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Sample records for elastic potential energy

  1. NN inversion potentials intermediate energy proton-nucleus elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H.F.; Brieva, F.A.; Love, W.G.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1995-10-01

    Recently developed nucleon-nucleon interactions using the quantum inverse scattering method shed new fight on the off-shell properties of the internucleon effective force for nucleon-nucleus scattering. Calculations of proton elastic scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb in the 500 MeV region show that variations in off-shell contributions are determined to a great extent by the accuracy with which the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts are reproduced. The study is based on the full-folding approach to the nucleon-nucleus optical potential which allows a deep understanding of the interplay between on- and off-shell effects in nucleon scattering. Results and the promising extension offered by the inversion potentials beyond the range of validity of the low-energy internucleon forces will be discussed.

  2. Energy-Dependent microscopic optical potential for p+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Maridi, H. M.; Farag, M. Y. H. Esmael, E. H.

    2016-06-10

    The p+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering at an energy range up to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3Y-Paris nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the high-energy approximation for the imaginary one. The analysis reveals that the cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation give results better than the partial-wave expansion calculations. The volume integrals of the optical-potential parts have systematic energy dependencies, and they are parameterized in empirical formulas.

  3. Modeling the elastic energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Some issues that arise when modeling elastic energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling elastic interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the strain field are the usual equations of linear elasticity for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the elastic energy will yield the same strain field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model elastic effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the elastic energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the elastic energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more elastic energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for strained thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the strain energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any elastic

  4. Modeling the elastic energy of alloys: Potential pitfalls of continuum treatments.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Arvind; Ratsch, Christian; Smereka, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Some issues that arise when modeling elastic energy for binary alloys are discussed within the context of a Keating model and density-functional calculations. The Keating model is a simplified atomistic formulation based on modeling elastic interactions of a binary alloy with harmonic springs whose equilibrium length is species dependent. It is demonstrated that the continuum limit for the strain field are the usual equations of linear elasticity for alloys and that they correctly capture the coarse-grained behavior of the displacement field. In addition, it is established that Euler-Lagrange equation of the continuum limit of the elastic energy will yield the same strain field equation. This is the same energy functional that is often used to model elastic effects in binary alloys. However, a direct calculation of the elastic energy atomistic model reveals that the continuum expression for the elastic energy is both qualitatively and quantitatively incorrect. This is because it does not take atomistic scale compositional nonuniformity into account. Importantly, this result also shows that finely mixed alloys tend to have more elastic energy than segregated systems, which is the exact opposite of predictions made by some continuum theories. It is also shown that for strained thin films the traditionally used effective misfit for alloys systematically underestimate the strain energy. In some models, this drawback is handled by including an elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing, which is characterized in terms of the continuum concentration. The direct calculation of the atomistic model reveals that this approach suffers serious difficulties. It is demonstrated that elastic contribution to the enthalpy of mixing is nonisotropic and scale dependent. It is also shown that such effects are present in density-functional theory calculations for the Si-Ge system. This work demonstrates that it is critical to include the microscopic arrangements in any elastic

  5. Elastic alpha scattering experiments and the alpha-nucleus optical potential at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, P.; Kiss, G.G.; Fülöp, Zs.; Galaviz, D.; Gyürky, Gy.; Somorjai, E.

    2013-11-15

    High precision angular distribution data of (α,α) elastic scattering are presented for the nuclei {sup 89}Y, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 106,110,116}Cd, {sup 112,124}Sn, and {sup 144}Sm at energies around the Coulomb barrier. Such data with small experimental uncertainties over the full angular range (20–170°) are the indispensable prerequisite for the extraction of local optical potentials and for the determination of the total reaction cross section σ{sub reac}. A systematic fitting procedure was applied to the experimental scattering data presented to obtain comprehensive local potential parameter sets that are composed of a real folding potential and an imaginary potential of Woods–Saxon surface type. The potential parameters obtained were used in turn to construct a new systematic α-nucleus potential with very few parameters. Although this new potential cannot reproduce the angular distributions with the same small deviations as the local potential, the new potential is able to predict the total reaction cross sections for all cases under study.

  6. Complementary optical-potential analysis of {alpha}-particle elastic scattering and induced reactions at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M. Obreja, A.C.; Roman, F.L.; Avrigeanu, V.; Oertzen, W. von

    2009-07-15

    A previously derived semi-microscopic analysis based on the Double Folding Model, for {alpha}-particle elastic scattering on A{approx}100 nuclei at energies below 32 MeV, is extended to medium mass A{approx}50-120 nuclei and energies from {approx}13 to 50 MeV. The energy-dependent phenomenological imaginary part for this semi-microscopic optical model potential was obtained including the dispersive correction to the microscopic real potential, and used within a concurrent phenomenological analysis of the same data basis. A regional parameter set for low-energy {alpha}-particles entirely based on elastic scattering data analysis was also obtained for nuclei within the above mentioned mass and energy ranges. Then, an ultimate assessment of ({alpha},{gamma}), ({alpha},n), and ({alpha},p) reaction cross sections considered target nuclei from {sup 45}Sc to {sup 118}Sn and incident energies below {approx}12 MeV. The former diffuseness of the real part of optical potential as well as the surface imaginary potential depth have been found to be responsible for the actual difficulties in the description of these data, and modified in order to obtain an optical potential which describes equally well both the low-energy elastic scattering and induced reaction data for {alpha}-particles.

  7. Notepad-like triboelectric generator for efficiently harvesting low-velocity motion energy by interconversion between kinetic energy and elastic potential energy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanlin; Leng, Qiang; Lian, Jiawei; Guo, Hengyu; Yi, Xi; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-01-21

    Great attention has been paid to nanogenerators that harvest energy from ambient environments lately. In order to give considerable output current, most nanogenerators require high-velocity motion that in most cases can hardly be provided in our daily life. Here we report a notepad-like triboelectric generator (NTEG), which uses simple notepad-like structure to generate elastic deformation so as to turn a low-velocity kinetic energy into high-velocity kinetic energy through the conversion of elastic potential energy. Therefore, the NTEG can achieve high current output under low-velocity motion, which completely distinguishes it from tribogenerators previously reported. The factors that may affect the output performance are explored, including the number of slices, active length of slice, press speed, and vertical displacement. In addition, the working mechanism is systematically studied, indicating that the efficiency of the generator can be greatly enhanced by interconversion between kinetic energy and elastic potential energy. The short-circuit current, the open-circuit voltage, and power density are 205 μA and 470 V and 9.86 W/m(2), respectively, which is powerful enough to light up hundreds of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and charge a commercial capacitor. Besides, NTEGs have been successfully applied to a self-powered door monitor.

  8. Free energies for coarse-grained proteins by integrating multibody statistical contact potentials with entropies from elastic network models

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michael T.; Leelananda, Sumudu P.; Gniewek, Pawel; Feng, Yaping; Jernigan, Robert L.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel method of calculation of free energy for coarse grained models of proteins by combining our newly developed multibody potentials with entropies computed from elastic network models of proteins. Multi-body potentials have been of much interest recently because they take into account three dimensional interactions related to residue packing and capture the cooperativity of these interactions in protein structures. Combining four-body non-sequential, four-body sequential and pairwise short range potentials with optimized weights for each term, our coarse-grained potential improved recognition of native structure among misfolded decoys, outperforming all other contact potentials for CASP8 decoy sets and performance comparable to the fully atomic empirical DFIRE potentials. By combing statistical contact potentials with entropies from elastic network models of the same structures we can compute free energy changes and improve coarse-grained modeling of protein structure and dynamics. The consideration of protein flexibility and dynamics should improve protein structure prediction and refinement of computational models. This work is the first to combine coarse-grained multibody potentials with an entropic model that takes into account contributions of the entire structure, investigating native-like decoy selection. PMID:21674234

  9. Determination of the interatomic potential from elastic differential cross sections at fixed energy: Functional sensitivity analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.; Rabitz, H.

    1989-02-01

    Elastic differential cross sections in atomic crossed beam experiments contain detailed information about the underlying interatomic potentials. The functional sensitivity density of the cross sections with respect to the potential deltasigma(theta)/deltaV(R) reveals such information and has been implemented in an iterative inversion procedure, analogous to that of the Newton--Raphson technique. The stability of the inversion is achieved with the use of the regularization method of Tikhonov and Miller. It is shown that given a set of well resolved and noise-free differential cross section data within a limited angular range and given a reasonable starting reference potential, the recovered potential accurately resembles the desired one in the important region, i.e., the region to which the scattering data are sensitive. The region of importance depends upon the collision energy relative to the well depth of the potential under study; usually a higher collision energy penetrates deeper into the repulsive part of the potential and thus accordingly yields a more accurate potential in that part. The inversion procedure produces also a quality function indicating the well determined radial region. Moreover, the extracted potential is quite independent of the functional form of the reference potential in contrast to curve fitting approaches. As illustrations, the model inert gas systems He--Ne and Ne--Ar have been considered. For collision energies within an order of magnitude of the associated potential well depth, the attractive part of the potential can be determined to high precision provided that scattering data at small enough angles are available.

  10. Coseismic changes of gravitational potential energy induced by global earthquakes based on spherical-Earth elastic dislocation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changyi; Chao, B. Fong

    2017-05-01

    We compute the coseismic gravitational potential energy Eg change using the spherical-Earth elastic dislocation theory and either the fault model treated as a point source or the finite fault model. The rate of the accumulative Eg loss produced by historical earthquakes from 1976 to 2016 (about 42,000 events) using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Solution catalogue is estimated to be on the order of -2.1 × 1020 J/a, or -6.7 TW (1 TW = 1012 W), amounting to 15% in the total terrestrial heat flow. The energy loss is dominated by the thrust faulting, especially the megathrust earthquakes such as the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.0) and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.1). It is notable that the very deep focus events, the 1994 Bolivia earthquake (Mw 8.2) and the 2013 Okhotsk earthquake (Mw 8.3), produced significant overall coseismic Eg gain according to our calculation. The accumulative coseismic Eg is mainly lost in the mantle of the Earth and also lost in the core of the Earth but with a relatively smaller magnitude. By contrast, the crust of the Earth gains gravitational potential energy cumulatively because of the coseismic deformations. We further investigate the tectonic signature in the coseismic crustal Eg changes in some complex tectonic zone, such as Taiwan region and the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. We found that the coseismic Eg change is consistent with the regional tectonic character.

