowland equatorial South America. Paleontological evidence strongly suggests the presence of forest biotopes at La Venta. Paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence together indicate a dynamic and heterogeneous riparian mosaic associated with the shifting course of meandering rivers. Faunal evidence also suggests that habitat heterogeneity and canopy discontinuity extended into the interfluvial area. Seasonal rainfall was probably only of secondary importance in shaping the structural and spatial configuration of the dominantly forested mosaic habitat at La Venta. The fossil record is not consistent with the presence of extensive primary or undisturbed, continuous-canopy, evergreen tropical rainforest. The reconstructed middle Miocene environment at La Venta differs significantly from modern environments of similar geography on the piedmont east of the Andes at the same latitude. This in turn suggests that the extensive evergreen rainforests of the upper Amazonian piedmont that today receive more than 4000 mm of rainfall may post-date the initiation of Andean uplift.

  6. Spatial distributions of Anopheles species in relation to malaria incidence at 70 localities in the highly endemic Northwest and South Pacific coast regions of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Martha L; Orjuela, Lorena I; Pareja, Paula X; Conde, Marcela; Cabarcas, Diana M; Cubillos, Eliana F G; Lopez, Jorge A; Beier, John C; Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha L

    2016-08-11

    A proper identification of malaria vectors is essential for any attempt to control this disease. Between 40 and 47 Anopheles species have been recorded in Colombia, and eight species complexes have been identified in the last decade. An update of Anopheles species distribution and its relationship with malaria is required, particularly for newly identified members of species complexes. A cross-sectional entomological study was conducted at 70 localities in the highest malaria transmission areas in Colombia. In each locality, immature and adult mosquitoes were collected. All specimens were determined using morphological characters and confirmed used restriction profiles of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2), and Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) sequence gene. To detect natural Plasmodium infections, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nested PCR analysis were used. Distribution of Anopheles species was spatially associated with malaria incidence. A total of 1736 larvae and 12,052 adult mosquitoes were determined in the 70 localities. Thirteen Anopheles species were identified. COI sequence analysis suggested 4 new lineages for Colombia: for Anopheles albimanus (An. albimanus B), Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l., Anopheles neivai (An. neivai nr. neivai 4), and Anopheles apicimacula. Two members of species complexes were identified, as: Anopheles nuneztovari C, and Anopheles albitarsis I. Another seven species were confirmed. Four mosquitoes were infected with Plasmodium species, An. albimanus B and An. nuneztovari C. In Northwest of Colombia, An. nuneztovari C, An. albimanus, and Anopheles darlingi were present in the municipalities with highest annual parasitic index (API) (>35 cases/1000 inhabitants). In the north of South Pacific coast, with a similar API, An. nuneztovari C were widely distributed inland, and the main species in coastal regions were An. albimanus B and An. neivai s.l. In the South Pacific coast bordering with Ecuador, 3 Anopheles species

  7. A 5000 Year Record of Andean South American Summer Monsoon Variability from Laguna de Ubaque, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, O. M.; Bird, B. W.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of Northern Hemisphere South American summer monsoon (SASM) dynamics during the Holocene has been limited by the small number of terrestrial paleoclimate records from this region. In order to increase our knowledge of SASM variability and to better inform our predictions of its response to ongoing rapid climate change, we require high-resolution paleoclimate records from the Northern Hemisphere Andes. To this end, we present sub-decadally resolved sedimentological and geochemical data from Laguna de Ubaque that spans the last 5000 years. Located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, Laguna de Ubaque (2070 m asl) is a small, east facing moraine-dammed lake in the upper part of the Rio Meta watershed near Bogotá containing finely laminated clastic sediments. Dry bulk density, %organic matter, %carbonate and magnetic susceptibility (MS) results from Ubaque suggest a period of intense precipitation between 3500 and 2000 years BP interrupted by a 300 yr dry interval centered at 2700 years BP. Following this event, generally drier conditions characterize the last 2000 years. Although considerably lower amplitude than the middle Holocene pluvial events, variability in the sedimentological data support climatic responses during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) and Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE) that are consistent with other records of local Andean conditions. In particular, reduced MS during the MCA suggests a reduction in terrestrial material being washed into the lake as a result of generally drier conditions. The LIA on the other hand shows a two phase structure with increased MS between 1450 and 1600 CE, suggesting wetter conditions during the onset of the LIA, and reduced MS between 1600 and 1900 CE, suggesting a return to drier conditions during the latter part of the LIA. These LIA trends are similar to the Quelccaya accumulation record, possibly supporting an in-phase relationship between the South American

  8. Internal displacement in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for “victims of armed conflict,” with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia’s unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement. PMID:28228997

  9. Comparing the Course of Mental Health Over the First Year After Stroke With Healthy Controls in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Megan; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Calderón Chagualá, Amilkar; Chacón Peralta, Helmer; Vergara Torres, Gina; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a primary cause of death and disability in upper-middle-income countries such as Colombia. Given the lack of comprehensive rehabilitation for stroke patients in Colombia, there is a need to assess longitudinal mental health problems poststroke in this region. To compare the course of mental health in stroke patients to healthy controls over the first year poststroke in Ibague, Colombia. Cross-sectional study. The Psychological Attention Center of Antonio Nariño University in Ibague, Colombia. Stroke patients (n = 50) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 50). Patients and controls completed self-report Spanish versions of demographic information, injury-related characteristics, and mental health questionnaires MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes assessed included mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress) at 3, 6, and 12 months poststroke. Hierarchical linear models suggested that stroke patients had worse depression and anxiety over time than controls (P < .001). Among patients, depression and anxiety decreased over time (P < .001), whereas stress increased over time (P < .01). The findings suggest that although anxiety and depression improved over time in stroke patients, their mental health remained significantly lower than that of controls. This is the first study to examine the course of mental health over the first year poststroke in Latin America, specifically in Ibague, Colombia. Despite the improvements in anxiety and depression over the first year poststroke, patient anxiety and depression were still worse in comparison to those in healthy controls. The current findings indicate a need for rehabilitation services in Colombia, especially targeting mental health issues. I. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  11. Multiple mediation path model of pain's cascading influence on physical disability in individuals with SCI from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Paul B; Paredes, Alejandra Morlett; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Lozano, Juan Esteban; Leal, Wendy Tatiana; Ahmad, Usman F; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Research has begun to document the bivariate connections between pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and various aspects of health related quality of life (HRQOL), such as fatigue, social functioning, mental health, and physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to construct and test a theoretical path model illuminating the stage-wise and sequential (cascading) HRQOL pathways through which pain increases physical disability in individuals with SCI in a sample from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that increased pain would lead to decreased energy, which would lead to decreased mental health and social functioning, which both would lead to emotional role limitations, which finally would lead to physical role limitations. A cross-sectional study assessed individuals with SCI (n = 40) in Neiva, Colombia. Participants completed a measure indexing various aspects of HRQOL. The path model overall showed excellent fit indices, and each individual path within the model was statistically significant. Pain exerted significant indirect effects through all possible mediators in the model, ultimately suggesting that energy, mental health, social functioning, and role limitations-emotional were likely pathways through which pain exerted its effects on physical disability in individuals with SCI. These findings uncover several potential nodes for clinical intervention which if targeted in the context of rehabilitation or outpatient services, could result in salubrious direct and indirect effects reverberating down the theoretical causal chain and ultimately reducing physical disability in individuals with SCI.

  12. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions.

  13. [Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi : a new epidemiological scenario for Chagas' disease in Colombia and other South American countries].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Karina; Trujillo, Jorge Eduardo; Carranza, Julio César; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas' disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite's genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.

  14. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  15. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 94-0253-2451, Pan American Health Organization, Bogota, Colombia, South America

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.; Echt, A.

    1994-08-01

    In response to a request from the Pan American Health Organization, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous working conditions at the ECOPETROL Oil Refinery in Barrancabermeja, Colombia. The study was to evaluate employee exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl-benzene, and cyclohexane in various areas of the refinery. ECOPETROL was an integrated oil refinery with a refining capacity of 200,000 barrels per day. In the aromatics facility benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl-benzene, and cyclohexane were refined from napththa. The author concludes that a hazard existed for some workers from exposure to benzene. The author recommends that benzene exposure be controlled through the use of personal protective equipment and environmental monitoring programs.

  16. Petrology and chemistry of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the southernmost segment of the Western Cordillera of Colombia (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadea, P.; Espinosa, A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents new data on the petrology and chemistry of the igneous rocks composing the Mesozoic basement of southernmost Western Cordillera of Colombia along the Ricaurte-Altaquer section. The studied sequence includes variably metamorphosed submarine lavas, breccias, tuffs and dykes of basalt to andesite composition, and minor, shallow quartz microdiorite intrusives. A Campanian age is recorded by radiolarian faunas from chert strata capping the lavas. Two different tholeiitic suites and a younger calc-alkaline suite, represented by hornblende andesite, are distinguished. One tholeiitic suite, represented by plagioclase and pyroxene phyric lavas, evolves from basalt to basaltic andesite. It is characterized by the occurrence of diopsidic pyroxene as early crystallising phase, by depletion in high-field strength elements, particularly Nb and by relative enrichment in light REE and Th. The second tholeiitic suite, which includes aphyric or poorly phyric lavas of basalt to dacite composition, differs from the first group in having moderately low {FeO tot}/{MgO} ratio and lower P 2O 5 content for a given SiO 2, and higher {Ti}/{Zr}and{Y}/{Zr} ratios. The pyroxene chemistry of the two suites also differs. The primary geochemical characteristics of the two suites suggest a similarity with tholeiitic suites generated in island-arc environment. The hornblende andesite has mineralogical and chemical characteristics of calc-alkaline lavas erupted in an oceanic setting in an evolved island-arc. Petrologic and geochemical evidence suggests that the volcanic rocks from the Ricaurte-Altraquer section are similar to the island-arc tholeiite volcanics from the upper Macuchi Formation of northern Ecuador and can be correlated partly with this unit. Conversely, they are petrochemically dissimilar from the typical Diabase Group volcanic rocks, characterized by transitional MORB lavas, extensively present to the north in the Western Cordillera of Colombia.

  17. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Roselino, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S.; Reason, Iara J. de Messias

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically. PMID:22624125

  18. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices.

  19. Lake records of Northern Hemisphere South American summer monsoon variability from the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia: Initial results from Lago de Tota and Laguna de Ubaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, J.; Rudloff, O.; Bird, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of terrestrial paleoclimate records from the Northern Hemisphere Andes with decadal resolution has meant that our understanding of abrupt South American summer monsoon (SASM) variability during the Holocene is almost exclusively based on data from Southern Hemisphere sites. In order to develop a more integrated and complete picture of the SASM as a system and its response during rapid climate changes, high-resolution paleoclimate records are needed from the Northern Hemisphere Andes. We present initial results from analysis of lake sediment cores that were collected from Lago de Tota (N 5.554, W 72.916) and Laguna de Ubaque (N 4.500, W 73.935) in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. These sediment cores were collected in July 2013 as part on an ongoing paleoclimate research initiative in Colombia. Located in the Boyacá Provence, Lago de Tota is the largest high-altitude lake (3010 masl) in the Northern Hemisphere Andes and the second largest Andean lake in South America. As such, hydrologic changes recorded in the lake's sediment record reflect regional climate responses. Lago de Ubaque (2070 masl) is a small east facing moraine-dammed lake near the capital of Bogotá that contains finely laminated clastic sediments. The initial sedimentological and chronological results demonstrate that Lago de Tota and Laguna de Ubaque have excellent potential for resolving Northern Hemisphere SASM variability at decadal time scales or better. Such records will provide important counterparts to high-resolution paleoclimate records from the Southern Hemisphere Andes.

  20. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  1. Preliminary results of sequential monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in Colombia, South America, using ground penetrating radar and botany.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serial Head and Brain Imaging of 17 Fetuses With Confirmed Zika Virus Infection in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Reefhuis, Jennita; Piraquive, Juan Pablo; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Badell, Martina L; Moore, Cynthia A; Mercado, Marcela; Valencia, Diana; Jamieson, Denise J; Beltran, Mauricio; Sanz-Cortes, Magda; Rivera-Casas, Ana Maria; Yepez, Mayel; Parra, Guido; Ospina Martinez, Martha; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings among a series of pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection to evaluate the signs of congenital Zika syndrome with respect to timing of infection. We conducted a retrospective case series of pregnant women referred to two perinatal clinics in Barranquilla and Ibagué, Colombia, who had findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and Zika virus infection confirmed in maternal, fetal, or neonatal samples. Serial ultrasound measurements, fetal magnetic resonance imaging results, laboratory results, and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. We describe 17 cases of confirmed prenatal maternal Zika virus infection with adverse fetal outcomes. Among the 14 symptomatic women, the median gestational age for maternal Zika virus symptoms was 10 weeks (range 7-14 weeks of gestation). The median time between Zika virus symptom onset and microcephaly (head circumference less than 3 standard deviations below the mean) was 18 weeks (range 15-24 weeks). The earliest fetal head circumference measurement consistent with microcephaly diagnosis was at 24 weeks of gestation. The earliest sign of congenital Zika syndrome was talipes equinovarus, which in two patients was noted first at 19 weeks of gestation. Common findings on fetal magnetic resonance imaging were microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, polymicrogyria, and calcifications. Our analysis suggests a period of at least 15 weeks between maternal Zika virus infection in pregnancy and development of microcephaly and highlights the importance of serial and detailed neuroimaging.

  3. A new species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 from South America with a synopsis of the known species of the subgenus in Colombia (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure in Colombia is presented. The species identified are Centris ferruginea Lepeletier, C. lutea Friese and C. aureiventris, a new species from the Colombian Andes. Morphological characters of both sexes, distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in Colombia are provided.

  4. Colombia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Colombia is South America's largest coal producer, and the region's third-largest oil producer after Venezuela and Brazil. In 2015, Colombia was the world's fifth-largest coal exporter. The country is also a significant oil exporter, ranking as the fifth-largest crude oil exporter to the United States in 2015. A series of regulatory reforms enacted in 2003 makes the oil and natural gas sector more attractive to foreign investors led to an increase in Colombian oil and natural gas production. The Colombian government implemented a partial privatization of state oil company Ecopetrol (formerly known as Empresa Colombiana de Petróleos S.A.) in an attempt to revive its upstream oil industry.

  5. The Garzón Massif, Colombia-a new ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic complex in the Early Neoproterozoic of northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenberger, U.; Mejia Jimenez, D. M.; Günter, C.; Sierra Rodriguez, G. I.; Scheffler, F.; Oberhänsli, R.

    2012-07-01

    The Garzón Complex of the Garzón Massif in SW Colombia is composed of the Vergel Granulite Unit (VG) and the Las Margaritas Migmatite Unit (LMM). Previous studies reveal peak temperature conditions for the VG of about 740 °C. The present study considers the remarkable exsolution phenomena in feldspars and pyroxenes and titanium-in-quartz thermometry. Recalculated ternary feldspar compositions indicate temperatures around 900-1,000 °C just at or above the ultra-high temperature-metamorphism (UHTM) boundary of granulites. The calculated temperatures range of exsolved ortho- and clinopyroxenes also supports the existence of an UHTM event. In addition, titanium-in-quartz thermometry points towards ultra-high temperatures. It is the first known UHTM crustal segment in the northern part of South America. Although a mean geothermal gradient of ca 38 °C km-1 could imply additional heat supply in the lower crust controlling this extreme of peak metamorphism, an alternative model is suggested. The formation of the Vergel Granulite Unit is supposed to be formed in a continental back-arc environment with a thinned and weakened crust behind a magmatic arc (Guapotón-Mancagua Gneiss) followed by collision. In contrast, rocks of the adjacent Las Margaritas Migmatite Unit display "normal" granulite facies temperatures and are formed in a colder lower crust outside the arc, preserved by the Guapotón-Mancagu Gneiss. Back-arc formation was followed by inversion and thickening of the basin. The three units that form the modern-day Garzón Massif, were juxtaposed upon each other during collision (at ca. 1,000 Ma) and exhumation. The collision leading to the deformation of the studied area is part of the Grenville orogeny leading to the amalgamation of Rodinia.

  6. Primate population densities in three nutrient-poor amazonian terra firme forests of south-eastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Erwin; Peres, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    We censused primate populations at three non-hunted 'terra firme' forests of south-eastern Colombian Amazonia. The aggregate biomass densities of diurnal primates at all sites were amongst the lowest recorded for any non-hunted forest in western Amazonia and elsewhere in the Neotropics. Densities of red howler monkeys were low, as is typical in Amazonian terra firme forests far removed from white-water rivers, and densities of woolly monkeys were 1.5-3.5 times lower than those estimated for this species in central-western Brazilian Amazonia. Densities of small to mid-sized primates except for brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and white-faced capuchins (Cebus albifrons) were similar to those of other oligotrophic Amazonian forest sites. Our results are in agreement with other studies showing that terra firme forests of lowland Amazonia typically sustain a low biomass density of primates and other mid-sized to large vertebrates. Large reserves are therefore required to assure the viability of primate populations in oligotrophic systems. Given the escalating negative impacts of human habitat disturbance and hunting in Colombian Amazonia, we urge that a baseline sampling protocol to quantify the abundance and distribution of the harvest-sensitive vertebrate fauna be established within protected areas and the large indigenous reserves so that conservation efforts can be defined and implemented.

  7. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  8. El Cerrejon moves into the market. [Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.

    1985-10-01

    The article describes Colombia's El Cerrejon North Block coal project, a $3.2 billion undertaking that will establish the largest coal mine in South America and one of the biggest surface mines in the world. The first shipments from Colombia's new mine have begun, and it is projected that by 1989 the surface mine will invade the export market of three continents with 15 million mtpy.

  9. The diffuse seismicity of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, the Perijá Range, and south of the La Guajira peninsula, Colombia and Venezuela: Result of the convergence between Caribbean plate and the South American margin during the Late Neogene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Pedraza, P.; Mora-paez, H.; Ordonez Aristizabal, C. O.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Kammer, A.

    2012-12-01

    A diffuse low deep microseismicity located overall between the Guajira peninsula and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) was registered with the recent installation (2008 to Present) of three seismological stations in northeastern Colombia by the Colombian Seismological Network (RSNC), but mainly with the Uribia station in (the) central region of La Guajira peninsula, The microseismicity is characterized by a great population of events with 1.2 < Ml < 3.0. and few events of 3.0 < Ml < 4.0 that sporadically occur. The poor number of seismological stations in this region of Colombia impedes to locate the origin of the local seismicity; however, this seismic activity is associated to the tectonic activity of the Oca fault because with the GPS displacement analysis, neotectonics evidence found in faults traces associated to the Oca fault and the historical earthquake that affected the Colombian city of Santa Marta in 1834, lead us to conclude this. This is a big cortical fault that sets the limit between La Guajira peninsula and the SNSM. Its cortical characteristics were verified from geological data together with gravimetric and seismic exploration. The SNSM limits toward the southeast with the Cesar - Ranchería basin, and this basin in turn limits with the Perijá Range that is localized in the Colombia - Venezuela border. The SNSM, Cesar - Ranchería basin and Perijá Range limit toward the southwest with the Bucaramanga - Santa Marta fault (BSMF), the Oca fault toward the north, and Perijá - El Tigre fault toward the southeast defining a pyramidal orogenic complex. Using remote sensing images data with geological and regional geophysical information, we proposed that this orogenic complex was originated as a result of the Panama arc with the northwestern South America accretion. The final adjustment of the Caribbean plate (CP) between North America and South America during the Late Neogene produced the big cortical faults systems activation like Oca - Moron

  10. Combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf dating of garnets from the Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ibanez-mejia, M.; Ganguly, J.

    2013-12-01

    Garnet-whole rock (Grt-WR) ages of metapelites determined by the Lu-Hf decay system are almost always older than those determined by the Sm-Nd system. Unambiguous interpretation of the observed age differences has been hindered by a lack of adequate information about grain size, diffusion data for Hf in garnet, and in many cases about peak metamorphic conditions and cooling rates, all of which affect the closure temperatures of these decay systems. As part of a broader study on basement rocks from the Andean Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia, we have determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Grt-WR ages of these rocks using painstakingly handpicked garnets of ~50 μm radius, and obtained ages of 1070 × 5.6 and 1007 × 2.9 Ma, respectively. By modeling the retrograde Fe-Mg zoning in garnet adjacent to biotite according to an asymptotic cooling model (1/T = 1/To + ηt) with the diffusion data from [1], an initial cooling rate of ~2-5 °C/Ma is obtained independently of the geochronological data; peak P-T conditions of ~8 kb, 675 °C are imposed by garnet-orthopyroxene thermobarometry. Using the above data in conjunction with the Nd diffusion data from [2] and Hf diffusion data from our recent study, we obtain closure temperatures for the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd decay systems in garnet of ~545-565 °C and 415-430 °C, respectively. Results from analytical solutions [3, 4] and a more flexible numerical method are found to be in good agreement with one another. The calculated difference of closure temperatures predicts a difference of ~105-40 Ma between the ages determined by the two decay systems, as compared to the observed age difference of 63 × 6 Ma. The predicted peak metamorphic age derived from the measured and calculated resetting ages of the two decay systems is between ~1030 and 1185 Ma, as compared to the Lu-Hf age of 1070 ×1.9 Ma; we are currently working to obtain U-Pb zircon ages to better constrain this peak metamorphic age. In calculating these results

  11. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  12. Examining the relationship between health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury and the mental health of their caregivers in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jennifer A; Harper, Leia A; Perrin, Paul B; Olivera, Silvia L; Perdomo, Jose L; Arango, Jose A; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    Although considerable research has been carried out on family caregivers of individuals with various types of disabilities, spinal cord injury (SCI) caregivers have received considerably less attention in terms of research, especially in regions such as Latin America. This study examined the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with SCI and their family caregiver's mental health in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty-four individuals with SCI and their primary caregivers (34 dyads; n=68) from the Foundation for the Integral Development of People with Disabilities in Neiva, Colombia, were included in this study. Individuals with SCI completed eight subscales of the SF-36 that assessed HRQOL. Five aspects of caregiver mental health were assessed, including burden (Zarit Burden Interview), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory). A series of multiple regressions uncovered strong associations among the HRQOL of individuals with SCI and various aspects of caregiver mental health. In these regressions, patient physical functioning and pain were independently related to caregiver burden; patient pain and general health were independently related to caregiver satisfaction with life; and patient pain was independently related to caregiver anxiety. HRQOL in individuals with SCI was robustly related to their caregiver's mental health, suggesting that the two sets of variables are closely linked. These findings suggest that caregiver mental health should be a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, especially in Latin America.

  13. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Diabetes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Casas-Figueroa, Luz Ángela

    2015-01-01

    The burden of diabetes is a global problem, wherein the significant growth of diabetes in Colombia reflects a complex pathophysiology and epidemiology found in many other South American nations. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiologic data from Colombia and the South American region in general to identify certain disease drivers and target them for intervention to curb the increasing prevalence of diabetes. A detailed search was conducted using MEDLINE, SciELO, HINARI, LILACS, IMBIOMED, and Latindex databases, in addition to clinical practice guidelines, books, manuals, and other files containing relevant and verified information on diabetes in Colombia. According to the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization, the prevalence of diabetes in Colombia is 7.1% and 8.5%, respectively. In contrast, a national survey in Colombia shows a prevalence ranging from 1.84% to 11.2%, depending on how the diagnosis is made, the criteria used, and the age range studied. The prevalence exclusively in rural areas ranges from 1.4% to 7.9% and in urban areas from 1% to 46%. The estimated mean overall (direct and indirect) cost attributed to type 2 diabetes is 5.7 billion Colombian pesos (US $2.7 million). Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death in Colombia with a rate of 15 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Based on a clustering of factors, 4 relevant disease drivers emerge that may account for the epidemiology of diabetes in Colombia: demographic transition, nutritional transition, forced displacement/internal migration and urban development, and promotion of physical activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In North Ecuador - South Colombia margin (0-4°N), the sedimentation rate in the trench and the tectonic deformation co-control the location of the seismogenic zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaillou, Boris; Jean-Yves, Collot; Allessandra, Ribodetti; Elia, D'acremont

    2010-05-01

    The North Ecuador - South Colombia convergent margin shows along strike variations in tectonic, thermal and seismogenic features that offer a great opportunity to study the relation between subduction zone tectono-structure, thermal regime and location of the thermally-defined seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflections and conventional bathymetric data were collected in 2000 and 2005 during the SISTEUR and AMADEUS cruises. 6 selected lines perpendicular to the margin were processed with a pre-stack depth migration using a preserved amplitude approach (alias Ray+Born diffraction tomography). The first heat flow measurements in this area were also acquired, completed by heat flow derived from numerous bottom simulating reflectors. The margin is divided in Esmeraldas, Patia, Tumaco and Manglares segments. 1/ Tectonically, the tectonic deformation at the margin front drastically vary from North to South: The Patia segment is fronted by a 35 km- long active accretionary prism, the Tumaco segment by a less than 10 km-long active accretionary prism, no accretion occur in the Manglares segment, while the southern Esmeraldas segment undergoes a strong tectonic erosion. It is noteworthy that this regime is independent from the sediment thickness in the trench which is thinner where the prism is longer. 2/ Thermally, these segments also shows clear variations in heat flow that is, in the trench and in the lower slope, two-fold lower in the Tumaco segment than in the others. 3/ Sismogenically, large subduction earthquakes have ruptured the plate interface beneath the Manglares segment in 1958 and the Tumaco-Patia segments en 1979. Based on the aftershocks distribution and the rupture zone location, the seismogenic zone extends trenchward nearby the deformation front in the Patia-Tumaco segments but is restricted 30 km landward in the Manglares segment. The integrated interpretation of heat flow and sismic data indicate that: 1/ The thermal segmentation is mainly

  15. Constraining the Age of Synorogenic Continental Paleogene Strata in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, South America: A Combined Palynological and Paleomagnetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, C.; Bayona, G.; Pardo, A.; Mejia, M.; Opdike, N.; Sanchez, J.

    2002-12-01

    Several decades of palynological studies in marginal to continental Paleogene strata in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia (EC) have yielded few constraints in the age of deposition of these rocks. Recent research in Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene strata of the EC and bordering thrust belts have suggested (1) a Late Cretaceous to Paleogene deformation in the EC previous to Neogene uplift; and (2) stratigraphic record of Paleogene strata is thicker and with fewer unconformities in the axial zone of the EC than in bordering thrust belts. Because of the importance of constraining the age of Paleogene strata for better documentation of events of deformation and fluid migration, we began a detailed palynological and paleomagnetic study of one section ca 500m thick in the axial zone of the EC. The Cosgua section (Boyaca, Colombia) is in an overturned footwall syncline of the Soapaga thrust fault. Previous works have proposed fault activity of the Soapaga and the Boyaca faults in middle Paleogene time. Details of palynological and paleomagnetic sampling strategies and expected results are as follow. Sampling for palynology was carried out at each 2-5 m, and for paleomagnetism at an interval of 8 m. Because this is a first attempt of using paleomagnetism in this region, we collected cores in lower to middle Paleogene units at different limbs of footwall folds, as well as in Jurassic and Devonian strata in the hanging wall. The results of the paleomagnetic work will determine (1) if it is possible to uncover the primary magnetization component in lower to middle Paleogene rocks, and if positive, a preliminary magnetostratigraphic column will be produced; (2) the possible uses of secondary magnetization for structural analysis; and (3) some constrain on events of fluid migration.

  16. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Canine parvovirus 2 in diarrheic dogs in Colombia, South America: A possible new CPV-2a is emerging?

    PubMed

    Duque-García, Yeison; Echeverri-Zuluaga, Manuela; Trejos-Suarez, Juanita; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2017-03-01

    Since its identification in 1978, Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) has been considered a pathogen of great importance in the canine population because it causes severe enteritis with high mortality rates in pups. CPV-2 is a virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae. Currently, there are three described antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c). CPV-2c is an emerging virus that is seen as a global health hazard. The objective of this work was to confirm the presence of CPV-2 in dogs with acute gastroenteritis compatible with parvovirus and to molecularly characterize the antigenic variants circulating in two regions of Colombia. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted with fecal samples collected from 71 dogs showing signs of acute diarrhea. The samples were processed and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP), sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was performed to detect and characterize CPV. A total of 70.42% of the individuals were confirmed positive for CPV-2. Statistically differences were found in the presentation of CPV-2 between the evaluated regions. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of the antigenic variants CPV-2a/2b. Moreover, we found the presence of two conserved substitutions Asn428Asp and Ala514Ser in the VP2 protein suggesting the presence of a possible new CPV-2a variant circulating in Colombia. This study demonstrates the importance of the CPV 2a/2b in the region and highlights the importance of performing molecular studies for the early detection of new antigenic variants of CPV-2.

  17. Viva Colombia/Colombia Viva! A Fantasy Trip for the Five Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ramirez, Lori Langer

    2006-01-01

    In the author's experience, Colombia is among the most misunderstood Spanish-speaking countries. Most of the news about Columbia involves drug trafficking or guerilla warfare, due to the many social and political problems that face the country. It is rare that the public is informed about the culture and people of this beautiful South American…

  18. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  19. The effect of dementia patient's physical, cognitive, and emotional/ behavioral problems on caregiver well-being: findings from a Spanish-speaking sample from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Arango Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Alexander; Rogers, Heather; Francis, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims to (1) determine whether there is a relationship between the problems of patients with dementia and the psychosocial functioning of the caregiver, (2) determine whether these relationships exist independent of sociodemographic and caregiving-related variables, and (3) determine which type of problems of patients with dementia best predict the psychosocial functioning of the caregiver. In all, 73 family caregivers were recruited from Bogota, Colombia. The caregivers completed a checklist of problems presented by the person with dementia, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL-12), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Number of cognitive and behavioral/emotional problems presented by the person with dementia was positively correlated with caregiver PHQ-9 and ZBI scores. Number of behavioral/emotional problems was negatively correlated with ISEL-12 scores. Cognitive and behavioral/emotional problems, but not physical, presented by the person with dementia were associated with higher levels of depression and burden of caregiver. Behavioral/emotional difficulties were associated with lower caregiver-perceived social support rating.

  20. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    proyectos/justicia_y_paz.htm] on August 30, 2006; “Presidencia de la República de Colombia, “Listado de Privados de Libertad de las AUC Remitidos a...operate in Colombia and Peru, and the Triborder Area of Argentina , Brazil and Paraguay is thought to be a regional hub for Hizbollah and Hamas

  1. Education in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    As one of the more traditional Latin American societies, Colombia's educational policies have been affected by long-standing cultural beliefs including class values and social stratification. This paper examines the educational history of Colombia, provides a thorough background on its educational achievements and difficulties, and discusses…

  2. The ant genus Linepithema (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escárraga, Mayron; Guerrero, Roberto J

    2016-12-19

    The species of Linepithema Mayr in Colombia are reviewed from collection material. The genus Linepithema comprises 20 species, of which the following are reported in Colombia: L. angulatum (Emery), L. dispertitum (Forel), L. gallardoi (Brèthes), L. humile (Mayr), L. iniquum (Mayr), L. neotropicum Wild, L. piliferum (Mayr), L. tsachila Wild, and a new species, Linepithema hirsutum sp. nov. Linepithema dispertitum is a new record for Colombia and South America. A taxonomic key (English and Spanish) and distribution maps to the species of Linepithema in Colombia are provided.

  3. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.

    2017-03-01

    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a < 1.71 Ga protolith and was affected by continuous interactions of oceanic plates to the west and the northwestern corner of the South American continental plate. The exposed metamorphic core of the massif offers a unique opportunity to understand the tectonic evolution of northwestern South America. We present new metamorphic petrology and geochemistry data from the Bucaramanga Gneiss in the Santander Massif to document part of this tectonic evolution from late Proterozoic to Jurassic times. Metapelitic migmatite gneiss, quartz-feldspathic gneiss, and amphibolite from the Bucaramanga Gneiss recorded metamorphic peak conditions in the range of 660-850 °C at pressures of > 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are < 750 °C and < 6.5 kbar. Observed leucosomes display significant compositional variations and can be grouped in three groups: i) Group One leucosomes with high total REE content, high LREE/HREE, and negative Eu anomaly, ii) Group Two leucosomes with low total REE, low LREE/HREE, and positive Eu anomalies, and iii) Group Three leucosomes with relatively low LREE/HREE and strong positive Eu anomaly. Geochemical data support the interpretation that Group Two leucosomes crystallized from melts originated in a partial melting event affecting mostly pelitic and quartz-feldspathic lithologies with fluid-present melting reactions. The evaluation of mesosomes (amphibolite, pelitic and quartz-feldspathic rocks) as potential protoliths or restites indicates that at least two pelitic samples of the analyzed lithologies have characteristics consistent with the occurrence of fluid-present melting reactions involving quartz and feldspar. The leucosomes produced by

  4. Transient slab flattening beneath Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, L. S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Ramírez-Hoyos, L. F.; Monsalve, G.; Cardona, A.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-07-01

    Subduction of the Nazca and Caribbean Plates beneath northwestern Colombia is seen in two distinct Wadati Benioff Zones, one associated with a flat slab to the north and one associated with normal subduction south of 5.5°N. The normal subduction region is characterized by an active arc, whereas the flat slab region has no known Holocene volcanism. We analyze volcanic patterns over the past 14 Ma to show that in the mid-Miocene a continuous arc extended up to 7°N, indicating normal subduction of the Nazca Plate all along Colombia's Pacific margin. However, by 6 Ma, we find a complete cessation of this arc north of 3°N, indicating the presence of a far more laterally extensive flat slab than at present. Volcanism did not resume between 3°N and 6°N until after 4 Ma, consistent with lateral tearing and resteepening of the southern portion of the Colombian flat slab at that time.