  11. The mechanics of the gibbon foot and its potential for elastic energy storage during bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Evie E; Aerts, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The mechanics of the modern human foot and its specialization for habitual bipedalism are well understood. The windlass mechanism gives it the required stability for propulsion generation, and flattening of the arch and stretching of the plantar aponeurosis leads to energy saving. What is less well understood is how an essentially flat and mobile foot, as found in protohominins and extant apes, functions during bipedalism. This study evaluates the hypothesis that an energy-saving mechanism, by stretch and recoil of plantar connective tissues, is present in the mobile gibbon foot and provides a two-dimensional analysis of the internal joint mechanics of the foot during spontaneous bipedalism of gibbons using a four-link segment foot model. Available force and pressure data are combined with detailed foot kinematics, recorded with a high-speed camera at 250 Hz, to calculate the external joint moments at the metatarsophalangeal (MP), tarsometatarsal (TM) and talocrural (TC) joints. In addition, instantaneous joint powers are estimated to obtain insight into the propulsion-generating capacities of the internal foot joints. It is found that, next to a wide range of motion at the TC joint, substantial motion is observed at the TM and MP joint, underlining the importance of using a multi-segment foot model in primate gait analyses. More importantly, however, this study shows that although a compliant foot is less mechanically effective for push-off than a ;rigid' arched foot, it can contribute to the generation of propulsion in bipedal locomotion via stretch and recoil of the plantarflexor tendons and plantar ligaments.

  12. Close-coupling calculations of low-energy inelastic and elastic processes in 4He collisions with H2: A comparative study of two potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Teck-Ghee; Rochow, C.; Martin, R.; Clark, T. K.; Forrey, R. C.; Balakrishnan, N.; Stancil, P. C.; Schultz, D. R.; Dalgarno, A.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    The two most recently published potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the HeH2 complex, the so-called MR (Muchnick and Russek) and BMP (Boothroyd, Martin, and Peterson) surfaces, are quantitatively evaluated and compared through the investigation of atom-diatom collision processes. The BMP surface is expected to be an improvement, approaching chemical accuracy, over all conformations of the PES compared to that of the MR surface. We found significant differences in inelastic rovibrational cross sections computed on the two surfaces for processes dominated by large changes in target rotational angular momentum. In particular, the H2(ν=1,j=0) total quenching cross section computed using the BMP potential was found to be a factor of 1000 larger than that obtained with the MR surface. A lesser discrepancy persists over a large range of energies from the ultracold to thermal and occurs for other low-lying initial rovibrational levels. The MR surface was used in previous calculations of the H2(ν=1,j=0) quenching rate coefficient and gave results in close agreement with the experimental data of Audibert et al. which were obtained for temperatures between 50 and 300 K. Examination of the rovibronic coupling matrix elements, which are obtained following a Legendre expansion of the PES, suggests that the magnitude of the anisotropy of the BMP potential is too large in the interaction region. However, cross sections for elastic and pure rotational processes obtained from the two PESs differ typically by less than a factor of 2. The small differences may be ascribed to the long-range and anharmonic components of the PESs. Exceptions occur for (ν=10,j=0) and (ν=11,j=1) where significant enhancements have been found for the low-energy quenching and elastic cross sections due to zero-energy resonances in the BMP PES which are not present in the MR potential.

  13. Elastic energy of protein-DNA chimeras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Andrew; Zocchi, Giovanni; Rolih, Biljana; Levine, Alex J.

    2009-12-01

    We present experimental measurements of the equilibrium elastic energy of protein-DNA chimeras, for two different sets of attachment points of the DNA “molecular spring” on the surface of the protein. Combining these with measurements of the enzyme’s activity under stress and a mechanical model of the system, we determine how the elastic energy is partitioned between the DNA and the protein. The analysis shows that the protein is mechanically stiffer than the DNA spring.

  14. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed) elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1) the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2) the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement) on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc) of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3), the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago) and largest single (effusive) Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago), both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  15. Population and energy elasticity of tornado casualties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, Tyler; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2017-04-01

    Tornadoes are capable of catastrophic destruction and mass casualties, but there are yet no estimates of how sensitive the number of casualties are to changes in the number of people in harm's way or to changes in tornado energy. Here the relationship between tornado casualties (deaths and injuries), population, and energy dissipation is quantified using the economic concept of "elasticity." Records of casualties from individual tornadoes over the period 2007-2015 are fit to a regression model. The coefficient on the population term (population elasticity) indicates that a doubling in population increases the casualty rate by 21% [(17, 24)%, 95% credible interval]. The coefficient on the energy term (energy elasticity) indicates that a doubling in energy dissipation leads to a 33% [(30, 35)%, 95% credible interval] increase in the casualty rate. The difference in elasticity values show that on average, changes in energy dissipation have been relatively more important in explaining tornado casualties than changes in population. Assuming no changes in warning effectiveness or mitigation efforts, these elasticity estimates can be used to project changes in casualties given the known population trends and possible trends in tornado activity.

  16. Elastic form factors at higher CEBAF energies

    SciTech Connect

    Petratos, G.G.

    1994-04-01

    The prospects for elastic scattering from few body systems with higher beam energies at CEBAF is presented. The deuteron and{sup 3}He elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) can be measured at sufficiently high momentum transfers to study the transition between the conventional meson-nucleon and the constituent quark-gluon descriptions. Possible improvements in the proton magnetic form factor data are also presented.

  17. Elastic model for dinucleosome structure and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Hashem; Khodabandeh, Fatemeh; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid

    2016-04-01

    The equilibrium structure of a dinucleosome is studied using an elastic model that takes into account the force and torque balance conditions. Using the proper boundary conditions, it is found that the conformational energy of the problem does not depend on the length of the linker DNA. In addition it is shown that the two histone octamers are almost perpendicular to each other, and the linker DNA in short lengths is almost straight. These findings could shed some light on the role of DNA elasticity in the chromatin structure.

  18. Elastic energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments the spontaneous formation of hollow bilayer vesicles with polyhedral symmetry has been observed. On the basis of the experimental phenomenology it was suggested that the mechanism for the formation of bilayer polyhedra is minimization of elastic bending energy. Motivated by these experiments, we study the elastic bending energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles. In agreement with experiments, and provided that excess amphiphiles exhibiting spontaneous curvature are present in sufficient quantity, we find that polyhedral bilayer vesicles can indeed be energetically favorable compared to spherical bilayer vesicles. Consistent with experimental observations we also find that the bending energy associated with the vertices of bilayer polyhedra can be locally reduced through the formation of pores. However, the stabilization of polyhedral bilayer vesicles over spherical bilayer vesicles relies crucially on molecular segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges rather than the vertices of bilayer polyhedra. Furthermore, our analysis implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the icosahedron does not minimize elastic bending energy among arbitrary polyhedral shapes and sizes. Instead, we find that, for large polyhedron sizes, the snub dodecahedron and the snub cube both have lower total bending energies than the icosahedron. PMID:21797397

  19. Elastic energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Haselwandter, Christoph A; Phillips, Rob

    2011-06-01

    In recent experiments [M. Dubois, B. Demé, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J.-C. Dedieu, C. Vautrin, S. Désert, E. Perez, and T. Zemb, Nature (London) 411, 672 (2001)] the spontaneous formation of hollow bilayer vesicles with polyhedral symmetry has been observed. On the basis of the experimental phenomenology it was suggested [M. Dubois, V. Lizunov, A. Meister, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J. M. Verbavatz, E. Perez, J. Zimmerberg, and T. Zemb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 15082 (2004)] that the mechanism for the formation of bilayer polyhedra is minimization of elastic bending energy. Motivated by these experiments, we study the elastic bending energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles. In agreement with experiments, and provided that excess amphiphiles exhibiting spontaneous curvature are present in sufficient quantity, we find that polyhedral bilayer vesicles can indeed be energetically favorable compared to spherical bilayer vesicles. Consistent with experimental observations we also find that the bending energy associated with the vertices of bilayer polyhedra can be locally reduced through the formation of pores. However, the stabilization of polyhedral bilayer vesicles over spherical bilayer vesicles relies crucially on molecular segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges rather than the vertices of bilayer polyhedra. Furthermore, our analysis implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the icosahedron does not minimize elastic bending energy among arbitrary polyhedral shapes and sizes. Instead, we find that, for large polyhedron sizes, the snub dodecahedron and the snub cube both have lower total bending energies than the icosahedron.

  20. Elastic lattice in a random potential

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Dickman, R.

    1998-02-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of an elastic triangular lattice subject to a random background potential. As the cooling rate is reduced, we observe a rather sudden crossover between two different glass phases, with exponential decay of translational correlations, the other with power-law decay. Contrary to predictions derived for continuum models, no evidence of a crossover in the mean-square displacement B(r) from the quadratic growth at small r to the logarithmic growth at large r is found. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Elastic energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-06-01

    In recent experiments [M. Dubois, B. Demé, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J.-C. Dedieu, C. Vautrin, S. Désert, E. Perez, and T. Zemb, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35079541 411, 672 (2001)] the spontaneous formation of hollow bilayer vesicles with polyhedral symmetry has been observed. On the basis of the experimental phenomenology it was suggested [M. Dubois, V. Lizunov, A. Meister, T. Gulik-Krzywicki, J. M. Verbavatz, E. Perez, J. Zimmerberg, and T. Zemb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0400837101 101, 15082 (2004)] that the mechanism for the formation of bilayer polyhedra is minimization of elastic bending energy. Motivated by these experiments, we study the elastic bending energy of polyhedral bilayer vesicles. In agreement with experiments, and provided that excess amphiphiles exhibiting spontaneous curvature are present in sufficient quantity, we find that polyhedral bilayer vesicles can indeed be energetically favorable compared to spherical bilayer vesicles. Consistent with experimental observations we also find that the bending energy associated with the vertices of bilayer polyhedra can be locally reduced through the formation of pores. However, the stabilization of polyhedral bilayer vesicles over spherical bilayer vesicles relies crucially on molecular segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges rather than the vertices of bilayer polyhedra. Furthermore, our analysis implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the icosahedron does not minimize elastic bending energy among arbitrary polyhedral shapes and sizes. Instead, we find that, for large polyhedron sizes, the snub dodecahedron and the snub cube both have lower total bending energies than the icosahedron.

  2. Expression for the granular elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Zheng, Hepeng; Peng, Zheng; Fu, Liping; Song, Shixiong; Sun, Qicheng; Mayer, Michael; Liu, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a broad-ranged continual mechanical description of granular media capable of accounting for static stress distributions, yield phenomena, propagation and damping of elastic waves, the critical state, shear band, and fast dense flow. An important input of GSH is an expression for the elastic energy needed to deform the grains. The original expression, though useful and simple, has some drawbacks. Therefore a slightly more complicated expression is proposed here that eliminates three of them: (1) The maximal angle at which an inclined layer of grains remains stable is increased from 26^{∘} to the more realistic value of 30^{∘}. (2) Depending on direction and polarization, transverse elastic waves are known to propagate at slightly different velocities. The old expression neglects these differences, the new one successfully reproduces them. (3) Most importantly, the old expression contains only the Drucker-Prager yield surface. The new one contains in addition those named after Coulomb, Lade-Duncan, and Matsuoka-Nakai-realizing each, and interpolating between them, by shifting a single scalar parameter.

  3. Expression for the granular elastic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yimin; Zheng, Hepeng; Peng, Zheng; Fu, Liping; Song, Shixiong; Sun, Qicheng; Mayer, Michael; Liu, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) is a broad-ranged continual mechanical description of granular media capable of accounting for static stress distributions, yield phenomena, propagation and damping of elastic waves, the critical state, shear band, and fast dense flow. An important input of GSH is an expression for the elastic energy needed to deform the grains. The original expression, though useful and simple, has some drawbacks. Therefore a slightly more complicated expression is proposed here that eliminates three of them: (1) The maximal angle at which an inclined layer of grains remains stable is increased from 26∘ to the more realistic value of 30∘. (2) Depending on direction and polarization, transverse elastic waves are known to propagate at slightly different velocities. The old expression neglects these differences, the new one successfully reproduces them. (3) Most importantly, the old expression contains only the Drucker-Prager yield surface. The new one contains in addition those named after Coulomb, Lade-Duncan, and Matsuoka-Nakai—realizing each, and interpolating between them, by shifting a single scalar parameter.

  4. Thermodynamics and elastic moduli of fluids with steeply repulsive potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, D. M.

    1997-08-01

    Analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and elastic moduli of molecular fluids interacting with steeply repulsive potentials are derived using Rowlinson's hard-sphere perturbation treatment which employs a softness parameter, λ specifying the deviation from the hard-sphere potential. Generic potentials of this form might be used to represent the interactions between near-hard-sphere stabilized colloids. Analytic expressions for the equivalent hard-sphere diameter of inverse power [ɛ(σ/r)n where ɛ sets the energy scale and σ the distance scale] exponential and logarithmic potential forms are derived using the Barker-Henderson formula. The internal energies in the hard-sphere limit are predicted essentially exactly by the perturbation approach when compared against molecular dynamics simulation data using the same potentials. The elastic moduli are similarly accurately predicted in the hard-sphere limit, as they are trivially related to the internal energy. The compressibility factors from the perturbation expansion do not compare as favorably with simulation data, and in this case the Carnahan-Starling equation of state prediction using the analytic effective hard-sphere diameter would appear to be a preferable route for this thermodynamic property. A more refined state point dependent definition for the effective hard-sphere diameter is probably required for this property.

  5. Elastic deformation and energy loss of flapping fly wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Gorb, Stanislav; Nasir, Nazri; Schützner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    During flight, the wings of many insects undergo considerable shape changes in spanwise and chordwise directions. We determined the origin of spanwise wing deformation by combining measurements on segmental wing stiffness of the blowfly Calliphora vicina in the ventral and dorsal directions with numerical modelling of instantaneous aerodynamic and inertial forces within the stroke cycle using a two-dimensional unsteady blade elementary approach. We completed this approach by an experimental study on the wing's rotational axis during stroke reversal. The wing's local flexural stiffness ranges from 30 to 40 nN m(2) near the root, whereas the distal wing parts are highly compliant (0.6 to 2.2 nN m(2)). Local bending moments during wing flapping peak near the wing root at the beginning of each half stroke due to both aerodynamic and inertial forces, producing a maximum wing tip deflection of up to 46 deg. Blowfly wings store up to 2.30 μJ elastic potential energy that converts into a mean wing deformation power of 27.3 μW. This value equates to approximately 5.9 and 2.3% of the inertial and aerodynamic power requirements for flight in this animal, respectively. Wing elasticity measurements suggest that approximately 20% or 0.46 μJ of elastic potential energy cannot be recovered within each half stroke. Local strain energy increases from tip to root, matching the distribution of the wing's elastic protein resilin, whereas local strain energy density varies little in the spanwise direction. This study demonstrates a source of mechanical energy loss in fly flight owing to spanwise wing bending at the stroke reversals, even in cases in which aerodynamic power exceeds inertial power. Despite lower stiffness estimates, our findings are widely consistent with previous stiffness measurements on insect wings but highlight the relationship between local flexural stiffness, wing deformation power and energy expenditure in flapping insect wings.

  6. Energy principles in theory of elastic materials with voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Luo

    1992-02-01

    According to the basic idea of dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified way proposed by the author[1], various energy principles in theory of elastic materials with voids can be established systematically. In this paper, an important integral relation is given, which can be considered essentially as the generalized pr. inciple of virtual work. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work and the reciprocal theorem of work in theory of elastic materials with voids, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for the eight-field, six-field, four-field and two-field generalized variational principles, and the principle of minimum potential and complementary energies. Furthermore, with this appro ach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  7. Serpentine locomotion through elastic energy release

    PubMed Central

    Movchan, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    A model for serpentine locomotion is derived from a novel perspective based on concepts from configurational mechanics. The motion is realized through the release of the elastic energy of a deformable rod, sliding inside a frictionless channel, which represents a snake moving against lateral restraints. A new formulation is presented, correcting previous results and including situations never analysed so far, as in the cases when the serpent's body lies only partially inside the restraining channel or when the body has a muscle relaxation localized in a small zone. Micromechanical considerations show that propulsion is the result of reactions tangential to the frictionless constraint and acting on the snake's body, a counter-intuitive feature in mechanics. It is also experimentally demonstrated that the propulsive force driving serpentine motion can be directly measured on a designed apparatus in which flexible bars sweep a frictionless channel. Experiments fully confirm the theoretical modelling, so that the presented results open the way to exploration of effects, such as variability in the bending stiffness or channel geometry or friction, on the propulsive force of snake models made up of elastic rods. PMID:28566512

  8. Hybrid Simulation Modeling to Estimate U.S. Energy Elasticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylin-Stern, Adam C.

    This paper demonstrates how an U.S. application of CIMS, a technologically explicit and behaviourally realistic energy-economy simulation model which includes macro-economic feedbacks, can be used to derive estimates of elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and autonomous energy efficiency index (AEEI) parameters. The ability of economies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions depends on the potential for households and industry to decrease overall energy usage, and move from higher to lower emissions fuels. Energy economists commonly refer to ESUB estimates to understand the degree of responsiveness of various sectors of an economy, and use estimates to inform computable general equilibrium models used to study climate policies. Using CIMS, I have generated a set of future, 'pseudo-data' based on a series of simulations in which I vary energy and capital input prices over a wide range. I then used this data set to estimate the parameters for transcendental logarithmic production functions using regression techniques. From the production function parameter estimates, I calculated an array of elasticity of substitution values between input pairs. Additionally, this paper demonstrates how CIMS can be used to calculate price-independent changes in energy-efficiency in the form of the AEEI, by comparing energy consumption between technologically frozen and 'business as usual' simulations. The paper concludes with some ideas for model and methodological improvement, and how these might figure into future work in the estimation of ESUBs from CIMS. Keywords: Elasticity of substitution; hybrid energy-economy model; translog; autonomous energy efficiency index; rebound effect; fuel switching.

  9. Elastic magnetic composites for energy storage flywheels

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, James E.; Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Stupak, Jr., Joseph

    2016-05-05

    The bearings used in energy storage flywheels dissipate a significant amount of energy and can fail catastrophically. Magnetic bearings would both reduce energy dissipation and increase flywheel reliability. The component of magnetic bearing that creates lift is a magnetically soft material embedded into a rebate cut into top of the inner annulus of the flywheel. Because the flywheels stretch about 1% as they spin up, this magnetic material must also stretch and be more compliant than the flywheel itself, so it does not part from the flywheel during spin up. At the same time, the material needs to be sufficientlymore » stiff that it does not significantly deform in the rebate and must have a sufficiently large magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization to provide the required lift. It must also have high electrical resistivity to prevent heating due to eddy currents. In this paper we investigate whether adequately magnetic, mechanically stiff composites that have the tensile elasticity, high electrical resistivity, permeability and saturation magnetism required for flywheel lift magnet applications can be fabricated. Lastly, we find the best composites are those comprised of bidisperse Fe particles in the resin G/Flex 650. The primary limiting factor of such materials is the fatigue resistance to tensile strain.« less

  10. Elastic magnetic composites for energy storage flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E.; Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Stupak, Jr., Joseph

    2016-05-05

    The bearings used in energy storage flywheels dissipate a significant amount of energy and can fail catastrophically. Magnetic bearings would both reduce energy dissipation and increase flywheel reliability. The component of magnetic bearing that creates lift is a magnetically soft material embedded into a rebate cut into top of the inner annulus of the flywheel. Because the flywheels stretch about 1% as they spin up, this magnetic material must also stretch and be more compliant than the flywheel itself, so it does not part from the flywheel during spin up. At the same time, the material needs to be sufficiently stiff that it does not significantly deform in the rebate and must have a sufficiently large magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization to provide the required lift. It must also have high electrical resistivity to prevent heating due to eddy currents. In this paper we investigate whether adequately magnetic, mechanically stiff composites that have the tensile elasticity, high electrical resistivity, permeability and saturation magnetism required for flywheel lift magnet applications can be fabricated. Lastly, we find the best composites are those comprised of bidisperse Fe particles in the resin G/Flex 650. The primary limiting factor of such materials is the fatigue resistance to tensile strain.

  11. Elastic magnetic composites for energy storage flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E.; Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Stupak, Jr., Joseph

    2016-05-05

    The bearings used in energy storage flywheels dissipate a significant amount of energy and can fail catastrophically. Magnetic bearings would both reduce energy dissipation and increase flywheel reliability. The component of magnetic bearing that creates lift is a magnetically soft material embedded into a rebate cut into top of the inner annulus of the flywheel. Because the flywheels stretch about 1% as they spin up, this magnetic material must also stretch and be more compliant than the flywheel itself, so it does not part from the flywheel during spin up. At the same time, the material needs to be sufficiently stiff that it does not significantly deform in the rebate and must have a sufficiently large magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization to provide the required lift. It must also have high electrical resistivity to prevent heating due to eddy currents. In this paper we investigate whether adequately magnetic, mechanically stiff composites that have the tensile elasticity, high electrical resistivity, permeability and saturation magnetism required for flywheel lift magnet applications can be fabricated. Lastly, we find the best composites are those comprised of bidisperse Fe particles in the resin G/Flex 650. The primary limiting factor of such materials is the fatigue resistance to tensile strain.

  12. Elastic energy flux by flexible polymers in fluid turbulence.

    PubMed

    Xi, Heng-Dong; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Xu, Haitao

    2013-07-12

    We present a study of the energy transfer in the bulk of a turbulent flow with dilute long-chain polymer additives. Based on prior work by Tabor and de Gennes [Europhys. Lett. 2, 519 (1986); Physica (Amsterdam) 140A, 9 (1986)], we propose a theory on the energy flux into the elastic degrees of freedom of the polymer chains. This elastic energy flux, which increases as the length scale decreases, gradually reduces the energy transferred to smaller scales through turbulence cascade and hence suppresses small scale fluctuations. The balance of the elastic energy flux and the turbulence energy cascade gives an elastic length scale, which describes the effect of polymer elasticity on turbulence in the inertial range. Predictions of this new "energy flux balance theory" agree excellently with our experimental results.