  5. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  6. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-08-05

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included.

  7. Autoantibodies to sweat glands detected by different methods in serum and in tissue from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Hashimoto, Ken; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    Examining the patients with a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF), we noted several polymorphic clinical lesions around their axillary areas. Based on our clinical findings and on previous histopathological studies on the skin of these patients that showed abnormalities in their sweat glands, and the presence of mercuric selenides and iodines by autometallography assay, we decided to investigate immunoreactivity to the sweat glands in these patients. We tested for autoreactivity utilizing direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF, IIF). To be able to distinguish between non-specific immune deposits and real autoimmune response, and knowing that sweat glands have some intrinsic autofluorescence for the presence of lipofuscin granules (that naturally fluoresce under the UV light microscope), as well as by the presence of secretory IgA, we used simultaneously immunohistochemistry (IHC). We tested ten El Bagre-EPF patients, ten healthy controls from the endemic area and ten healthy controls from the United States. We were able to visualize a specific autoreactivity to sweat glands in 8/10 cases of El Bagre-EPF by DIF, IIF and by IHC. In addition when using anti-human monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD68, and CD20, we confirmed the presence of several specific immune responses in situ, an around the sweat glands. No healthy control cases yielded positive findings. In some chronic cases, decrease and sometimes a complete absence of sweat glands and other skin appendices was found. In addition to this, sclerodermoid changes or early sclerodermatous changes sometimes extending into the adipose tissue as a membranous lipodystrophy were observed. Autoreactivity to the neurovascular components around the sweat glands were also observed. Our data demonstrate for the first time that there is immunoreactivity toward sweat glands in El Bagre-EPF patients that seems to destroy some of these structures.

  8. Terrorism in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  9. Radioastronomy at the National Astronomical Observatory of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Colombia is located in the northern tip of South America close to the amazon rain forest. This makes astronomical observations in the visible range very challenging, as cloud coverage is relatively high. Hence, radio astronomy becomes a natural and good choice. We present the design, characterization and first results of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional solar radio spectrograph. This instrument is a Log-Periodic Dipole Array Antenna (LPDA) working between 100 MHz and 1 GHz optimized for solar observations. The radio spectrograph is a working prototype for a more ambitious solar radio interferometer, that will be the first instrument of this kind in Colombia.

  10. Yaws in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Uribe, W R

    1985-01-01

    By the beginning of this century, yaws was a well-known endemic disease in Colombia. Colombian authorities estimated that by early 1930 there were 70,000 active cases of yaws, most of which were located in the Pacific coastal regions. With the advent of penicillin therapy, Colombia organized an anti-yaws campaign, which began in 1950. The campaign relied on the use of penicillin and house-to-house case finding. From 1950 to 1953 more than 111,000 persons with active cases of yaws and 125,000 of their contacts were treated with penicillin. The reported incidence of yaws declined dramatically, and by 1973 only 573 cases were reported in the endemic areas. By 1983 this number had fallen to 31. Because of the persistence of small foci of yaws activity, the anti-yaws campaign has been reorganized to provide a firm basis for the final eradication of the disease in Colombia.

  11. New records and geographical distribution of ctenid spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.

  12. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  13. The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

  14. Astronomy in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera-G., Mario A.

    2017-07-01

    More than two centuries ago, José Celestino Mutis and Francisco José de Caldas initiated the Colombian Astronomical Expedition. Today, Colombia has a community of over 50 scientists, linked to six institutions nationwide, and more than 250 students and researchers (PhDs and Postdocs), having high-impact astronomical research around the world.

  15. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-12

    glyphosate , does not pose unreasonable health or safety risks to humans or the environment. In consultation for the certification, the U.S. Environmental...Protection Agency confirmed that application rates of the aerial spray program in Colombia are within the parameters listed on U.S. glyphosate labels

  16. English in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanilla, Victor

    English language education in Colombia has been improved because the teachers have organized professional associations and have received assistance and support from the Colombian and United States governments to improve teaching methods, teacher preparation, and teaching materials. With the help of the University of California at Los Angeles, the…

  17. Determination of focal mechanism solutions for the Cauca nest, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tary, J. B.; Diaz, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Colombia is located on the South American plate, with the Nazca plate to the West and the Caribbean plate to the North - North-West. Colombia has three main earthquake nests showing high seismic activity which has been identified as the Bucaramanga nest, Cauca nest, and Murindo nest. The Bucaramanga and Cauca nests show concentrations of intermediate-depth ( 70-170 km) earthquake sources. These two nests are oriented approximately North-South and dip toward the East. They are offset by approximately 250 km in the East-West direction, which has been attributed to a slab tear in the subducting Nazca plate. The slab tear is also supported by the presence two domains of different volcanic activities and seismic velocities. Many studies have been devoted to the Bucaramanga nest due to its high seismic activity and high magnitude events in comparison to the other nests. However, there is no clear consensus about the tectonic interpretation for the concentration of these events. We calculate focal mechanisms from the Cauca nest, which hasn't been studied in detail, using data from the Red Sismológica Nacional of Colombia (RSNC). We selected a set of well-recorded events and interpret their focal mechanism solutions regarding the slab tear hypothesis. This study contributes to a better understanding of the geodynamic context in Colombia.

  18. Takayasu arteritis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cañas, C A; Jimenez, C A; Ramirez, L A; Uribe, O; Tobón, I; Torrenegra, A; Cortina, A; Muñoz, M; Gutierrez, O; Restrepo, J F; Peña, M; Iglesias, A

    1998-10-01

    Takayasu arteritis has been recognized in Colombia just recently, and so far we do not have any report concerning its presentation here. In this first report, some issues related to the presentation of the disease are indicated and compared with those found in the medical literature. No differences were found in age and sex. Most of the cases were diagnosed during an inactive phase of the disease with advanced manifestations due to vascular lesion which suggests the existence of some genetic factor influencing such a presentation, or may be the consequence of a delay in diagnosing the disease during initial and active stages due to not suspecting it. Comparing the vessels which are affected among other races and countries, we can find both differences and similarities. With the purpose of discovering the demographic, clinical, angiographic and laboratorial characteristics of Takayasu arteritis in Colombia, the present study was carried out by studying 35 clinical cases in different medical centers of the country.

  19. AIDS in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R

    1989-01-01

    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  20. Counterterrorism Policy in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    93 Fundación Seguridad y Democracia has recently published a number of statistics on violence in Colombia.94 Between 2001 and 2006 the homicide rate...Últimos Tres Períodos Presidenciales 1994-2006," Fundación Seguridad y Democracia http://www.seguridadydemocracia.org, (accessed March 21, 2007). 95...David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964. Fundación Seguridad y Democracia . "La Seguridad en los

  1. Colombia on the Brink

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    during which nearly 200,000 people were killed by indiscriminate violence, is known as La Violencia .10 In 1957, following the second coup of the...brought to a close the La Violencia .11 However, it did nothing to alter the underlying conditions that had given rise to the La Violencia in the first...Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), was formed from the peasant leaders who had emerged from the Liberal uprising during the La Violencia .13 Since

  2. Persistent Engagement in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    David P. Oakley Countering the al-Shabaab Insurgency in Somalia: Lessons for U.S. Special Operations Forces, February 2014, Graham Turbiville, Josh...November 2013 Piracy: The Best Business Model Available, November 2013, John Alexander The Terrorist Trafficking Nexus: Scourge of the World or So...Colombia funds paid for 18 Bell UH-1N Twin Hueys that had previously belonged to the Canadian armed forces. Built in the 1970s, these Hueys were not

  3. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-19

    Bogotá: Mayor Luis Eduardo Garzon will Complicate Uribe’s Agenda,” Newsweek International, January 26, 2004; Andrew Selsky, “Leftist’s Win in Bogotá...In total, 25 candidates were killed and 160 withdrew their names from the balloting.16 In the elections, Luis Eduardo Garzon, known as Lucho, from...Brief,” July 2004. 54 Ibid. 55 U.S. Department of State Report to Congress, Colombia: Cano Limon Pipeline, January 2003. rightist paramilitaries, has

  4. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    Summary President Juan Manuel Santos took office in August 2010 in Colombia after winning 69% of the vote in a runoff election held in June 2010. Santos...continuing into the election of President Juan Manuel Santos and his first months in office. The report then provides background on the long- standing... Manuel Santos extended a state of emergency originally declared in early December 2010 to cope with severe flooding that killed more than 300

  5. Opon Gas Field, Colombia: Part II - drilling case history

    SciTech Connect

    Greener, J.M.; Trimble, G.E.; Singer, G.M.; Barnes, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Opon Gas Field development drilling case history in the Middle Magdalena Basin of north-central Colombia, South America. World class levels of drilling fluid and cementing densities in excess of 22.0 ppg were required to control the extreme pressures encountered. A continuous improvement process is detailed in regard to casing, drilling fluid, cement and related drilling mechanics programs in a severely pressured and environmentally sensitive operation.

  6. Education for a New Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    This study, one of a series of publications on education in other countries, describes all major levels and types of education in Colombia against a background of the relevant economic, cultural, and social features of that country. The first two chapters depict features of Colombia essential to understanding the context within which its…

  7. Bee pathogens found in Bombus atratus from Colombia: A case study.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Viviana; Ravoet, Jorgen; Brunain, Marleen; Smagghe, Guy; Meeus, Ivan; Figueroa, Judith; Riaño, Diego; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-07-01

    Bombus atratus bumblebees from Colombia that were caught in the wild and from breeding programs were screened for a broad set of bee pathogens. We discovered for the first time Lake Sinai Virus and confirmed the infection by other common viruses. The prevalence of Apicystis bombi, Crithidia bombi and Nosema ceranae was remarkably high. According to other studies the former two could have been co-introduced in South America with exotic bumble bees as Bombus terrestris or Bombus ruderatus. Given the fact that none of these species occur in Colombia, our data puts a new light on the spread of these pathogens over the South American continent.

  8. Neural System Antigens Are Recognized by Autoantibodies from Patients Affected by a New Variant of Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Michael S.; Yi, Hong; Gao, Weiqing; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF), is also known as “fogo selvagem” or “wild fire,” reflecting the intense burning sensation of the skin reported by patients with this disease. Based on this finding, we tested for neural autoreactivity in patients affected by a new variant of EPF (El Bagre-EPF). Methods We tested 20 El Bagre-EPF patients, 20 normal controls from the endemic area, and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls from outside the endemic area. We tested for autoreactivity to several immunoglobulins and complement. Both human skin and bovine tail were used as antigens. Results We detected autoreactivity to neural structures, mechanoreceptors, nerves, perineural cell layers of the arachnoid envelope around the optic nerve, brain structures, and to neuromuscular spindles; these structures colocalized with several neural markers. The patient antibodies also colocalized with desmoplakins 1 and 2, with the armadillo repeat protein deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome and with p0071 antibodies. Autoreactivity was also found associated with neurovascular bundles innervating the skin, and immunoelectron microscopy using protein A gold against patient antibodies was positive against the nerve axons. Paucicellularity of the intraepidermal nerve endings and defragmentation of the neural plexus were seen in 70% of the cases and not in the controls from the endemic area (p<0.005). Neuropsychological and/or behavioral symptoms were detected in individuals from the endemic area, including sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. Conclusions Our findings may explain for the first time the “pose of pemphigus,” representing a dorsiflexural posture seen in EPF patients vis-a-vis the weakness of the extensor nerves, and furthermore, the autoreactivity to nerves in EPF could explain the “burning sensation” encountered in EPF disease. PMID:21210298

  9. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  10. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  11. Astronomy in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Peña, W. E.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy in Colombia has been done since the beginning of the nineteen century when in 1803 was built one of the oldest or maybe the older astronomical Observatory of America. This is a very beautiful, historical and ancient building. A small dome with a small telescope is also inside the university campus . The Observatory leads since then the development of astronomy in Colombia as a professional science. At the present time a Master Program and a Specialization Program are successfully carried out with a good number of smart young students. The Observatory has a staff of eleven professors all with a master degree in sciences; two of them are PhD and in a couple of years five staff members will be PhD in Physics. With some international collaboration they will shoulder in few years a doctoral astronomical program. There are several research lines mainly in the fields of Astrometry, Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy, Cosmology, Astrostatistic and Astrobiology. Three research groups have got recognition from the governmental institution that supports the research in sciences COLCIENCIAS. Several papers have been published in national and international journals. Besides the professional line in astronomy, the Observatory sponsors several non professional Colombian astronomical groups that work enthusiastically in the field of astronomy.

  12. Colombia`s new light, sweet Cusiana crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-12-11

    If plans continue as scheduled, production of Colombia`s Cusiana crude will reach nearly 200,000 b/d by year-end 1995, and 500,000 b/d by year-end 1997, following expansion of Colombia`s Central Pipeline System (OGJ, Nov. 20, P. 27). Cusiana was discovered in 1991. The field covers an area roughly 16 miles x 4 miles in the foothills of the Eastern Andes. Combined with a neighboring field, reserves of the 36{degree} API, 0.25 wt% sulfur crude are estimated to be 2 billion bbl. Cusiana`s refining characteristics include: low concentrations of sulfur, nitrogen, and metals; low acidity; and low residual yields. The crude also has excellent characteristics for producing feeds for reforming, fluid catalytic cracking, and coking, say the partners. Table 1 shows Cusiana`s true boiling point data. Table 2 lists properties of relatively narrow heavy distillate fractions.

  13. Catalogue of Tephritidae of Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present Catalogue includes 93 species and 23 genera of Tephritidae that have been recorded in Colombia. Four subfamilies (Blepharoneurinae, Dacinae, Trypetinae and Tephritinae), and eight tribes (Acrotaeniini, Carpomyini, Dacini, Eutretini, Myopitini, Noeetini, Tephritini, and Toxotrypanini) are...

  14. Epidemiology of rosacea in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Lili J; Motta, Adriana; Pabón, Juan G; Barona, Maria I; Meléndez, Esperanza; Orozco, Beatriz; Rojas, Ricardo F

    2017-05-01

    Prevalence of rosacea has been estimated around the world in the range of 0-22%. In Colombia, the prevalence of rosacea remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rosacea and the frequencies of its subtypes in Colombia. This cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in six outpatient dermatology clinics across Colombia. A total of 33 dermatologists conducted a comprehensive medical history and physical examination for all rosacea patients seen at their offices over the course of 2 months. All patients who accepted to participate were encouraged to answer a survey about the history of their illness. Of 10,204 outpatients evaluated for rosacea between July and August 2014, 291 rosacea patients were included in this study. The prevalence of rosacea subtypes in this cohort was: 45.3% erythematotelangiectatic (ETR) (n = 132), 48.7% papulopustular (PPR) (n = 142), 4.8% phymatous (n = 14), and 1% ocular (n = 3). Overall, the prevalence in Colombia was 2.85%. Our data represent an important first step to understanding the current state of rosacea in Colombia. The prevalence of rosacea in Colombia is the highest in Latin America among a few reports published, which might be explained by geographic features. However, contrary to our expectations, the prevalence is lower than that in some European countries. We postulate that this finding may be due to methodological differences. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Glaciers of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1998-01-01

    Landsat images, together with maps and aerial photographs, have been used to produce glacier inventories, define glacier locations, and study glacier dynamics in the countries of South America, along with the Andes Mountains. In Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the small glaciers have been undergoing extensive glacier recession since the late 1800's. Glacier-related hazards (outburst floods, mud flows, and debris avalanches) occur in Colombia, in Ecuador, and associated with the more extensive (2,600 km2) glaciers of Peru. The largest area of glacier ice is found in Argentina and Chile, including the northern Patagonian ice field (about 4,200 km2) and the southern Patagonian ice field (about 13,000 km2), the largest glacier in the Southern Hemisphere outside Antarctica.

  16. Outreach to internally displaced persons in Bogotá, Colombia: challenges and potential solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez; Araya, Ricardo; Verdeli, Helen; Espinel, Zelde; Bolivar, Sandra Patricia Cipagauta; Neria, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Programs that provide services for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Colombia, South America face challenges when attempting to engage and enroll the target population of forced migrants they intend to serve. Innovative multi-strategy outreach approaches must be used in order to effectively seek, recruit, provide services, monitor, and retain IDPs. PMID:28229001

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain COL/Cundinamarca/2014 from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Matthew C.; Lam, Ham Ching; Rovira, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been found throughout Europe and Asia, and has emerged in North and South America. A whole genome sequence was obtained from a paraffin-embedded tissue sample from the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia through Next Generation Sequencing techniques to further understand the evolution of PEDV. PMID:27103712

  18. Potential for the use of photovoltaic systems in agricultural production and rural sector of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Neyeloff, S.

    1983-12-01

    A field study was conducted in Colombia, South America, to determine the possible market for PV power systems in rural areas. It was found that a sizeable market exists in the areas of coffee processing, beef cattle watering, domestic uses, rural telephones and rural health stations.

  19. Distribution and persistence of sterile screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) released at the Panama-Colombia border

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sterile insect technique is currently used by the Comisión Panamá - Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border between Panama and Colombia that prevents screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South A...

  20. First record of Takecallis taiwana (Takahashi) and T. arundinariae (Essig) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aphids Takecallis taiwanus (Takahashi, 1926) and T. arundinariae (Essig, 1917) were collected from two locations in the Department of Cundinamarca and one in Bogotá D.C. within 90km of the city of Bogotá, Colombia. These represent the first records from the northern half of South America. All th...

  1. Outreach to internally displaced persons in Bogotá, Colombia: challenges and potential solutions.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez; Araya, Ricardo; Verdeli, Helen; Espinel, Zelde; Bolivar, Sandra Patricia Cipagauta; Neria, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Programs that provide services for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Colombia, South America face challenges when attempting to engage and enroll the target population of forced migrants they intend to serve. Innovative multi-strategy outreach approaches must be used in order to effectively seek, recruit, provide services, monitor, and retain IDPs.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain COL/Cundinamarca/2014 from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Matthew C; Lam, Ham Ching; Rovira, Albert; Marthaler, Douglas G

    2016-04-21

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been found throughout Europe and Asia, and has emerged in North and South America. A whole genome sequence was obtained from a paraffin-embedded tissue sample from the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Colombia through Next Generation Sequencing techniques to further understand the evolution of PEDV.

  3. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  4. Space Radar Image of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers 93 miles west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image.

  5. Sequencing: Targeting Insurgents and Drugs in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    examines the overall effectiveness of two distinctly different strategies for dealing with the dual threat of drugs and terrorism in Colombia: President...Drug Trade, Coca, Counter-narcotics, FARC, FARC-EP, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Government of Colombia, Insurgency, Terrorism , Plan...threat of drugs and terrorism in Colombia: President Pastrana’s “drugs first” strategy and President Uribe’s unified campaign against both guerrillas

  6. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  7. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  8. Burden of epilepsy in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Ayala, Alejandro; Nariño, Daniel; Rosselli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy lays an important burden on healthcare systems and society in general. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been developed to compare the burden of this disease both between conditions and between geographical boundaries. With improving data on disease incidence and prevalence in Colombia, we can refine our DALYs-based estimates. Using different strategies, including the official healthcare provision database and death certificates, as well as extrapolation from published neuroepidemiologic studies, we estimated the incidence and prevalence by age groups, disease duration and attributable mortality. With this information we calculated DALYs for the year 2012. Overall, it was found that epilepsy was responsible for 0.88% of all deaths in Colombia. A total of 5.25 DALYs per 1,000 person-years are lost due to epilepsy in Colombia, 75% of which (3.91 DALYs) are due to premature mortality, with a higher burden in men (6.12 DALYs) than in women (4.41 DALYs). We reported new estimations on epilepsy incidence and prevalence by age groups in Colombia and conclude that DALYs lost due to epilepsy in Colombia are almost double the previous figure, mostly because of the underestimation of attributable mortality. With this figure, epilepsy ranks 12th instead of 19th in the list of the most important causes of DALYs lost. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Discoveries, financial strength lift Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia plans to play a growing role in international oil markets while expanding and privatizing its domestic gas and electricity industries. Officials intend to curb the government`s spending on energy development while increasing its energy revenues. Their plans imply growing participation in energy projects by private companies. Also certain to help attract investment capital is the country`s new standing as a world-class oil and gas province. Discovery of Cusiana oil field in 1989 and of Cupiagua oil field in 1992 added 2 billion bbl of oil and 3 tcf of gas reserves, effectively doubling Colombia`s totals. Exploration near the giant Cusiana-Cupiagua complex, in the eastern foothills of the Andes about 100 miles northeast of Bogota, has turned up an estimated 10 tcf of gas and 1 billion bbl of oil in Volcanera field and two discoveries overlying it, Florena and Pauto Sur. Colombia`s critics say that, despite its laudable economic stability and improving oil and gas prospectivity, political impediments could interfere with progress toward its lofty energy goals. The paper discusses the heightened political risks, unequal pace of reform, gas pipeline construction, gas regulations, tying gas to power, reform in the oil sector, achieving sustainable change, and the appeal to investors.

  10. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease.

  11. Mantidflies of Colombia (Neuroptera, Mantispidae).

    PubMed

    Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; García, Alexander

    2015-03-26

    This study revises the Mantispidae of Colombia. 151 adult specimens of 12 entomological museums of Colombia were examined and identified. On the basis of the specimens studied and a comprehensive literature search, it is determined that 20 nominal species (including two doubtful records) plus four proposed as new to science, in ten genera (Anchieta, Plega, Trichoscelia, Gerstaeckerella, Buyda, Climaciella, Dicromantispa, Entanoneura, Leptomantispa, and Zeugomantispa) and, three subfamilies (Symphrasinae, Drepanicinae, and Mantispinae) occur in Colombia. In addition, A. eurydella (Westwood), C. amapaensis Penny and P. fasciatella (Westwood) are redescribed, providing complementary information to the original descriptions. A list of Colombian Mantispidae, distribution maps and taxonomic keys to subfamilies, genera and species are included. Illustrations of the external morphology and male genitalia are provided for selected species. The taxonomic status of P. hagenella (Westwood) is discussed, and its diagnostic characters are redefined. Anchieta remipes (Gerstaecker) is newly transferred to this genus from Trichoscelia.

  12. South America: everybody is drilling almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A group of studies describes accomplishments in 1980 in South America drilling and producing. There may be 3285 wells drilled during 1980, with the majority in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru, compared with a 2934 total for all countries on the continent in 1979. Reserves at the end of 1979 in South America exceeded 27 billion bbl, and production averaged 3.8 million bpd. Individual country reports are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Urauguay, and Guyana.

  13. Late Devonian acanthodians from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrow, Carole J.; Janvier, Philippe; Villarroel, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Acanthodian remains occur in micaceous siltstone lenses (presumed to have been deposited during a marine incursion) in the Cuche Formation (?Frasnian) of northeast Colombia. The acanthodians are represented by patches of scales from climatiidid Nostolepis sp. cf. N. gaujensis and a fin spine and scales from a new diplacanthid. Type material of N. gaujensis is from the Frasnian Sventoji regional stage in the Baltic, and Nostolepis sp. cf. N. gaujensis has been recorded in the Frasnian of Iran, as well as from Colombia. The new diplacanthid taxon shows affinity to Baltic and Antarctic diplacanthids. The fauna thus shows possible links to both Gondwanan and Euramerican acanthodian assemblages.

  14. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  15. Diatoms from lentic and lotic systems in Antioquia, Chocó and Santander Departments in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sala, Silvia E; Ramírez, John J; Plata, Yasmín

    2008-09-01

    In the tropical and subtropical regions, there is a large number of species which has not been yet described. The high possibility of extinction makes their inventory a priority. In this paper, 23 diatoms taxa from Andean lotic systems and lentic waterbodies localized in the Departments of Antioquia, Santander and Chocó, Colombia, are analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Each taxon is described and information about environmental characteristic of the sites where they were collected and distribution in Colombia is given. The studied taxa belong to the orders Thalassiosirales (1), Aulacoseirales (1), Fragilariales (4), Cymbellales (7), Achnanthales (2), Naviculales (7), and Thalassiophysales (1). Fifteen of them are recorded for the first time in Colombia and Encyonema jemtlandicum in South America. A comparison with the diatom flora of the Colombian Amazonia showed that there were only three taxa in common to these two equatorial regions probably due to the influence of altitudinal gradient.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO

    PubMed Central

    FACCINI-MARTÍNEZ, Álvaro A.; BOTERO-GARCÍA, Carlos A.; HIDALGO, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence of R. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas for R. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia. PMID:27074327

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS TO RICKETTSIOSES RESEARCH IN COLOMBIA (1917-1943), LUIS B. PATIÑO CAMARGO.

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Botero-García, Carlos A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-01-01

    Colombian physician Luis Benigno Patiño Camargo was one of the pioneers in the study of rickettsioses in South America, demonstrating for the first time in Colombia the presence of Rickettsia rickettsii as the etiological agent of a highly deadly exanthematic febrile syndrome in the 1930s. However, Patiño-Camargo performed other investigations from 1917-1943, which represent the first descriptions and scientific evidence of the presence of R. prowazekii and R. typhi in Colombia. Almost 60 years after the latest research conducted by Dr. Patiño-Camargo, rickettsioses were again a matter of interest and research. In the last decade over 20 research studies have been published, showing new endemic areas for R. rickettsii, as well as the description of new rickettsial species in Colombia.

  18. First Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase VIM-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Lolans, Karen; del Rosario Olivera, Maria; Suarez, Carlos José; Correa, Adriana; Queenan, Anne Marie; Quinn, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Colombia, as in many South American countries, are high for reasons that remain unclear. From our nationwide network, we describe the first detection of the metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from multiple cities within Colombia. Metallo-β-lactamases were not detected in the two centers with the highest imipenem resistance rates. Clonality was noted in five of the eight centers with strains meeting the criteria for molecular typing. The high carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa in Colombia may be attributable to a combination of factors, including the presence of metallo-β-lactamases and nosocomial transmission. PMID:16377690

  19. Computer aided solar house design made of ``Guadua`` in Bogota, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.C.; Chalfoun, N.V.

    1995-11-01

    Bogota, Colombia, is the third highest capital in South America, its location near the equator assures high altitudes over the horizon and almost 5 hours of daily mean sunshine. Since 1981, efforts for using natural energy instead of nonrenewable fuel have been targeted to Colombia`s residential construction industry. This paper focuses on a computer aided design process for passive solar low-income row housing in Bogota. Thermal comfort for this tropical climate has been achieved through employing ``Guadua,`` a strong bamboo specie,as an alternative wall system to the traditional brick, adobe, or concrete structures. Through computer analysis, several energy conservation and passive solar strategies have been optimized for a case study row housing type common to the region. The load savings compared to a 6 inch CMU house totaled 72%, while the operating cost has been reduced by 71%. Furthermore, this lightweight and inexpensive ``Guadua`` material has reduced the construction cost by 30%.

  20. Etiologic agent of an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tolima, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Góngora, Rafael; Prager, Martín; Pacheco, Robinson; Montero, Luz Mery; Navas, Adriana; Ferro, Cristina; Miranda, Maria Consuelo; Saravia, Nancy G

    2008-02-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has been characterized as a zoonotic disease. However, peridomestic and domestic transmission have been recorded in at least nine countries in Central and South America. The present study was undertaken to identify the etiologic agent of a peridomestic epidemic of ACL in the Department of Tolima, Colombia. Leishmania isolates were obtained during the diagnosis of 56 patients with ACL who consulted the local leishmaniasis control program in three municipalities in Tolima. Species were identified using monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 53 (94.6%) of 56 isolates were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Three isolates (5.4%) were identified as L. (V.) panamensis. Leishmania (V.) guyanensis is the probable etiologic agent of the largest epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Colombia. This species has not previously been reported outside the Amazon and southeastern regions of Colombia, and has not been described in the peridomestic setting or linked with an epidemic.

  1. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease.

  2. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  3. Biblored, Colombia's Innovative Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero, Maria Cristina

    This report describes Biblored, the library network in Bogota, Colombia, that received the 2002 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award. Biblored is a network of 19 libraries that attract about 200,000 users per month and serve some of the poorest neighborhoods in Bogota. The network's success in making information and…

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  5. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  6. Bogota--Colombia's thriving capital.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1987-05-01

    Like most of its Latin American counterparts, Colombia is rapidly urbanizing. Home to 20% of Colombia's urban population and the largest industrial agglomeration in the nation, Bogota shares its dominance with several other large Colombian cities. Projections compiled from the 1973 census--the latest census available-- project the 1980 population of Bogota at 4 to 5.1 million. Government estimates peg Bogota's 1990 population at 8.5 million people. Most of Bogota's best neighborhoods now lie to the north of the city. On the whole, housing contrasts in Bogota are not as stark as in some other Latin American cities, although the estimated 1980 housing deficit of 210,000 units led to significant self-help construction. Women have made dramatic in-roads into equalizing educational attainment with men. Among the city's most important problems is unemployment. Completed family size in Bogota has plummeted since the inception of family planning programs in the early 1960s. Between 1956 and 1973, Colombia's per capita income increased by about 45%, but the increase was more rapid in Bogota, where per capita incomes in 1970 were about 60% higher than the national average. Much of the current in-depth data on Bogota comes from the World Bank research project known as the City Study. Much of the data in this profile of Bogota came from the analysis of this survey data, presented in World Bank Research publications. Rather than from Colombia's last census of 1973.

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

  8. Solving Colombia’s Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    parties for political control during the period from 1948 to 1953.15 “During this period, referred to as ‘La Violencia ,’ groups of armed men paid by...surprise to those familiar with the Colombia government history of mishandling foreign aid in the war against drugs and in their parallel inability to

  9. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  10. A Hidden Markov Model of Daily Precipitation over Western Colombia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo Hernández, Julián; Lall, Upmanu; Mesa Sanchez, Oscar

    2017-04-01

    A Hidden Markov Model of Daily Precipitation over Western Colombia. The western Pacific coast of Colombia (Chocó Region) is among the rainiest on earth, largely due to low level jet activity and orographic lifting along the western Andes. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to characterize daily rainfall occurrence at 250 gauge stations over the Western Pacific coast and Andean plateau in Colombia during the wet season (September - November) from 1970 to 2015. Four ''hidden'' rainfall states are identified, with the first pair representing wet and dry conditions at all stations, and the second pair North-West to South-East gradients in rainfall occurrence. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1979-2012) we show that the first pair of states are associated with low level jet convergence and divergence, while the second pair is associated with South Atlantic Convergence Zone activity and local convection. The estimated daily state-sequence is characterized by a systematic seasonal evolution, together with considerable variability on intraseasonal and interannual time scales, exhibiting a strong relationship with ENSO. Finally, a nonhomogeneous HMM (NHMM) is then used to simulate daily precipitation occurrence at the 250 stations, using the ERA-Interim vertically integrated moisture flux anomalies (two weeks lagged) and monthly means of the sea surface temperatures (one month lagged). Simulations from the NHMM are found to reproduce the relationship between the ENSO and the western Colombian precipitation. The NHMM simulations are also able to capture interannual changes in daily rainfall occurrence and dry-wet frequencies at some individual stations. It is suggested that a) HMM provides a useful tool that contributes to characterizing the Colombian's Hydro-Meteorology and it's anomalies during the ENSO, and b) the NHMM is an important tool to produce station-scale daily rainfall sequence scenarios for input into hydrological models.

  11. Cutaneous melanoma attributable to solar radiation in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Esther; Amador, Julio R; Rincon, Carlos Javier; Uribe, Claudia; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2017-05-01

    Estimating the population attributable fraction (PAF) of melanomas due to sun exposure is challenging as there are no unexposed population nor reliable exposure data. In high incidence countries, a historic cohort of the South Thames cancer registry was used as a minimally exposed population using the formula PAF = (observed incidence-incidence in minimally exposure)/observed incidence. In this study, we apply this method, constructing a minimally exposed cohort for Colombia and also using the historical South Thames data, using melanoma incidence data from the population-based cancer registry of Cali, Colombia for the period 1967-2012. The historic cohort incidence rates were very similar to those of Thames, but cohort effects were smaller for women and nonexistent for men. Age-specific incidence rates of these minimally exposed cohorts were applied to recent population numbers. For females, PAFs were 19% using the historic Thames cohort and 25% using the historic Cali cohort, corresponding numbers for males were 62% (vs. Thames) and 0% (vs. Cali). Taking into account the incidence rates of acral melanomas, which are not sun related, the PAF increased in women to 26% (vs. Thames) and 34% (vs. Cali) and for men 77% (vs. Thames). This exercise shows the modest contribution of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the burden of melanoma in low-incidence countries, as well as the importance to take into consideration the acral lentiginous melanomas. © 2017 UICC.

  12. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide.