  13. The role of elastic energy storage and recovery in downhill and uphill running.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kristine L; Kram, Rodger; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2012-07-01

    In level running, humans and other animals store and recover elastic energy during each step. What role does elastic energy play during downhill and uphill running? We measured the fluctuations of the mechanical energy of the center of mass (CoM) of 15 human participants running at 3 m s(-1) on the level, downhill and uphill on a force-measuring treadmill mounted at 3, 6 and 9 deg. In level running, nearly symmetrical decreases and increases of the combined gravitational potential and kinetic (GPE+KE) energy of the CoM indicated equal possible elastic energy storage and recovery. However, asymmetrical fluctuations during hill running indicate reduced maximum possible elastic energy storage and return. We analyzed mechanical energy generation and dissipation during level and hill running by quantifying the anatomically estimated elastic energy storage (AEEE) in the arch and Achilles' tendon using peak ground reaction forces and anatomical characteristics. AEEE did not change with grade. At shallow downhill grades, the body must generate mechanical energy, though it dissipates more than it generates. At steeper downhill grades, little to no energy generation is required and only mechanical energy dissipation must occur. The downhill grade at which mechanical energy must no longer be generated occurs at approximately -9 deg, near the metabolically optimal running grade. At shallow uphill grades, mechanical energy must be generated to raise the CoM, and at steeper grades, additional energy must be generated to offset reduced elastic energy storage and return.

  14. Elastic Energy Transfer in Turbulence of Dilute Polymer Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Heng-Dong; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Xu, Haitao

    2012-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the energy transfer in the bulk of a turbulent flow with small amount long-chain polymer additives. By varying the Reynolds numbers Rλ, Wissenberg number Wi and polymer concentration φ. We test quantitively the elastic theory proposed by de Gennes and Tabor (Europhys. Lett., 1986; Physica A, 1986). The rate of energy transfer by polymer elasticity as inferred from the theory is consistent with that measured from the second order Eulerian structure functions. The unknown parameter n in the theory, which represents the flow topology of the stretching field, is found to be nearly 1. Based on energy transfer rate balance, We propose an elastic length scale, rɛ, which describes the effect of polymer elasticity on turbulence energy cascade and captures the scale dependence of the elastic energy transfer rate. We are grateful to the Max Planck Society, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for their support.

  15. Low-energy elastic differential scattering of He/++/ by He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, S. K.; Doverspike, L. D.; Champion, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results are developed for the relative elastic differential scattering of He(++) by He for collision energies in the range 4 equal to or less than E equal to or less than 75 eV. In the analysis of the data, semiclassical considerations are utilized, assuming that the dynamics of the scattering is governed solely by the B and E states of He2(++). It is shown that existing ab initio calculations for the intermolecular potentials predict differential cross sections which are not in particularly good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike.

    PubMed

    Zack, T I; Claverie, T; Patek, S N

    2009-12-01

    Storage of elastic energy is key to increasing the power output of many biological systems. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) must store considerable elastic energy prior to their rapid raptorial strikes; however, little is known about the dynamics and location of elastic energy storage structures in this system. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualize the mineralization patterns in Gonodactylaceus falcatus and high speed videography of Odontodactylus scyllarus to observe the dynamics of spring loading. Using a materials testing apparatus, we measured the force and work required to contract the elastic structures in G. falcatus. There was a positive linear correlation between contraction force and contraction distance; alternative model tests further supported the use of a linear model. Therefore, we modeled the system as a Hookean spring. The force required to fully compress the spring was positively correlated with body mass and appendage size, but the spring constant did not scale with body size, suggesting a possible role of muscle constraints in the scaling of this system. One hypothesized elastic storage structure, the saddle, only contributed approximately 11% of the total measured force, thus suggesting that primary site of elastic energy storage is in the mineralized ventral bars found in the merus segment of the raptorial appendages. Furthermore, the intact system exhibited 81% resilience and severing the saddle resulted in a non-significant reduction to 77% resilience. The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage.

  17. Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.

    1989-01-01

    A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.

  18. Elastic Energy Partitioning in DNA Deformation and Binding to Proteins.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiaojing; Hwang, Wonmuk

    2016-01-26

    We study the elasticity of DNA based on local principal axes of bending identified from over 0.9-μs all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of DNA oligos. The calculated order parameters describe motion of DNA as an elastic rod. In 10 possible dinucleotide steps, bending about the two principal axes is anisotropic yet linearly elastic. Twist about the centroid axis is largely decoupled from bending, but DNA tends to overtwist for unbending beyond the typical range of thermal motion, which is consistent with experimentally observed twist-stretch coupling. The calculated elastic stiffness of dinucleotide steps yield sequence-dependent persistence lengths consistent with previous single-molecule experiments, which is further analyzed by performing coarse-grained simulations of DNA. Flexibility maps of oligos constructed from simulation also match with those from the precalculated stiffness of dinucleotide steps. These support the premise that base pair interaction at the dinucleotide-level is mainly responsible for the elasticity of DNA. Furthermore, we analyze 1381 crystal structures of protein-DNA complexes. In most structures, DNAs are mildly deformed and twist takes the highest portion of the total elastic energy. By contrast, in structures with the elastic energy per dinucleotide step greater than about 4.16 kBT (kBT: thermal energy), the major bending becomes dominant. The extensional energy of dinucleotide steps takes at most 35% of the total elastic energy except for structures containing highly deformed DNAs where linear elasticity breaks down. Such partitioning between different deformational modes provides quantitative insights into the conformational dynamics of DNA as well as its interaction with other molecules and surfaces.

  19. Proton-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, B. M.; Brune, C. R.; Karwowski, H. J.; Leonard, D. S.; Ludwig, E. J.; Black, T. C.; Viviani, M.; Kievsky, A.; Rosati, S.

    2006-09-15

    We present new accurate measurements of the differential cross section {sigma}({theta}) and the proton analyzing power A{sub y} for proton-{sup 3}He elastic scattering at various energies. A supersonic gas-jet target has been employed to obtain these low-energy cross-section measurements. The {sigma}({theta}) distributions have been measured at E{sub p}=0.99, 1.59, 2.24, 3.11, and 4.02 MeV. Full angular distributions of A{sub y} have been measured at E{sub p}=1.60, 2.25, 3.13, and 4.05 MeV. This set of high-precision data is compared to four-body variational calculations employing realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions. For the unpolarized cross section, the agreement between the theoretical calculation and data is good when a 3N potential is used. The comparison between the calculated and measured proton analyzing powers reveals discrepancies of approximately 50% at the maximum of each distribution. This is analogous to the existing 'A{sub y} puzzle' known for the past 20 years in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering.

  20. Low energy electron elastic reflection from solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starý, Vladimír.; Zemek, Josef

    2004-09-01

    Using our Monte-Carlo (MC) code, we calculated the ratio of the coefficients of elastic reflection of electrons from Si, SiO 2 and Au to those of Cu and Al in the electron energy range 0.2-1.0 and 1.5 keV (Au-Cu), respectively. The electron scattering was simulated by a single scattering model. For the MC calculations, we compared the elastic differential cross-sections calculated using a static field approximation with relativistic partial wave analysis on either the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential of free atoms (TFD model) or the Hartree-Fock-Wigner-Seitz (muffin-tin) potential of atoms in the solid state (HFWS model). The MC data were compared with the experimental values. For both models, reasonably good agreement for Si-Cu and SiO 2-Cu systems was found. In the Au-Cu system, better agreement was achieved using the TFD model. The addition of C in a surface interaction layer of 2-5 nm improves the agreement between simulated and experimental values for the Si-Al and Si-SiO 2 systems.

  1. Locating gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2017-01-01

    Where does gravitational potential energy reside when a ball is in the air? The perfectly correct answer is that it is located in the ball-Earth system. Still, mechanical energy conservation problems are routinely solved by assigning a potential energy to the ball alone. Provided here is a proof that such an assignment introduces only an entirely undetectable error.

  2. Velocity-dependent optical potential for neutron elastic scattering from 1 p -shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabar, I. N.; Jaghoub, M. I.

    2015-06-01

    Background: The conventional optical model is quite successful in describing the nucleon elastic scattering data from medium and heavy nuclei. However, its success in describing the light 1 p -shell nuclei is somewhat limited. The velocity-dependent optical potential resulted in a significant improvement in describing the elastic angular distributions for light nuclei in the low energy region. Purpose: To extend the formalism of the velocity-dependent potential to higher energies, and to assess its importance in describing neutron elastic scattering data from light 1 p -shell nuclei at high energies. Method: We fit the angular distribution data for neutron elastic scattering from 12C and 16O using (i) the velocity-dependent optical potential and (ii) the conventional optical potential. The results of the two models are then compared. At low energies, we compare our angular distribution fits with the fits of other works that exist in the literature. Furthermore, the total integrated cross sections in addition to the analyzing power are calculated using the velocity-dependent optical potential and compared to the experimental data. Results: The velocity-dependent potential resulted in significant improvements in describing the angular distributions particularly in the large-angle scattering region and for certain energy ranges. This model is important where the experimental data show structural effects from nuclear surface deformations, which are important in light nuclei. Furthermore, the calculated total elastic cross sections and analyzing power are in good agreement with the experimental data. Conclusions: The velocity-dependent potential gives rise to surface-peaked real terms in the optical model. Such terms account, at least partly, for the structural effects seen in the angular distribution data. The energy range over which the surface terms are needed is found to depend on the target nucleus. Other works that have introduced real surface terms in the optical

  3. The Gaussian curvature elastic energy of intermediates in membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David P

    2008-12-01

    The Gaussian curvature elastic energy contribution to the energy of membrane fusion intermediates has usually been neglected because the Gaussian curvature elastic modulus, kappa, was unknown. It is now possible to measure kappa for phospholipids that form bicontinuous inverted cubic (Q(II)) phases. Here, it is shown that one can estimate kappa for lipids that do not form Q(II) phases by studying the phase behavior of lipid mixtures. The method is used to estimate kappa for several lipid compositions in excess water. The values of kappa are used to compute the curvature elastic energies of stalks and catenoidal fusion pores according to recent models. The Gaussian curvature elastic contribution is positive and similar in magnitude to the bending energy contribution: it increases the total curvature energy of all the fusion intermediates by 100 units of k(B)T or more. It is important to note that this contribution makes the predicted intermediate energies compatible with observed lipid phase behavior in excess water. An order-of-magnitude fusion rate equation is used to estimate whether the predicted stalk energies are consistent with the observed rates of stalk-mediated processes in pure lipid systems. The current theory predicts a stalk energy that is slightly too large, by approximately 30 k(B)T, to rationalize the observed rates of stalk-mediated processes in phosphatidylethanolamine or N-monomethylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine systems. Despite this discrepancy, the results show that models of fusion intermediate energy are accurate enough to make semiquantitative predictions about how proteins mediate biomembrane fusion. The same rate model shows that for proteins to drive biomembrane fusion at observed rates, they have to perform mediating functions corresponding to a reduction in the energy of a purely lipidic stalk by several tens of k(B)T. By binding particular peptide sequences to the monolayer surface, proteins could lower fusion intermediate

  4. Interference effect in elastic parton energy loss in a finitemedium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Similar to the radiative parton energy loss due to gluonbremsstrahlung, elastic energy loss of a parton undergoing multiplescattering in a finite medium is demonstrated to be sensitive tointerference effect. The interference between amplitudes of elasticscattering via a gluon exchange and that of gluon radiation reduces theeffective elastic energy loss in a finite medium and gives rise to anon-trivial length dependence. The reduction is most significant for apropagation length L<4/\\pi T in a medium with a temperature T. Thoughthe finite size effect is not significant for the average partonpropagation in the most central heavy-ion collisions, it will affect thecentrality dependence of its effect on jet quenching.

  5. Low-energy elastic electron interactions with pyrimidine

    SciTech Connect

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Sullivan, James; Buckman, Stephen; Brunger, Michael; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, F.

    2011-12-15

    We present results of measurements and calculations of elastic electron scattering from pyrimidine in the energy range 3-50 eV. Absolute differential and integral elastic cross sections have been measured using a crossed electron-molecule beam spectrometer and the relative flow technique. The measured cross sections are compared with results of calculations using the well-known Schwinger variational technique and an independent-atom model. Agreement between the measured differential cross sections and the results of the Schwinger calculations is good at lower energies but less satisfactory at higher energies where inelastic channels that should be open are kept closed in the calculations.

  6. Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.

  7. High energy parton-parton elastic scattering in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    We show that the high energy limit of quark-quark, or gluon-gluon, elastic scattering is calculable in terms of the BFKL pomeron when {minus}t {much_gt} {Lambda}{sub QCD}{sup 2}. Surprisingly, this on-shell amplitudes does not have infrared divergences in the high energy limit.

  8. True Polar Wander of Bodies with Elastic Lithospheres: the Role of Elastic Energy in the Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu M.; Nimmo, F.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2006-09-01

    True polar wander (TPW) refers to the reorientation of the rotation axis of a body in response to changes in the inertia tensor due to mass redistribution. Since the state of the lowest kinetic energy for a rigid body corresponds to rotation about the principal axis associated with the largest moment of inertia, it is generally assumed that any internal energy dissipation will tend to drive the body to that state. The equatorial location of the Tharsis province on Mars, and the polar location of Enceladus' hot spot may be explained by reorientation of these bodies due to TPW (Matsuyama et al. 2006, JGR, 111, E02003; Nimmo and Pappalardo 2006, Nature, 441). Ojakangas and Stevenson (1986, BAAS, 18) indicate that the minimum total energy state may not correspond to principal axis rotation for planets with elastic lithospheres because reorientation generates elastic strains within the lithosphere, which reduces the energy available to drive further reorientation. We generalize the approach of Matsuyama et al. (2006, JGR, 111, E02003) to obtain TPW solutions by finding the minimum total energy state that includes a self-consistent elastic energy stored in the lithosphere. We expect the addition of the lithospheric strain term to reduce the total amount of reorientation compared to analyses that neglect this effect. This stabilizing effect is likely to be less important on bodies which have broken plates (Earth) compared with those that have continuous plates (Venus, Mars).

  9. Energy Bounds for a Compressed Elastic Film on a Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, David P.; Conti, Sergio; Müller, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    We study pattern formation in a compressed elastic film which delaminates from a substrate. Our key tool is the determination of rigorous upper and lower bounds on the minimum value of a suitable energy functional. The energy consists of two parts, describing the two main physical effects. The first part represents the elastic energy of the film, which is approximated using the von Kármán plate theory. The second part represents the fracture or delamination energy, which is approximated using the Griffith model of fracture. A simpler model containing the first term alone was previously studied with similar methods by several authors, assuming that the delaminated region is fixed. We include the fracture term, transforming the elastic minimisation into a free boundary problem, and opening the way for patterns which result from the interplay of elasticity and delamination. After rescaling, the energy depends on only two parameters: the rescaled film thickness, {σ }, and a measure of the bonding strength between the film and substrate, {γ }. We prove upper bounds on the minimum energy of the form {σ }^a {γ }^b and find that there are four different parameter regimes corresponding to different values of a and b and to different folding patterns of the film. In some cases, the upper bounds are attained by self-similar folding patterns as observed in experiments. Moreover, for two of the four parameter regimes we prove matching, optimal lower bounds.

  10. Elastic scattering of light nuclei through a simple potential model

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoi, J. Laha, U.

    2016-05-15

    The phase function method is adapted to deal with the scattering on our proposed interactions for α–α and α–{sup 3}He systems. The effect of the electromagnetic interaction is included in terms of a screened Coulomb potential. Based on our proposed potential models we present results for α–α and α–{sup 3}He elastic scattering phase shifts which compare well with more detailed calculations.

  11. Electroelastodynamics of flexoelectric energy conversion and harvesting in elastic dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Adriane G.; Erturk, Alper

    2017-02-01

    Flexoelectricity is the generation of electric polarization by the application of a non-uniform mechanical strain field, i.e., a strain gradient. This phenomenon is exhibited by all elastic dielectrics, but is expected to be significant only at very small scales. Energy harvesting is a potential future application area of flexoelectricity to enable next-generation ultra-low-power MEMS/NEMS devices by converting ambient vibrations into electricity. In this paper, an electroelastodynamic framework is presented and analyzed for flexoelectric energy harvesting from strain gradient fluctuations in centrosymmetric dielectrics, by accounting for the presence of a finite electrical load across the surface electrodes as well as two-way electromechanical coupling, and capturing the size effect. The flexoelectric energy harvester model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and it assumes the main source of polarization to be static bulk flexoelectricity. Following recent efforts on the converse flexoelectric effect in finite samples, the proposed model properly accounts for thermodynamically consistent, symmetric direct and converse coupling terms. The transverse mode flexoelectric coupling coefficient (k) is obtained analytically as a direct measure of energy conversion; its dependence on the cantilever thickness and a material Figure of Merit (FoM) is shown. Size effects are further demonstrated by simulations of the electromechanical frequency response for a Strontium Titanate (STO) energy harvester at different geometric scales. It is obtained that the flexoelectric coupling coefficient of an STO cantilever for the fundamental bending mode increases from k ≈3.5 ×10-7 to k ≈0.33 as the thickness is reduced from mm- to nm-level. A critique of the experimentally identified large flexoelectric coefficient for Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) from the literature is also given with a coupling coefficient perspective.

  12. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  13. Effective balance equations for elastic composites subject to inhomogeneous potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penta, Raimondo; Ramírez-Torres, Ariel; Merodio, José; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reinaldo

    2017-08-01

    We derive the new effective governing equations for linear elastic composites subject to a body force that admits a Helmholtz decomposition into inhomogeneous scalar and vector potentials. We assume that the microscale, representing the distance between the inclusions (or fibers) in the composite, and its size (the macroscale) are well separated. We decouple spatial variations and assume microscale periodicity of every field. Microscale variations of the potentials induce a locally unbounded body force. The problem is homogenizable, as the results, obtained via the asymptotic homogenization technique, read as a well-defined linear elastic model for composites subject to a regular effective body force. The latter comprises both macroscale variations of the potentials, and nonstandard contributions which are to be computed solving a well-posed elastic cell problem which is solely driven by microscale variations of the potentials. We compare our approach with an existing model for locally unbounded forces and provide a simplified formulation of the model which serves as a starting point for its numerical implementation. Our formulation is relevant to the study of active composites, such as electrosensitive and magnetosensitive elastomers.

  14. Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.

    2010-05-15

    The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e{sup +}-Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126{+-}42 meV, with a scattering length of A{sub scat}=(14.2{+-}2.1)a{sub 0}, while the threshold annihilation parameter, Z{sub eff}, was 93.9{+-}26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Z{sub eff} of 91{+-}17 at a collision energy of about 490{+-}50 meV.

  15. E710, Proton, Antiproton Elastic Scattering at Tevatron Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadr, Sasan

    Experiment E710, located at site E0 of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab, was conceived in order to measure pp elastic scattering. The measured parameters were: the total cross section sigma_{t }, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude rho, the nuclear slope parameter B, the nuclear curvature parameter C, the total elastic cross section sigma _{el}, and the single diffractive cross section sigma_{sd} . These measurements were taken at center-of-mass energies of sqrt{s}=1.02 and 1.8 TeV.

  16. Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morini, L.; Piccolroaz, A.; Mishuris, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated.

  17. Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.

  18. Elastic np → np( pn) scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyan, Yu. A.; Anikina, M. Kh.; Belyaev, A. V.; Ierusalimov, A. P.; Troyan, A. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The study of the elastic np → np( pn) scattering was carried out at the momenta of incident quasimonochromatic neutrons P 0 = 1.43, 2.23 and 5.20 GeV/ c. The differential cross sections of the processes of elastic np scattering, both without (cos Φ* p < 0) and with charge exchange (cos Φ* p >0) of nucleons, are analyzed. The results are compared with the data of other experiments. The suggested pole model takes into account exchange by π meson, ρ meson, and includes the peripheral exchange mechanism. This model permits one to get a good description of the data of elastic np scattering at the energy region 1-10 GeV.

  19. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2015-09-01

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  20. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2015-09-15

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  1. An elastic-support model for enhanced bistable piezoelectric energy harvesting from random vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. G.; Gao, Y. J.; Tan, D.; Fan, S. B.; Lai, Z. H.

    2015-02-01

    To overcome the defect of conventional nonlinear piezoelectric cantilever vibration energy harvesters, in this paper we conceive an elastic-support model to study the performance of energy converters under two types of variable-intensity excitation conditions: filtered Gaussian noises and pink noises. When excitation intensity is insufficient, thanks to the system's variable potential function, frequent bistable transition oscillations between two wells occur in elastic-support systems, while only weak oscillations in either well could be observed in rigid-support systems. In practical applications, the structural parameters of energy harvesters are not allowed to make real-time changes. If considered remaining the magnet interval and the spring's elastic stiffness unchanged while receiving stable maximum output voltage, elastic-support systems can be made full use toward variable-intensity filtered Gaussian noises. It has been proven that elastic-support systems are capable of adapting to random excitations with variable intensity, through which maximum power output and sufficient electromechanical energy conversion of the system can be accomplished.

  2. Singular path-independent energy integrals for elastic bodies with thin elastic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    An equilibrium problem for a two-dimensional homogeneous linear elastic body containing a thin elastic inclusion and an interfacial crack is considered. The thin inclusion is modeled within the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. An explicit formula for the first derivative of the energy functional with respect to the crack perturbation along the interface is presented. It is shown that the formulas for the derivative associated with translation and self-similar expansion of the crack are represented as path-independent integrals along smooth contour surrounding one or both crack tips. These path-independent integrals consist of regular and singular terms and are analogs of the well-known Eshelby-Cherepanov-Rice J-integral and Knowles-Sternberg M-integral.

  3. Investigation of 17F+p elastic scattering at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Azab Farid, M.; Ibraheem, Awad A.; Al-Hajjaji, Arwa S.