  13. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... , Colombia (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission). Trade mission... Commercial Officers from the Western Hemisphere during the business forum. This mission is open to U.S..., U.S. exports to South and Central America plus the Caribbean totaled $205 billion. Market...

  14. El Proyecto Universidad Desescolarizada: A Feasibility Study of Teaching at a Distance in Colombia, S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Arthur; Arboleda, Jairo

    1979-01-01

    Plans for a nationwide system of education at a distance in Colombia, South America, are now under way to meet growing demands for higher education and to decentralize the current university system. Prior to this decision, a feasibility project was undertaken by the University of Antioquia. The project and results are reported. (Author/JMD)

  15. Overview of exploration potential of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno, R.; Kanes, W.H.

    1989-03-01

    The sedimentary basins of Colombia, including the Llanos, Putumayo, Upper Magdalena, Middle Magdalena, Lower Magdalena-Sinu, Cauca-Patia, Cesar-Rancheria, Guajira, and Chaco-Pacifico basins, are placed in a comprehensive geologic framework. All basins are related to the tectonic evolution of northwestern South America. Basin stratigraphic packages are defined for each sequence, and this sequence stratigraphy is related to the following events: (1) pre-Cretaceous tectonic fabric, (2) docking of the Amaime and Cordillera Occidental terranes, (3) eastward movement of the Caribbean plate, (4) accretion of the Baudo terrane and the welding of Central America, and (5) Miocene-Holocene plate collision. Brief overview of basin exploration histories suggest that early established tectonic trends tend to undergo repeated deformation and are an important factor in the accumulation of major hydrocarbon reserves. This is particularly true where basement inversion or broad regional cross structures are present. Also, the amount of wrench faulting and its effect on migration paths and trap formation is still incompletely understood but undoubtedly has a strong influence in the formation of large fields. As more regional studies are made and detailed studies are synthesized in light of regional structural and stratigraphic patterns, significant additional hydrocarbon discoveries should be forthcoming.

  16. Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Nihei, Silvio S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De

    2016-06-14

    Colombia has an imposing natural wealth due to its topography has many unique characteristics as a consequence of having Caribbean and Pacific shores, as well as sharing part of the Amazon basin and northern Andes mountains. Thus, many natural and biological features are due to the convergence of three biogeographical regions: Pacific, Andes and Amazonia. The Andean uplift created a complex mosaic of mountains and isolated valleys, including eleven biogeographical provinces (Morrone 2006). The Andes dominate the Colombian topography and cross the country south to north. There are three mountain ranges (Western, Central, and Eastern) with a maximum elevation of 5,775 m, and an average elevation of 2,000 m. The Magdalena and Cauca River valleys separate these ranges, that along with the Putumayo and Caquetá Rivers, the Catatumbo watershed, the Darién, Pique Hill, the Orinoquia Region (with its savannas), the Amazon region (with tropical rainforests), and some lower mountain ranges (Macarena and Chiribiquete), have generated the conditions for very high levels of endemism. This variety of conditions has resulted in an extremely diverse plant and animal biota, and in which 48% of the nation remains unexplored.

  17. Petroleum geology of Llanos basin of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.A.; Pena, L.E.; Munoz, F.; Cristancho, J.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Llanos basin is located in eastern Colombia between the Guyana shield and the Cordillera Oriental, the most easterly branch of the Andes. Currently, the basin produces 224,000 bbl of oil/day from a mixed marine and continental section that ranges in age from Cenomanian to Holocene and reaches over 7500 m in thickness. It is important to realize that until the Pliocene the basin lacked an independent existence; rather, it formed the nearshore sector of a much larger depocenter that opened westward to the Pacific and northward to the Caribbean. The bulk of the oil accumulated in the Llanos was probably generated outside the present basin from a much more extensive marine Cretaceous section that crops out in the Cordillera. Subsurface pressure data indicate that these rocks are now isolated from the Llanos, implying generation and primary migration before the elevation of the Cordillera in the early Pliocene. Oil accumulations are mostly fault controlled and fall into three classes. The giant Cano Limon complex in the north is closed against a lateral fault that appears to be a rejuvenation of a regional pre-Cretaceous normal fault. The central Llanos fields of Casanare are controlled by north-south-trending up-to-the-basin normal faults. The Apiay-Castilla fields to the south, a short distance from the mountain front, are located on an anticlinal trend bounded to the east by a high-angle reverse fault that also appears to have had horizontal movement. Oil gravity varies widely, from below 10/degree/ to 40/degree/ API, with most of the reserves in the 30/degree/ API range. However, with very few exceptions and regardless of the gravity, the oil has an abnormally low dissolved-gas content. To date, with relatively low density of drilling, over 1.3 billion bbl of oil have been discovered and prospects for further major discoveries are excellent.

  18. PLAN COLOMBIA: Some Differing Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    units to their frontier with Colombia. Peru, while President Fujimori was in charge, showed a willingness even to confront the guerrillas militarily...contrast to the position of former President Fujimori of Peru, President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela has shown evident sympathy for the Colombian...could be temporary, as well as an early end to acts of personal terrorism . These agreements would be effective tests of whether both sides in the

  19. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Studies of Mosquitoes of the Genus Haemagogus in Colombia (Diptera, Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg., 43: 13-28. Lane, J. 1953. Neotropical Culicidae...malariae and P. ovale). Female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the exclusive vectors of human malaria. During feeding, the mosquito ingests...birds are implicated reservoirs. The biting midge, Culicoides paraensis, is a proven vector. Culex quinquefasciatus is also capable of transmission

  20. Cerrejon puts Colombia in spotlight

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, P.C.

    1983-11-01

    The Cerrejon project in Colombia is described. Production will commence within 2 years and the operation is likely to become one of the largest bituminous coal mines in the world, scheduled to produce 15 million t/y by opencast working. The geology of the site is indicated. Of the 55 seams, 40 will be worked during the lifetime of the mine. All the coal is destined for export.

  1. A Critique of Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-17

    U.S . Department of State A paper submitted to the faculty of the Naval...Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S . Department of State . March 2005. <http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcpt/2005/vol1/html/42363.htm> [26 April 2005...www.lawg.org/Misc/Publications.htm> [15 May 2005]. “Support for Plan Colombia.” U.S . Department of State .

  2. Seismic anisotropy and slab dynamics from SKS splitting recorded in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Becker, Thorsten W.; Monsalve, Gaspar

    2014-12-01

    The Nazca, Caribbean, and South America plates meet in northwestern South America where the northern end of the Andean volcanic arc and Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity indicate ongoing subduction. However, the termination of Quaternary volcanism at ~5.5°N and eastward offset in seismicity underneath Colombia suggest the presence of complex slab geometry. To help link geometry to dynamics, we analyze SKS splitting for 38 broadband stations of the Colombian national network. Measurements of fast polarization axes in western Colombia close to the trench show dominantly trench-perpendicular orientations. Orientations measured at stations in the back arc, farther to the east, however, abruptly change to roughly trench parallel anisotropy. This may indicate along-arc mantle flow, possibly related to the suggested "Caldas" slab tear, or a lithospheric signature, but smaller-scale variations in anisotropy remain to be explained. Our observations are atypical globally and challenge our understanding of the complexities of subduction zone seismic anisotropy.

  3. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  4. Interpretation of ERTS-MSS images of a Savanna area in eastern Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elberson, G. W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for extrapolating existing soil maps into unmapped areas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia, South America is discussed. Interpretations of ERTS-1 data were made according to conventional photointerpretation techniques. Most units delineated in the existing reconnaissance soil map at a scale of 1:250,000 could be recognized and delineated in the ERTS image. The methods of interpretation are described and the results obtained for specific areas are analyzed.

  5. Potential role for Colombia and Venezuela in Pacific Rim coal trade

    SciTech Connect

    Dials, G.E.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we are going to focus on the role that two of the new entrants into the international coal market, Colombia and Venezuela, could play in a segment of the Pacific Rim Market. We will analyze their potential market capabilities and actions in terms of meeting the international coal trade demands of Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. 13 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. A new species of Heterachthes Newman, 1840 from Colombia (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Botero, Juan Pablo

    2017-02-13

    Heterachthes was originally created by Newman (1840) for a single species from the United States of America (Florida): H. ebenus Newman, 1840. Currently, Heterachthes encompasses 68 species distributed to southern USA to southern South America (Monné 2016; Tavakilian and Chevillotte 2016). Of these species, six occur in Colombia: H. concretus, Martins, 1970; H. ebenus; H. lateralis Martins, 1962; H. sablensis Blatchley, 1920; H. signaticollis (Thomson, 1865); and H. vauriae Martins, 1971.

  7. Historical Seismicity of the Algeciras Fault System, Southwestern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicangana, G.; Gomez-Capera, A.; Salcedo-Hurtado, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Algeciras Fault System (AFS) is located in the Eastern Cordillera south western Colombia. This fault system has been allocated at least four big earthquakes in the last 230 years. In this work we describe the macroseismic intensities of these earthquakes not only to its epicentral zone but also in others places as Bogotá metropolitan area far from AFS more of 200 km. The AFS is shaped by three thrust faults. From north to south these are Guayuriba Fault with with 160 km of lengh, the Algeciras Fault with 149 km of lengh, and the Garzon - Pitalito Fault with 128 km of lengh. The big earthquakes, whose macroseismic data are analyzed here, its that of the 1785 (M=6.8) event, for which the Guayuriba Fault was related; it caused heavy damage in Bogotá and Neiva. This fault also produced the 1917 (6.9Ms) earthquake which significantly affected to Bogotá and Villavicencio. The 1967 earthquake (7.2Mw) is related to the Algeciras Fault; this event was very destructive in rural villages of Huila Department and caused significant damage in Bogotá and Neiva. With the latter earthquake high vulnerability was evident in the Bogota metropolitan area front to a large event ocurred by this fault system. The 16 November 1827 (M=7.3) earthquake ocurred on the Garzon - Pitalito Fault and was felt throughout the whole Andean region of Colombia. This event produced high intensities both in Bogota like in Popayan, Neiva, Pasto and where today are located the cities of Armenia, Manizales and Pereira toward west of Colombia. These lattest cities were founded in the second half of nineteen century after happened this earthquake. From historical seismicity review, we can determine the scope of seismic hazard for this fault system which not only affects its area of influence but also the center and west of the country, a región inhabited by more than 65% of the population of Colombia.

  8. Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

  9. Barriers to Combating Human Trafficking in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    developing 107 La Republica de Colombia Decreto 1974 de 1996, 1974, vol. 42.912, 1996, http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/decreto_1974_1996.htm...x=37. La Republica de Colombia Decreto 1974 de 1996. 1974. Vol. 42.912, 1996. http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/decreto_1974_1996.htm

  10. Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

  11. Discoveries, high potential spur interest in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    Colombia's Llanos basin offers the chance of discovering giant stratigraphic fields. Small to medium structural fields are also attractive thanks to the terms of Colombia's association contracts. This work reviews Llanos geology and recent discoveries, and outlines Ecopetrol's drilling and completion practices.

  12. How Military Actions Affected Citizen Security During Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Paper No. 700, Banco de la Republica , Bogotá, Colombia, 2012), 3. 35 Colombia in a positive light. USAID provides a typical example, declaring, “Plan...First Version of the Democratic Security Policy in Colombia.” Working Paper No. 700, Banco de la Republica , Bogotá, Colombia, 2012. ———. “Plan

  13. Colombia an approach to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales, O.

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre- Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phas e of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  14. Case report: microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Ojeda, Carolina; Arboleda, Janna; Arrieta, German; Bosch, Irene; Botia, Ingrid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Perez-Yepes, Carlos; Gerhke, Lee; Montero, German

    2017-06-13

    Recently there has been a large outbreak of Zika virus infections in Colombia, South America. The epidemic began in September 2015 and continued to April 2017, for the total number of Zika cases reported of 107,870. For those confirmed Zika cases, there were nearly 20,000 (18.5%) suspected to be pregnant women, resulting in 157 confirmed cases of microcephaly in newborns reported by their health government agency. There is a clear under-estimation of the total number of cases and in addition no prior publications have been published to demonstrate the clinical aspects of the Zika infection in Colombia. We characterized one Zika presentation to be able to compare and contrast with other cases of Zika infection already reported in the literature. In this case report, we demonstrate congenital microcephaly at week 19 of gestation in a 34-year-old mother who showed symptoms compatible with Zika virus infection from Sincelejo, State of Sucre, in the Colombian Caribbean. Zika virus RNA was detected in the placenta using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At week 25, the fetus weigh estimate was 770 g, had a cephalic perimeter of 20.2 cm (5th percentile), ventriculomegaly on the right side and dilatation of the fourth ventricle. At week 32, the microcephaly was confirmed with a cephalic perimeter of 22 cm, dilatation of the posterior atrium to 13 mm, an abnormally small cerebellum (29 mm), and an augmented cisterna magna. At birth (39 weeks by cesarean section), the head circumference was 27.5 cm, and computerized axial tomography (Siemens Corp, 32-slides) confirmed microcephaly with calcifications. We report a first case of maternal Zika virus infection associated with fetal microcephaly in Colombia and confirmed similar presentation to those observed previous in Brazil, 2015-2016.

  15. Projected Issues in the Preparation of Educational Administrators: Viewed from the South American Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Carlos Correa

    This paper presents representative aspects of the preparation of educational administrators in South America, using information collected from a series of documents presented in 1977 at an Organization of American States conference. The situation in each of 10 South American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,…

  16. Leioproctus rosellae sp. n., the first record of the genus from northern South America (Hymenoptera, Colletidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Florez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Leioproctus Smith is a diverse colletine genus found in the Australian region and primarily temperate areas of South America. A new species of Leioproctus subgenus Perditomorpha Ashmead, Leioproctus rosellae Gonzalez, sp. n., from a tropical dry forest of the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. This is the first record of the genus from northern South America. PMID:22287881

  17. [Triatoma dimidiata in Colombia: Distribution, ecology and epidemiological importance].

    PubMed

    Quirós-Gómez, Óscar; Jaramillo, Nicolás; Angulo, Víctor; Parra-Henao, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of Chagas disease in Central America and countries of northern South America. In Colombia, it has a wide geographical distribution with reported presence in 14 departments in the Andean, Caribbean, Eastern plains and Upper Magdalena regions, where it occupies different natural and artificial ecotopes. The species is considered a secondary vector in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Its presence in wild, peridomestic and intradomiciliary habitats in the Andean region, coupled with its ability to move between them, has allowed it to escape the control based on pyrethroids spraying, highlighting its importance in maintaining transmission of the parasite through the potential reinfestation of homes.Understanding the relation of T. dimidiata and its habitats, as well as the empowerment of communities, will contribute to the development of effective and lasting control systems.The purpose of this review was to describe the distribution, risk factors, ecology, entomological features and habitats of T. dimidiata populations in Colombia, and to propose alternative interventions in agreement with the specific characteristics of the species.

  18. [Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia.

  19. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  20. Colombia staying the course on oil policies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Colombia plans to stay the course on oil policies that turned it into a significant crude exporter in the 1980s. Colombia's Minister of Mines and Energy Luis Fernando Vergara Munarriz said the new administration of President Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, elected May 27, 1990, essentially will maintain the previous administration's policies covering oil, gas, and petrochemical sectors. A strong exploration and development program pushed by state oil company Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (Ecopetrol) separately and in concert with foreign operating companies have made energy the mainspring of Colombia's economic growth the past few years, broadening its economic base significantly.

  1. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.

  2. Pediatric Uveitis: Experience in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lonngi, Marcela; Aguilar, María Camila; Ríos, Hernán Andrés; Aristizábal-Duque, Cristhian H; Rodríguez, Francisco José; de-la-Torre, Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    To describe the clinical features of uveitis in children treated at two ophthalmologic centers in Bogotá, Colombia, in a 13 year-period. Retrospective observational clinical record review of pediatric children with diagnosis of uveitis. In total, 310 children were evaluated, 51.9% were female, mean age of 10.1 years. Posterior uveitis was the most common location (58.7%), of insidious onset (87.4%) and chronic course (78.1%). The most common etiology was infection (58.4%) caused by toxoplasmosis (76.8%). There was a statistically significant difference in visual acuity between anterior (20/68) and intermediate uveitis (20/70), compared with posterior uveitis (20/434) (p<0.05). This is the first study to report the clinical features of pediatric uveitis in Colombia, where infectious etiologies are the leading cause. It will improve awareness and knowledge of pediatric uveitis in developing countries, and contribute to the development of public health policies of pediatric visual health. Received 12 September 2015; revised 23 February 2016; accepted 25 February 2016; published online 18 May 2016.

  3. Colombia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that despite the usual violent interference from drug lords and the guerilla group ELN (National Liberation Army), Colombia's upstream sector continues to chug along. Production was up again last year, foreign operators are still signing exploration contracts, and a new pipeline complex connecting smaller producing oil fields with terminal facilities should bring another 80,000 bpd of capacity onstream by the end of this year. Officials intend to keep this pace of development moving along if they can, but they acknowledge that the rate that reserves are replaced must increase if Colombia is to avoid becoming a net importer by 1996. Operators added only 140 MMbbl from 1988 through 1990 versus a government target of 400 MMbbl. Exploration and development must be expanded, but Ecopetrol is hamstrung to do much more on its own. With the government draining revenue for domestic needs, Ecopetrol actually may have to slow down from current funding levels. So an increase in foreign operators' activity is needed.

  4. South American oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  5. Coal in Colombia and Venezuela: Production, transportation and export logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.

    1998-12-31

    The coal seams uplifted by the Perija and Sierra Nevada de Santa marta Mountains along the border of Colombia and Venezuela are high quality reserves with low mining ratios that are in close proximity to the coast. Since the late 70`s and early 80`s, various mining developments have increased the production of these reserves to its current level of 37 million tons per year. Most of the production is shipped to European and to North and South American markets. Further exploitation of these reserves will require significant investments in mine development, inland transportation, and port facilities. This paper will summarize the current status of the Colombian and Venezuelan coal industry, as well as the potential and challenges for increased production and exportation.

  6. Integrated exploration workflow in the south Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Isabelle; Charry, German Rodriguez; Morales, Marcela Mayorga; Mondragon, Juan Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The HC exploration is presently active in the southern part of the Middle Magdalena Valley but only moderate size discoveries have been made up to date. The majority of these discoveries are at shallow depth in the Tertiary section. The structures located in the Valley are faulted anticlines charged by lateral migration from the Cretaceous source rocks that are assumed to be present and mature eastward below the main thrusts and the Guaduas Syncline. Upper Cretaceous reservoirs have also been positively tested. To reduce the risks linked to the exploration of deeper structures below the western thrusts of the Eastern Cordillera, an integrated study was carried out. It includes the acquisition of new seismic data, the integration of all surface and subsurface data within a 3D-geomodel, a quality control of the structural model by restoration and a modeling of the petroleum system (presence and maturity of the Cretaceous source rocks, potential migration pathways). The various steps of this workflow will be presented as well as the main conclusions in term of source rock, deformation phases and timing of the thrust emplacement versus oil maturation and migration. Our data suggest (or confirm) The good potential of the Umir Fm as a source rock. The early (Paleogene) deformation of the Bituima Trigo fault area. The maturity gap within the Cretaceous source rock between the hangingwall and footwall of the Bituima fault that proves an initial offset of Cretaceous burial in the range of 4.5 km between the Upper Cretaceous series westward and the Lower Cretaceous ones eastward of this fault zone. The post Miocene weak reactivation as dextral strike slip of Cretaceous faults such as the San Juan de Rio Seco fault that corresponds to change in the Cretaceous thickness and therefore in the depth of the thrust decollement.

  7. Geodynamics of the northern Andes: Subductions and intracontinental deformation (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Luis A.; Fuenzalida, AndréS.; Cisternas, Armando; Philip, Hervé; Bijwaard, Harmen; Olaya, José; Rivera, Clara

    2000-10-01

    New regional seismological data acquired in Colombia during 1993 to 1996 and tectonic field data from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) permit a reexamination of the complex geodynamics of northwestern South America. The effect of the accretion of the Baudó-Panama oceanic arc, which began 12 Myr ago, is highlighted in connection with mountain building in the EC. The Istmina and Ibagué faults in the south and the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga fault to the northeast limit an E-SE moving continental wedge. Progressive indentation of the wedge is absorbed along reverse faults located in the foothills of the Cordilleras (northward of 5°N) and transpressive deformation in the Santander Massif. Crustal seismicity in Colombia is accurately correlated with active faults showing neotectonic morphological evidences. Intermediate seismicity allows to identify a N-NE trending subduction segment beneath the EC, which plunges toward the E-SE. This subduction is interpreted as a remnant of the paleo-Caribbean plateau (PCP) as suggested by geological and tomographic profiles. The PCP shows a low-angle subduction northward of 5.2°N and is limited southward by a major E-W transpressive shear zone. Normal oceanic subduction of the Nazca plate (NP) ends abruptly at the southern limit of the Baudó Range. Northward, the NP subducts beneath the Chocó block, overlapping the southern part of the PCP. Cenozoic shortening in the EC estimated from a balanced section is ˜120 km. Stress analysis of fault slip data in the EC (northward of 4°N), indicates an ˜E-SE orientation of σ1 in agreement with the PCP subduction direction. Northward, near Bucaramanga, two stress solutions were observed: (1) a late Andean N80°E compression and (2) an early Andean NW-SE compression.

  8. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M.; Ayala, Martha S.; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology. PMID:27328969

  9. Taxonomy, diversity, temporal and geographical distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M; Ayala, Martha S; Flórez, Carolina; González, Camila

    2016-06-22

    Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World (NW) species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems. Herein, we conducted a systematic estimation of the Leishmania species causing CL in Colombia from 1980 to 2001 via molecular typing and isoenzymes. A total of 327 Leishmania isolates from humans, sandflies and reservoirs were typed as L. panamensis 61.3% (201), L. braziliensis 27.1% (88), L. lainsoni 0.6% (2), L. guyanensis 0.9% (3), L. infantum chagasi 4% (12), L. equatoriensis 0.6% (2), L. mexicana 2.1% (8), L. amazonensis 2.8% (9) and L. colombiensis 0.6% (2). This is the first report of two new Leishmania species circulating in Colombia and suggests the need to convince the Colombian government about the need to deploy and standardize tools for the species identification to provide adequate management to individuals suffering this pathology.

  10. Energy and natural resource policies in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaPedraja, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite being richly endowed with mineral, metal, and water resources, Colombia has enjoyed neither economic prosperity nor abundant energy. This book explores the history and development of Colombia's petroleum, natural gas, electric, coal, and atomic energy industries. The author surveys the political and economic factors - both domestic and international - that have shaped the nation's energy and resource policies during the last fifty years. The book revolves around two central issues: Why has the role of the Colombian state in energy matters grown so vastly while private sector involvement has diminished drastically Why has the state consistently followed policies that have hindered rather than helped the development of Colombia's energy resources The author concludes that the defense of class interests in Colombia has been the real motivation behind the nation's energy policies.

  11. Colombia - A Case Study in Smart Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    the case of Colombia : (1) alliances, partnerships, and institutions; (2) global development; (3) public diplomacy; (4) economic integration; and...proved crucial to expanding presence and influence, and later in the decade even included a number of public - private partnerships. As to war ownership...Office, 3. 96Ibid. 97Beittel, 33. 98U.S. Department of State, Colombia U.S. Foreign Assistance Performance Publication FY 2009, http

  12. Area Handbook Series: Colombia: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Units of Constant Purchasing Power ( Unidades de Poder Adquisitivo Constante-UPAC), a system by which an investment not only accrued interest but also was...Colombia joined the Latin American Economic Sys- tem ( Sistema Econ6mica Latinoamericana-SELA), which was created in 1975 to promote regional cooperation on...Bernardo, ii Celam), 116 351 Colombia: A Country Study Latin American Economic System L6pez Michelsen, Alfonso, 44, 46, 53-54, ( Sistema Econ6mica

  13. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Reason, Iara J. de Messias; Howard, Michael S.; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim: We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods: By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of EPF, including data described almost one century ago; and, to include several unindexed reports, which may have not been available to many current scientists and health care personnel. Results: Foci of EPF have been described in several Central American and South American countries, affecting predominately young people and Amerindians, with an additional female predilection. Although most cases have occurred in Brazil, some cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Venezuela. Another variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, another type of EPF was described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Conclusion: Our understanding of EPF has been hampered by a lack of government attention to these diseases, especially in some South and Central American countries. Other factors that have made past studies of EPF difficult include 1) that the disease foci are often located in rural areas bordering the rain forest of underdeveloped countries; and 2) military conflicts in some of these areas. PMID:22624115

  14. A new species of Oozetetes De Santis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) from Colombia with an updated key for the bucheri species-group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Benavides, A Lucia; Serna, Francisco; Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-02-26

    Oozetetes lucidus sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is described from Colombia, South America, and through macrophotography compared with all described species in the bucheri species-group of Oozetetes De Santis. An illustrated key modified from Gibson (2004) is provided to distinguish females of the six described species of this group.

  15. Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Romero, Solangy; Alonso, Milena; Hernandez-Cuervo, Helena; Yunis, Emilio J.; Yunis, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the frequency of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in 424 individuals from 21 Colombian Amerindian tribes. Our results showed a high degree of mtDNA diversity and genetic heterogeneity. Frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups A and C were high in the majority of populations studied. The distribution of these four mtDNA haplogroups from Amerindian populations was different in the northern region of the country compared to those in the south. Haplogroup A was more frequently found among Amerindian tribes in northern Colombia, while haplogroup D was more frequent among tribes in the south. Haplogroups A, C and D have clinal tendencies in Colombia and South America in general. Populations belonging to the Chibcha linguistic family of Colombia and other countries nearby showed a strong genetic differentiation from the other populations tested, thus corroborating previous findings. Genetically, the Ingano, Paez and Guambiano populations are more closely related to other groups of south eastern Colombia, as also inferred from other genetic markers and from archeological data. Strong evidence for a correspondence between geographical and linguistic classification was found, and this is consistent with evidence that gene flow and the exchange of customs and knowledge and language elements between groups is facilitated by close proximity. PMID:23885195

  16. An Energy Overview of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  17. El Espanol Hablado en Pamplona (Colombia) (Spanish Spoken in Pamplona, Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza Barrios, Jorge Enrique

    1974-01-01

    Using two informants and the questionnaires of the "Linguistic and Ethnographic Atlas of Colombia," a linguistic corpus of Pamplona, Colombia, was derived. Regional speech characteristics are discussed here, including use of vowels and consonants, reversing sound position, elision, and lexical anomalies. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Evidence of purifying selection in the E1 gene.

    PubMed

    Laiton-Donato, Katherine; Usme-Ciro, José A; Rico, Angélica; Pardo, Lissethe; Martínez, Camilo; Salas, Daniela; Ardila, Susanne; Páez, Andrés

    2015-10-23

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus that belongs to the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Its genome is 11.8 kb in length, and three genotypes have been identified worldwide: Asian, East/Central/South African (ECSA) and West African. Chikungunya fever is an acute febrile disease transmitted by Aedes spp. that usually presents with polyarthralgia and cutaneous eruption. Following introduction of the virus to the Americas in 2013, the first cases in Colombia occurred in September of 2014, and they reached a cumulative total of 399,932 cases by June of 2015.  To identify the genotype or genotypes responsible for the current epidemic in Colombia and to describe the genetic variability of the virus in the country.  Serum samples from patients presenting with symptoms compatible with Chikungunya fever during 2014-2015 were selected for the study. RT-PCR products of the E1 gene from these samples were used for sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic and adaptive evolution analyses.  The study identified only the presence of the Asian genotype in Colombia. Comparing the Colombian sequences with other sequences from the Americas revealed an average of 0.001 base substitutions per site, with 99.7% and 99.9% nucleotide identity and 99.9% amino acid identity. The adaptive evolution analysis indicated that the E1 gene is under strong purifying selection.  The first epidemic of Chikunguya fever in Colombia was caused by the circulation of the virus Asian genotype. Further genotypic surveillance of the virus in Colombia is required to detect possible changes in its epidemiology, fitness and pathogenicity.

  19. Simultaneous circulation of genotypes I and III of dengue virus 3 in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Usme-Ciro, Jose A; Mendez, Jairo A; Tenorio, Antonio; Rey, Gloria J; Domingo, Cristina; Gallego-Gomez, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia, dengue viruses (DENV) cause about 50,000 cases annually, 10% of which involve Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome. The picture is similar in other surrounding countries in the Americas, with recent outbreaks of severe disease, mostly associated with DENV serotype 3, strains of the Indian genotype, introduced into the Americas in 1994. Results The analysis of the 3'end (224 bp) of the envelope gene from 32 DENV-3 strains recently recovered in Colombia confirms the circulation of the Indian genotype, and surprisingly the co-circulation of an Asian-Pacific genotype only recently described in the Americas. Conclusion These results have important implications for epidemiology and surveillance of DENV infection in Central and South America. Molecular surveillance of the DENV genotypes infecting humans could be a very valuable tool for controlling/mitigating the impact of the DENV infection. PMID:18764951

  20. An Epidemic Outbreak of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Iván D.; Carrillo, Lina M.; López, Liliana; Rodríguez, Erwin; Robledo, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005–2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ∼40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed. PMID:22556078

  1. Phylogeny of dengue virus type 3 circulating in Colombia between 2001 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julián; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel Rafael; Jimenez, Raquel Elvira Ocazionez

    2009-10-01

    Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) re-appeared in Colombia in 2001 after 23 years of apparent absence, in the state of Santander in the North-eastern region near to Venezuelan border. In 2002, the virus was isolated in the state of Valle del Cauca in the South-east region near to Ecuadorian/Peruvian border, and in the state of Antioquia in the North-east region near to Panama border. To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of DENV-3 in Colombia, we sequenced the complete E gene of 21 isolates sampled in the period 2001-2007. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Colombian strains seem to have been introduced from Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, but not from Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay or Central America countries. This study also confirms previous report showing that Colombian isolates is closely related to DENV-3 genotype III.

  2. NorTropical Warm Pool variability and its effects on the climate of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodriguez, Deisy; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2015-04-01

    Much has been said about the effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on oceanographic and climatic conditions in Colombia, but little is known about the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP), which includes the gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and the western tropical North Atlantic. The AWP has been identified by some authors as an area that influences the Earth's climate, associated with anomalous summer rainfall and hurricane activity in the Atlantic. The aim of this study was to understand the variation in the AWP and its effects on the climate of Colombia. An annual average of sea surface temperature (SST) was obtained from the composition of monthly images of the Spectroradiometer Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with resolution of 4 km, for one area that comprises the marine territory of Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica both the Pacific and the Caribbean, and parts of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, for the period between 2007 and 2013. The results suggest that warm pool is not restricted to the Caribbean, but it also covers a strip Pacific bordering Central America and the northern part of the Colombian coast, so it should be called the Nor-Tropical Warm pool (NTWP). Within the NTWP higher SST correspond to a marine area extending about 1 degree north and south of Central and out of the Colombian Caribbean coast. The NTWP also showed large interannual variability, with the years 2008 and 2009 with lower SST in average, while 2010, 2011 and 2013 years with warmer conditions, matching with greater precipitation. It was also noted that during warmer conditions (high amplitude NTWP) the cold tongue from the south Pacific has less penetration on Colombian coast. Finally, the results suggest a strong influence of NTWP in climatic conditions in Colombia.

  3. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system. Methods We compiled data from publications and hereditary cancer registries to characterize the Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum in South America. In total, data from 267 families that fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria and/or the Bethesda guidelines from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Uruguay were included. Results Disease-predisposing mutations were identified in 37% of the families and affected MLH1 in 60% and MSH2 in 40%. Half of the mutations have not previously been reported and potential founder effects were identified in Brazil and in Colombia. Conclusion The South American Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum includes multiple new mutations, identifies potential founder effects and is useful for future development of genetic testing in this continent. PMID:24344984

  4. Down the Slippery, Snowy Slopes of Colombia We Go

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Guerrillas, and Colombia’s New Violencia ." World Policy Journal XVII, no. 3 (Fall 2000). Available via Colombia International Affairs Online. Miller...William M. LeoGrande and Kenneth E. Sharpe, "Two Wars or One? Drugs, Guerrillas, and Colombia’s New Violencia ," World Policy Journal XVII, no. 3 (Fall

  5. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  6. Hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B virus infection in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas state, Colombia.

    PubMed

    di Filippo Villa, Diana; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Payares, Edra; Montes, Neyla; de la Hoz, Fernando; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Correa, Gonzalo; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2015-10-24

    In Colombia, cases of Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection have been officially described since 1985 mainly in Amerindian population from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (North Caribbean Coast), Uraba (North West), and Amazon (South East). The last official report of a clinical case of HDV infection in Colombia was registered in 2005. The aims of this study were to identify cases of HDV and/or Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in asymptomatic Amerindians from Amazonas state, South East Colombia, and to describe the circulating viral genotypes in this population. The study population was recruited in 19 Amerindian communities in the Amazonas state. Individuals over 18 years old were screened by rapid test for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). Blood samples obtained from individuals positives for HBsAg in the rapid-test assay were analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HDV IgM/IgG by ELISA. The detection of HBV DNA and HDV RNA was performed by PCR amplification. The viral genotype was determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 23/861 individuals were positive for HBsAg detection by rapid test. Serological and/or molecular markers of HDV infection were demonstrated in 43.5 % (10/23) of samples from Amerindians. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the exclusive circulation of HBV subgenotype F1b of and HDV 3 in this population. A high frequency of HBV/HDV infection was found in Amerindian population from Amazonas State, Colombia (43.5 %, 10/23). Nine cases were identified in a population of 861 asymptomatic Amerindian individuals; one symptomatic case (with diagnosis of end-stage hepatic disease) was also identified in the study. The circulation of HDV 3 and HBV subgenotype F1b suggests a constant flow of these viral genotypes as a result of the interaction of the Amerindian populations from Amazon basin. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether HBV subgenotype F1b is the prevalent in the population from South East region in Colombia.