    2015-10-01

    The 17F +p elastic scattering at two near-barrier energies of 3.5 and 4.3 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed in the framework of the single folding approach. The folded potentials are constructed by folding the density-dependent (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction over the nuclear density of the one-proton halo nucleus 17F. Two versions of the density are considered. In addition, two versions of the one-nucleon knock-on exchange potentials are introduced to construct the real microscopic potentials. The derived potentials supplemented by phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary and spin-orbit potentials produced excellent description of the differential elastic scattering cross sections at the higher energy without need to introduce any renormalization. At the lower energy, however, in order to successfully reproduce the data, it is necessary to reduce the strength of the constructed real DDM3Y potential by about 25% of its original value. Furthermore, good agreement with data is obtained using the extracted microscopic DDM3Y potentials for both real and imaginary parts. Moreover, the interesting notch test is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering cross section to the radial distribution of the constructed microscopic potentials. The extracted reaction (absorption) cross sections are, also, investigated.

  4. Helical configurations of elastic rods in the presence of a long-range interaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lillo, S.; Lupo, G.; Sommacal, M.

    2010-02-01

    Recently, the integrability of the stationary Kirchhoff equations describing an elastic rod folded in the shape of a circular helix was proven. In this paper we explicitly work out the solutions to the stationary Kirchhoff equations in the presence of a long-range potential which describes the average constant force due to a Morse-type interaction acting among the points of the rod. The average constant force results to be parallel to the normal vector to the central line of the folded rod; this condition remarkably permits to preserve the integrability (indeed the solvability) of the corresponding Kirchhoff equations if the elastic rod features constant or periodic stiffnesses and vanishing intrinsic twist. Furthermore, we discuss the elastic energy density with respect to the radius and pitch of the helix, showing the existence of stationary points, namely stable and unstable configurations, for plausible choices of the featured parameters corresponding to a real bio-polymer.

  5. Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.

  6. Energy trapping in power transmission through an elastic plate by finite piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi; Hu, Yuantai

    2008-11-01

    We study transmission of electric energy through an elastic plate by acoustic wave propagation and piezoelectric transducers. Our mechanics model consists of an elastic plate with finite piezoelectric patches on both sides of the plate. A theoretical analysis using the equations of elasticity and piezoelectricity is performed. Energy trapping that describes the confinement and localization of the vibration energy is examined.

  7. Characteristic Dirac Signature in Elastic Proton Scattering at Intermediate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, M. V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Nonrelativistic nucleon-nucleus first-order multiple-scattering calculations are extended to include virtual (Dirac) negative energy states of just the projectile. This effect may be thought of as virtual NN¯ pair production and annihilation in the field of the nucleus. This extension leads to a parameter-free Dirac description of the projectile in elastic proton scattering which produces a characteristic effect in spin observables over a wide range of energies which is in agreement with experiment. This Dirac signature is extremely stable with respect to uncertainties in the microscopic input.

  8. Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering at intermediate energies from nuclei in the mass range 6⩽A⩽116

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korff, A.; Haefner, P.; Bäumer, C.; van den Berg, A. M.; Blasi, N.; Davids, B.; de Frenne, D.; de Leo, R.; Frekers, D.; Grewe, E.-W.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hofmann, F.; Hunyadi, M.; Jacobs, E.; Junk, B. C.; Negret, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Popescu, L.; Rakers, S.; Richter, A.; Wörtche, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic deuteron scattering from 6Li , 16O , 32S , 50,51 V , and 70,72 Ge at an incident energy of 171 MeV and from 90Zr and 116Sn at an incident energy of 183 MeV are presented. Phenomenological optical-model parameters for elastic scattering are extracted from the data and compared to existing deuteron-nucleus global optical potentials.

  9. Elastic Free Energy Drives the Shape of Prevascular Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mills, K. L.; Kemkemer, Ralf; Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the mechanical environment influences cell functions in health and disease. Here, we address how the mechanical environment influences tumor growth, in particular, the shape of solid tumors. In an in vitro tumor model, which isolates mechanical interactions between cancer tumor cells and a hydrogel, we find that tumors grow as ellipsoids, resembling the same, oft-reported observation of in vivo tumors. Specifically, an oblate ellipsoidal tumor shape robustly occurs when the tumors grow in hydrogels that are stiffer than the tumors, but when they grow in more compliant hydrogels they remain closer to spherical in shape. Using large scale, nonlinear elasticity computations we show that the oblate ellipsoidal shape minimizes the elastic free energy of the tumor-hydrogel system. Having eliminated a number of other candidate explanations, we hypothesize that minimization of the elastic free energy is the reason for predominance of the experimentally observed ellipsoidal shape. This result may hold significance for explaining the shape progression of early solid tumors in vivo and is an important step in understanding the processes underlying solid tumor growth. PMID:25072702

  10. Energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons from double layer samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical description of the spectra of electrons elastically scattered from thin double layered Au-C samples. The analysis is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects in reflection and transmission geometries of the scattering at a fixed angle of 44.3 ° and a primary energy of 40 keV. The relativistic correction is taken into account. Besides the experimentally measurable energy distributions the simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). Furthermore, we present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of the single scattering, taking into account both the ideal scattering geometry, i.e. infinitesimally small angular range, and the effect of the real, finite angular range used in the measurements. We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings for four cases of measurement geometries and layer thicknesses. While in the peak intensity ratios of gold and carbon for transmission geometries were found to be in good agreement with the results of the single scattering model, especially large deviations were obtained in reflection geometries. The separation of the peaks, depending on the geometry and the thickness, generally smaller, and the peak width generally larger than it can be expected from the nominal values of the primary energy, scattering angle, and mean kinetic energy of the atoms. We also show that the peaks are asymmetric even for the case of the single scattering due to the finite solid angle. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with recent measurements.

  11. Calculation of the Helmholtz potential of an elastic strand in an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Khaliullin, Renat N; Schieber, Jay D

    2011-02-14

    We derive from statistical mechanics the Gibbs free energy of an elastic random-walk chain affected by the presence of an external electric field. Intrachain charge interactions are ignored. In addition, we find two approximations of the Helmholtz potential for this system analogous to the gaussian and Cohen-Padé approximations for an elastic strand without the presence of an electric field. Our expressions agree well with exact numerical calculations of the potential in a wide range of conditions. Our analog of the gaussian approximation exhibits distortion of the monomer density due to the presence of the electric field, and our analog of the Cohen-Padé approximation additionally includes finite chain extensibility effects. The Helmholtz potential may be used in modeling the dynamics of electrophoresis experiments.

  12. Equivalence of magnetoelastic, elastic, and mechanical work energies with stress-induced anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudivarthi, Chaitanya; Datta, Supratik; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Flatau, Alison B.; Evans, Phillip G.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2008-03-01

    This work investigates the equivalence of thermodynamic potentials utilizing stress-induced anisotropy energy and potentials using elastic, magnetoelastic, and mechanical work energies. The former is often used to model changes in magnetization and strain due to magnetic field and stress in magnetostrictive materials. The enthalpy of a ferromagnetic body with cubic symmetry is written with magnetization and strain as the internal states and the equilibrium strains are calculated by minimizing the enthalpy. Evaluating the enthalpy using the equilibrium strains, functions of the magnetization orientation, results in an enthalpy expression devoid of strain. By inspecting this expression, the magnetoelastic, elastic, and mechanical work energies are identified to be equivalent to the stress-induced anisotropy plus magnetostriction-induced fourth order anisotropy. It is shown that as long as the value of fourth order crystalline anisotropy constant K I includes the value of magnetostriction-induced fourth order anisotropy constant ΔK I, energy formulations involving magnetoelastic, elastic, and mechanical work energies are equivalent to those involving stress-induced anisotropy energy. Further, since the stress-induced anisotropy is only given for a uniaxial applied stress, an expression is developed for a general 3D stress.

  13. Low energy analyzing powers in pion-proton elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Cröni, M.; Bilger, R.; van den Brandt, B.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Comfort, J. R.; Denz, H.; Erhardt, A.; Föhl, K.; Friedman, E.; Gräter, J.; Hautle, P.; Hofman, G. J.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.; Pätzold, J.; Pavan, M. M.; Wagner, G. J.; von Wrochem, F.

    2004-05-01

    Analyzing powers of pion-proton elastic scattering have been measured at PSI with the Low Energy Pion Spectrometer LEPS and a novel polarized scintillator target. Angular distributions between 40 and 120 deg (c.m.) were taken at 45.2, 51.2, 57.2, 68.5, 77.2, and 87.2 MeV incoming pion kinetic energy for π+p scattering, and at 67.3 and 87.2 MeV for π-p scattering. These new measurements constitute a substantial extension of the polarization data base at low energies. Predictions from phase shift analyses are compared with the experimental results, and deviations are observed at low energies.

  14. Elastic scattering of {sup 6}Li on {sup 64}Zn at near-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zadro, M.; Figuera, P.; Pietro, A. Di; Fisichella, M.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Amorini, F.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Rizzo, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Goryunov, O.; Ostashko, V.; Papa, M.

    2009-12-15

    Elastic-scattering angular distributions for the {sup 6}Li+{sup 64}Zn system were measured at eight beam energies from below to above the Coulomb barrier, 12.0{<=}E{sub lab}{<=}22.0 MeV. The experimental data were analyzed within the optical model to study the energy dependence of the interaction potential and to obtain total reaction cross sections. The results obtained using several optical model potentials show similar behavior. The energy dependence of the strengths of the real and imaginary potentials suggests the presence of the breakup threshold anomaly. It is shown that the extracted energy dependence of the interaction potential at sub-barrier energies is very sensitive to possible experimental errors.

  15. Frictional and elastic energy in gecko adhesive detachment.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2008-03-06

    Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1 m s(-1). Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (W(d)) is modulated by the angle (theta) of a linear path of detachment. Gecko setae resist detachment when dragged towards the animal during detachment (theta = 30 degrees ) requiring W(d) = 5.0+/-0.86(s.e.) J m(-2) to detach, largely due to frictional losses. This external frictional loss is analogous to viscous internal frictional losses during detachment of pressure-sensitive adhesives. We found that, remarkably, setae possess a built-in release mechanism. Setae acted as springs when loaded in tension during attachment and returned elastic energy when detached along the optimal path (theta=130 degrees ), resulting in W(d) = -0.8+/-0.12 J m(-2). The release of elastic energy from the setal shaft probably causes spontaneous release, suggesting that curved shafts may enable easy detachment in natural, and synthetic, gecko adhesives.

  16. Calculations of {sup 8}He+p elastic cross sections using a microscopic optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Massen, S. E.