  7. Uplift of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siravo, Gaia; Faccenna, Claudio; Giuditta Fellin, Maria; Molin, Paola; Bayona, German; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Cordillera (EC) of Colombia is a double-vergent thrust and fold belt formed during the Cenozoic by the inversion of a Mesozoic rift. It is located 400 km far from the trench where the Nazca slab subducts below the South American plate. Tomography and seismicity highlight the presence of a flat slab subduction north of 5° N. Our goal is to explore the relation between surface and crustal processes in the topography growth of the EC north of 6° N. To reach this aim we integrate data derived from the fluvial network analysis with long-term erosion data derived from thermochronology. The northern EC is an asymmetric chain with a gentle flank on the western side and steep flank to the east. The two sides are separated by the maximum elevation of 5000 m reached at the Cocuy Sierra. Here the EC has the widest width ( 200 km) and changes northward to the Santander Massif Range. We obtained new low-T (U-Th)/He ages on zircons (ZHe) and apatites (AHe) from samples collected along two transects. Our ages combined with previous data indicate that along both transects exhumation occurred from shallow burial depths (≤ 6-8 km) during the Oligo-Miocene and locally continued until the Pliocene. Along the transect across the central part of the EC up to the Cocuy Sierra, the youngest Pliocene ages (AHe) are located at the highest elevations above 4000 m. Along the second transect the youngest ages are found close to and east of a main strike-slip structure (Bucaramanga fault). This fault has a significant dip-slip component evidenced by an offset of about 10 Ma among the AHe ages across the fault. The main rivers draining the northern EC flow parallel to the main tectonic structures and locally cut across them. The analysis of river longitudinal profiles reveal transient features such as knickpoint not related to lithological or structural contrast. Channel slope and chi analysis suggest a river capture event possibly influenced by the crustal structures. Wind gaps

  8. Endemic goiter in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E

    1983-01-01

    Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of

  9. When South meets South.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the establishment of a new organization, Partners in Population and Development, which promotes collaboration between developing countries. The organization was an outcome of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development. The basic aim is to share technical knowledge and experience between developing countries. In rural Ha Tay province in northern Vietnam, for example, a community mapping technique for tracking contraceptive use was implemented. The mapping technique was first developed in Indonesia and transferred to Vietnam via the Indonesian national family planning coordinating board. A Bangkok-based nongovernmental group was working in Ninh Binh province with income generation among rice workers as part of a reproductive health program. Partners in Population and Development includes high ranking government officials responsible for national family planning programs from Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. In 1996, a permanent secretariat was established in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The secretariat includes a small staff consisting of an executive director and three deputies from developing countries. The secretariat will act as a clearinghouse and coordinating unit between countries and projects. The office will answer field requests for assistance and help identify potential sources of donor support. The office will operate on funding from the UN Population Fund, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Partnership will diffuse the appearance that developed countries are "demographic imperialists" and offer sound financial political advice. Projects will emphasize appropriateness and sustainability. The aim is to build bridges between countries where there are barriers and to extend services beyond regional borders.

  10. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine. PMID:26038461

  11. Prevalence and characterization of influenza viruses in diverse species in Los Llanos, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl; Freiden, Pamela J; Seufzer, Bradley; Jones, Jeremy C; Johnson, Jordan; Parra, Rocio; Gongora, Agustin; Cardenas, Dario; Barajas, Diana; Osorio, Jorge E; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-04-01

    While much is known about the prevalence of influenza viruses in North America and Eurasia, their prevalence in birds and mammals in South America is largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap and provide a baseline for future ecology and epidemiology studies, we conducted 2 years of influenza surveillance in the eastern plains (Los Llanos) region of Colombia. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, swine and horses. Prevalence ranged from 2.6% to 13.4% across species. Swine showed the highest prevalence and were infected primarily with 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses genetically related to those in humans. In addition, we isolated H5N2 viruses from two resident species of whistling ducks (genus Dendrocygna) that differed completely from previous South American isolates, instead genetically resembling North American wild bird viruses. Both strains caused low pathogenicity in chickens and mammals. The prevalence and subtype diversity of influenza viruses isolated from diverse species within a small area of Colombia highlights the need for enhanced surveillance throughout South America, including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of low-pathogenic H5N2 viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry and the emergence of reassortant viruses in domestic swine.

  12. Identifying structural styles in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.P.; Van Nieuwenhuise, R.E.; Steuer, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Much of our understanding of the Earth is from the study of surface geology and seismic, but many surface structures are responses to deformation which occurred below sedimentary layers. The practice within the petroleum industry is to use top-down processes of analyzing the surface to understand the subsurface, and observed surface structural styles tend to influence seismic interpretations. Yet many conditions which influenced the structural styles seen at the surface are different at depth. Since seismic is a time representation of the Earth, many interpretation pitfalls may exist within areas of complex geology. Also, its reliability decreases with depth and with increasing geologic complexity. Forward modeling and pre-stack depth migration technologies are used to provide true depth images of the seismic data. Even with these advances in seismic imaging technology, the interpreter needs to incorporate additional data into the interpretation. Accurate structural identification requires the interpreter to integrate seismic with surface geology, remote sensing, gravity, magnetic data, geochemistry, fault-plane solutions from earthquakes, and regional tectonic studies. Incorporating these types of data into the interpretation will help us learn how basement is involved in the deformation of overlying sediments. A study of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia shows the deformation to be dominantly transpressional in style. Euler deconvolution of the areomagnetic data shows a highly fractured basement, steep fault lineaments, en echelon structures, and complex fault patterns, all of which would be typical of wrench-type deformation. Available surface geology, regional studies, earthquake data, and forward modeling support this interpretation.

  13. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  14. Colombia: why coal won't wait

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-11

    Colombia's coal production target is 68-million tons by the year 2000, with hopes to export 10% of world thermal-coal demand. Colombia's economic commitment to coal marketing is not an option, but an imperative. There are indications that coal production in the US - bogged down by complex transportation, environmental, and other disputes - will be revitalized, partly because Colombia will be added to the list of international coal-market competitors. Some coal-industry analysts recognize that the Colombian factor could, through stimulating price competition, encourage world coal consumption. Despite monumental infrastructure requirements that will turn the area between El Cerrejon and the Caribbean Sea into one integrated complex, the government is throwing itself heart and soul back into the coal age. This issue has the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  15. First record of Osmylidae (Neuroptera) from Colombia and description of two new species of Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2014-06-30

    The family Osmylidae is recorded for the first time in Colombia, extending its known distribution range to the north of South America in the northern Andes. Two new species of the genus Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913, I. contrerasi n. sp. and I. septemtrionalandinus n. sp. and one morphospecies distributed along the eastern cordillera in the departments of Cundinamarca, Huila, and Norte de Santander are described and illustrated. A key to species of the genus Isostenosmylus, as well as a list of South American species of Osmylidae is included.

  16. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  17. Structure of the eastern Cordillera of Colombia: Implications for trap styles and regional tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, C.A. ); Covey, M.C. )

    1993-08-01

    The northwest margin of South America has undergone multiple phases of compressional deformation beginning in the Late Cretaceous and culminating in the Pliocene-Pleistocene. The latest phases (Miocene to Pleistocene) of this deformation created the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Compressional structures in the Eastern Cordillera formed traps that have petroleum exploration potential; these are generally in the form of fault-bend and fault-propagation folds containing top-sealed reservoir and mature source rocks. Trap delineation, although difficult to achieve because of the poor seismic quality obtained in the region, can be accomplished by supplementing the seismic data with geometric analysis of surficial structures. 50 refs., 17 figs.

  18. INTRODUCED LAND SNAILS AND SLUGS IN COLOMBIA.

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, BERNHARD

    2002-05-01

    Twelve species of introduced land molluscs, including seven slug species, have been found in the cold zone above 2000 m altitude in the Departamentos Cundinamarca and Boyacá, and the Distrito Especial in Colombia. The introduced land molluscs remain generally restricted to disturbed environments, from which native species are often absent. Most recorded species originated from Europe. Deroceras laeve has been present in Colombia for more than a century, whereas the other species are probably more recent introductions. The records of Boettgerilla pallens, which is indigenous to the Caucasus and has spread over Europe only during the last decades, demonstrates that the process of introduction of alien molluscs is continuing.

  19. Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T

    2007-01-01

    Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

  20. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  1. Libyostrongylus douglassii (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae) in ostrich (Struthio camelus) farms from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mariño-González, Guillermo A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A

    2017-02-15

    Ostrich farming is an important livestock industry in different world regions with a diverse offer of products and services. In Colombia, as in other countries, this market led the importation of animals from countries like Canada, United States of America and South Africa for breeding objectives. With the animals, specific pathogens for these ratites could be introduced. Libyostrongylus spp. is a strongylid nematode with worldwide distribution, which can induce a severe disease and mortality in infected animals. Limited studies in Colombia have identified parasites in ostrich farming systems. The aim of this study was to identify parasites of the genus Libyostrongylus to a species level in faecal samples from ostrich farms in three departments of Colombia. Five ostrich farms from Boyacá, Meta and Tolima were sampled in 2011 and in 2013 to obtain fresh faecal samples which were further processed by flotation tests for egg visualization and faecal culture for infective larvae identification by morphological and morphometric parameters. One from the five farms, located in Meta department, was positive for strongylid eggs in both sampling periods. After faecal culture, infective larvae were identified as Libyostrongylus douglassii. These results corroborate previous records of Libyostrongylus in ostrich farms from Meta and confirms, for the first time, infection by L. douglassii in ratites from this region. Further studies must identify associated determinants for infection and its effects on the flock health and production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. "Melioidosis in Antioquia, Colombia: an emerging or endemic disease? A cases series".

    PubMed

    Montúfar, F E; Ochoa, J E; Ortega, H; Franco, L; Montúfar, M C; Monsalve, A; Jaramillo, C; Zapata, M

    2015-08-01

    Melioidosis is endemic in Malaysia, the southwest of Thailand, and northern Australia. The incidence in Thailand is 4.4/1000000 inhabitants, where it causes 19% of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 20% of bacteremic pneumonia, and the mortality is 50%. Sporadic cases have been described in Central and South America. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological features and ecological characteristics of melioidosis in Antioquia, Colombia. This is a case series description. Seven cases were identified. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from peripheral blood, pleural fluid, and urine and was identified by the automated system VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) and API 20NE biochemical kit. Five of the cases had a bacteremic form with shock and pulmonary compromise and two of these patients died. The non-bacteremic melioidosis cases had genitourinary, abdominal, and osteoarticular compromise. All patients had comorbidities and lived in rural hot and humid areas in the west central region of Colombia (Antioquia). Diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, and other chronic diseases are important risk factors for the development of severe forms. The cases presented here are similar to those occurring in endemic areas regarding comorbidity, risk factors, clinical presentation, and environmental conditions. It is necessary to establish whether melioidosis is an endemic and under-diagnosed disease or an emerging disease in Colombia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Microgeographic genetic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cordoba and Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; Gómez, Giovan F; González, John J; Castro, Martha I; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2010-07-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia.

  4. Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

  5. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  6. South Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    As spring progresses at the south pole, the surface reacts to the change of season. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a region of the south pole that is monitored throughout spring, summer, and fall at the south pole.

  7. Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Colombia and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salve, Angela; Pichel, Mariana; Wiesner, Magdalena; Hidalgo, Marylin; Terragno, Raquel; Alvarez, Adriana; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Binsztein, Norma

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi is the etiological agent of typhoid fever with 16 million annual cases estimated worldwide. In Colombia and Argentina it is a notifiable disease but many cases have only a clinical diagnosis. Molecular subtyping of S. Typhi is necessary to complement epidemiologic analysis of typhoid fever. The aims of this study were to determine the genetic relationships between the strains circulating in both countries and to evaluate possible variations in the distribution of 12 virulence genes. A total of 136 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI following PulseNet protocols and analysis guidelines. Eighty-three different PFGE patterns were identified, showing high diversity among the strains from both countries. Three outbreaks, two in Colombia and one in Argentina, were caused by strains of different PFGE types. In Colombia, two PFGE patterns were found predominantly, which included 36.6% of the isolates from that country. No association was found between the PFGE patterns and the year or place of isolation of the strains, the age of the patients or type of sample. However, several clusters were detected, which included isolates recovered predominantly either from Colombia or Argentina. Most of the strains (97%) exhibited a single virulence profile, suggesting that the pathogenicity markers analyzed are of limited value for strain discrimination and do not correlate with the origin of the isolates (intestinal vs. extra-intestinal). Since the creation of PulseNet Latin America, this was the first international study conducted in South America. The PFGE types identified were incorporated into the Regional S. Typhi PulseNet Database and are now available for comparison with those of strains isolated in other regions. This information will be used for active surveillance, future studies, and outbreak investigations.

  8. Colombia Exports Its "New School" Blueprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Asbel

    1999-01-01

    To compensate for disadvantages of traditional rural schools, Colombia's Escuela Nueva (New School) movement offers solutions such as self-instruction guides geared to aspects of daily life and flexible school schedules. Teacher training that encourages student and community involvement is a key element. Escuela Nueva successes have led to its…

  9. Current status of onchocerciasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Corredor, A; Nicholls, R S; Duque, S; Munoz de Hoyos, P; Alvarez, C A; Guderian, R H; Lopez, H H; Palma, G I

    1998-05-01

    To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries were surveyed; 655 adults underwent physical examinations and skin biopsies. Infected individuals were found almost exclusively in the community of Naiciona, where prevalence of infection was 40% (36 of 91). Polymerase chain reaction detection of onchocercal DNA in skin snips correlated with the skin-snip biopsy results. The prevalence of punctate keratitis, the only ocular manifestation found, was 33%. A rapid entomologic assessment demonstrated Simulium exiguum infected with Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first finding in Colombia of naturally infected black flies and confirms S. exiguum as a vector species. These data will be used for implementing a control program using periodic ivermectin distribution.

  10. Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, T. Paul

    The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

  11. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Uribe, Gilberto Álvarez; Araújo, Roberto Montoya; Narváez, Pablo Chaparro; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia), with high predominance (85%) in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region. PMID:21881765

  12. Tightening the Screws: Restoring Security in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    21 Aug. 2002. LexisNexis. National Defense University, Fort McNair DC. 20 Sep. 2002. Gunson, Phil and Tamayo, Juan. “ Chavez may reopen the skies...story> Sweig, Julia E. “What Kind of War for Colombia?” Foreign Affairs Sep. – Oct. 2002. LexisNexis. National Defense University, Fort McNair DC. 20

  13. The State and Higher Education in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio, Ricardo; Serrano, Mariana

    1993-01-01

    Development of higher education in Colombia is analyzed in the context of recent expansion, democratization, emphasis on quality, and efforts to differentiate programs and institutions. Critical policy areas emerging, overall funding and administration of the public sector, are examined; and possible future developments are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  14. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Uribe, Gilberto Álvarez; Araújo, Roberto Montoya; Narváez, Pablo Chaparro; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2011-08-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia), with high predominance (85%) in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region.

  15. Colombia's Libraries: Modernizing amidst a Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact that the war on drugs in Colombia has had on their library services and on the lives of professional librarians. Topics discussed include political, staffing, budget, resource, and physical plant problems; the serious shortage of professional librarians; and extending library service to rural areas. (LRW)

  16. Fuelling a National Innovation System in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Arias, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an…

  17. Bilingual Curriculum Construction and Empowerment in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mejia, Anne-Marie; Tejada, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Southwestern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Luisa Maria; Rozo, Juan C.; Forero, Liliana; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Using spoligotyping, we identified 13 genotypes and 17 orphan types among 160 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The Beijing genotype represented 15.6% of the isolates and was correlated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, female sex of the patients, and residence in Buenaventura and may represent a new public health threat. PMID:21762581

  19. Colombia's Libraries: Modernizing amidst a Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact that the war on drugs in Colombia has had on their library services and on the lives of professional librarians. Topics discussed include political, staffing, budget, resource, and physical plant problems; the serious shortage of professional librarians; and extending library service to rural areas. (LRW)

  20. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  1. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA. Because the Colombia FTA construction threshold of $7,777,000... ``Colombia FTA, Chile FTA,'' and adding ``Chile FTA, Colombia FTA,'' in its place. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  2. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  3. First characterization of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli ST131 and ST405 clones causing community-onset infections in South America.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sory J; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F; Martinez, Ernesto; Rosso, Fernando; Muñoz, Martin; Quinn, John P; Cantón, Rafael; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2011-05-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli has emerged worldwide as an important pathogen associated with community-onset infections, but in South America reports are scarce. We document the presence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli of the international ST131 and ST405 clones in Colombia and present the first molecular characterization of these isolates in South America.

  4. High proportion of BRCA1/2 founder mutations in Hispanic breast/ovarian cancer families from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Diana; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Gil, Fabian; Umana, Angela; Ramelli, Giancarlo; Robledo, Jose Fernando; Tawil, Mauricio; Torregrosa, Lilian; Briceno, Ignacio; Hamann, Ute

    2007-06-01

    In South America, a high proportion of the population is of Hispanic origin with an important representation in Colombia. Since nothing is known about the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer in the Hispanic population from Colombia, we conducted the first study of 53 breast/ovarian cancer families from this country. Comprehensive BRCA mutation screening was performed using a range of techniques, including DHPLC, SSCP, and PTT, followed by DNA sequencing analysis. Thirteen deleterious germline mutations (24.5%) were identified in 53 families, comprising eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. The two recurrent BRCA1 mutations, 3450 delCAAG and A1708E, accounted for 100% of all BRCA1 mutations identified in this cohort and the recurrent 3034 delACAA BRCA2 mutation for 40% of all BRCA2 mutations. Haplotype analyses suggested that each of these mutations has arisen from a common ancestor. The prevalence of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations was 50% in multiple case breast cancer families, and was 33% for the breast-ovarian cancer families. Our findings show that BRCA mutations account for a substantial proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer in Colombia. The spectrum of mutations differed completely to that previously reported in Hispanic families of predominantly Mexican origin from Southern California [1] suggesting that specific genetic risk assessment strategies for the different Hispanic populations in South America and in the United States need to be developed.

  5. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design

  6. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii

    Treesearch

    R. N. Graca; A. C. Alfenas; A. L. Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; T. L. Peever; P. G. Cannon; J. Y. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; R. D. Hauff

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay,...

  7. Appropriateness of the TOEIC[R] Bridge Test for Students in Three Countries of South America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Powers, Donald E.; Feng, Ying; Saldivia, Luis; Giunta, Anthony; Simpson, Annabelle; Weng, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the TOEIC[R] "Bridge" as a measure of English language proficiency, one form of the test was administered to more than 6000 test takers in three South American countries--Colombia, Chile and Ecuador. The appropriateness of the TOEIC "Bridge" test as a measure of…

  8. Appropriateness of the TOEIC[R] Bridge Test for Students in Three Countries of South America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Powers, Donald E.; Feng, Ying; Saldivia, Luis; Giunta, Anthony; Simpson, Annabelle; Weng, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In order to facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the TOEIC[R] "Bridge" as a measure of English language proficiency, one form of the test was administered to more than 6000 test takers in three South American countries--Colombia, Chile and Ecuador. The appropriateness of the TOEIC "Bridge" test as a measure of…

  9. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  10. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  11. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  12. The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; González, Silvia A; González-Casanova, Inés; Forero, Ana Y; Garcia, Johnattan

    2014-12-01

    Almost all nutrition policies in Colombia currently focus on either undernutrition or obesity, with the predominant emphasis on undernutrition. It is crucial to assess the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia to better target programs and policies. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia at the individual and household levels in children aged <5 y, school-age children, adolescents, and adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and the National Nutritional Survey that included 17,696 children aged <5 y, 25,508 school-aged children, 28,328 adolescents, 89,164 adults, and 10,487 households with mothers and children aged <5 y. The dual burden of malnutrition was defined as the coexistence of overweight and stunting or anemia in the same person or household. In Colombia, low to high prevalences of overweight and obesity (3.4-51.2%) coexist with moderate to high prevalences of anemia (8.1-27.5%) and stunting (13.2%). The observed prevalence of the dual burden was lower than expected. Approximately 5% of households had at least one stunted child aged <5 y and an overweight mother compared with an expected prevalence of 6.9% (P < 0.001). Among school-aged children, 0.1% were classified as stunted and obese and 1.4% were both anemic and overweight compared with expected prevalences of 0.5% (P < 0.001) and 1.5% (P = 0.037), respectively. Among 13- to 49-y-old women, 3.4% had anemia and were overweight compared with an expected prevalence of 3.5% (P = 0.038). National estimates of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia are lower than expected. Despite the independence of the occurrence of these conditions, the fact that the dual burden coexists at the national, household, and intraindividual levels suggests that public policies should address both conditions through multiple strategies. It is imperative to evaluate the current nutrition

  13. Molecular epidemiology of rabies in northern Colombia 1994-2003. Evidence for human and fox rabies associated with dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Páez, A.; Saad, C.; Núñez, C.; Bóshell, J.

    2005-01-01

    During the period 2000-2003, wild grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in northern Colombia became infected with rabies. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans in this region, 902 nt cDNA fragments containing the G-L intergenic region and encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans belonged to a single genetic variant. Speculative analysis together with epidemiological data indicated that rabies in foxes may have been due to contact with rabid dogs. Rabies transmission between dogs, wild foxes and humans may happen in natural conditions in northern Colombia. This finding is the first to suggest dog-to-fox rabies transmission in South America, and provides another example of dog rabies variants being able to successfully colonize wildlife hosts. PMID:15962560

  14. Socio-demographic patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder in Medellin, Colombia and the context of lifetime trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Gaviria, Silvia Lucia; Alarcón, Renato D; Espinola, Maria; Restrepo, Diana; Lotero, Juliana; Berbesi, Dedsy Y; Sierra, Gloria Maria; Chaskel, Roberto; Espinel, Zelde; Shultz, James M

    2016-01-01

    Colombia, South America is currently transitioning to post-conflict status following 6 decades of armed conflict. The population has experienced extensive exposures to potentially traumatic events throughout the lifespan. Sources of trauma exposure include the prolonged armed insurgency, narco-trafficking violence, urban gang violence, violent actions of criminal bands, intra-familial violence, gender-based violence, and sex trafficking. Exposure to potentially traumatic events is related to a variety of psychiatric outcomes, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder. Given this context of lifetime trauma exposure, socio-demographic patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder were explored in a sample of residents of Medellin, Colombia, the nation's second largest city and a nexus for multiple types of trauma exposure.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of rabies in northern Colombia 1994-2003. Evidence for human and fox rabies associated with dogs.

    PubMed

    Páez, A; Saad, C; Núñez, C; Bóshell, J

    2005-06-01

    During the period 2000-2003, wild grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in northern Colombia became infected with rabies. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans in this region, 902 nt cDNA fragments containing the G-L intergenic region and encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rabies viruses isolated in foxes, dogs and humans belonged to a single genetic variant. Speculative analysis together with epidemiological data indicated that rabies in foxes may have been due to contact with rabid dogs. Rabies transmission between dogs, wild foxes and humans may happen in natural conditions in northern Colombia. This finding is the first to suggest dog-to-fox rabies transmission in South America, and provides another example of dog rabies variants being able to successfully colonize wildlife hosts.

  16. Socio-demographic patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder in Medellin, Colombia and the context of lifetime trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Silvia Lucia; Espinola, Maria; Restrepo, Diana; Lotero, Juliana; Berbesi, Dedsy Y.; Sierra, Gloria Maria; Chaskel, Roberto; Espinel, Zelde; Shultz, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colombia, South America is currently transitioning to post-conflict status following 6 decades of armed conflict. The population has experienced extensive exposures to potentially traumatic events throughout the lifespan. Sources of trauma exposure include the prolonged armed insurgency, narco-trafficking violence, urban gang violence, violent actions of criminal bands, intra-familial violence, gender-based violence, and sex trafficking. Exposure to potentially traumatic events is related to a variety of psychiatric outcomes, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder. Given this context of lifetime trauma exposure, socio-demographic patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder were explored in a sample of residents of Medellin, Colombia, the nation's second largest city and a nexus for multiple types of trauma exposure. PMID:28265488

  17. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals hidden genetic diversity in captive populations of the threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Paul; Ibáñez, Carolina; Viloria-Lagares, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of units within species worthy of separate management consideration is an important area within conservation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) surveys can potentially contribute to this by identifying phylogenetic and population structure below the species level. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is broadly distributed throughout the Neotropics. Its numbers have been reduced severely with the species threatened throughout much of its distribution. In Colombia, the release of individuals from commercial captive populations has emerged as a possible conservation strategy that could contribute to species recovery. However, no studies have addressed levels of genetic differentiation or diversity within C. acutus in Colombia, thus complicating conservation and management decisions. Here, sequence variation was studied in mtDNA cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in three Colombian captive populations of C. acutus. Two distinct lineages were identified: C. acutus-I, corresponding to haplotypes from Colombia and closely related Central American haplotypes; and C. acutus-II, corresponding to all remaining haplotypes from Colombia. Comparison with findings from other studies indicates the presence of a single "northern" lineage (corresponding to C. acutus-I) distributed from North America (southern Florida), through Central America and into northern South America. The absence of C. acutus-II haplotypes from North and Central America indicates that the C. acutus-II lineage probably represents a separate South American lineage. There appears to be sufficient divergence between lineages to suggest that they could represent two distinct evolutionary units. We suggest that this differentiation needs to be recognized for conservation purposes because it clearly contributes to the overall genetic diversity of the species. All Colombian captive populations included in this study contained a mixture of representatives of both lineages. As such

  18. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals hidden genetic diversity in captive populations of the threatened American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Paul; Ibáñez, Carolina; Viloria-Lagares, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of units within species worthy of separate management consideration is an important area within conservation. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) surveys can potentially contribute to this by identifying phylogenetic and population structure below the species level. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is broadly distributed throughout the Neotropics. Its numbers have been reduced severely with the species threatened throughout much of its distribution. In Colombia, the release of individuals from commercial captive populations has emerged as a possible conservation strategy that could contribute to species recovery. However, no studies have addressed levels of genetic differentiation or diversity within C. acutus in Colombia, thus complicating conservation and management decisions. Here, sequence variation was studied in mtDNA cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences in three Colombian captive populations of C. acutus. Two distinct lineages were identified: C. acutus-I, corresponding to haplotypes from Colombia and closely related Central American haplotypes; and C. acutus-II, corresponding to all remaining haplotypes from Colombia. Comparison with findings from other studies indicates the presence of a single “northern” lineage (corresponding to C. acutus-I) distributed from North America (southern Florida), through Central America and into northern South America. The absence of C. acutus-II haplotypes from North and Central America indicates that the C. acutus-II lineage probably represents a separate South American lineage. There appears to be sufficient divergence between lineages to suggest that they could represent two distinct evolutionary units. We suggest that this differentiation needs to be recognized for conservation purposes because it clearly contributes to the overall genetic diversity of the species. All Colombian captive populations included in this study contained a mixture of representatives of both lineages. As

  19. Sirenomelia: two cases in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Salcedo-Arellano, Maria Jimena; Ramirez-Cheyne, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of sirenomelia, a rare congenital defect with a prevalence rate of 1:100 000 births; both cases were observed in Cali, Colombia. Both pregnant women were referred from Buenaventura, Colombia. The expecting mothers shared multiple adverse sociodemographic factors. Their homes were located in a city where the entire population is of low socioeconomic status living under conditions of extreme poverty. They were uneducated, with nutritional deficiencies and no access to drinking water most of the time. Both were exposed to water and fish from a nearby river contaminated with leachate from a poorly managed landfill. A similar relation was previously reported in Cali in 2005 between environmental factors and sirenomelia. We suggest that there is a common aetiological factor of environmental origin between these two sirenomelia cases and propose that exposure to derivatives from landfills should be included among the factors for this rare defect of multifactorial aetiological origin. PMID:25636631

  20. Occupational and environmental medicine in Colombia.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, R E; Guerrero, E; Espinosa, M T; de Fex, R L

    2000-04-01

    Colombia is a country rich in natural resources, with a steadily developing economy. Occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) education and practice have developed relatively recently in Colombia, mainly in response to a series of long overdue (and still partially implemented) reforms to the health care, social benefits, and education systems. Expansion in general and occupational health coverage of the Colombian population and development of OEM education and training were to be achieved through a clear stimulus to private sector initiatives. Despite some measurable overall progress, the goals remain elusive. This article discusses several aspects and the perspectives for further development of the specialty in this country, in the context of the socioeconomic factors involved in that process.

  1. Hand anthropometric study in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Martínez Buelvas, Laura; Hernández, José; Escobar, Jaime

    2016-09-02

    The main purpose of this study is to gather information about the dimensions of the northern Colombian (Caribbean region) population, focusing on the dimensions of the hand and comparing them with measurements from other regions. Thirty-two hand dimensions were chosen and 120 males and 86 females were measured. Results indicated that there were differences between the dimensions of the hand for men and women, showing that men are larger. Also, there was a comparison made between some measurements of other studies in different regions of Colombia, the USA, Chile, Jordan, Korea and Japan. The results indicated important physiological differences between regions in Colombia and across countries. It was therefore concluded that differences in anthropometric measurements must be included in the design and procurement of machinery and apparatus in order to avoid productivity loss, occupational injuries or illness.

  2. Autosomal microsatellite data from Northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Oscar Darío; Triana, Omar; Gaviria, Aníbal; Ibarra, Adriana Alexandra; Ochoa, Luz Mariela; Posada, Yeny; Maya, María Clara; Lareu, María Victoria; Brión, María; Acosta, María Amparo; Carracedo, Angel

    2006-07-13

    Allele frequencies and some forensic parameters for 12 autosomal microsatellites (CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1, VWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, D5S818, F13A1, FESFPS, F13B, LPL) were estimated from three departments from Northwestern Colombia. The total number of samples analysed was 1045 individuals. Comparative analysis among the three studied departments and with other published Colombian populations were also performed and discussed.

  3. Balancing U.S. Strategy in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in Colombia might indicate to others that weak democratic methods are not capable of governing in Latin America. The Colombian President, Alvaro Uribe...2004&m=May&x=2004051 9163815ASrelliMO. 5711481 &t=livefeeds/wf-latest.html>; Internet; accessed 14 September 2004. 24 Javier Fernandez, interview by...Internet. Accessed 16 September 2004. Fernandez, Javier . Interview by author with COL, Colombian Army. 23 February 2005, Carlisle Barracks, PA. Hill

  4. Colombia: Learning Institutions Enable Integrated Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Communist Party of Colombia), an army (which FARC itself claimed to be, the “ Popular Army,” or FARC–Ejército del Pueblo), and a united front (the...in the country, with the military invariably at the very top in popular esteem.10 Yet with processes and funding that were neither transparent nor...mature in incorporating its physical and popular elements. It is possibly more cohesive and more representative than at any time in its history. Most

  5. [Suicide trends in Colombia, 1985-2002].

    PubMed

    Cendales, Ricardo; Vanegas, Claudia; Fierro, Marco; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Olarte, Ana

    2007-10-01

    To report trends in mortality from suicide in Colombia from 1985 to 2002 by sex, age group, and method, and determine the number of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) to suicide during this period. Age- and sex-specific and age-adjusted crude mortality rates were calculated based on mortality and population information available from the official database of the Department of National Statistics Administration, Colombia. YPLL were estimated and adjusted for societal impact, age, and poor quality of mortality records. The results were tabulated according to codes X600-X849 and Y870 from the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10), and codes E950-E959 from the 9th revision (ICD-9). Suicide rates have been climbing in Colombia since 1998, particularly among young adults and males. The highest rates among males were in the age groups 20-29 years of age and over 70 years of age, and rates increased over time. Among females, the highest rates were recorded for the group 10-19 years of age. The YPLL rose in proportion with the increase in suicides, from 0.81% in 1981 to 2.20% in 2002. Among males, the most common methods used were firearms and explosives, hanging, and poison, with a relative increase in hanging; whereas among females, poison was most common. A rising trend in suicide rates in Colombia was confirmed, especially among the productive segment of the population, which has resulted in a marked increase in YPLL.

  6. Histoplasmosis laryngeal: report first case in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moriones Robayo, Carlos Alberto; Guerra Ortiz, Claudia Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal histoplasmosis is a fungal infection that is frequent in Colombia. Laryngeal histoplasmosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients through the dissemination of the fungus from the lungs to other organs. Histoplasmosis isolated laryngeal (primary) is rare. If a patient presents with a history of immunosuppression by renal transplant, primary laryngeal histoplasmosis with supraglottic granulomatous inflammation that was treated with amphotericin B and Itraconazole, with complete resolution of laryngeal lesions.

  7. New views on the Late Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, T.; Stéphan, J. F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Dhont, D.

    2012-04-01

    northwestern margin of Colombia, is not more controlled by the caribbean subduction. We propose that the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape uplifted the margin through left-lateral transpression, reworking inherited structures. The thick Tertiary sedimentary cover subsequently collapsed down in the Colombian basin when the critical slope was reached. Since Pliocene time at least, the Caribbean-South American plate convergence might be accommodated diffusely across the whole North Andean Block, and most prominently along the Venezuelan Andes and the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, at the eastern boundary of the Block.

  8. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  9. Dengue mortality in Colombia, 1985-2012.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; León-Quevedo, Willian; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés

    2016-02-11

    Dengue in Colombia is an important public health problem due to the huge economic and social costs it has caused, especially during the disease outbreaks.  To describe the behavior of dengue mortality in Colombia between 1985 and 2012.  We conducted a descriptive study. Information was obtained from mortality and population projection databases provided by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) for the 1985-2012 period. Mortality rates, rate ratios, and case fatality rates were estimated.  A total of 1,990 dengue deaths were registered during this period in Colombia. Dengue mortality rates presented an increasing trend with statistical significance between 1985 and 1998. Higher mortality rates were reported in men both younger than 5 years and older than 65 years. Between 1995 and 2012, category 1 to 4 municipalities reported the highest mortality rates. Case fatality rates varied during the period between 0.01% and 0.39%.  Dengue is an avoidable disease that should disappear from mortality statistics as a cause of death. The event is avoidable if the proposed activities from the Estrategia de Gestión Integrada (EGI)-Dengue are implemented and evaluated. We recommend encouraging the development of an informational culture to contribute to decision making and prioritizing resource allocation.

  10. [Recommendations for smoking cessation in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Becerra, Nelci; Páez, Nelson; Cañas, Alejandra; Mosquera, Catalina; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Camacho, Natalia; Gómez, Javier; García-Herreros, Plutarco; Bernal, Luis Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases represent the greatest burden of disease in Colombia for which smoking is the major risk factor. To provide clinical practice recommendations based upon efficacy and safety of smoking cessation therapies for Colombian adults. An adaptation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) based on the ADAPT methodology was performed. We searched CPG on Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. Six months' cessation rates were appraised for brief and intensive counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline, clonidine, nortriptyline, acupuncture, hypnosis, homeopathy, and combined treatments. CPG were evaluated with DELBI and selected when having a score above 60% for methodological rigor of development and applicability to the Colombian health system. Formal consensus was performed for questions without strong evidence. 925 references were found, 17 CPG were pre-selected and 5 selected for adaptation. Brief and intensive counseling, NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline, and varenicline are effective for smoking cessation (cessation rates augment 5.1%-22.7%). Alternative therapies have not demonstrated cessation efficacy. Concomitant use of different NRT is the only combination with demonstrated efficacy (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.7). Several alternatives for giving up tobacco smoking have confirmed efficacy. The absolute difference in cessation rates is variable among therapies and duration of effect requires further research. Brief and intensive counseling necessitate standardized formats for their implementation in Colombia. Economic evaluations are required to assess costs and benefits and to select the most suitable interventions for Colombia.

  11. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  12. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  13. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Yepez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Pettito, Michele; Peñaranda, Carlos F; de Yepez, Jazmin; Maestre, Gladys; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed. To report the ocular manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome with microcephaly in Colombia and Venezuela. This prospective case series included 43 patients from 2 ophthalmic centers in Colombia and Venezuela who underwent evaluation from October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, and were clinically diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome. Twenty patients were Hispanic; 13, African; 8, white; and 2, Native American. Ophthalmic and systemic evaluations and serologic testing were performed on all infants. Patients underwent external ocular examination and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Serologic testing ruled out toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus. Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome. Of the 43 patients included in this series (28 female and 15 male), the mean (SD) age at examination was 2.1 (1.5) months. The mothers of all the children had no ophthalmic findings and did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. All patients had bilateral ophthalmic manifestations. Optic nerve findings included hypoplasia with the double-ring sign, pallor, and increased cup-disc ratio in 5 patients (11.6%). Macular abnormalities included mild to severe pigment mottling in 27 patients (63%) and lacunar maculopathy in 3 (6.9%). Chorioretinal scarring was present in 3 patients (7%). Eleven patients (26%) had a combination of lesions in the posterior pole. Five patients (12%) were

  14. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  15. Why Has Peace Not Been Achieved in Colombia?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    Catalina Turbay Jiménez, El Estatuto de Seguridad : un Estudio de Caso, congresocienciapolitica.uniandes.edu.co (Accessed November 28, 2011). 23...Serafino, Colombia: Current Issues and Historical Background, 229. 24 David E. Spencer, Colombia Camino a la Recuperación: Seguridad y Gobernabilidad 1982

  16. Trinity Gas to explore for gas in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Trinity Gas Corp. officials signed an agreement on May 20, 1997, with the Cauca Valley Corp. (CVC) allowing Trinity to use CVC data to explore for natural gas in the Cauca Valley of Colombia. CVC, Colombia`s Valle del Cauca water resources and environmental division, is evaluating Colombia`s underground water reserves to protect, control and preserve fresh water aquifers, some of which contain natural gas pockets that cause blowouts in farmers` water wells. Preparations now are underway for drilling Trinity`s first well at the Palmira 1 site on the San Jose Hacienda, the largest privately owned sugar cane plantation in the valley. Trinity also entered into an agreement with the Cauca Valley Natural Gas and Electricity Project to furnish natural gas, generated electricity and energy fuel for the industrial district in the region. According to this contract, many valley residents will have electric service for the first time.

  17. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination.

    PubMed

    Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-07-04

    In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.

  18. Toward Middle-Level Manpower Education for Colombia. A Report to USAID Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, B. Lamar

    Education for middle-level manpower, a high-priority need in Colombia, is discussed. The current programs of five educational agencies--universities, university institutes, SENA (National Apprentice Service), industrial schools, and agricultural schools--that are providing some preparation for middle-level manpower positions are described. A…

  19. Unenlagiinae revisited: dromaeosaurid theropods from South America.

    PubMed

    Gianechini, Federico A; Apesteguia, Sebastian

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two decades, the record of South American unenlagiine dromaeosaurids was substantially increased both in quantity as well as in quality of specimens. Here is presented a summary review of the South American record for these theropods.Unenlagia comahuensis, Unenlagia paynemili, and Neuquenraptor argentinus come from the Portezuelo Formation, the former genus being the most complete and with putative avian features. Neuquenraptor is more incomplete and exhibits pedal features resembling those of Unenlagia. The earliest and most complete South American dromaeosaurid is Buitreraptor gonzalezoru, whose preserved cranial remains, provides important data in the characterization of unenlagiines. The most recently described,Austroraptor cabazai also with cranial remains, allows further comparisons with Laurasian lineages and a better characterization of unenlagiines. The possible synonymy between nenlagia and Neuquenraptor is discussed. Additional evidences from Brazil and Colombia show that dinosaurs with similar dentition to that of unenlagiines were present in the whole South America. However, it is not possible to discard that these remains may belong to other unknown maniraptoran lineages, considering the increasing number of taxa of this group found in South America.

  20. South Layers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-20

    This MOC image shows remnants of layered materials near the west rim of South Crater, Mars. The composition of these layered rocks is unknown -- are they the remains of sedimentary rocks or accumulations of dust and ice?

  1. Human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Colombia and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Andres; Aguayo, Francisco; Koriyama, Chihaya; Torres, Miyerlandi; Carrascal, Edwin; Corvalan, Alejandro; Roblero, Juan P; Naquira, Cecilia; Palma, Mariana; Backhouse, Claudia; Argandona, Jorge; Itoh, Tetsuhiko; Shuyama, Karem; Eizuru, Yoshito; Akiba, Suminori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) specimens collected from Colombia and Chile located in the northern and southern ends of the continent, respectively. METHODS: We examined 47 and 26 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded ESCC specimens from Colombia and Chile, respectively. HPV was detected using GP5+/GP6+ primer pair for PCR, and confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Sequencing analysis of L1 region fragment was used to identify HPV genotype. In addition, P16INK4A protein immunostaining of all the specimens was conducted. RESULTS: HPV was detected in 21 ESCC specimens (29%). Sequencing analysis of L1 region fragment identified HPV-16 genome in 6 Colombian cases (13%) and in 5 Chilean cases (19%). HPV-18 was detected in 10 cases (21%) in Colombia but not in any Chilean case. Since Chilean ESCC cases had a higher prevalence of HPV-16 (without statistical significance), but a significantly lower prevalence of HPV-18 than in Colombian cases (P = 0.011) even though the two countries have similar ESCC incidence rates, the frequency of HPV-related ESCC may not be strongly affected by risk factors affecting the incidence of ESCC. HPV-16 genome was more frequently detected in p16 positive carcinomas, although the difference was not statistically significant. HPV-18 detection rate did not show any association with p16 expression. Well-differentiated tumors tended to have either HPV-16 or HPV-18 but the association was not statistically significant. HPV genotypes other than HPV-16 or 18 were not detected in either country. CONCLUSION: HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotypes can be found in ESCC specimens collected from two South American countries. Further studies on the relationship between HPV-16 presence and p16 expression in ESCC would aid understanding of the mechanism underlying the presence of HPV in ESCC. PMID:17036393

  2. Prediction of mean monthly river discharges in Colombia through Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2015-04-01

    The hydro-climatology of Colombia exhibits strong natural variability at a broad range of time scales including: inter-decadal, decadal, inter-annual, annual, intra-annual, intra-seasonal, and diurnal. Diverse applied sectors rely on quantitative predictions of river discharges for operational purposes including hydropower generation, agriculture, human health, fluvial navigation, territorial planning and management, risk preparedness and mitigation, among others. Various methodologies have been used to predict monthly mean river discharges that are based on "Predictive Analytics", an area of statistical analysis that studies the extraction of information from historical data to infer future trends and patterns. Our study couples the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) with traditional methods, e.g. Autoregressive Model of Order 1 (AR1) and Neural Networks (NN), to predict mean monthly river discharges in Colombia, South America. The EMD allows us to decompose the historical time series of river discharges into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) that capture the different oscillatory modes of different frequencies associated with the inherent time scales coexisting simultaneously in the signal (Huang et al. 1998, Huang and Wu 2008, Rao and Hsu, 2008). Our predictive method states that it is easier and simpler to predict each IMF at a time and then add them up together to obtain the predicted river discharge for a certain month, than predicting the full signal. This method is applied to 10 series of monthly mean river discharges in Colombia, using calibration periods of more than 25 years, and validation periods of about 12 years. Predictions are performed for time horizons spanning from 1 to 12 months. Our results show that predictions obtained through the traditional methods improve when the EMD is used as a previous step, since errors decrease by up to 13% when the AR1 model is used, and by up to 18% when using Neural Networks is combined with the

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia.

    PubMed

    López, Myriam Consuelo; León, Cielo M; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E. moshkovskii may have.

  4. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  5. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  6. APOE gene polymorphism analysis in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Martha; Arias, Isis; Rolón, Gloria; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar; Silvera-Redondo, Carlos

    2016-03-03

    The genetic variability present in the APOE gene polymorphism is considered an important factor associated with predisposition to diseases affecting lipid metabolism, as well as heart diseases and Alzheimer's disease, among others. Understanding it as a risk factor in different populations and ethnic groups is a useful tool.  To analyze the APOE gene polymorphism and determine allelic and genotypic frequencies of a representative sample of population from Barranquilla, Colombia.  We performed a descriptive and comparative study. The sample size was 227 unrelated individuals from Barranquilla, Colombia.  The most frequent allele was the ε3, with 85%, followed by the ε4 allele (13%) and ε2 (1.8%). The genotypes found were: ε3/ε3: 71.8%, ε3/ε4: 24.2%, ε2/ε3: 2.2%, ε2/ε4: 1.3% and ε4/ε4: 0.4%. The ε2/ε2 genotype was not found in this study. The sample exhibited the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.  The frequency of the ε3 allele and the ε3/ε3 genotype was similar to that reported in the literature in countries like Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and in some Colombian Amerindian ethnic groups. The ε2/ε2 genotype was absent. This result is consistent with those found in other population groups worldwide. The frequency of the ε4 allele and the genotypes associated in this population could be related to the presence of diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer.

  7. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia. PMID:80287

  8. [Characterisation of Suicide in Colombia, 2000 2010].

    PubMed

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Cardona Duque, Deisy Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem worldwide, affecting all population groups, regardless of age, gender, or area of residence. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the recorded suicides in Colombia, between the years 2000 and 2010, according to the variables of the person, time and place. Descriptive quantitative study with information from secondary sources, from the death certificates of deceased people by suicide registered with the National Bureau of Statistics. The behaviour of the deaths and mortality, were determined using the denominator population projections of Colombia and the Amazon, Andean, Atlantic Coast, Eastern Plains and Pacific regions. Descriptive measurements and mortality rates were calculated using these. A total of 24,882 suicides were recorded in the eleven years studied, with a mean of 6.2 people per day, which increased to 8.0 during holidays The mean age of death was 34.5 years (men 36.4, women 27.7), with male deaths (78.1%) and urban areas (66%) predominating. The greatest risk of dying from this cause was recorded in the Eastern Plains, in young adults and seniors, and residents in rural areas. Suicide rates in Colombia show a downward trend, with a mean of 5.3/100,000 inhabitants, and with an increased risk in men (3.7 times the risk in women, in young adults (9/100,000). A higher death rate was recorded in single people in the months of December and January, and at weekends. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. New Velocity field for Northern Colombia and Western Venezuela and implications for a great earthquake in the Southwest Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Mora-Páez, H.; Bilham, R. G.; Mattioli, G. S.; La Femina, P. C.; Audemard, F. A.; Molnar, P. H.; Perez, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    The motion of the Caribbean plate is approximately due east relative to the South American Plate. In NE Venezula, plate motion is largely taken up by pure strike slip motion along the El Pilar fault, but in northern Colombia motion is partitioned between the strike-slip Bocono fault system and normal convergence along the northern coast of Colombia . Recent densification of GPS networks through the NSF funded COLOVEN and COCONet projects, seismic reflection profiles, and revised earthquake locations suggest the existence of incipient oblique subduction zone at 10 mm/yr beneath the coast of NE Colombia. Although there is no history of major subduction zone earthquakes since the arrival of Europeans in the region, and no volcanism indicative of well-established deep subduction, there is evidence for incremental coastal uplift and local subsidence in the past several thousand years, and both local and distant tsunami, which may owe their origin to pre-European arrival events. At Chengue, NE of Santa Marta, a well dated shell and gravel tsunami horizon within a salt marsh sequence, appears to have been emplaced 1200 years ago, and this may correspond to a tsunami deposit of similar age on the southeast Yucatan peninsula, and near Cartagena. The probable rupture area and slip deficit since that time suggests the potential for a great earthquake in the region, with a possible magnitude of 8.0

  10. Emergence and spread of a new community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Perez, Javier; Reyes, Niradiz; Marquez-Ortiz, Ricaurte Alejandro; Rebollo, Juan; Pinzón, Hernando; Tovar, Catalina; Moreno-Castañeda, Jaime; Corredor, Zayda Lorena; Castro, Betsy Esperanza; Moncada, Maria Victoria; Vanegas, Natasha

    2017-01-31

    Community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CG-MRSA) clones are a global concern due to their resistance and increased virulence and their ability to cause infections both hospitalized patients and healthy people in the community. Here, we characterize 32 isolates of a new CG-MRSA clone. These isolates were identified in four cities in Colombia, South America. The isolates were recovered from four different epidemiological and prospective studies that were conducted in several regions of Colombia. Molecular characterizations included multilocus sequence typing; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; SCCmec, agr and spa typing; and whole-genome sequencing. All isolates belonged to ST923 (clonal complex 8), harbouring SCCmec IVa and a spa type t1635 and lacking an arginine catabolism mobile element. The isolates were classified as COL923, were resistant to at least one non-beta-lactam antibiotic, and exhibited high frequencies (>60%) of resistance to macrolides and tetracycline. Using whole-genome sequencing, we found that this new clone harbours novel prophage 3 and beta-island structures and a slightly different pathogenicity island 5. Moreover, isolates belonging to the COL923 clone are grouped in a different clade than USA300 and USA300-LV. Our results show the emergence and spread of the COL923 clone in different cities in Colombia. This clone is resistant to several antibiotics and possesses new structures in its mobile genetic elements.

  11. Evaluation of a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Giovanny; Hernández, Carolina; Ayala, Martha S; Flórez, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal A; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-05-12

    Leishmaniases are parasitic vector-borne diseases affecting more than 12 million people in 98 countries. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is widespread and the most common clinical manifestation is cutaneous, mainly caused by L. panamensis and L. braziliensis. Currently, the genetic diversity of these species in Colombia is unknown. To address this, we applied molecular techniques for their characterization, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to explore the genetic variability and phylodynamics of the disease. Seven previously described genetic markers were selected highlighting the implementation of a mitochondrial marker. Markers were applied to 163 samples from isolates obtained between 1980 and 2001. The identification of the samples showed an excellent correlation with typing tests previously applied (MLEE, monoclonal antibodies). Isolates of L. braziliensis showed greater genetic diversity than L. panamensis, and a greater number of diploid sequence types (DSTs). In addition, the geographical distribution of DSTs for each species were obtained through georeferencing maps. To our knowldge, this study represents the first description of the genetic variability of L. panamensis in Colombia and South America, and is the first to propose a scheme of MLST for epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in the country.

  12. Envenomation by Bothrops punctatus in southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos A; Vallejo, Alexandra

    2016-12-15

    Bothrops punctatus (Chocoan forest lancehead) is a semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose human envenomation is poorly characterized. We describe two patients bitten by B. punctatus, whose most relevant clinical feature was the development of a severe coagulopathy with few local manifestations (mild edema without signs of necrosis) at the site of the bite. Patients quickly improved their clinical and laboratory abnormalities after polyvalent antivenom application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve.

  14. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  15. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  16. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

  18. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinomas cases from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suarez M, Iris; Uribe, Diego; Jaramillo, Carlos M; Osorio, German; Perez, Juan C; Lopez, Rocio; Hoyos, Sergio; Hainaut, Pierre; Pineau, Pascal; Navas, Maria-C

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. Deregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has been associated with the development of HCC in a substantial number of cases in Europe and far less in Asia. Nothing is known about this pathway in HCC cases from South America. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of mutations in beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) and the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in HCC cases from Colombia. We determine by direct sequencing the frequency of mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 gene and by immunohistochemistry the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in 54 samples of HCC obtained from three pathology units in Bogota and Medellin cities. Only three HCC cases (5.6%) were found mutated at residues (G34E, S45P, P44S, T41I) important for phosphorylation and ubiquitination of beta-catenin protein. Strikingly, nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin, hallmark of Wnt pathway activation, was found in 42.6% HCC cases (23/54). Interestingly, beta-catenin accumulation was significantly more frequent in young patients and hepatitis B virus-related HCC. Although, CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations are not frequent in HCC from Colombian patients, our findings indicate that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in 42.6% of HCC samples. Furthermore, Wnt signaling was demonstrated in HCC cases associated of HBV infection, one of the most important HCC risk factors in Colombia.

  19. [West Nile virus; ecology and epidemiology of an emerging pathogen in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Luis; Peña, José; González, Marco; Mattar, Salim

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has an enzootic mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle in nature, Culex sp mosquitoes being the main vectors. Birds are the main amplifying hosts. Humans and horses are incidental dead-end hosts. It produces a flu-like or a self-limited febrile disease in most humans. It can cause encephalitis, meningitis or meningoencephalitis in cases of neurological disease, having greater incidence and mortality from encephalitis in older people and immune-compromised patients. Outbreaks have been reported in Africa, the Middle-east, Europe and Asia. WNV first appeared in North-America in 1999 and its circulation has been documented in Mexico, the Caiman islands, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Martinique, Guadalupe, Cuba, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and more recently in Colombia. The public health concern regarding WNV if it becomes introduced into Middle- and South-America will depend upon the interaction of several factors. The prevailing conditions in Colombia are apt for its spread and development. There are two main hypotheses; the virus could become enzootic and endemic and cause limited human disease, or it could become epidemic and cause annual outbreaks affecting large numbers of humans and animals. It will depend upon Colombian birds' susceptibility to the virus because of biological differences and intra-specific geographical variations in mosquitoe species' vector competence and the environmental effects on its ability to transmit the virus; such factors are determinant in the primary amplifying cycle.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: variability of stocks from Colombia determined by molecular karyotype and minicircle Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Triana, Omar; Ortiz, Sylvia; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Solari, Aldo

    2006-05-01

    Nineteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks, most of them of wild origin, and four Trypanosoma rangeli stocks from Colombia were analysed by molecular karyotype analysis with cloned DNA cruzipain as the probe. Another 27 cloned stocks of T. cruzi from different geographic areas of South America were used as reference for T. cruzi lineages. Phenetic analysis of chromosome size polymorphism demonstrated a great variability of Colombian T. cruzi stocks, suggesting that most belong to lineage I, although two of them belong to lineage II. The 2 lineage II T. cruzi, 17 T. cruzi lineage I, and 3 T. rangeli stocks from Colombia were studied further by Southern blot analysis with a panel of kinetoplast DNA minicircle probes. Hybridisation results indicate that the two T. cruzi II stocks are genetically distant from each other and from T. cruzi lineages IIb, IId, and IIe from Chile. Finally, T. cruzi minicircle probes do not cross-hybridise in any stringency condition tested with T. rangeli minicircles, a clear indication that these parasites can be easily distinguished by this method.

  1. Paleoecology of benthic foraminifera from the Miocene of the San Jacinto Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, John Sebastian; Fiorini, Flavia; Andres Trejos, Raul; Vallejo, Diego Felipe; Pardo, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative benthic foraminifera analysis was conducted on 34 samples collected from a borehole core (393.72m deep) drilled by Colombian Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on 2009 in the San Jacinto basin (Northern Colombia). The aims of the research were to define a taxonomical data-bank of Miocene benthic foraminifera for this region, to use the benthic foraminifera assemblages to interpret the paleoenvironment and to identify paleoenvironmental changes. The bottom of the section was dated between lowest Burdigalian to middle Langhian (20.393-17.721 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils bioevents: LO Helicosphaera ampliaperta, HCO Sphenolithus belemnos and LCO Sphenolithus heteromorphus. The benthic foraminifera fauna identified in the studied samples is composed for the majority of calcareous hyaline tests and is dominated by infaunal taxas. Species belonging to the genera Uvigerina and Lenticulina are commonly occurring in the studied section together with other species typical of outer-shelf upper-bathyal environment. Cibicidoides spp., abundant in the lower part of the section, abruptly decreases in abundance in the upper part. Species belonging to the opportunistic genera Bulimina and Bolivina are more abundant in the upper part of the section. Variability in the abundance of opportunistic species can be associated with tectonic disturbance on the Sinu-San Jacinto fold belt (NW of Colombia) as a result of collision of the Caribbean plate against NW of South America. The tectonics could lead a perturbation on deep ocean sedimentation and circulation.

  2. Colombia continues to yield major oil, gas discoveries

    SciTech Connect

    McGettigan, C.K.; Hunt, D.G.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia, where petroleum development began in 1908, is still yielding giant and supergiant discoveries. Recent successes result from improvements in exploration technology, in infrastructure, and in terms of participation offered by the Colombian government. Colombia has 13 sedimentary basins covering an area of 700,000 sq km out of a total country area of 1,350,000 sq km, including the continental shelf. This article highlights four of the seven basins currently productive in Colombia, providing an overview of geology and recent exploration activity.

  3. Smokefree implementation in Colombia: Monitoring, outside funding, and business support.

    PubMed

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation in Colombia, a middle income country. Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed. Colombia's Ministry of Health coordinated local implementation practices, which were strongest in larger cities with supportive leadership. Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts. The bar owners' association provided concerted education campaigns. Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could be cultivated in other low and middle income countries.

  4. Geographical and occupational aspects of leptospirosis in the coffee-triangle region of Colombia, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Laura M; Giraldo-Pulgarin, Jasmin Y; Agudelo-Marín, Nelly; Holguin-Rivera, Yeimer A; Gómez-Sierra, Sebastián; Ortiz-Revelo, Paola V; Velásquez-Bonilla, Néstor J; Caraballo-Arias, Yohama; Mondragon-Cardona, Alvaro; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies occupationally profiling as well as using Geographic information system (GIS) to map human leptospirosis. There are no detailed, municipality-level, epidemiological maps in Colombia neither in South America. We developed such maps for the Coffee-triangle region, Colombia and assess some occupational issues. surveillance cases data (2007-2011) were used to estimate the annual incidence rates (cases/100,000 population) of leptospirosis to develop the first maps of disease in the 53 municipalities of the Coffee-triangle region of Colombia. GIS used was Kosmo(®) 3.1. Five thematic maps were developed according to municipalities and years. Using labor official information, analyses between agriculture (harvested areas) with disease occurrence was done (linear regression). Between 2007 and 2011, 786 cases were reported (77.8% from one department, Risaralda), for a cumulated rate of 32.18 cases/100,000 population. The highest rate was reported in the less developed municipality of one department (Pueblo Rico, Risaralda) with 1535.05 cases/100,000 population (187 cases, 2009). Armenia (Quindio department capital city), reported 23.41 cases/100,000pop (2011). In those patients with identified occupations, 33.3% were agriculture workers, finding a significant relationship between the number of cases in 2008 and the harvested area by municipality (r(2)=0.48; p=0.0083). one of the 53 municipalities contributed with almost a quarter of the cases. Agriculture was significantly associated with the incidence. Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps allow to focus actions in prevention and control for risk zones for leptospirosis which still represents a significant issue in the region and Colombia, particularly in agriculture workers.

  5. GLACIER MONITORING SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA - complementing glaciological measurements with laser-scanning and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Jorge; Micheletti, Natan; Rabatel, Antoine; Mölg, Nico; Zemp, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Colombia (South America) has six small glaciers (total glacierized area of 45 Km2); their geographical location, close to zero latitude, makes them very sensitive to climate changes. An extensive monitoring program is being performed since 2006 on two glaciers, with international cooperation supports. This presentation summarizes the results of glacier changes in Colombia and includes the latest results obtained within the CATCOS Project - Phase 1 (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) signed between Colombia and Switzerland, and within the Joint Mixte Laboratory GREAT-ICE (IRD - France), with the application of LiDAR technology and GPR-based ice thickness measurements at Conejeras Glacier. Conejeras Glacier (Lat. N. 4° 48' 56"; Long. W. 75° 22' 22"; Alt. Max. 4915m.; Alt. Min. 4730m. Area 0.2 Km2) is located on the north-western side of Santa Isabel Volcano. This glacier belongs to global glacier monitoring network of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS-ID: 2721). The surface mass balance is calculated monthly using the direct glaciological method. Between April 2006 and May 2014, Conejeras Glacier showed a cumulative loss of -21 m w.e. The CATCOS Project allowed to improve the glacier monitoring system in Colombia with two main actions: (1) a terrestrial laser scanner survey (RIEGL VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner, property of Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg); and (2) ice thickness measurements (Blue System Integration Ltd. Ice Penetrating Radar of property of IRD). The terrestrial laser-scanning survey allowed to realize an accurate digital terrain model of the glacier surface with 13 million points and a decimetric resolution. Ice thickness measurements showed an average glacier thickness of 22 meters and a maximum of 52 meters.

  6. Population dynamics of Anopheles nuneztovari in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Correa, Margarita M

    2016-11-01

    Anopheles nuneztovari is an important Colombian malaria vector widespread on both sides of the Andean Mountains, presenting morphological, behavioral and genetic heterogeneity throughout the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the population structure and distribution of An. nuneztovari in Colombia are associated with ecological and physical barriers present in a heterogeneous landscape. Further, differences in behavior were addressed. A total of 5392 specimens of An. nuneztovari were collected. Mitochondrial and nuclear marker analyses detected subdivision among the northwest-west, northeast and east populations. For both markers, isolation by distance (~53%) and isolation by resistance (>30%) were determinants of population genetic differentiation. This suggests that physical barriers, geographical distance and ecological differences on both sides of the Andean Mountains promoted the genetic differentiation and population subdivision of An. nuneztovari in Colombia. This species showed the highest biting activity after 20:00h; indoor and outdoor preferences were found in all localities. These results indicated that the most effective interventions for controlling vector populations on both sides of the Andes need to be region-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tuberculosis control and managed competition in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Gaviria, Marta Beatriz; Franco, Alvaro; Restrepo, Roman; Hincapié, Doracelly; Blas, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Law 100 introduced the Health Sector Reform in Colombia, a model of managed competition. This article addresses the effects of this model in terms of output and outcomes of TB control. Trends in main TB control indicators were analysed using secondary data sources, and 25 interviews were done with key informants from public and private insurers and provider institutions, and from the health directorate level. We found a deterioration in the performance of TB control: a decreasing number of BCG vaccine doses applied, a reduction in case finding and contacts identification, low cure rates and an increasing loss of follow up, which mainly affects poor people. Fragmentation occurred as the atomization and discontinuity of the technical processes took place, there was a lack of coordination, as well as a breakdown between individual and collective interventions, and the health information system began to disintegrate. The introduction of the Managed Competition (MC) in Colombia appeared to have adverse effects on TB control due to the dominance of the economic rationality in the health system and the weak state stewardship. Our recommendations are to restructure the reform's public health component, strengthen the technical capacity in public health of the state, mainly at the local and departmental levels, and to improve the health information system by reorienting its objectives to public health goals.

  8. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Santos, Óscar; Gómez, Alberto; Vizcaíno, Viviana; Casas, María Consuelo; Ramírez, María Del Pilar; Olaya, Patricia

    2017-01-24

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a worldwide public health problem; it has been estimated that over 180 million people are infected with this virus worldwide. Its precise incidence and prevalence (i.e., epidemiology) and the most frequent circulating genotypes in Colombia are unknown. To describe the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes in infected Colombian patients. We recovered the data on 1,538 HCV isolates from 1,527 patients in two Colombian reference laboratories typed by PAGE or qPCR. Patients' mean age was 53 years; 70% of them were 40 to 70 years old, and 52%, females; 57% of all tests were ordered in Bogotá and 80% of cases were from Cundinamarca, Valle and Atlántico departments. Genotype 1 was detected in 88.6% of cases, distributed as follows: 70% subtype 1b, 13.5% subtype 1a and 5.1%, undetermined subtypes. Genotype 2 was found in 5.4% of the patients, genotype 3 in 2% and genotype 4 in 4%. Mixed genotypes were found in 0.8% of the samples. Genotype 1 is the most common HCV genotype circulating in Colombia, and subtype 1b the most frequent.

  9. Colombia's national plan for sexual education.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The brief summary of Colombia's government's plan for sex education emphasized the active involvement of all sectors of society and targeted individuals, families, and society. The National Plan for Sex Education (PNES) was established by the Colombian presidential program for youth, women, and the family (PROMOVER). The plan is an evolution of rights and duties laid out in the National Constitution of 1991 on sexuality. The plan has the support of the First Lady of Colombia. The Foundation of Human and Social Development will provide technical support, and activities will be coordinated between the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare. The objectives of PNES are to promote the development of attitudes that value sexuality, value social gender equality, value autonomy, value responsibility, value harmony of interactions and solidarity, and value sexual health. PNES will begin with planning, coordinating between ministries and sectors, and implementing the decentralized and participatory action plan. The plan involves training, research, communication, services, and institutionalization. Training will be the first priority and will be directed to sensitizing officials and officials administering the plan about sexuality and sex education, to case workers involved with therapeutic interventions, and to youth, parents, and sexually active adolescents. The plan includes criteria for selecting legal advisors and staff from nongovernmental organizations, who will administer the training and evaluations.

  10. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  11. The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E; Daza, Juan M; Paez, Vivian P; Bock, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna.

  12. Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M

    2014-03-07

    The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America.

  13. The collection of the Herpetological Museum of the University of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Yusty, Carlos E.; Paez, Vivian P.; Bock, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Northwestern South America harbors one of the richest herpetofauna in the world. The connection among several biogeographic provinces along with climatic and orographic complexity makes this region an important contributor to the Neotropical biodiversity. Despite of this importance, the amphibian and reptile fauna in this area remains largely unknown as few herpetological collections has been made in recent decades. Motivated by this, the Herpetological Museum at the Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) has been increasing the collection in the last 16 years to better understand the herpetofaunal diversity and thus contribute to ecological, systematic, biogeographic and conservation research in the Neotropics. Here, we present the results of this effort and highlight how future collection will impact our understanding of the Neotropical herpetofauna. PMID:25733961

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi-associated cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study in Eastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Mendoza, Eder; Torres-Hillera, Martin; Pinto, Neyla; Prada, Janette; Silva, Clara A; Vera, Silvia J; Castillo, Erwin; Valderrama, Vladimir; Prada, Didier G; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Garcia, Ingrid

    2004-01-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a common cause of cardiopathy in South America leading it eventually to an established stroke; however, the association between T. cruzi infection itself and cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. We did a case-control study at Eastern Colombia and found that T. cruzi infection was more frequent and statistically significant in stroke cases (24.4%) than controls (1.9%), (Chi square: 21.72; OR: 16.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.64-71.4; p<0.00001). After removing the seropositive patients with cardiological abnormalities, the significance still remained by multivariate analysis (p<0.05). This is the first case-control study that demonstrated a significant link between this infection and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, mainly ischemic, regardless of cardiac abnormalities. Therefore, we recommend that patients with stroke must be screened for T. cruzi infection if they currently live or have lived in places where this parasite is considered endemic.