    2009-08-15

    An approach to calculate microscopic optical potential with the real part obtained by a folding procedure and with the imaginary part inherent in the high-energy approximation is applied to study the {sup 8}He+p elastic-scattering data at energies of tens of MeV/nucleon. The neutron and proton density distributions obtained in different models for {sup 8}He are used in the calculations of the differential cross sections. The role of the spin-orbit potential is studied. Comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data on the elastic-scattering differential cross sections at beam energies of 15.7, 26.25, 32, 66, and 73 MeV/nucleon is performed. The problem of the ambiguities of the depths of each component of the optical potential is considered by means of the imposed physical criterion related to the known behavior of the volume integrals as functions of the incident energy. It is shown also that the role of the surface absorption is rather important, in particular for the lowest incident energies (e.g., 15.7 and 26.25 MeV/nucleon)

  17. Nonperturbative QCD and elastic processes at CEBAF energies

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, A.V. |

    1994-04-01

    The author outlines how one can approach nonperturbative aspects of the QCD dynamics studying elastic processes at energies accessible at upgraded CEBAF. The author`s point is that, in the absence of a complete theory of the nonperturbative effects, a possible way out is based on a systematic use of the QCD factorization procedure which separates theoretically understood ({open_quotes}known{close_quotes}) short-distance effects and nonperturbative ({open_quotes}unknown{close_quotes}) long-distance ones. The latter include hadronic distribution amplitudes, soft components of hadronic form factors etc. Incorporating the QCD sum rule version of the QCD factorization approach, one can relate these nonperturbative functions to more fundamental objects, vacuum condensates, which accumulate information about the nonperturbative structure of the QCD vacuum. The emerging QCD sum rule picture of hadronic form factors is characterized by a dominant role of essentially nonperturbative effects in the few GeV region, with perturbative mechanisms starting to show up for momentum transfers Q{sup 2} closer to 10 GeV{sup 2} and higher. Thus, increasing CEBAF energy provides a unique opportunity for a precision study of interplay between the perturbative and nonperturbative phenomena in the QCD description of elastic processes.

  18. Correlation between elastic energy density and deep earthquakes distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardana, P. M.; Morra, G.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism at the origin of the earthquakes below 30 km remains elusive as these events cannot be explained by brittle frictional processes. In this work we focus on the global total distribution of earthquakes frequency vs. depth from ∼50 km to 670 km depth. We develop a numerical model of self-driven subduction by solving the non-homogeneous Stokes equation using the ;Particle in cell method; in combination with a conservative finite difference scheme, here solved for the first time using Python and NumPy only. We show that most of the elastic energy is stored in the slab core and that it is strongly correlated with the earthquake frequency-depth distribution for a wide range of lithosphere and lithosphere-core viscosities. According to our results, we suggest that 1) slab bending at the bottom of the upper mantle causes the peak of the earthquake frequency-depth distribution that is observed at mantle transition depth; 2) the presence of a high viscous stiff core inside the lithosphere generates an elastic energy distribution that fits better with the exponential decay that is observed at intermediate depth.

  19. Double Folding Potential of Different Interaction Models for 16O + 12C Elastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Bondok, I.; Abdelmoatmed, M.

    2016-12-01

    The elastic scattering angular distributions for 16O + 12C nuclear system have been analyzed using double folding potential of different interaction models: CDM3Y1, CDM3Y6, DDM3Y1 and BDM3Y1. We have extracted the renormalization factor N r for the different concerned interaction models. Potential created by BDM3Y1 model of interaction has the shallowest depth which reflects the necessity to use higher renormalization factor. The experimental angular distributions for 16O + 12C nuclear system in the energy range 115.9-230 MeV exhibited unmistakable refractive features and rainbow phenomenon.

  20. Systematic analysis of α elastic scattering with the São Paulo potential

    SciTech Connect

    Charry-Pastrana, F. E. Pinilla, E. C.

    2016-07-07

    We describe systematically by collision energy and target mass, alpha elastic scattering angular distributions by using the São Paulo potential as the real part of the optical potential. The imaginary part is proportional to the real one by a factor N{sub i}. We find this parameter by fitting the theoretical angular distributions to the experimental cross sections through a χ{sup 2} minimization. The N{sub i} and their respective uncertainties, σ{sub Ni}, fall in the range 0.4 ≤ N{sub i} ± σ{sub N{sub i}} ≤ 0.8 for all the systems studied.

  1. Systematic analysis of α elastic scattering with the São Paulo potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charry-Pastrana, F. E.; Pinilla, E. C.

    2016-07-01

    We describe systematically by collision energy and target mass, alpha elastic scattering angular distributions by using the São Paulo potential as the real part of the optical potential. The imaginary part is proportional to the real one by a factor Ni. We find this parameter by fitting the theoretical angular distributions to the experimental cross sections through a χ2 minimization. The Ni and their respective uncertainties, σNi, fall in the range 0.4 ≤ Ni ± σNi ≤ 0.8 for all the systems studied.

  2. A Microscopic Optical Potential Approach to {sup 6,8}He+p Elastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Massen, S. E.

    2009-08-26

    A microscopic approach to calculate the optical potential (OP) with the real part obtained by a folding procedure and with the imaginary part inherent in the high-energy approximation (HEA) is applied to study the {sup 6,8}He+p elastic scattering data at energies of tens of MeV/N. The OP's and the cross sections are calculated using different models for the neutron and proton densities of {sup 6,8}He. The role of the spin-orbit (SO) potential and effects of the energy and density dependence of the effective NN forces are studied. Comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data on the elastic scattering differential cross sections at beam energies <100 MeV/N is performed and conclusions on the role of the aforesaid effects are made. It is shown that the present approach, which uses only parameters that renormalize the depths of the OP, can be applied along with other methods like that from the microscopic g-matrix description of the complex proton optical potential.

  3. Elastic proton-deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacher, A. D.; Bailey, C. D.; Biegun, A.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Gašparić, I.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.; Stephenson, E. J.; Sworst, R.

    2008-07-01

    Observables in elastic proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects. The present experimental database for this reaction is large, but contains a large discrepancy between data sets for the differential cross section taken at 135 MeV/nucleon by two experimental research groups. This article reviews the background of this problem and presents new data taken at Kernfysisch Versneller Instituute (KVI). Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the 2H(p→,d)p and 1H(d→,d)p reactions at 135 MeV/nucleon and 65 MeV/nucleon, respectively, have been measured. The differential cross-section data differ significantly from previous measurements and consistently follow the energy dependence as expected from an interpolation of published data taken over a large range at intermediate energies.

  4. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  5. Breakup and Elastic Scattering in the {sup 9}Be + {sup 144}Sm system at near barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Paes, B.; Garcia, V. N.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Padron, I.

    2010-05-21

    Breakup and elastic scattering in the Be + {sup 144}Sm system, at near barrier energies, are investigated. We calculate theoretically the non-capture breakup cross section by performing coupled reaction channel calculations. The energy dependence of the optical potential does not show the usual threshold anomaly found in tightly bound systems.

  6. Dynamic polarization potential effects on vector analyzing powers of 6Li- 28Si elastic scattering from non-monotonic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, A. K.; Roy, P. K.; Hossain, S.; Abdullah, M. N. A.; Tariq, A. S. B.; Uddin, M. A.; Reichstein, I.; Malik, F. B.

    2010-08-01

    Experimental cross section (CS) and vector analyzing power (VAP) data of the 6Li-28Si elastic scattering at 22.8 MeV are analyzed in the coupled-channels (CC) and coupled discretized continuum channels (CDCC) methods. Non-monotonic (NM) 6Li and α potentials of microscopic origin are employed, respectively, in the CC calculations and to generate folding potentials for the CDCC calculations. The study demonstrates that the use of central NM potentials can generate an appropriate dynamic polarization potential (DPP) required to describe both the CS and VAP data without the necessity of renormalization. This also produces an effective spin-orbit (SO) potential to account for the iT11 data without the requirement of an additional static SO potential at the incident energy considered.

  7. Low-energy elastic electron scattering from furan

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Muse, J.; Ralphs, K.; Costa, R. F.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.

    2010-06-15

    We report normalized experimental and theoretical differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering by C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O (furan) molecules from a collaborative project between several Brazilian theoretical groups and an experimental group at California State Fullerton, USA. The measurements are obtained by using the relative flow method with helium as the standard gas and a thin aperture target gas collimating source. The relative flow method is applied without the restriction imposed by the relative flow pressure condition on helium and the unknown gas. The experimental data were taken at incident electron energies of 1, 1.5, 1.73, 2, 2.7, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, and 50 eV and covered the angular range between 10 deg. and 130 deg. The measurements verify observed {pi}* shape resonances at 1.65{+-}0.05eV and 3.10{+-}0.05 eV scattering energies, in good agreement with the transmission electron data of Modelli and Burrow [J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5721 (2004)]. Furthermore, the present results also indicated both resonances dominantly in the d-wave channel. The differential cross sections are integrated in the standard way to obtain integral elastic cross sections and momentum transfer cross sections. The calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were performed in the static-exchange and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximations. The calculated integral and momentum transfer cross sections clearly revealed the presence of two shape resonances located at 1.95 and 3.56 eV and ascribed to the B{sub 1} and A{sub 2} symmetries of the C{sub 2v} point group, respectively, in very good agreement with the experimental findings. Overall agreement between theory and experiment regarding the differential, momentum transfer, and integral cross sections is very good, especially for energies below 10 eV.

  8. Solid stress and elastic energy as measures of tumour mechanopathology

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Hadi T.; Liu, Hao; Seano, Giorgio; Datta, Meenal; Jones, Dennis; Rahbari, Nuh; Incio, Joao; Chauhan, Vikash P.; Jung, Keehoon; Martin, John D.; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Padera, Timothy P.; Fukumura, Dai; Boucher, Yves; Hornicek, Francis J.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Baish, James W.; Munn, Lance L.

    2017-01-01

    Solid stress and tissue stiffness affect tumour growth, invasion, metastasis and treatment. Unlike stiffness, which can be precisely mapped in tumours, the measurement of solid stresses is challenging. Here, we show that two-dimensional spatial mappings of solid stress and the resulting elastic energy in excised or in situ tumours with arbitrary shapes and wide size ranges can be obtained via three distinct and quantitative techniques that rely on the measurement of tissue displacement after disruption of the confining structures. Application of these methods in models of primary tumours and metastasis revealed that: (i) solid stress depends on both cancer cells and their microenvironment; (ii) solid stress increases with tumour size; and (iii) mechanical confinement by the surrounding tissue significantly contributes to intratumoural solid stress. Further study of the genesis and consequences of solid stress, facilitated by the engineering principles presented here, may lead to significant discoveries and new therapies. PMID:28966873

  9. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R.; Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Solid stress and elastic energy as measures of tumour mechanopathology.

    PubMed

    Nia, Hadi T; Liu, Hao; Seano, Giorgio; Datta, Meenal; Jones, Dennis; Rahbari, Nuh; Incio, Joao; Chauhan, Vikash P; Jung, Keehoon; Martin, John D; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Padera, Timothy P; Fukumura, Dai; Boucher, Yves; Hornicek, Francis J; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Baish, James W; Munn, Lance L; Jain, Rakesh K

    2016-01-01

    Solid stress and tissue stiffness affect tumour growth, invasion, metastasis and treatment. Unlike stiffness, which can be precisely mapped in tumours, the measurement of solid stresses is challenging. Here, we show that two-dimensional spatial mappings of solid stress and the resulting elastic energy in excised or in situ tumours with arbitrary shapes and wide size ranges can be obtained via three distinct and quantitative techniques that rely on the measurement of tissue displacement after disruption of the confining structures. Application of these methods in models of primary tumours and metastasis revealed that: (i) solid stress depends on both cancer cells and their microenvironment; (ii) solid stress increases with tumour size; and (iii) mechanical confinement by the surrounding tissue significantly contributes to intratumoural solid stress. Further study of the genesis and consequences of solid stress, facilitated by the engineering principles presented here, may lead to significant discoveries and new therapies.