  15. The San Juan Delta, Colombia: tides, circulations, and salt dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kjerfve, Björn

    2002-05-01

    The San Juan River delta (Colombia) with an area of 800 km 2 is the largest delta environment on the Pacific coast of South America. It consists of active distributaries maintained by an average discharge of 2500 m 3 s -1, is tide dominated, and has relatively narrow estuarine mixing zones <17 km wide and typically ˜7 km wide. Water level and current time series in two distributary mouths indicate that the tide is semidiurnal with a form number 0.1-0.2 and a mean range of 3 m. Processes at tidal frequencies explain 75-95% of the water level variability with the remaining low-frequency variability attributed to meteorological forcing and river processes. The tidal phase for the main diurnal and semidiurnal constituents progress from north to south along the coast. Only the southernmost distributary experiences significant tidal asymmetry as a result of strong river discharge and shallow depths. In the northernmost distributary, shallow water constituents are insignificant. Tidal currents were more semidiurnal than the water level, with form number 0.09-0.13. Tidal ellipses indicated that currents were aligned with the channels and mean amplitudes <1 m s -1. In the delta distributaries, circulation modes varied from seaward flow at all depths during intermediate runoff conditions to gravitational circulation during rising and high discharge periods. In San Juan and Chavica distributaries, the currents were ebb-directed, while in Charambirá they were flood-directed. The circulation appears to be controlled by the morphology of the distributaries, which were weakly stratified and only sometimes moderately stratified. The net salt transport was directed seaward in San Juan and Charambirá, and landward at Chavica, indicating an imbalance in the salt budget, and signifying non-steady state behavior. The net longitudinal salt flux in the San Juan delta is largely a balance between ebb-directed advective flux, and flood-directed tidal sloshing. Along the distributary

  16. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. 2016 Ecuador earthquake and rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Yoshimoto, M.; Acero, W.; Gabriela, P.; Vasconez, F.; Arrais, S.; Ruiz, M. C.; Alvarado, A. P.; Pedraza, P.; Dionicio, V.; Chamorro, O.; Maeda, Y.; Nakano, M.

    2016-12-01

    A large earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred on 16 April 2016 within the source region of the 1906 earthquake, which has been interpreted as a megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the source regions of smaller earthquakes in 1942 (Mw 7.8), 1958 (Mw 7.7), and 1979 (Mw 8.1). We analyzed the mainshock and aftershocks of the 2016 earthquake using regional broadband seismic data in Ecuador and Colombia. We performed teleseismic slip inversion of the mainshock of the 2016 earthquake using waveform data from the global broadband seismic networks. Our CMT inversion of the 2016 earthquake indicated an Mw 7.7 event with a dip-slip mechanism at a depth of 25 km. Our slip inversion indicated that the rupture propagated from north to south with the maximum slip of 2.2 m. CMT solutions of the aftershocks were characterized dominantly by dip-slip mechanisms, and large aftershocks occurred north and south of the mainshock slip region at shallow depths. The spatial distribution of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks correlated with patches of high interplate coupling strength and was similar to the distribution of the 1942 earthquake and aftershocks, suggesting that the 2016 earthquake ruptured the same asperity as the 1942 earthquake for a recurrence interval of 74 years. If this asperity was ruptured by the 1906 earthquake, the 1942 earthquake occurred only 36 years after the 1906 earthquake. Yoshimoto and Kumagai [2016 AGU Meeting] performed tsunami waveform inversion of the 1906 earthquake, which indicated Mw around 8.4 and showed that the main slip occurred near the trench off the source regions of the three historical and 2016 earthquakes. The tsunami inversion results indicate that the 1906 earthquake did not rupture the source region of the 1942 earthquake, which explains the discrepancy in the recurrence interval. These results suggest that the existence of a depth-dependent complex rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone.

  18. UAVSAR Acquires False-Color Image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-03

    This false-color image of Colombia Galeras Volcano, was acquired by UAVSAR on March 13, 2013. A highly active volcano, Galeras features a breached caldera and an active cone that produces numerous small to moderate explosive eruptions.

  19. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958.

  20. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162464.html Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  1. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  2. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  3. Variations in alluvial style of Tertiary units in response to tectonism, Las Monas area, middle Magdalena valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Siemers, C.T.

    1989-03-01

    Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of Tertiary alluvial sandstone outcrops within and east of producing oil fields in the Las Monas area in Colombia, South America, indicate that depositional style changed from fluvial-deltaic to braided streams atop alluvial fans to high-sinuosity meandering streams in response to uplifts in the surrounding areas. Diverse paleocurrent trends in the Tertiary formations in the perimeter area demonstrate that streams flowed northeast and northwest. Streams in the oil field had easterly and southerly components. Source areas contributing sediment were different and reflected uplifts to the west and south of the Las Monas area. Petrographic composition of sandstones that have easterly and southerly paleocurrent trends in the field area contain more feldspar and less polycrystalline strained quartz than sandstones having a northerly trend in the perimeter area. Sandstones in the field area represent an unroofing of a western granitic terrain, possibly in the ancestral Central Cordillera.

  4. Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    experienced the same fits and starts as others in the region. There have been successes , including the reintegration of the M-19 (Movimiento del 19... REINTEGRATION AS COUNTER-INSURGENCY IN COLOMBIA Mr. GREGORY E. PHILLIPS, DOS COURSE 5601 and 5602 FUNDAMENTALS OF STRATEGIC LOGIC and THE NATURE OF...COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  5. Colombia: Gateway to Defeating Transnational Hell in the Western Hemisphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    eliminating coca in southern Colombia region of Putumayo. These crops are being destroyed by aircraft spraying the fields with an herbicide named Glyphosate ...democracy. 6 Fifty Five percent of all terrorist attacks on U.S. interests in 2001 occurred in Colombia. Occidental Petroleum Corporation, a U.S. based oil...million. Many of those remaining have fled ungoverned areas where terrorists find sanctuary, logistical bases , training, and planning for future attacks

  6. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  7. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  8. Production optimization in the Provincia field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, J.; Jacobson, L.; Faber, C.

    1989-02-01

    Designing or redesigning production facilities for optimum operation usually results in the generation of maximum profit from an installation. But in older fields, or fields where a short life is expected, design changes may not be a viable option. In such cases, obtaining maximum production within the limits of existing facilities, thereby minimizing new investments, may be an attractive option. This paper discusses application of the latter technique in the Provincia field, Colombia, to optimize oil and gas production within constraints imposed by periodic temporary gas-compression-capacity restrictions and by the configuration of existing oil and gas facilities. The multistep optimization program used at Provincia included improvement of individual well performance, optimization of individual well facilities, fieldwide optimization of surface facilities, and optimization of the field production scheme.

  9. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  10. Congenital malaria in Urabá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital malaria has been considered a rare event; however, recent reports have shown frequencies ranging from 3% to 54.2% among newborns of mothers who had suffered malaria during pregnancy. There are only a few references concerning the epidemiological impact of this entity in Latin-America and Colombia. Objective The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence of congenital malaria in an endemic Colombian region and to determine some of its characteristics. Methods A prospective, descriptive study was carried out in the mothers who suffered malaria during pregnancy and their newborns. Neonates were clinically evaluated at birth and screened for Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear from the umbilical cord and peripheral blood, and followed-up weekly during the first 21 days of postnatal life through clinical examinations and thick smears. Results 116 newborns were included in the study and 80 umbilical cord samples were obtained. Five cases of congenital infection were identified (four caused by P. vivax and one by P. falciparum), two in umbilical cord blood and three in newborn peripheral blood. One case was diagnosed at birth and the others during follow-up. Prevalence of congenital infection was 4.3%. One of the infected newborns was severely ill, while the others were asymptomatic and apparently healthy. The mothers of the newborns with congenital malaria had been diagnosed with malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and also presented placental infection. Conclusions Congenital malaria may be a frequent event in newborns of mothers who have suffered malaria during pregnancy in Colombia. An association was found between congenital malaria and the diagnosis of malaria in the mother during the last trimester of pregnancy or during delivery, and the presence of placental infection. PMID:21846373

  11. Space Radar Image of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image. Ruiz Volcano, also known as Nevado del Ruiz, is the dark red peak below and right of the image center. A small circular summit crater is visible at the top of Ruiz. Tolima Volcano is the sharp peak near the lower left corner of the image. The red color of the image is due to the snow cover and the lack of vegetation at high elevations in these volcanic mountains. Ruiz Volcano, at 5,389 meters (17,681 feet) elevation, is capped by glaciers. In 1985, an explosive eruption melted parts of these glaciers, triggering mudflows along narrow canyons on the sides of the volcano. The town of Armero, located just off the right side of the image, was buried by mud and 21,000 residents were killed. Scientists are using radar images of these remote yet dangerous volcanoes to understand the threats they pose to local populations. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The image is centered at 4.8 degrees north latitude and 75.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 40 kilometers by 48 kilometers (24.8 miles by 29.8 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  12. 78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission... Environmental Affairs Council (the ``Council'') and the first meeting of the Environmental Cooperation... United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement (ECA). The Department of State and USTR...

  13. 75 FR 67011 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ..., 2010 Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the..., with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily...

  14. 76 FR 53299 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of... for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that...

  15. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  16. Lithospheric thickness estimation beneath Northwestern South America from an S-wave receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. Faustino; Vargas, Carlos A.; Monsalve, Gaspar

    2017-04-01

    We make use of the S-to-P receiver function technique beneath Colombia and neighboring regions to make a first-order approximation of the depth of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) and, therefore, of lithospheric thickness. A deconvolution technique was used to calculate the receiver functions, and after a moveout correction and a time-depth conversion, LAB depths for different tectonic regions of northwestern South America were obtained. Results are typically between 65 and 110 km, consistent with previous estimates around the world and other regions in South America. Lithospheric thickness beneath an oceanic island in the Caribbean is ˜80 km, whereas for the Ecuador-Colombia Trench it is ˜65 km, and around 100 km for the Panama Arc. The transition to the continent is associated with an increase in LAB depth, where it can reach ˜110 km, with no significant differences among terranes and/or tectonic blocks.

  17. Opium in Afghanistan: Lessons Learned from the Counterdrug Strategies of Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Afghanistan................50 Figure 9. Illegal armed groups and coca cultivation in Colombia 2008...................................55 Figure 10...Drug Abuse Resistance Education FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia GDP Gross Domestic Product NIU National Interdiction Unit PCIM...States.21 This problem contains four major players: the coca farmers; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC); the Colombian Government

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... ofColombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of...

  19. 78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-- Amendment AGENCY... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama... Applications section of the Notice of the U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama published...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority..., as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of...

  1. 77 FR 50557 - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...--Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia #0; #0; #0; Presidential..., 2012 Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Memorandum for the... hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  4. 19 CFR 10.3034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Colombia. 10.3034 Section 10.3034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.3034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of U. S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Government of Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... of Colombia Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in... amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  6. 19 CFR 10.3034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Colombia. 10.3034 Section 10.3034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.3034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Colombia. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  7. CASA Central and South America GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, James; Dixon, Timothy; Neilan, Ruth

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest Global Positioning System (GPS) campaign in the world to date (Table 1) [Neilan et al., 1988]. From January 18 to February 5, 1988, 43 GPS receivers collected about 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA UNO, an acronym for Central and South America—and “uno” is Spanish for “one,” designating first-epoch measurements. The CASA UNO experiment was the first civilian effort at implementing an extended GPS satellite-tracking network and established the first major GPS network in the northern Andean margin and the western Caribbean.

  8. Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Epipsocidae), from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and description of the female E.chiquibulensis García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; González Obando, Ranulfo; García Aldrete, Alfonso Neri

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and the female of Edmockfordiachiquibulensis García Aldrete, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Edmockfordia is included; the genus was previously known only from Belize. The genus is re-diagnosed to include female characters. The distribution of the genus is considerably widened, from Belize to northeastern South America.

  9. [National neuroepidemiological study in Colombia (EPINEURO)].

    PubMed

    Pradilla A, Gustavo; Vesga A, Boris E; León-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2003-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of eight neurological problems-migraine, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathy, disorders of neurological development, epilepsy, dementia, and sequelae of head trauma-in Colombia as a part of the National Neuroepidemiological Study (EPINEURO). A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two phases between September 1995 and August 1996. In the first phase persons who might be suffering from a neurological disease were identified, and in the second phase a specific diagnosis was made. A sample of 8 910 people were examined, distributed in proportion to the population in each of the five geographical areas of Colombia (central, southwest, northwest, eastern, and Caribbean coast). The evaluation was done using a modified version of the neuroepidemiology protocol of the World Health Organization, along with a simplified physical examination. With the patients with possible dementia a neuropsychological examination designed for this study was used in order to thoroughly examine the cognitive aspects analyzed in the initial mental screening. The scales of Hachinski, Yesavage, and Blessed and the diagnostic criteria of the NINCDS-ADRDA were used for Alzheimer's disease; the NINDS-AIREN criteria for dementia of vascular origin; and the DSM-IV criteria for all types of dementia. A survey was conducted in order to determine if there were sequelae of head trauma. Persons 12 years old or older were evaluated by an adult neurologist and those under 12 years old by a pediatric neurologist. The prevalences of neurological disorders were calculated by age and sex, for each region and also for the entire country, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence per 1 000 population for the disorders investigated was: migraine, 71.2 (95% CI: 65.5 to 76.8); disorders of neurological development, 46.1 (95% CI: 35.5 to 58.9); cerebrovascular disease, 19.9 (95% CI: 14.3 to 27.4); dementia, 13.1 (95% CI: 8.5 to 19.3); epilepsy

  10. Cretaceous sequence stratigraphy of the Northern South American Passive Margin: Implications for tectonic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, E.G.; Villamil, T.; Johnson, C.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The passive margin of northern South America, from Colombia to northeastern Venezuela, was relatively stable through the Cretaceous and only broadly affected by the entry of the Caribbean Plate into the Protocaribbean Basin. This region offers a unique opportunity to test the relative effects of global sealevel change, autocyclic sedimentologic processed, and regional tectonics in shaping the stratigraphic record of Cretaceous passive margins. High-resolution stratigraphic studies of Colombia and Venezuela have established a precise system of regional chronology and correlation with resolution <1 Ma (50-500 ka for the middle Cretaceous). This allows precise separation of allocyclic and autocyclic controls on facies development. This new chronology integrates assemblage zone biostratigraphy with event/cycle chronostratigraphy. Newly measured Cretaceous sections in Venezuela and throughout Colombia are calibrated to this new chronology, and sequence stratigraphic units independently defined to the third-order of resolution. Graphic correlation of all sections is used to identify sequences with regional stratigraphic expression, and those which correlate to sequence stratigraphic standards of North America, Europe and the global cycles of Hag et al. (1988). 50-60 percent of the stratigraphic sequences across the South American passive margin correlate to other continents and to the global sequence stratigraphic standard, reflecting strong eustatic influence on Cretaceous sedimentation across northern South America. The remaining sequences in this region reflect tectonic modification of the passive margin and autocyclic sedimentary processes.

  11. Tectonic implications of tomographic images of subducted lithosphere beneath Northwestern South America

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Hilst, R. ); Mann, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Tomographic images and deep seismicity of the mantle beneath northwestern South America support the existence of extensive and continuous subducted slabs which may be important controls on the neotectonic deformation of the overriding South America plate. Using tomographic data, we have estimated lateral continuity, regional dip, downdip length and approximate convergence direction of two, largely aseismic slabs. Tomographic data suggests that the Cauca slab, previously defined using earthquakes beneath southern Colombia, extends 300 km into the mantle beneath northern Colombia, has an average dip of 50[degrees], and is the downdip extension of Eocene to Miocene Panama island arc and Oligocene-Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate. The Maracaibo slab of northern Colombia and western Venezuela extends up to 450 km into the mantle at an average angle of 16[degrees] and is the downdip extension of Late Cretaceous oceanic plateau crust of the Caribbean Sea. The boundary between the two slabs is less than 50 km in width. The Maracaibo and northern Cauca slabs are generally aseismic and not associated with an overlying volcanic arc. Instead, both slabs are overlain by broad zones of diffuse active faulting and topography in the northern Andes. The shallow dip, angle of oblique subduction and thickness of the Maracaibo slab may produce crustal deformation including northward tectonic escape of the Maracaibo block, a triangular wedge of continental crust in the overriding South America plate.

  12. La Isla de Gorgona, Colombia: A petrological enigma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Andrew C.

    2005-09-01

    A wide range of intrusive (wehrlite, dunite, gabbro and olivine gabbro) and extrusive (komatiites picrites and basalts) igneous rocks are found on the small pacific island of Gorgona. The island is best known for its ˜90 Ma spinifex-textured komatiites: the only true Phanerozoic komatiites yet discovered. Early work led to suggestions that the rocks of the island formed at a mid-ocean ridge, however more recent research supports an origin as part of a hot mantle plume-derived oceanic plateau. One of the main lines of evidence for this origin stems from the inferred high mantle source temperatures required to form the high-MgO (> 15 wt.%) komatiites and picrites. Another remarkable feature of the island, considering its small size (8 × 2.5 km), is the degree of chemical and radiogenic isotopic heterogeneity shown by the rocks. This heterogeneity requires a mantle source region with at least three isotopically distinctive source regions (two depleted and one enriched). Although these mantle source regions appear to be derived in significant part from recycled oceanic crust and lithosphere, enrichments in 187Os, 186Os and 3He in Gorgona lavas and intrusive rocks, suggest some degree of transfer of material from the outer core to the plume source region at D″. Modelling reveals that the komatiites probably formed by dynamic melting at an average pressure of 3-4 GPa leaving residual harzburgite. Trace element depletion in Gorgona ultramafic rocks appears to be the result of earlier, deeper melting which produced high-MgO trace element-enriched magmas. The discovery of a trace-element enriched picrite on the island has confirmed this model. Gorgona accreted onto the palaeocontinental margin of northwestern South America in the Eocene and palaeomagnetic work reveals that it was formed at ˜26 °S. It has been proposed that Gorgona is a part of the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Plateau (CCOP), however, the CCOP accreted in the Late Cretaceous and was derived from a more

  13. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  14. Evidence for natural gas hydrate occurrences in Colombia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, P.D.; Krason, J.; Dominic, K.

    1987-05-01

    Multichannel and selected single-channel seismic lines of the continental margin sediments of the Colombia basin display compelling evidence for large accumulations of natural gas hydrate. Seismic bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), interpreted to mark the base of the hydrate stability zone, are pronounced and very widespread along the entire Panama-Colombia lower continental slope. BSRs have also been identified at two locations on the abyssal plain. Water depths for these suspected hydrate occurrences range from 900 to 4000 m. Although no gas hydrate samples have been recovered from this area, biogenic methane is abundant in Pliocene turbidites underlying the abyssal plain. More deeply buried rocks beneath the abyssal plain are thermally mature. Thermogenic gas from these rocks may migrate upward along structural pathways into the hydrate stability zone and form hydrate. Impermeable hydrate layers may form caps over large accumulations of free gas, accounting for the very well-defined BSRs in the area. The abyssal plain and the deformed continental margin hold the highest potential for major economic accumulations of gas hydrate in the basin. The extensive continuity of BSRs, relatively shallow water depths, and promixity to onshore production facilities render the marginal deformed belt sediments the most favorable target for future economic development of the gas hydrate resource within the Colombia basin. The widespread evidence of gas hydrates in the Colombia basin suggests a high potential for conventional hydrocarbon deposits offshore of Panama and Colombia.

  15. Health care for older persons in Colombia: a country profile.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-09-01

    Colombia is a country of approximately 42 million inhabitants, with some 2.5 million being aged 65 and older. Currently, life expectancy in Colombia is 72.3. By 2025, the population life expectancy at birth will be 77.6 for women and 69.8 for men. The quality of care that people receive as they age in Colombia varies according to where they live. Individuals living in the highly urbanized areas of Colombia receive high-quality care, whereas elderly subjects living in rural areas and in the southern and northern regions are exposed to unemployment, low income, inequity of access to health care, drug trafficking, and armed conflict. In spite of these problems, characteristics of aging of older people in terms of functionality and healthcare access are similar to those of people living in developing countries around the world. This article reviews the particular characteristics of the elderly population in Colombia, especially the significant changes that have happened in recent years, when social instability and conflict have determined that health resources be redirected to other budget priorities such as defense and security.

  16. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, David J.; Pacheco, M. Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F.; Schwartz, Rachel S.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  17. Multiproxy paleolimnological evidence of Holocene temperature and precipitation variability from the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, C. W.; Shanahan, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The late Holocene was characterized by a number of significant, widespread multi-century climate anomalies, the most prominent and well documented of which are the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period. Existing paleoclimate reconstructions from South and Central America provide evidence for anomalous climate conditions during these time periods but the spatial and temporal resolution of existing records is limited and quantitative data on the magnitudes of these events is lacking. These limitations make it difficult to fully evaluate the causes and large scale impacts of these apparently global events. Here, we present new high-resolution multiproxy lacustrine records of late Holocene climate change in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia over the last 2 millennia by combining high-resolution core scanning approaches with molecular and stable isotope analysis of lipid biomarkers. Preliminary paleoclimate reconstructions from these archives suggest that the northern tropics of South America strongly reflect global century-scale climate variability over this time period, with significant hydrologic and temperature anomalies that are broadly synchronous with events in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The magnitude and widespread nature of late Holocene century-scale droughts in this region likely had significant ecological and societal impacts in the Eastern Cordillera.

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Winter, David J; Pacheco, M Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F; Schwartz, Rachel S; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Cartwright, Reed A; Escalante, Ananias A

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America.

  19. Detrital zircon fission-track thermochronology and magnetic fabric of the Amagá Formation (Colombia): Intracontinental deformation and exhumation events in the northwestern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedrahita, V. A.; Bernet, M.; Chadima, M.; Sierra, G. M.; Marín-Cerón, M. I.; Toro, G. E.

    2017-07-01

    New detrital zircon-fission track (ZFT) and magnetic fabric data are presented to constrain the time of deposition, provenance and deformation of the of Lower and Upper members of the Amagá Formation in the Amagá Basin. The Amagá Basin is located in the northern Andes, between the Western and Central Cordilleras of Colombia. The Amagá Formation was deposited in a transpressive geodynamic context and is allegedly synchronous with tectonic events such as the Andean orogeny and the Panama-Choco Block collision with the northwestern South American Plate. Detrital ZFT data confirm an Oligocene age for the Lower Member and a middle-Miocene age for the Upper Member of the Amagá Formation. In addition to constraining the depositional age, the ZFT data presented in this study also reflect Paleocene-Eocene, late to early Oligocene and late to middle Miocene cooling in sediment source areas mainly located in the Central and Western Cordilleras of Colombia. These ages can be associated with regional exhumation events in the central and northern Andes of South America. Collisional stages of the Panama-Choco Block against northwestern South America, subduction of the Farallon-Nazca Plate and strike-slip reactivation periods of the Cauca-Romeral fault system, caused NW-SE compression and NE-SW simple shear in the Amagá Basin. This deformational regime, identified by magnetic fabric data, induces syn- and post-depositional deformation over the Amagá Formation.

  20. [Regional disparities in infant mortality in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Mejía, Marta C; Chernichovsky, Dov; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2013-01-01

    To study the variations in infant mortality rate (IMR) across Colombia's 33 administrative departments over the period 2003-2009, examine persistency of variations across departments over time, and relate those variations to the impact of socio-economic conditions and availability of care on IMR. Using vital statistics and related socio-economic data we establish three types of analysis according to: (a) the variation of the departmental IMR (2003-2009), (b) the association between the departmental IMR and its key determinants over time, and (c) the lines of causality and relative impact of different factors, by using structural equations. The 4.7 fold ratio between the highest and lowest departmental IMR (2009) may be underestimated considering underreporting, especially in low-income departments. There is a negative association between the departmental IMR with time and a set of highly correlated variables, such as the mother education, income per capita, health insurance level and access to services. The effect of better insurance, availability of private beds, and having doctors attending mothers, eclipse the impact of better socioeconomic conditions. The range of services does not appear to be influenced by a rational policy; resources are not allocated according to the need, but with the general development. Private beds are made available where there is better health insurance.

  1. Malaria vector species in Colombia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species’ geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  2. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  3. Effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Vidal, Xavier

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapies and factors associated with HIV/AIDS control in a population of patients treated by the Colombian Social Security Health System (SGSSS). This was a descriptive study of 510 HIV/AIDS patients treated with antiretroviral therapies in 19 cities in Colombia from June 1992-April 2011. Factors assessed from each patient's clinical history were: viral load, CD4 count, antiretroviral treatment regimens, prescribed daily doses of medications, length of disease evolution, duration of therapy, history of opportunistic diseases, and drug costs. Patients were predominantly male (75.1% males versus 24.9% women), with a mean age of 41.0 ± 11.4 years and an average length of disease progression of 72 months. All recommended treatment regimens were prescribed at the defined daily dose. Treatment was effective in 65.3% of patients (viral load < 50 copies per mL). Non-adherence to treatment, treatment failure, the presence of anxiety or depression, and treatment in the city of Barranquilla were associated with an increased risk of uncontrolled HIV infection. The mean annual cost of drugs per patient was US$ 2,736. Factors associated with uncontrolled HIV infection, especially regarding treatment adherence, must be identified to promote solutions for health care programs treating patients with HIV/AIDS.

  4. [Drug use among students in Cali, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bergonzoli Peláez, G; Rico, O; Ramírez, A; Paz, M I; Ramírez, J; Rivas, J C; Salinas, A; Rodríguez, O; Salazar, O; Rincón, N

    1989-01-01

    The use of alcohol, tobacco, marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was examined in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 512 secondary-school students enrolled in public and private schools in Cali, Colombia. The overall prevalence of use for any of these substances was 59.38% in the public schools and 36.96% in the private schools (z = 4.6, P less than 0.05). The probability of finding an alcohol user was about 55.26%. The frequency of use for all the substances was 18.9% in the public schools and 7.46% in the private ones. Experience with marihuana, cocaine, and bazuco was more frequent in the public schools. The average age of users (19.91 years) was higher than that of non-users (16.25 years): t = 8.34, P less than 0.05. Students in the public schools with a family history of mental illness had almost a ninefold greater risk of being substance users (RR = 8.84, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37); among students in the private schools, having personal conflicts with authority figures (teachers and the police) was a significant risk factor (RR = 2.03, IC 95% = 1.22-3.37).

  5. Genetic structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E; Ruiz-García, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (F(ST) = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia.

  6. Women in Physics and Scientific Research in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girata, Doris

    2009-04-01

    Generally speaking, scientists in Colombia do not have a role in changing the social or economic situation of the nation. Although the proportion of women who study physics increases slowly year by year, the number of women who work in physics research has not considerably increased. Many problems in Colombia might be solved if women's status as researchers in Colombia changed. It is necessary to promote a national project for improving women's status in the sciences and to present this project to the Colombian government. Many Colombian women have grown up believing they are not able to take scientific jobs, and therefore choose to study other disciplines "for women." If Colombian women found opportunities in physics and the sciences in general, they would likely pursue such disciplines, but we need government support to promote an efficient program that will give women more information about physics as a feasible career option.

  7. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  8. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-11

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  9. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E.; Ruiz-García, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (FST = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia. PMID:20810825

  10. Education in Colombia. Bulletin, 1946, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbay, John H.

    1946-01-01

    The U.S. Office of Education has undertaken the preparation of a series of basic studies on education in a number of Central and South American countries under the sponsorship of the Interdepartmental Committee on Cultural and Scientific Cooperation. This series of studies is part of a program to promote understanding of educational conditions in…

  11. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  12. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Entamoeba: First Description of Entamoeba moshkovskii in a Rural Area from Central Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M.; Fonseca, Jairo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia; Olivera, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are the most frequent species described in human infection where E. histolytica is the only true pathogen. The epidemiology of this infection is complex due to the absence of a routine exam that allows a correct discrimination of the Entamoeba species complex. Therefore, molecular methods appear as the unique epidemiological tool to accomplish the species discrimination. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of Entamoeba species infections in a group of asymptomatic individuals from a rural area in central Colombia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 181 fecal samples from asymptomatic children under 16 years old from the hamlet La Vírgen, Cundinamarca (Colombia) that voluntarily accepted to participate in the study were collected. The fecal samples were examined by light microscopy and DNA-extracted, subsequently submitted to molecular discrimination of E. dispar/E. histolytica/E. moshkovskii infection based on a multiplex PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA fragment. To confirm the species description, twenty samples were randomly submitted to DNA sequencing of the aforementioned fragment. By direct microscopic examination, frequency of the complex E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii was 18.8% (34/181). PCR showed a frequency of 49.1% (89/181), discriminated as 23.2% (42/181) that were positive for E. dispar, 25.4% (46/181) for E. moshkovskii and 0.55% (1/ 181) for E. histolytica. Also, mixed infections were detected between E. dispar and E. moshkovskii at 4.42% (8/181) of the samples. Molecular barcoding confirmed the diagnosis depicted by the multiplex PCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This is the first description of E. moshkovskii in Colombia and the second report in South-America to our knowledge. Our results suggest the need to unravel the true epidemiology of Entamoeba infections around the world, including the real pathogenic role that E

  14. Abrupt climate changes in northwestern Colombia during the Lateglacial and Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez Ruiz, C.

    2013-05-01

    High resolution pollen/spores records from Paramo de Frontino (6, 29N, 76, 6W) and Paramo de Belmira (6,42'N, 75,40'W) in Colombia (Velásquez C. and H. Hooghiemstra, Paleobotany, 2012 in press; Velásquez C., et al., in preparation) spanning 17300 and 34000 cal yr BP; are studied for abrupt climatic change and compared with a La Cocha diatom record (Gonzalez, Z, et al., 2012), Frontino and Cariaco Basin (offshore Venezuela) titanium records and a Cariaco sea surface temperatures record (Gorin, G., et al, in preparation; Haug, et al., 2001; Lea D., et al., 2003; respectively); in reference to detected vegetation and climate variations. The most remarkable events occurred at 8200, 9300, 10400, 12000, 13500, 14.5-14.7, 16.2 and 21.4 cal yr BP. Low frequency cycles of 1500-2500 yr are present along the records suggesting that the North Atlantic Bond Cycles are also registered in northwestern South American terrestrial records. Some of these changes were dry while others wet, showing that both patterns "Cold poles, dry tropics" and "Cold poles, wet tropics" can be expressed. It was also found that the estimated temperatures from Paramo de Frontino (pollen based) and sea surface temperatures in Cariaco followed a similar trend during the the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. However, in the case of moisture, the Titanium record (indicative of rainfall) from the Cariaco Basin, the aquatic vegetation pollen and titanium records from Paramo de Frontino and diatoms record from La Cocha lake, showed a clear antiphase behavior during the same periods. Position and shape of Intertropical Convergence Zone are postulated as responsible for this variation. Keywords: palinology, Intertropical Convergence Zone, titanium, Colombia, climatic and vegetation changes.

  15. [Environmental factors associated with habitat preferences by caddisfly larvae in tropical dry forest watersheds (Tolima, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ramos, Jesús M; Guevara-Cardona, Giovany; Reinoso-Flórez, Gladys

    2014-04-01

    River ecosystems, mainly those draining tropical dry forests, are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems and a major conservation priority in South America, as elsewhere. In this study, we assessed the influence of environmental factors (e.g., precipitation) and riparian vegetation on Trichoptera larval assemblages colonizing four substrates (rock, gravel, sand, and litter) in the Venadillo and Opia watersheds (Tolima, Colombia). In each river, five 20m reaches nested into two 100m segments (one at -550 and another at -250masl), were surveyed for benthic invertebrates in the above mentioned substrates. In addition, water samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and the QBR index ("qualitat del bosc de ribera" or riparian forest quality) was applied in both rivers. A total of 6,282 larvae were collected, belonging to 11 families and 22 genera, representing 73.30% and 43.13% of the Trichoptera fauna reported to Colombia, respectively. The most abundant families were Hydropsychidae (49.86%) and Philopotamidae (25.44%) and the least abundant Odontoceridae (0.16%) and Hydrobiosidae (0.06%). The genera Smicridea, Chimarra, Protoptila, Neotrichia, and Leptonema, were common during dry and rainy seasons. The main factors related to changes in composition, richness, and abundance of larval Trichoptera were seasonality and riparian vegetation, which can influence organic matter supply, availability and stability of substrates, and colonization and population dynamics. Trichoptera assemblages showed no significant differences among substrates. However sampling points located at high elevation and in non-urbanized areas offered the largest variety of substrates and richness. Our results indicate that Trichoptera larvae are an important biotic element in freshwater ecosystems and that they are sensitive to environmental changes. Hence, our study suggests that caddisflies may be used as potential organisms for the biomonitoring of tropical dry forest rivers

  16. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of FARC: A Challenge for Colombia and a Step Toward Andean Region Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    199 197 Presidencia de la Republica de Colombia, Presidency of the Republic of Colombia, Presidential Decree number 128 on January 2008. 198 OAS...Program of Humanitarian Assistance to the Demobilized], from the Ministry of National Defense of Colombia. 204 Presidencia de la Republica de...ley144810062011.pdf. 205 Ibid. 206 Presidencia de la Republica de Colombia, Presidency of the Republic of Colombia, Acto Legistativo 01 de 2012, “Marco

  17. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  18. Gender and Cooperation in Children: Experiments in Colombia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; von Essen, Emma; Ranehill, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9–12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average. PMID:24614513

  19. Guerrilla Violence in Colombia: Examining Causes and Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    estimates discussed by former President Lleras Restrepo in the February 16, 1987 issue of Nueva Frontera , p. 266. 33 small portion of the Colombian Indian...1991). COUNTRY ECONOMIC GROWTH INFLATION RATE (19W01990) (1983-1991) COLOMBIA 3.4 24 CHILE 2.8 21 BRAZIL 2.7 660 PARAGUAY 1.9 25 ECUADOR 1.9 44 MEXICO ...America and the Caribbean, and formalize its pact with Mexico and Venezuela. Although Colombia’s macroeconomic indicators look good, not all boats are

  20. Deformation of Northwestern South America from GPS Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Paez, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, A. G.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought-to-be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is defined by transpressional deformation accommodating east-northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In southern to central Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several mapped and prominent regional shear zones. At these latitudes the NAB may be bound to the west by the Choco block and the transpressional Atrato-Uraba fault system and to the east by the Guayaquil-Algeciras fault system. And in northern Colombia the Caribbean - South America plate boundary is defined by the NAB and proposed Maracaibo and Guajira blocks. We investigate the deformation of northwestern South America, including the kinematics of NAB utilizing a new velocity field based on continuous GPS and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. We reference these new velocities to a newly estimated Euler vector for the South America plate based on inversion of cGPS data from stations east of the Andes. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of the NAB, Choco, Panama, Maracaibo and Guajira blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation (interseismic coupling) on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB along strike and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes

  1. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  2. [Semen parameters in fertile men from two South American populations].

    PubMed

    Berdugo, Jesus; Andrade-Rocha, Fernando; Cardona-Maya, Walter

    2009-10-01

    This retrospective study compared semen parameters from fertile men of two South American cities (Medellín-Colombia and Petrópolis-Brazil) to investigate their differences in some semen parameters. We evaluated semen volume using a graduated tube, total progressive motility (a + b) using light microscopy (40X) and sperm concentration using a Neubauer Counting Chamber. We observed that fertile men from Medellín presented a significantly lower volume (p<0.0001), whereas individuals from Petrópolis presented a significantly lower percentage of total progressive motility (p<0.0001). On the other hand, no difference was found in sperm concentration (p>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed differences in semen parameters between fertile men of these South American populations. We think that these differences could be attributed to the geographical variations, like those observed in other countries. However, new studies are required to investigate this phenomenon and their causes.

  3. Space radar image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency radar to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the image. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the image, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The false colors in this image were created using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.

  4. Space radar image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency radar to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the image. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the image, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The false colors in this image were created using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.

  5. Molecular diagnosis and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis in asymptomatic children from a rural area in central Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Hernández, Carolina; León, Cielo M; Moncada, Ligia Inés; Reyes, Patricia; Pinilla, Análida Elizabeth; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2015-06-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic infection that affects around 200 million people worldwide. This parasite presents a remarkable genetic variability observed in 8 genetic clusters named as 'assemblages' (A-H). These assemblages are host restricted and could be zoonotic where A and B infect humans and animals around the globe. The knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of human giardiasis in South-America is scarce and also the usefulness of PCR to detect this pathogen in fecal samples remains controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to compare the molecular targets employed for the molecular diagnosis of Giardia DNA and to discriminate the parasite assemblages circulating in the studied population. We analyzed 181 fecal samples from Children at La Virgen, Cundinamarca, Colombia that were DNA-extracted and analyzed by SSU rDNA, tpi and gdh loci. We observed positivity by microscopy of 13% and by PCR around 76-80% depending on the molecular marker. Additionally, a lack of statistical concordance between microscopy and PCR was detected. Regarding the genetic assemblages, we detected assemblage A (3%), assemblage B (90%) and mixed infections assemblages A+B (7%). Hence, the sub-assemblages were typed as AI, AII, BIII and BIV across the population. This study represents a reliable attempt to understand the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis in Colombia and the use of PCR to detect cryptic infections. The epidemiological implications are herein discussed.

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) from the Andean region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Castro, N; Beltrán, J C; Ortiz-Bernal, A; Vissa, V

    2009-12-01

    To use DNA detection methodologies to test for M. leprae in nine-banded armadillos inhabiting forested regions located around the cities and towns where leprosy patients have been identified. Ear lobe biopsies of 22 nine-banded armadillos were studied during a 2 year period. The biopsies were processed for DNA extraction and amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) of a fragment of the high copy DNA locus of M. leprae known as R-LEP. Nine of the 22 (40.9%) armadillos evaluated showed positive signals for M. leprae. Sequencing confirmed that PCR products were identical to the corresponding region of M. leprae DNA. In Colombia, South America, the consumption of and contact with the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) are common, ignoring the fact that this animal can host and be a possible zoonotic reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae, the causal agent of leprosy. This is the first study demonstrating that M. leprae is present in nine-banded armadillos in a region of Colombia using specific DNA detection. The possibility of leprosy transmission due to contact and consumption of armadillo meat or use of blood for therapeutic purposes should be further investigated.

  7. Zika and Chikungunya virus co-infection in a traveller returning from Colombia, 2016: virus isolation and genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iovine, Nicole M.; Shah, Kairav; White, Sarah K.; Paisie, Taylor; Salemi, Marco; Morris Jr, J. Glenn; Lednicky, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can share the same mosquito vector, and co-infections by these viruses can occur in humans. While infections with these viruses share commonalities, CHIKV is unique in causing arthritis and arthralgias that may persist for a year or more. These infections are commonly diagnosed by RT–PCR-based methods during the acute phase of infection. Even with the high specificity and sensitivity characteristic of PCR, false negatives can occur, highlighting the need for additional diagnostic methods for confirmation. Case presentation: On her return to the USA, a traveller to Colombia, South America developed an illness consistent with Zika, Chikungunya and/or Dengue. RT-PCR of her samples was positive only for ZIKV. However, arthralgias persisted for months, raising concerns about co-infection with CHIKV or Mayaro viruses. Cell cultures inoculated with her original clinical samples demonstrated two types of cytopathic effects, and both ZIKV and CHIKV were identified in the supernatants. On phylogenetic analyses, both viruses were found to be related to strains found in Colombia. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to consider CHIKV co-infection in patients with prolonged rheumatological symptoms after diagnosis with ZIKV, and the usefulness of cell culture as an amplification step for low-viremia blood and other samples. PMID:28348794

  8. Subgenotype diversity of hepatitis B virus American genotype F in Amerindians from Venezuela and the general population of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Devesa, M; Loureiro, C L; Rivas, Y; Monsalve, F; Cardona, N; Duarte, M C; Poblete, F; Gutierrez, M F; Botto, C; Pujol, F H

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the evaluation of the genetic diversity found in HBV circulating among Venezuelan Amerindians and the general population in Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the S region in 194 isolates showed that genotype F is highly predominant in Colombia and Venezuela. This might be related to the genetic background of the population. F3 is the main subgenotype which circulates in both countries. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 complete genome sequences of HBV American genotypes confirms the presence of two genotypes F and H, and 4 F subgenotypes. In Venezuela, subgenotypes F1, F2, and F3 circulate in East and West Amerindians, while only F3 was found among South Amerindians. Japreira community derived from Yucpa Amerindians around 150 years ago. However, several Japreira HBV sequences were forming a clade that can be classified as subgenotype 2b, differing from Yucpa sequences that belong mainly to subgenotype F3. The apparent absence of correlation between the phylogenetic groupings of HBV isolates with the ethnical origin in aboriginal populations might be suggesting a recent origin of HBV American subgenotypes, or a genetic drift effect.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Trypanosoma cruzi from Central America (Guatemala) and a comparison with South American strains.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, M; Higo, H; Miura, S; Yanagi, T; Tada, I; Kano, S; Agatsuma, T

    2007-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out for 21 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, nine of which were obtained from Guatemala and 12 from South America. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the nucleotide sequences of two nuclear gene regions, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and trypanothione reductase (TR), and contiguous portions of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). Possible genetic exchange between the rather divergent lineages of T. cruzi II from South America was suggested in the trees of the two nuclear genes. T. cruzi I strains obtained from Guatemala and Colombia were identical in all the genes examined, but other T. cruzi I isolates from South America were rather polymorphic in the DHFR-TS and mitochondrial genes. No genetic exchange was identified between T. cruzi I populations from Central and South America in the present study.

  10. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects.

  11. Achievement Evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva: Is Multigrade the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Colombia's rural "escuelas nuevas" feature multigrade classrooms, flexible promotion, rural-oriented curriculum, parent and community involvement, mastery learning, peer instruction, and library resources. A study of over 3,000 students found that, compared to traditional schools, Escuela Nueva schools had lower dropout probabilities,…

  12. The Urgent Situation of the Cuiva Indians of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcand, Bernard

    The Cuiva Indians of Colombia are now threatened with cultural and physical extermination at the hands of Colombian cattle herders. The Cuiva build no permanent houses and have no permanent settlements. They do not practice agriculture, obtaining their food from hunting and gathering. For more than 4 centuries after their discovery, little has…

  13. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  14. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia.

  15. A new termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae, Macuxitermes) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Postle, Anthony C.; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of termite, Macuxitermes colombicus Postle & Scheffrahn is described from soldiers and workers collected from Departamento Magdalena, Colombia. The soldier of Macuxitermes colombicus differs from its lone congener in having no protuberances on the head capsule. PMID:27408525

  16. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  17. [Mortality by homicides in Colombia, 1998-2012].

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; León-Quevedo, Willian; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Homicide is a universal indicator of social violence with large public health consequences. To describe mortality by homicides and to analyze its trends and geographic distribution in Colombia between 1998 and 2012. We conducted a descriptive study of deaths by homicide in Colombia between 1998 and 2012 using official mortality databases and the population projections of the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, DANE. We calculated age- and sex-specific mortality rates, and we analyzed the geographical distribution of mean-adjusted homicide mortality rates at municipal level. Between 1998 and 2012, 331,470 homicides were reported in Colombia. The mean crude rate was 51.5 per 100,000 inhabitants: 95.9 in men and 8.2 in women. Since 2003, a decrease in the number of deaths and rates was observed; 91.9% of the victims were men and the highest mortality rates were reported in the 20-29 years old group. The most frequently involved mechanism was the firearm: Eight of 10 homicides in men, and seven of 10 homicides in women. Out of 1,122 municipalities, 186 were in the highest quintile, accumulating 50.1% of all deaths. In Colombia, homicides have been one of the leading causes of death with a trend towards reduction since 2002. Its geographical distribution has been heterogeneous. To continue addressing this public health issue we must recur to multidisciplinary analytical methodologies for a better understanding of the phenomenon.

  18. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  19. Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Meri L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

  20. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  1. Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Raúl Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their practice.…

  2. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... experience, along with our PRAs, our RMD, and our knowledge of the conditions in Colombia and Ecuador... must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or fewer Medflies per trap per week... papayas from that production area must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or...

  3. Plan Colombia: The View from the Presidential Palace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    la violencia , in which liberals and conservatives kill each other in order to seize control of the government. Of course, there have been efforts to...country because of la violencia in the early Fifties. Colombia, since the end of that unfortunate turn, has enjoyed a robust democratic system under which

  4. Teaching Writing in the Republic of Colombia, 1800-1850

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Meri L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the enduring importance of handwriting in the early republic of Colombia. Colonial practice informed writing instruction but Colombians re-established it in national terms from the 1820s onward. Teaching writing became a critical tool of state formation: an ideal republic of virtuous functionaries depended on uniform…

  5. Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

  6. Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…

  7. Present state of studies of volcanic risk in Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvajal, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Because of the reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in the last days of 1984, we began studies whose purpose was directed toward the identification of hte risks that accompanied such volcanic activity. As a result of these investigations there appeared a preliminary map of volcanic risk in Octoer 7, 1985, the first map of its kind in Colombia  

  8. Serotyping of Salmonella Isolates from Broiler Vertical Integrations in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study analyzed 106 Salmonella isolates from different points in broiler vertical integrations of two important poultry areas of Colombia. It was possible to identify the presence of Salmonella in five categories: breeder farm (17.9%), hatchery (6.6 %), broiler farm (38.7 %), processing plant (9...

  9. Colombia uses water to wake an old, tired giant

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, F.

    1985-01-01

    Ecopetrol is about to begin a $375-million secondary recovery project to bring an additional 70 million barrels of oil out of Casabe field in the Middel Magdalena Valley of Colombia. The 16-year project will begin with 243,600 bwpd injected into 500 wells.

  10. Industry sector analysis, Colombia: Electricity generation equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Electrical Generating Equipment Market in Colombia', dated Janaury 1993, prepared by Mario Cediel, American Embassy - Bogota. The article consists of 21 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  11. Does lymphocystis occur in pacora, Plagioscion surinamensis (Sciaenidae), from Colombia?

    PubMed

    Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Williams, Ernest H; Phelps, Ronald P

    2002-04-01

    A lymphocystis-like condition produced hemorrhagic lesions over the bodies of pacora Plagioscion surinamensis (Bleeker) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) held in freshwater aquaculture in northern Colombia and increased their sensitivity to handling stress. This disease eliminated this fish from a project evaluating its aquaculture potential. Lymphocystis disease is assumed to be less damaging to the host. This condition requires more study and histological evaluation.

  12. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  13. Leadership, Education and Agricultural Development Programs in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dale W.

    1968-01-01

    The lack of qualified leadership to direct, plan, and do research in agricultural agencies is an important restraint on rural development in countries like Colombia. An increase in the number of students attending institutions for agricultural education has been often viewed as the solution to this problem. It is argued here that an increase in…

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  15. A Comparative Study of School Effectiveness in Aguablanca, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Michael; Dixon, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this article is to describe and document a comparison of public and private school effectiveness in the marginalized (often referred to as slum) district of Aguablanca, in the city of Cali, Colombia. The data suggest that teachers and parents are largely satisfied with the current status of education provision in Aguablanca.…

  16. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  17. Primary Mental Health Care in Disasters: Armero, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper focuses on the mental health consequences of the disaster in Armero, Colombia which resulted from a volcanic eruption and mudslide, and highlights the role of the primary care worker in delivering mental health care to disaster victims. Eight characteristics of disasters that are closely related to their psychopathogenetic potential…

  18. Education, Conflict and Social (In)Justice: Insights from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of repression and resistance within the Colombian education system through exploring human rights violations against educators. Drawing on the findings of several fieldwork visits carried out since 2005 across Colombia, the paper focuses on the darker side of the education/conflict relationship, demonstrating…

  19. Conceptualizations of Nature from Science Students in Northeastern Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore rural and provincial students' conceptualizations of nature in Colombia alongside the science education offered in their school communities. Students' perceptions of nature were produced from interviews that revolved around a focusing event and two eliciting devices to document their views about home,…

  20. Critical Literacy as Policy and Advocacy: Lessons from Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Raúl Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first column for this issue's Policy and Advocacy department, features a discussion about a recent experience in a graduate program in Medellín, Colombia introducing students to critical literacy. Graduate students used ideas from critical literacy to engage in an in-depth analysis of textbooks they had used in their practice.…

  1. Achievement Evaluation of Colombia's Escuela Nueva: Is Multigrade the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Colombia's rural "escuelas nuevas" feature multigrade classrooms, flexible promotion, rural-oriented curriculum, parent and community involvement, mastery learning, peer instruction, and library resources. A study of over 3,000 students found that, compared to traditional schools, Escuela Nueva schools had lower dropout probabilities,…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  3. Teacher Training in Colombia: A Need for Continuous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, M.; Calvo, G.; Franco, M. C.; Londono, S.; Vergara, M.

    2007-01-01

    Educational authorities of most countries, including those of Colombia, typically associate the quality of education with the teacher's role. The teacher then is conceived as a fundamental actor in an educational process and as such assembles and directly transmits pertinent knowledge. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part deals…

  4. Language Education and Multilingualism in Colombia: Crossing the Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mejía, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Despite Colombia's official recognition of its ethnic and cultural diversity, it has yet to develop in practice an inclusive educational vision involving the recognition of diversity, as well as promoting the country's insertion within the global market. Garcia et al. acknowledge the importance of "cultivating" students' diverse…

  5. Two lightning flashes correlated with detected terrestrial gamma-ray flashes: The UPC Colombia TGF Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Marisaldi, Martino; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2013-04-01

    TGFs are intense bursts of gamma rays originated in Earth observed from space. These emissions have been correlated with lightning and thunderstorms (e.g. Cummer et al. 2005). Moreover, there is a clear correlation between lightning and TGF activity being both greater in the tropics, probably the occurrence of TGF in these areas can be related to the tropopause height (Smith et al. 2010). The AGILE satellite of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) have detected TGFs events up to 100 MeV (Tavani et al. 2011), confirming that this is the most energetic radiation on Earth. This satellite operates in the +-2.5 latitude belt over Equator. One of the interesting results (Fuschino et al. 2011) is that the TGFs/lightning occurrence ratio is different depending on the Earth region, being greater over South America. In the framework of the future ASIM mission a campaign is conducted in the south of Colombia in order to measure VLF magnetic fields related with TGF parent lightning. A single LINET sensor was installed in October 2012 in the region of coverage of AGILE. Additional lightning data information is provided by the existing LINET network in Colombia. Since the setup of the sensor, two AGILE TGFs events have occurred near the LINET sensor. The first one occurred in November 23rd 2012. The sub-satellite point was located 1400 km away from the LINET sensor. A VLF signal was detected within ˜2.5 ms, which is in agreement with other publications. The second TGF event occurred in November 19th where the sub-satellite point was 260 km away from the LINET sensor. Although this event was very close to the sensor the VLF signal detected occurred ˜170 ms delayed from the TGF. Because of the time differences between the TGF and VLF lightning signals, the first case appears related to the return stroke whereas the second would be related to a leader process. By using VLF signals from the double loop antenna, the direction of the received signal can be retrieved. Correlating this

  6. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  7. 84. South Oregon St., 621 (residential), south and east facades, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. South Oregon St., 621 (residential), south and east facades, facade on right is South Oregon St., and facade on left is on Fifth Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. Ecology of rickettsia in South America.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-05-01

    Until the year 2000, only three Rickettsia species were known in South America: (i) Rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by the ticks Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma aureolatum, reported in Colombia, Argentina, and Brazil, where it is the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever; (ii) Rickettsia prowazekii, transmitted by body lice and causing epidemic typhus in highland areas, mainly in Peru; (iii) Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by fleas and causing endemic typhus in many countries. During this new century, at least seven other rickettsiae were reported in South America: Rickettsia felis infecting fleas and the tick-associated agents Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia massiliae, Candidatus"Rickettsia amblyommii,"Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Candidatus"Rickettsia andeanae." Among these other rickettsiae, only R. felis, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae are currently recognized as human pathogens. R. rickettsii is a rare agent in nature, infecting < or =1% individuals in a few tick populations. Contrastingly, R. parkeri, Candidatus"R. amblyommii," R. rhipicephali, and R. bellii are usually found infecting 10 to 100% individuals in different tick populations. Despite rickettsiae being transmitted transovarially through tick generations, low infection rates for R. rickettsii are possibly related to pathogenic effect of R. rickettsii for ticks, as shown for A. aureolatum under laboratory conditions. This scenario implies that R. rickettsii needs amplifier vertebrate hosts for its perpetuation in nature, in order to create new lines of infected ticks (horizontal transmission). In Brazil, capybaras and opossums are the most probable amplifier hosts for R. rickettsii, among A. cajennense ticks, and small rodents for A. aureolatum.

  9. SABE Colombia: Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Colombia-Study Design and Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Fernando; Corchuelo, Jairo; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Calzada, Maria-Teresa; Mendez, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the SABE Colombia study. The major health study of the old people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in LAC, SABE (from initials in Spanish: SAlud, Bienestar & Envejecimiento). Methods. The SABE Colombia is a population-based cross-sectional study on health, aging, and well-being of elderly individuals aged at least 60 years focusing attention on social determinants of health inequities. Methods and design were similar to original LAC SABE. The total sample size of the study at the urban and rural research sites (244 municipalities) was 23.694 elderly Colombians representative of the total population. The study had three components: (1) a questionnaire covering active aging determinants including anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, physical function, and biochemical and hematological measures; (2) a subsample survey among family caregivers; (3) a qualitative study with gender and cultural perspectives of quality of life to understand different dimensions of people meanings. Conclusions. The SABE Colombia is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to active aging determinants. The results of this study are intended to inform public policies aimed at tackling health inequalities for the aging society in Colombia.

  10. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  11. Geological history of the Cretaceous ophiolitic complexes of northwestern South America (Colombian Andes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgois, Jacques; Toussaint, Jean-François; Gonzalez, Humberto; Azema, Jacques; Calle, Bernardo; Desmet, Alain; Murcia, Luis A.; Acevedo, Alvaro P.; Parra, Eduardo; Tournon, Jean

    1987-12-01

    The Western Cordillera of Colombia was formed by intense alpine-type nappe-forming folding and thrusting. The Cretaceous (80-120 Ma B.P.) tholeiitic material of the Western Cordilleran nappes has been obducted onto the Paleozoic and Precambrian polymetamorphic micaschists and gneiss of the Central Cordillera. Near Yarumal, the Antioquia batholith (60-80 Ma B.P.) intrudes both obducted Cretaceous oceanic material and the polymetamorphic basement rock of the Central Cordillera. Therefore, nappe emplacement and obduction onto the Central Cordillera occurred during Late Senonian to Early Paleocene. The nappes travelled from northwest to southeast so that the highest unit, the Rio Calima nappe therefore has the most northwestern source, whereas the lowest units originated from a more southeastward direction. Sedimentological analysis of the volcanoclastic and sandy turbidite material from each unit suggests a marginal marine environment. During Cretaceous times the opening of this marginal sea, from now on called the "Colombia marginal basin", probably originated by detachment of a block from the South American continent related to the Farallon-South America plate convergence. In the Popayan area (southern Colombia), the Central Cordilleran basement exhibits glaucophane schist facies metamorphism. This high pressure low temperature metamorphism is of Early Cretaceous (125 Ma B.P.) age and is related to an undated metaophiolitic complex. The ophiolitic material originating from the Western Cordilleran is thrust over both the blueschist belt and the metaophiolitic complex. These data suggest that the "Occidente Colombiano" suffered at least two phases of ophiolitic obduction during Mesozoic time.

  12. The El Niño southern oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alexandre S; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Bush, Andrew B G

    2002-05-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the climatic anomalies it engenders, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the world-wide increase in incidence of this mosquito-transmitted disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using ENSO forecasts for improving malaria control. This paper analyses the relationship between ENSO events and malaria epidemics in a number of South American countries (Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela). A statistically significant relationship was found between El Niño and malaria epidemics in Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. We demonstrate that flooding engenders malaria epidemics in the dry coastal region of northern Peru, while droughts favor the development of epidemics in Colombia and Guyana, and epidemics lag a drought by 1 year in Venezuela. In Brazil, French Guiana, and Ecuador, where we did not detect an ENSO/malaria signal, non-climatic factors such as insecticide sprayings, variation in availability of anti-malaria drugs, and population migration are likely to play a stronger role in malaria epidemics than ENSO-generated climatic anomalies. In some South American countries, El Niño forecasts show strong potential for informing public health efforts to control malaria.

  13. The El Niño Southern Oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Alexandre S.; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E.; Bush, Andrew B.

    2002-05-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the climatic anomalies it engenders, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the world-wide increase in incidence of this mosquito-transmitted disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using ENSO forecasts for improving malaria control. This paper analyses the relationship between ENSO events and malaria epidemics in a number of South American countries (Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela). A statistically significant relationship was found between El Niño and malaria epidemics in Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. We demonstrate that flooding engenders malaria epidemics in the dry coastal region of northern Peru, while droughts favor the development of epidemics in Colombia and Guyana, and epidemics lag a drought by 1 year in Venezuela. In Brazil, French Guiana, and Ecuador, where we did not detect an ENSO/malaria signal, non-climatic factors such as insecticide sprayings, variation in availability of anti-malaria drugs, and population migration are likely to play a stronger role in malaria epidemics than ENSO-generated climatic anomalies. In some South American countries, El Niño forecasts show strong potential for informing public health efforts to control malaria.

  14. Preface to the special issue on "Regional moment tensors and stress field in South and Central America"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck; Zahradnik, Jiri; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This special issue follows from the Symposium ;Regional Moment Tensor Solutions: advances and new applications; held in Bogotá, Colombia, at the I Regional Assembly of the IASPEI's Latin American and Caribbean Seismological Commission (LACSC) in 2014. Seven papers are presented dealing with determination of moment tensors, focal mechanisms and the stress field in Central and South America. The study areas of each paper are indicated in the index Map of Fig. 1.

  15. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  17. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-04-23

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia.

  18. Deviant Globalization and the Unintended Consequences of Coca Eradication in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Peru, and Colombia . Eradication policy is driven by the premise that eliminating coca plants will lead to a decrease in the production of cocaine...been a significant reduction in the supply of coca cultivation and cocaine production in Colombia , along with a decrease of cocaine use in the United...States. The objective of Plan Colombia specific to coca eradication was to reduce production by 50 percent over a period of six years. According to

  19. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  20. The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    services sectors ; protection of U.S. foreign direct investment in Colombia ; intellectual property rights protections for U.S. companies; and enforceable...processed products, and dairy products. The United States and Colombia worked to resolve sanitary and phytosanitary barriers to agricultural trade...and expand legitimate opportunities for workers in the Andean countries in alternative export sectors . Table 3. U.S. Imports from Colombia

  1. The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-16

    for market access to U.S. firms in most services sectors ; protection of U.S. foreign direct investment in Colombia ; intellectual property rights...give more sensitive sectors longer phase-out periods to allow Colombia more time to adjust to trade liberalization. Sectors receiving the longest phase...8 United States International Trade Commission (USITC), U.S.- Colombia Trade Promotion Agrement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral

  2. High prevalence of sub-microscopic infections in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Andres F; Chaparro, Pablo E; Benavides, Yoldy; Álvarez, Álvaro; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2015-05-15

    Malaria transmission in Latin America is typically characterized as hypo-endemic and unstable with ~170 million inhabitants at risk of malaria infection. Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to establish the malaria prevalence in three endemic regions of Colombia to aid in designing new interventions for malaria elimination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions of Colombia with different malaria epidemiological profiles: Tierralta (Ta), Tumaco (Tu) and Buenaventura (Bv). The Annual Parasite Index (API) was 10.7, 6.9 and 3.1, respectively. Participants were asked to respond to a sociodemographic questionnaire and then were bled to determine the Duffy genotype and the prevalence of malaria infection by microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The study was conducted between October 2011 and January 2012. Eight sentinel sites with 1,169 subjects from 267 households were included. The overall prevalence of sub-microscopic infections measured by thick blood smear (TBS) was 0.3% (n=4) whereas by qPCR it was 9.7% (n=113), with a greater proportion (13%) in 40-50 years old individuals. Furthermore, different regions displayed different prevalence of sub-microscopic infections: Bv 12%, Ta 15%, and Tu 4%. From these 113 samples (qPCR), 74% were positive for P. vivax and 22% for P. falciparum, and 4% were mixed infections, which correlates to the overall parasite prevalence in Colombia. This study showed that in the southern Pacific coast of Colombia (Bv and Tu), around 56% of the population have a Duffy-negative genotype, compared to the northern region (Ta) where the percentage of Duffy-negative genotype is around 3%. Sub-microscopic infections are prevalent across different regions in Colombia, particularly in areas with

  3. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-12-02

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  4. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH APPROACH, LOOKING NORTH. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  6. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH ABUTMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  7. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in biological samples from the north coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Tao, Lin; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Guette-Fernández, Jorge; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; O'byrne-Hoyos, Indira; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2006-07-01

    Perfluorinated compounds are widespread pollutants of toxicological importance that have been detected in environmental matrices. However, little is known on their distribution in South America. In this study, distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was determined in the bile of mullet, Mugil incilis, and in tissues of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) collected from North Colombia. Analysis was performed by HPLC mass spectrometry after ion-pair extraction. PFOS was found in all bile samples and PFOA and PFHxS were detected at lower frequency. Average concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in bile of fish from Cartagena Bay, an industrialized site, and Totumo marsh, a reference site, were 3673, 370, 489 and 713, 47.4, 1.27 ng/mL, respectively. PFOS concentrations in pelican organs decreased in the order of spleen>liver>lung>kidney>brain>heart>muscle. These results suggest, for the first time, that perfluorinated compounds are also found in wildlife from Latin American countries.

  8. [Dental fluorosis in primary school students of the department of Caldas, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Hernán; Parra, José Hernán; Cardona, Dora

    2005-03-01

    A prevalence survey of dental fluorosis was conducted among primary school students in Caldas, a small province in west central Colombia. The cross-sectional study compared the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the four regions of Caldas. In the urban area, a probabilistic sample was selected and,in the rural areas, students were sampled in locations that were readily accessible. One thousand sixty-one students were examined while at school in daylight conditions. The surveillance tool applied was the Dean Index. Univariate and bivariate analyses were made with a chi-square test being applied for the latter to show independence among variables. Sixty-three percent (95% CI: 60-66%) of primary school students were affected by fluorosis to some degree of severity. Among them, 56% (95% CI: 52-59) were classified in the mild and very mild degrees, whereas 7% (95% CI: 2-16) were classified as moderate or severe. A statistically significant association between the region variable and dental fluorosis was observed. However, no association was found with gender, area, schooling or age variables. Within Caldas, the eastern region showed the lowest prevalence (47.9%) in contrast to the other three areas (northern, central-south and western) where prevalences exceeded 68%. At least two of three primary school students in Caldas suffer from some degree of dental fluorosis.

  9. Temporal Variations of Magnetic Field Associated with Seismic Activity at Cerro Machin Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, J. M.; Serna, J. P.; Guzman, J.

    2011-12-01

    A study of magnetic variations was carried out at Cerro Machin Volcano, Colombia for the period 2009 -2010, with two permanent magnetometers located at South and North of the central dome, separated about 2.5 km each other. After corrections, we found that there is no clear correlation between volcanic seismicity and temporal changes of magnetic field for each magnetometer station, if they are analyzed individually. On the contrary, when we calculated the residual Magnetic field (RMF), for each magnetometer, and then we made the subtraction between them, and plot it vs time, we found a clear correlation of changes in local magnetic field with the occurrence of volcanic seismicity (ML >1.6). We found a change in the RMF between 1584 nT and 1608 nT, each time that a volcano-tectonic earthquake occurred. The máximum lapse time between the previous change in RMF and the further occurrence of the earthquake is 24 days, with an average of 11 days. This pattern occurred more than 9 times during the studied period. Based on the results, we believed that the simple methodology proposed here, is a good tool for monitoring changes in seismicity associated with activity at Cerro Machín volcano. We suggest that the temporal changes of RMF at Cerro Machín Volcano, are associated with piezo-magnetic effects, due to changes in strain-stress inside the volcano, produced by the interaction between local faulting and magma movement.

  10. Distribution of APOE polymorphism in the "Paisa" population from northwest Colombia (Antioquia).

    PubMed

    Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Rojas, Winston; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene plays a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism. Since the discovery of the APOE*2 and APOE*4 as the major susceptibility alleles for several diseases including dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, late-onset and early Alzheimer's disease, the APOE genotype might be considered as a potential predictive factor for both epidemiological research and diagnosis. The aim of this study is to report on the polymorphism of the APOE gene in the "Paisa" population from northwest Colombia (Antioquia) to obtain a population baseline of the existing variation in this locus. One thousand and one healthy voluntaries were genotyped for the APOE polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The APOE*3/*3 genotype presented the highest frequency (66.33%) and the APOE*4/*4 had the lowest frequency (1.89%). Genotype frequencies comply with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Allele frequencies obtained for APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 were 0.075 ± 0.005 (95% CI = 0.063-0.086), 0.814 ± 0.009 (0.797-0.831) and 0.111 ± 0.007 (0.098-0.125), respectively. Although globally the high-to-low APOE frequency follows the E*3 > E*4 > E*2 trend, the present APOE frequency data is in disagreement with some reports from South-American countries.

  11. Paleoepidemiology of vertebral degenerative disease in a Pre-Columbian Muisca series from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sepúlveda, Claudia; Ardagna, Yann; Dutour, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    Major manifestations of vertebral degenerative joint disease were observed on a Pre-Columbian Muisca series from the Soacha Cemetery (11th to 13th centuries) Colombia, South America. In total, 1,646 vertebrae of 83 individuals were examined. Osteophytes, vertebral body joint surface contour change ("lipping"), and vertebral body pitting were evaluated for each vertebral body. For apophyseal joints, joint surface contour change, pitting, and eburnation were recorded. Two methods of frequency calculation and five for vertebral degenerative disease diagnosis were applied and compared, allowing discussion of methodological considerations. Our study showed that 83% of individuals and 32% of vertebrae were classified as positive when diagnosed by the presence of at least one of the following manifestations: osteophytes, vertebral body joint surface contour change ("lipping"), apophyseal joint surface contour change, or eburnation (method called "Pitting excluded"). No significant differences were found between the sexes. In the youngest cohort (15-30 years), 65% of individuals and 10% of vertebrae exhibit at least one of the previously mentioned manifestations. High prevalences suggest a high level of physical activity beginning in childhood which may have accelerated the aging process in this Pre-Columbian population. Historical data are compatible with this hypothesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.

  13. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  14. A spatial model of socioeconomic and environmental determinants of dengue fever in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Delmelle, Eric; Hagenlocher, Michael; Kienberger, Stefan; Casas, Irene

    2016-12-01

    Dengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors. In 2010, the municipality of Cali, Colombia, experienced one of its worst outbreaks, however the outbreak was not spatially homogeneous across the city. In this paper, we evaluate the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with this outbreak at the neighborhood level, using a Geographically Weighted Regression model. Key socioeconomic factors include population density and socioeconomic stratum, whereas environmental factors are proximity to both tire shops and plant nurseries and the presence of a sewage system (R(2)=0.64). The strength of the association between these factors and the incidence of dengue fever is spatially heterogeneous at the neighborhood level. The findings provide evidence to support public health strategies in allocating resources locally, which will enable a better detection of high risk areas, a reduction of the risk of infection and to strengthen the resilience of the population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Pharmacologic and enzymatic effects of snake venoms from Antioquia and Choco (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Guillermo Osorio, R; Valderrama, R; Augusto Giraldo, C

    1992-01-01

    We compared several pharmacological and enzymatic effects induced by 11 snake venoms from seven species, six of them from different geographic areas of Antioquia and Choco, north-west of Colombia, South America (Bothrops atrox, B. nasutus, B. schlegelii, B. punctatus, Lachesis muta, Micrurus mipartitus), and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, from specimens captured in other provinces of the country (Tolima, Huila, Meta and Atlantico). Differences were observed in edema-forming, hemorrhage, defibrination, indirect hemolysis, myonecrosis, proteolysis and lethal activity between venoms from different genera or species, as well as according to the geographic area of origin in B. atrox and B. nasutus snake venoms. Bothrops venoms, in particular B. atrox and L. muta, produced major local effects. All of the venoms, including M. mipartitus, had myotoxic effects. The most defibrinating venoms were B. atrox, L. muta, B. punctatus and C. d. terrificus. All of the venoms had indirect hemolytic activity; the venom of M. mipartitus being greatest. The most lethal venoms were those of C. d. terrificus and M. mipartitus. Within Bothrops species, the venom of B. schlegelii was the least active in terms of local and systemic pathologic effects.

  16. Colombia's racial crucible: Y chromosome evidence from six admixed communities in the Department of Bolivar.

    PubMed

    Noguera, María Claudia; Schwegler, Armin; Gomes, Verónica; Briceño, Ignacio; Alvarez, Luis; Uricoechea, Daniel; Amorim, António; Benavides, Escilda; Silvera, Carlos; Charris, Marlon; Bernal, Jaime E; Gusmão, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    To determine the African, European and Native-American paternal contributions in genetic samples from the Department of Bolivar (Colombia) with the aims of establishing (1) possible population substructures, and (2) the proportion of biological African heritage in admixed populations of European, Amerindian, and African descent. Y-SNPs were typed in samples from six communities, including Palenque (renowned for its African linguistic and cultural heritage). Findings reveal a high diversity of Y-haplogroups. With the exception of Palenque, the sum of European male lineages uniformly exceeded 57%. In Palenque, African lineages accounted for 57.7% of its chromosomes, with European male lineages constituting a mere 38.5%. In Pinillos, a significant proportion (23.8%) of the chromosomes belongs to the Native American haplogroup Q1a3a*-M3. Genetic differentiation analyses reveal significant divergences in most pairwise comparisons among the Bolivar municipalities, and the same holds between Bolivar and other South American populations. Heterogeneous patterns of admixture reveal a genetic substructure within the Department of Bolivar. On the paternal side, five out of the six communities studied exhibit a predominantly European gene pool. The exception is Palenque, where European input (38%) is more significant than we had expected.

  17. [Colombia. Prevalence, Demography and Health Survey 1990].

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Colombia's 1990 Survey of Prevalence, Demography, and Health (EPDS) was intended to provide data on the total population and on the status of women's and children's health for use in planning and in formulating health and family planning policy. 7412 household interviews and 8647 individual interviews with women aged 15-49 years were completed. This document provides a brief description of the questionnaire, sample design, data processing, and survey results. More detailed works on each topic are expected to follow. After weighing, 74.8% of respondents were urban and 25.2% rural. 3.2% were illiterate, 36.6% had some primary education, 50.2% had secondary educations, and 9.9% had high higher educations. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 98.2% and 997% knew some contraceptive method, 94.1% and 97.9% knew some source of family planning, 57.6% and 86.0% had ever used a method, and 39.9% and 66.1% were currently using a method. Among all respondents and respondents currently in union respectively, 52.2% and 78.9% had ever used a modern method and 33.0% and 54.6% were currently using a modern method. Among women in union, 14.1% currently used pills, 12.4% IUDs, 2.2% injectables, 1.7% vaginal methods, 2.9% condoms, 20.9% female sterilization, .5% vasectomy, 11.5% some tradition method, 6.1% periodic abstinence, 4.8% withdrawal, and .5% others. Equal proportions of rural and urban women were sterilized. The prevalence of female sterilization declined with education and increased with family size. Modern methods were used by 57.5% of urban and 47.7% of rural women, 44.0% of illiterate women, 51.8% of women with primary and 57.8% with secondary educations. Among women in union, 10.9% wanted a child soon, 19.7% wanted 1 eventually, 3.6% were undecided, 42.6% did not want 1, 21.4% were sterilized, and 1.2% were infertile. Among women giving birth in the past 5 years, the proportion having antitetanus vaccinations increased from 39% in 1986

  18. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  19. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    PubMed

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  20. An overview of the South American fossil squamates.

    PubMed

    Albino, Adriana María; Brizuela, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms. Paleogene and Neogene squamate remains have been recognized from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Paleogene lizard record appears to be scarce in comparison to that of the Mesozoic, whereas snakes show an important Paleogene diversity. At least two extant boid snakes appeared during this epoch (Boa and Corallus). The South American Miocene included some extant genera of Iguania, Teiidae, and Boidae but extinct genera were also present. "Colubrids" appeared at the early Miocene, whereas the first viperid is known from the late Miocene. Most of the Paleogene and early Neogene squamate families and genera have been recognized outside their current range of distribution following favorable climatic conditions for ectothermic vertebrates. During the latest Miocene and Pliocene few extant squamate taxa are found to occur outside their present distribution. The earliest amphisbaenian of South America is known from the Pliocene. Most Pleistocene and Holocene squamate remains are assigned to living genera, and some extant species were recognized. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An optimization model to agroindustrial sector in antioquia (Colombia, South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops a proposal of a general optimization model for the flower industry, which is defined by using discrete simulation and nonlinear optimization, whose mathematical models have been solved by using ProModel simulation tools and Gams optimization. It defines the operations that constitute the production and marketing of the sector, statistically validated data taken directly from each operation through field work, the discrete simulation model of the operations and the linear optimization model of the entire industry chain are raised. The model is solved with the tools described above and presents the results validated in a case study.

  2. Microfloral diversity patterns of the late Paleocene Eocene interval in Colombia, northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Dilcher, David L.

    2000-09-01

    The late Paleocene early Eocene interval was characterized by a long period of global warming that culminated with the highest temperatures of the Tertiary. This interval was also associated with plant extinctions and a subsequent increase in plant diversity in temperate latitudes. However, tropical regions remain largely unknown. We compare the microfloral diversity of the late Paleocene with the late early to middle Eocene in flood plain, coastal plain, and estuarine facies of a section in the Colombian eastern Andes. Several techniques such as range-through method, rarefaction, bootstrap, detrended correspondence analysis, and Simpson index were used to assess the significance of the diversity pattern observed throughout the section. The microfloral record indicates a distinct, diverse Paleocene flora declining toward the end of the Paleocene, being replaced by a different and much more diverse Eocene flora. It is uncertain, however, how these floral changes correlate with the latest Paleocene thermal maximum and Eocene thermal maximum events.

  3. Changing U.S. Strategy in South America: Adjusting and Exporting Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    States, Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE). available from <http://www.oas.org/main/main.asp?sLang=E&sLink=http://www.oas.org/ juridico ...www.oas.org/main/main.asp?sLang=E&sLink =http://www.oas.org/ juridico /english/treaties.html> Internet. Accessed 7 January 2004. “Peru Bails Out of Brazil-led

  4. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    coffee, pineapple, bananas, and bakery products (Table 1). Agricultural imports accounted for 15% of total U.S. merchandise imports from Panama in...6.2% Food Preparations 19.2 4.5% Bakery Products 2.3 4.2% Chocolate & Cocoa-Containing Foods 16.7 3.9% Fresh Pumpkins & Squash 2.1 3.9% Vegetables...Panamanian facilities that USDA certifies as meeting U.S. food safety standards are eligible to export meat products to the U.S. market, without the

  5. HIV-1, sexual practices, and contact with foreigners in homosexual men in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Merino, N; Sanchez, R L; Muñoz, A; Prada, G; Garcia, C F; Polk, B F

    1990-01-01

    From October 1985 to November 1987, a sample of 294 Colombian homosexual men volunteered to answer a questionnaire on sexual practices and consented to HIV-1 testing. Testing for HIV-1 was performed using an ELISA and those positive were confirmed with envelope- and core-specific ELISAs. Statistical methods for data analysis included Mantel-Haenszel methods on contingency tables. The overall seropositivity rate was 21.1%. Subjects who reported a receptive role (either as predominantly receptive or as mixed receptive-insertive intercourse) had a seropositivity rate of 23.7%, which was significantly higher than the 10.3% found in those reporting predominantly insertive intercourse (RR = 2.30, 95% C.I. = 1.16-4.57). For subjects reporting receptive intercourse, sexual contact with foreign visitors was a significant risk factor for HIV-1 infection (RR = 1.84, 95% C.I. = 1.13-3.00). Factors of borderline significance included having had more than ten homosexual partners in the preceding year (RR = 1.53) and a history of international travel (RR = 1.43). These associations did not hold for those reporting predominantly insertive intercourse. The data indicate the need to monitor the spread of HIV-1 at the international level and provide information on subgroups of high transmission rates.

  6. Teaching and practical guidelines in pulp therapy in primary teeth in Colombia - South America.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Sandra; Fuks, Anna; Mora, Ingrid; Bautista, Gloria; Socarras, Fernanda

    2015-03-01

    To describe the teaching practical guidelines in pulp therapy for primary teeth in Colombian dental schools, based on Primosch et al. survey (1997). A 27-question survey was sent to 31 dental schools. A total of 68 surveys were obtained for analysis of the results, in which pediatric dentists answered 48 surveys, 11 surveys by general practitioners, and 9 were answered but were not identified in any of these groups. Indirect pulp treatment (IPT) is taught by pediatric dentists (83%) and general practitioners (90%). Calcium hydroxide and glass ionomer were the preferred materials in this treatment. Pulpotomy is the most commonly procedure used. There was no different percentage in the use of medicaments: cresatin, glutaraldehyde, calcium hydroxide, formocresol. Pulpectomy is taught by general practitioners (73%) and pediatric dentists (96%). The preferred filler material, used by general practitioners (73%) and pediatric dentists (94%), was zinc oxide and eugenol. There is a discrepancy in the choice of treatment and medications for pulp therapy primary teeth between general practitioners and pediatric dentists. The recommendations given in American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) guidelines 2012 for pulp therapy in primary and young permanent teeth are being followed in the majority instances. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Changes in seasonal streamflow extremes experienced in rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, J. O.; Restrepo, J. C.; Aguirre, J.; Bustamante, A. M.; Velásquez, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    A measure of the variability in seasonal extreme streamflow was estimated for the Colombian Caribbean coast, using monthly time series of freshwater discharge from ten watersheds. The aim was to detect modifications in the streamflow monthly distribution, seasonal trends, variance and extreme monthly values. A 20-year length time moving window, with 1-year successive shiftments, was applied to the monthly series to analyze the seasonal variability of streamflow. The seasonal-windowed data were statistically fitted through the Gamma distribution function. Scale and shape parameters were computed using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and the bootstrap method for 1000 resample. A trend analysis was performed for each windowed-serie, allowing to detect the window of maximum absolute values for trends. Significant temporal shifts in seasonal streamflow distribution and quantiles (QT), were obtained for different frequencies. Wet and dry extremes periods increased significantly in the last decades. Such increase did not occur simultaneously through the region. Some locations exhibited continuous increases only at minimum QT.

  8. Cano Limon Field, Colombia: The latest giant oil reservoir in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, R.T.; Dominguez, J.G.; Slater, J.A.; Hearn, C.L.

    1988-06-01

    The recent discovery of the giant Cano Limon field in the northern Colombian Los Llanos basin is the most successful result of the Association-type contracts instituted by the Colombian government 15 years ago. A major construction and development drilling effort resulted in production startup in Dec. 1985, 2 1/2 years after discovery. As of publication date, the field oil production rate is about 200,000 STB/D (31.8x10/sup 3/ stock-tank m/sup 3//d). With optimum reservoir management, oil recovery is expected to reach 10/sup 9/ bbl (1.59x10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/).

  9. Cano Limon Field, Colombia: The latest giant oil reservoir in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, R.T.; Dominguez, J.G.; Slater, J.A.; Hearn, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The recent discovery of the giant Cano Limon field in the Northern Colombian Llanos basin is the most successful result of the association type contracts instituted by the Colombian government 15 years ago. A major construction and development drilling effort resulted in production start-up in December, 1985, 2 1/2 years after discovery. As of publication date, field oil production rate is approaching a projected rate of about 200,000 STB/D. With optimum reservoir management, oil recovery is expected to reach one billion barrels.

  10. New South Wales

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 80 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured ... at JPL December 30, 2001 - Smoke from wildfires covers New South Wales. project:  MISR ...

  11. Succession pattern of carrion-feeding insects in Paramo, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Efrain; Duque, Patricia; Wolff, Marta

    2007-03-02

    The minimum postmortem interval can be estimated based on knowledge of the pattern of insect succession on a corpse. To use this approach requires that we take into account the rates of insect development associated with particular climatological conditions of the region. This study is the first to look at insect succession on decomposing carcasses in the high altitude plains (Paramo) in Colombia, at 3035 m above sea level. Five stages of decomposition were designated with indicator species identified for each stage: Callíphora nigribasis at the fresh stage; Compsomyiops verena at the bloated stage; Compsomyiops boliviana during active decay; Stearibia nigriceps and Hydrotaea sp. during advanced decay and Leptocera sp. for dry remains. A succession table is presented for carrion-associated species of the region, which can be used for estimating time since death in similar areas. Compsomyiops boliviana is reported for the first time in Colombia.

  12. Security for whom? Stabilisation and civilian protection in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Elhawary, Samir

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on three periods of stabilisation in Colombia: the Alliance for Progress (1961-73) that sought to stem the threat of communist revolution in Latin America; Plan Colombia and President Alvaro Uribe's 'democratic security' policy (2000-07) aimed at defeating the guerrillas and negotiating a settlement with the paramilitaries; and the current 'integrated approach', adopted from 2007, to consolidate more effectively the state's control of its territory.(1) The paper assesses the extent to which these stabilisation efforts have enhanced the protection of civilians and ultimately finds that in all three periods there has been a disconnect between the discourse and the practice of stabilisation. While they have all sought to enhance security, in actual fact, they have privileged the security of the state and its allies at the expense of the effective protection of the civilian population. This has not only led to widespread human rights abuses but also has undermined the long-term stability being pursued.

  13. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  14. Cat scratch disease in Medellín, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Antonio; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Garcés, Carlos; Echeverri, Valentina; Díaz, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is the most common zoonosis transmitted by household animals. There is limited data on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of this disease in Colombia. The typical presentation includes subacute or chronic lymph node infection following inoculation of Bartonella henselae bacilli through a cat scratch. Cats have a B. henselae seroprevalence as high as 90%. Here, we report the case of a preschool boy from a rural area of Antioquia, Colombia, who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy in the right axilla. Other important infectious etiologies were ruled out, and confirmation was made with the Warthin Starry stain of a lymph node biopsy. We also discuss the most important aspects of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease. PMID:25988023

  15. Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

  16. Physician opinions concerning legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn; Rochat, Roger; Fink, Lauren; Richardson, Kalie; Brack, Chelsey; Comeau, Dawn

    2017-08-01

    Since the decriminalisation of abortion in 2006, women in Colombia have continued to seek clandestine abortions, endangering their health and contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. The goal of this study was to explore physicians' opinions towards and knowledge about legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia, and key barriers to the legal abortion access. We conducted 13 key informant interviews followed by a survey with a probability sample of 49 doctors working in public hospitals in Bogotá. Interview and survey data showed lack of technical experience in the provision of abortion and nuanced opinions towards its practice. Key informants described ignorance and lack of abortion training in medical schools as key barriers to provision. In the survey, 16/49 respondents had performed an abortion, 24/49 had referred a woman for an abortion and only 33/49 showed correct knowledge of the law.

  17. Patterns of homicide--Cali, Colombia, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    1995-10-06

    In Colombia, as in the United States, homicide occurs disproportionately among urban residents (1,2). Homicide rates in the city of Cali, Colombia (1994 population: 1,776,436), increased fivefold from 1985 through 1992, reaching levels of 100 per 100,000 persons. Because of this increase, in 1992 the city of Cali established the Development, Security, and Peace Program (DESEPAZ) to implement a series of strategies to prevent violence and improve security among the residents of Cali. An important element of this program was the establishment of a surveillance system to enable characterization of patterns and determinants of homicide to provide information to decision makers for formulating policies and programs. This report summarizes findings from this system for January 1993-May 1994.

  18. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerellaimmaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerellacauseyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

  19. Colombia: reasons to create a national space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2004-01-01

    All modern nations are concerned with their independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support countries which are in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields which hold promise for our future. The present moment is one of serious crises in Colombia's history. This paper thus proposes to demonstrate how the nation could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  20. [A complexity-based approach to zoonoses in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Angela N

    2012-01-01

    The present reflection was aimed at making a contribution towards improving control policy and programs integrality and efficacy in an attempt to answer the following question, "How can understanding zoonoses in Colombia be approached from a complexity-based approach?" The first part of this article examines zoonoses as a complex problem and the reiterated tendency of control policy and programs to deal with them as a simple problem, involving unidisciplinary and reductionist responses. The current status of complexity is synthesized as a paradigm, as are the advantages of using it in analysis and formulating policy and interventions. Possible fields of work are proposed for development when approaching zoonoses in Colombia from a complexity science viewpoint.

  1. [Tobacco control: an intersectorial experience in Tunja (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Panader-Torres, Adriana; Agudelo-Cely, Nancy Aurora; Bolívar-Suárez, Yolima; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control in Colombia is regulated by Law 1335 of 2009. The implementation and monitoring of the provisions of this law require strengthening of intersectorial work at the local level. This field note presents an intersectorial work experience that was carried out in the municipality of Tunja (Colombia) to improve tobacco control. The Respirarte Group was established. This group consists of an intersectorial team composed of 15 institutions. The Respirarte Group achieved the following political and community actions: signing of an agreement on tobacco control by government actors, expedition of a local decree to comply with Law 1335 in the municipality, provision of information and communication, and social mobilization and monitoring. This experience serves as a national and international reference and its lessons could be used in the approach to other public health problems. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. A reference architecture for integrated EHR in Colombia.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Edgar; Lopez, Diego M; Uribe, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Carolina; Blobel, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of national EHR infrastructures has to start by a detailed definition of the overall structure and behavior of the EHR system (system architecture). Architectures have to be open, scalable, flexible, user accepted and user friendly, trustworthy, based on standards including terminologies and ontologies. The GCM provides an architectural framework created with the purpose of analyzing any kind of system, including EHR system´s architectures. The objective of this paper is to propose a reference architecture for the implementation of an integrated EHR in Colombia, based on the current state of system´s architectural models, and EHR standards. The proposed EHR architecture defines a set of services (elements) and their interfaces, to support the exchange of clinical documents, offering an open, scalable, flexible and semantically interoperable infrastructure. The architecture was tested in a pilot tele-consultation project in Colombia, where dental EHR are exchanged.

  3. Y-chromosome haplotype analysis in Antioquia (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Gaviria, A A; Ibarra, A A; Palacio, O D; Posada, Y C; Triana, O; Ochoa, L M; Acosta, M A; Brión, M; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A

    2005-06-30

    Allele frequencies and haplotype analysis have been performed for eight Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385 I and II, DYS389 I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393). Population data was obtained from a sample of 400 unrelated individuals living in Antioquia (Colombia). A total of 270 different haplotypes were found, and the haplotype diversity was 0.989. The first and second most frequent haplotypes where shared by 8 and 6% of the individuals, respectively.

  4. The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martínez, Mónica Flórez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

  5. The Forgotten Insurgency: Is There Hope For Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    the heels of the period known as La Violencia or “The Violence” which occurred from 1948-1958. This violent period in Colombian history began with...affected.16 The end of La Violencia came in 1958 with the establishment of Frente Nacional (the National Front) where both parties signed an agreement...power. Colombia and El Salvador are no exception. Colombia’s troubles erupted during the period of La Violencia which was discussed earlier and

  6. Colombia’s FARC: More Than Just Opportunistic Criminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    the FARC and rally support for the insurgency.26 The organization’s popularity grew well under the campaign, helped in part by the government’s lack...played a significant role, having contributed $4.5 billion to Plan Colombia by 2004.49 To help boost its popularity , the Colombian government secured...revolution led by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara starting in 1953). They included the Ejercito Popular de Liberacion (EPL), the 19th of April Movement (M

  7. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Constenla, D.; Carvalho, A.; Alvis Guzmán, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods. A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results. The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions. Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak. PMID:26688825

  8. Potential of a hand transplantation program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, C; Bermúdez, J; Latorre, L F; DeBedout, R

    2011-11-01

    The protocols and published results on hand transplantation show acceptable results of this technology. None of the registered groups, however has a sufficient number of patients to allow continuity of the process. In Colombia the main problems are violence, drug traffic, and guerrillas. Thanks to the profitability of drug traffic, guerrillas, who initially were created based on ideologic differences, have become terrorist groups whose main source of income is drug traffic. From that interest comes the use of landmines to protect illicit crops. Colombia is the most mined country in the world, followed by Cambodia and Afghanistan, and the only country in Latin America where there are still landmines. The mines, violence, and trauma produce a large number of people with disabilities and amputations. From 1990 to 2006, the number of victims rose from 21 to 1,041 per year. In Colombia, amputations are more frequently due to trauma than to disease. The fact that 88% of the victims are children and people of working age, affects the political and economic development. These alarming numbers generate a challenge for government, which has led to the creation of policies and laws aimed at comprehensive action against mines. This program under the Presidency has among its objectives assistance to victims, including integrated treatment, prostheses, and other procedures, financed entirely by the government. The number, type of victims, and their motivation to be transplanted, along with government programs directed to their attention, are key factors that we think will enable the continuity of our hand transplantation program at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, giving Colombia the unfortunate privilege of having the largest number of potential patients for transplantation.

  9. The Role of Religion in Colombia’s Reconciliation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-15

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The Role of Religion in Colombia’s Reconciliation By CH (MAJ) John M. Sedwick Operations...populations of urban and rural Colombia. This paper addresses the role that organized religion can play in this daunting process that includes...in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to

  10. Economic Impact of Meningococcal Outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Constenla, D; Carvalho, A; Alvis Guzmán, N

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The impact of meningitis outbreaks is substantial. We aim to calculate the costs of meningococcal outbreaks in Brazil and Colombia from the healthcare system perspective. Methods.  A review of the literature was performed on costs associated with meningococcal outbreak in Latin America. Structured interviews capturing information about the use of resources, expenses allocated to treatment of infection, immunization campaigns, and response activities during the outbreak and disease surveillance pre- and postoutbreak were directed at local health authorities in Brazil and Colombia to foster a greater understanding of the economic impact of meningococcal outbreaks. All costs were expressed in 2014 US values. Results.  The Vila Brandina outbreak in Brazil reported 3 cases that were associated with a total investigation and outbreak management cost of $34 425 ($11 475 per notified case), representing 2.7 more than the annual gross domestic product per capita in Brazil. In contrast, the outbreak in Cartagena de Indias in Colombia reported 6 cases at a cost of the disease response phase of $735 or 9.5% of the annual gross domestic product per capita ($123 per notified case). For the disease surveillance phase, the costs ranged from $3935 (in Cartagena de Indias) to $6667 (in Vila Brandina). Serogroups B and C were responsible for the majority of meningococcal outbreaks reported in Brazil and Colombia. Conclusions.  Findings of this study underscore the importance of meningococcal disease in the region. Future research should focus on a more detailed investigation of costs of meningococcal outbreaks covering all phases of an outbreak.

  11. Malaria in Colombia: retrospective glance during the past 40 years.

    PubMed

    Valero-Bernal, María V

    2006-01-01

    Describe and analyze the structural configuration of malaria in Colombia since 1960 to 2004 where the phenomena of persistence, resurgence and resistance as well as the main determinants associated to these phenomena. A comparative study of the history of malaria and its trend was conducted in Colombia since 1960-2004. Secondary and primary information about the frequency and spatial distribution of malaria was collected. The sub period were identified according to institutional transformation and malaria control strategies as well as the socioeconomic and sociopolitical conjuncture factors in the country. The structural and situational analyses of malaria in Colombia shown a steadily increase in morbidity from an average API 2,19 x 1 000 in 1960-74 to 8,92 by 1994-2004. Since the middle 70's there has been a considerable reduction of mortality. The malaria case relation P. vivax vs. P. falciparum is 3 to 5, respectively. The Annual Positive Sample Rate increased during the same study periods from 3.96% to 29.93%. Unfortunately the Annual Blood Examination Rate-ABER decreased by fewer than 5%, instead of increase to minimum required for detection of malaria. During the National Eradication Malaria Service the malaria decreased steadily by the first five years, unfortunately the disease present resurgence, persistence after the reduction of financial and technical support from international health agencies in the middle seventies. Nowadays, around 85% of the territory, mainly rural areas are endemic for malaria. In spite of the transformation of the health system and different strategies implemented against malaria, it continues being one of the priorities in the public health services of Colombia.

  12. Above Titan South

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Titan south polar vortex seems to float above the moon south pole in this Cassini spacecraft view. The vortex, which is a mass of gas swirling around the south pole high in the moon atmosphere, can be seen in the lower right of this view.

  13. New South, Old Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The South's recent rapid growth has not erased its widespread poverty and low levels of human capital. The rural South remains the nation's low-income and high-poverty region, and low education levels may limit the rural South's prospects for development. Underlying social and economic conditions that depend on and reinforce a low-skill population…

  14. Latinos in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily Elliott, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains five articles about the growing Latino population in the South and its impact on communities, particularly in rural areas. "Social Capital of Mexican Communities in the South" (Ruben Hernandez-Leon, Victor Zuniga) argues that, to understand and advocate for Mexican newcomer communities in the South,…

  15. Multiple sclerosis in Colombia and other Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Toro, Jaime; Cárdenas, Simón; Fernando Martínez, Carlos; Urrutia, Julián; Díaz, Camilo

    2013-04-01

    The spectrum of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America is characterized by geographic and racial/genetic particularities. In this review we describe major studies of MS epidemiology, genetics, and clinical presentation in Latin America, with a focus on Colombia. We also consider the influence of national health care systems on the treatment of MS in Latin American patients. Epidemiologic studies indicate that the regional incidence of MS in Latin America is more complex than once thought, and broadly consistent with the geographical (latitudinal) distribution of MS in other parts of the world. Low prevalence of MS is considered to be <5/100.000 inhabitants and high prevalence >30/100,000. Colombia is considered a low-risk region for MS, as are other countries located near the equator, such as Panama and Ecuador. By contrast, Latin American countries located farther from the equator are medium or high-risk regions. National health care systems generally cover MS treatment, although bureaucratic problems sometimes interfere with delivery of high-cost medications and access to diagnostic tests, particularly in rural areas. The population of Colombia is racially diverse and genetically heterogeneous, making it difficult to study genetic associations within a complex disease such as MS. The clinical spectrum of MS in Latin America is similar to that of Europe or North America.

  16. [Conceptual Aspects of the Teaching Psychiatry in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Arango-Dávila, César Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Psychiatry in Colombia is the result of the accumulation of different conceptual streams dating back to early twentieth century and the beginning of Psychiatric study. By a way of different teaching methods, this knowledge was transferred from generation to generation to materialize into its current formation. Different key moments are recognied in the history of Psychiatry throughout the world and the introduction of these trends in Colombia, and specifically its impact on teaching. The current structure derives from French elemens of organ-dynamic Psychiatry, both conceptual and clinical, likewise, it is formed from conception kraepeliana and biologic therapies introduced from the second quarter of the last century and the psychoanalytic trend introduced since 1950. The Psychiatric Departments of Colombia form prominently in Pychiatry and are skillful in managing mental illness, with basic knowledge of pathophysiology and psychopathology, as well as good training in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. A limitation is evident in the formation of community mental health. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation and adaptation in Colombia of the Communities That Care.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Trujillo, Juliana; Pérez-Gómez, Augusto; Reyes-Rodríguez, María Fernanda

    2015-12-15

    For more than two years, Corporación Nuevos Rumbos (Colombia) has been carrying out, in eight Colombian communities, a preventive system called Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC), an adaptation of Communities That Care (CTC), created at the University of Washington (Seattle), developed for more than 25 years in the United States of America and implemented in eight countries of America, Oceania, and Europe. The system is based on the public health approach, and the social development strategy for community empowerment. The core idea is to teach communities how to make decisions based on data regarding drugs and alcohol consumption and the identification of protective and risk factors, on the basis of the original survey validated in Colombia: these will allow communities to choose the best preventive interventions, tailored for each of them according to their needs. This paper describes the process of implementation of CQC in Colombia, its differences with CTC, the creation of Colombian cut-points, the main difficulties and how these were solved. CQC seems to be a preventive system with a wide potential applicability in other Latin American countries.

  18. Alcohol use disorders and psychiatric diseases in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rincon-Hoyos, Hernan G; Castillo, Alejandro; Prada, Sergio I

    2016-03-30

    An accurate understanding of co-occurrence and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Colombia is crucial for public health. A secondary analysis was conducted, using a 2003/2004 government´s population database to determine the lifetime associations between AUD and other mental and addictive disorders in people of Colombia aged 18-65 years. Several statistical analysis were performed: testing prevalence difference in mental disorders by whether the individual had an AUD; a stratified analysis by gender and logistic regression analyses accounting for differences in demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and self-reported health status variables. People with AUD comprised 9% of the population, of which 88% were males and on average 37 years old. They were more likely to be males, be working, and be current smokers; and less likely to be at home or retired. The population with AUD had greater chance to comply with criteria for all disorders but minor depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence, and oppositional defiant disorder. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population with AUD in Colombia. The findings highlight the importance of comorbidity as a sign of disease severity and impact on public health and supports the need for training of more professionals and developing appropriate interventions and services.

  19. Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: a review.

    PubMed

    Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2014-03-01

    The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 μg/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial distribution of Zika virus infection in Northeastern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Haque, Ubydul; Ball, Jacob; García-Loaiza, Carlos Julian; Galindo-Marquez, Maria Leonor; Sabogal-Roman, Juan Alejandro; Marin-Loaiza, Santiago; Ayala, Andrés Felipe; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O; Diaz-Quijano, Fredi A; Alvarado-Socarras, Jorge L

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the weekly reported spatio-temporal distribution and topographic risk factors for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in northeastern Colombia. Weekly reported surveillance data, including clinical, suspected and confirmed cases from the ongoing ZIKV epidemic in the Santander and Norte de Santander departments (Santanderes) in Colombia were used to estimate cumulative incidence rates. Spatial analysis was performed to develop hot spot maps and to identify spatial topographic risk factors for infection. From January 1, 2016 to March 19, 2016, 11,515 cases of ZIKV were reported in Santanderes, with cumulative rates of 316.07 cases/100,000 population for the region (representing 18.5% of the cases of the country). Five municipalities (four in Norte de Santander) reported high incidence of ZIKV infection (>1,000 cases/100,000 pop); these municipalities are close to the border with Venezuela. Most of the cases reported occurred mainly in low altitude areas, and persistent hot spots were observed. Higher infection rates were reported in the Northeastern part of the study area. Use of risk maps can help guide decisions for the prevention and control of ZIKV. Hotspots on the Colombia-Venezuela border can have implications for international spread.