  11. Anchoring energy and orientational elasticity of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznacheev, A. V.; Pozhidaev, E. P.

    2012-06-15

    The dielectric susceptibility of a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal layer has been experimentally and theoretically studied as a function of the layer thickness. The investigation has been performed on the inner branch of the polarization hysteresis loop, in the region of a linear dependence of the polarization on the electric field. The experimental results are explained using the notion of effective layer thickness, which involves the characteristic distance {xi} over which the orienting effect of interfaces is operative. Comparison of the experimental data and theoretical results made it possible to estimate this distance as {xi} = 41 {mu}m and evaluate the anchoring energy (W = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} J/m{sup 2}) and the intralayer elastic constant (K Double-Prime Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} N).

  12. Elastic scattering of {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cubero, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Lay, J. A.; Moro, A. M.; Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Buchmann, L.; Shotter, A.; Walden, P.; Diget, D. G.; Fulton, B.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Mukha, I.

    2011-10-28

    We have studied the dynamical effects of the halo structure of {sup 11}Li on the scattering on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier. This experiment was performed at ISAC-II at TRIUMF with a world record in production of the post-accelerated {sup 11}Li beam. As part of this study we report here on the first measurement of the elastic cross section of the core nucleus, i.e. {sup 9}Li on {sup 208}Pb, at energies around the Coulomb barrier. A preliminary optical model analysis has been performed in order to extract a global optical potential to describe the measured angular distributions.

  13. Momentum-space optical potential SND elastic scattering calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, D. H.; Hynes, M. V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1983-03-01

    Initial results are presented for proton-nucleus elastic scattering observables calculated with a newly developed microscopic momentum-space code. This is the first phase of a program to treat elastic and inelastic scatterig consistently via an integral equation approach. A number of microscopic features which are often approximated or ignored are quite amenable to exact treatment within this approach, e.g. non-local effectss in elastic scattering, and inelastic effects which are non-linear in the NN t-matrix and target densities but nevertheless confined to one participating nucleon.

  14. Quasi-elastic scattering and transfer angular distribution for B,1110+232Th systems at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shradha; Biswas, D. C.; Mukherjee, S.; Patel, D.; Gupta, Y. K.; Prajapati, G. K.; Joshi, B. N.; Danu, L. S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; John, B. V.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Vind, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering and transfer angular distributions for B,1110+232Th reactions have been measured simultaneously in a wide range of bombarding energies around the Coulomb barrier. The quasi-elastic angular distribution data are analyzed using the optical model code ecis with phenomenological Woods-Saxon potentials. The obtained potential parameters suggest the presence of usual threshold anomaly, confirming tightly bound characteristics for both the projectiles. The reaction cross sections are obtained from the fitting of quasi-elastic angular distribution data. The reduced cross sections at sub-barrier energies compared with Li,76+232Th systems show a systematic dependence on projectile breakup energy. The angular distribution of the transfer products show similar behavior for both the systems.

  15. Fast computation of high energy elastic collision scattering angle for electric propulsion plume simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Samuel J.

    2016-11-01

    In the plumes of Hall thrusters and ion thrusters, high energy ions experience elastic collisions with slow neutral atoms. These collisions involve a process of momentum exchange, altering the initial velocity vectors of the collision pair. In addition to the momentum exchange process, ions and atoms can exchange electrons, resulting in slow charge-exchange ions and fast atoms. In these simulations, it is particularly important to accurately perform computations of ion-atom elastic collisions in determining the plume current profile and assessing the integration of spacecraft components. The existing models are currently capable of accurate calculation but are not fast enough such that the calculation can be a bottleneck of plume simulations. This study investigates methods to accelerate an ion-atom elastic collision calculation that includes both momentum- and charge-exchange processes. The scattering angles are pre-computed through a classical approach with ab initio spin-orbit free potential and are stored in a two-dimensional array as functions of impact parameter and energy. When performing a collision calculation for an ion-atom pair, the scattering angle is computed by a table lookup and multiple linear interpolations, given the relative energy and randomly determined impact parameter. In order to further accelerate the calculations, the number of collision calculations is reduced by properly defining two cut-off cross-sections for the elastic scattering. In the MCC method, the target atom needs to be sampled; however, it is confirmed that initial target atom velocity does not play a significant role in typical electric propulsion plume simulations such that the sampling process is unnecessary. With these implementations, the computational run-time to perform a collision calculation is reduced significantly compared to previous methods, while retaining the accuracy of the high fidelity models.

  16. Low-energy electron elastic scattering cross sections for excited Au and Pt atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felfli, Zineb; Eure, Amanda R.; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Sokolovski, Dmitri

    2010-05-01

    Electron elastic total cross sections (TCSs) and differential cross sections (DCSs) in both impact energy and scattering angle for the excited Au and Pt atoms are calculated in the electron impact energy range 0 ⩽ E ⩽ 4.0 eV. The cross sections are found to be characterized by very sharp long-lived resonances whose positions are identified with the binding energies of the excited anions formed during the collisions. The recent novel Regge-pole methodology wherein is embedded through the Mulholland formula the electron-electron correlations is used together with a Thomas-Fermi type potential incorporating the crucial core-polarization interaction for the calculations of the TCSs. The DCSs are evaluated using a partial wave expansion. The Ramsauer-Townsend minima, the shape resonances and the binding energies of the excited Au - and Pt - anions are extracted from the cross sections, while the critical minima are determined from the DCSs.

  17. Application of multiple scattering theory to lower-energy elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-03-01

    The optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at 65 meV are calculated for 12C, 16O, 28Si, 40Ca, 56Fe, 90Zr, and 208Pb in first-order multiple scattering theory, following the prescription of the spectator expansion, where the only inputs are the free nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials, the nuclear densities, and the nuclear mean field as derived from microscopic nuclear structure calculations. These potentials are used to predict differential cross sections, analyzing powers, and spin rotation functions for neutron and proton scattering at 65 MeV projectile energy and compared with available experimental data. The theoretical curves are in very good agreement with the data. The modification of the propagator due to the coupling of the struck nucleon to the residual nucleus is seen to be significant at this energy and invariably improves the congruence of theoretical prediction and measurement.

  18. Total elastic cross section for H-bar-H scattering at thermal energies

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab; Ghosh, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the elastic scattering cross sections for a few low-lying partial waves and also the converged elastic cross sections with added partial waves in the energy range 10{sup -10}-10{sup -2} a.u. for the H-bar-H system using atomic orbital techniques. The present s-wave predictions are in good agreement with the other existing theoretical estimates. Nonzero low-order partial-wave elastic cross sections show dips like for s-wave scattering. The converged elastic cross section shows structurelike behavior in the energy range 4.2x10{sup -4}-10{sup -2} a.u.

  19. Biaxial load effects on the crack border elastic strain energy and strain energy rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftis, J.; Subramonian, N.; Liebowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the singular solution (first term of a series representation) is investigated for the crack tip stress and displacement field in an infinite sheet with a flat line crack with biaxial loads applied to the outer boundaries. It is shown that if one retains the second contribution to the series approximations for stress and displacement in the calculation of the local elastic strain energy density and elastic strain energy rate in the crack border region, both these quantities have significant biaxial load dependency. The value of the J-integral does not depend on the presence of the second term of the series expansion for stress and displacement. Thus J(I) is insensitive to the presence of loads applied parallel to the plane of the crack.

  20. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  1. Towards a Model of Reactive-Cracking: the Role of Reactions, Elasticity and Surface Energy Driven Flow in Poro-elastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, O.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Many critical processes can be described by reactive fluid flow in brittle media, including hydration/alteration of oceanic plates near spreading ridges, chemical weathering, and dehydration/decarbonation of subducting plates. Such hydration reactions can produce volume changes that may induce stresses large enough to drive fracture in the rock, in turn exposing new reactive surface and modifying the permeability. A better understanding of this potentially rich feedback could also be critical in the design of engineered systems for geologic carbon sequestration. To aid understanding of these processes we have developed a macroscopic continuum description of reactive fluid flow in an elastically deformable porous media. We explore the behaviour of this model by considering a simplified hydration reaction (e.g. olivine + H20 -> serpentine + brucite). In a closed system, these hydration reactions will continue to consume available fluids until the permeability reaches zero, leaving behind it a highly stressed residuum. Our model demonstrates this limiting behaviour, and that the elastic stresses generated are large enough to cause failure/fracture of the host rock. Whilst it is understood that `reactive fracture' is an important mechanism for the continued evolution of this process, it is also proposed that imbibition/surface energy driven flow may play a role. Through a simplified set of computational experiments, we investigate the relative roles of elasticity and surface energy in both a non-reactive purely poro-elastic framework, and then in the presence of reaction. We demonstrate that surface energy can drive rapid diffusion of porosity, thus allowing the reaction to propagate over larger areas. As we expect both surface energy and fracture/failure to be of importance in these processes, we plan to integrate the current model into one that allows for fracture once critical stresses are exceeded.

  2. LHC Physics Potential versus Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

  3. The elastic energy and character of quakes in solid stars and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1972-01-01

    The quadrupolar mechanical energy of a rotating axially symmetric solid planet (with or without a liquid interior) is calculated using methods previously developed for neutron stars in which an elastic reference tensor is introduced to describe the build-up of elastic energy in the star. The basic parameters of the theory (the gravitational energy A and elastic energy B) depend upon the internal structure of the planet and may be calculated from specific planetary models. Explicit expressions are obtained for the Love numbers, and for the planetary wobble frequency. The theory provides a simple relationship between changes in shape or axis of figure of the planet and elastic energy release. The theory is extended to describe the Earth by taking into account isostasy, triaxiality and the observed lithospheric configuration.

  4. The elastic energy and character of quakes in solid stars and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1972-01-01

    The quadrupolar mechanical energy of a rotating axially symmetric solid planet (with or without a liquid interior) is calculated using methods previously developed for neutron stars in which an elastic reference tensor is introduced to describe the build-up of elastic energy in the star. The basic parameters of the theory (the gravitational energy A and elastic energy B) depend upon the internal structure of the planet and may be calculated from specific planetary models. Explicit expressions are obtained for the Love numbers, and for the planetary wobble frequency. The theory provides a simple relationship between changes in shape or axis of figure of the planet and elastic energy release. The theory is extended to describe the Earth by taking into account isostasy, triaxiality and the observed lithospheric configuration.

  5. Energy potential of geothermal energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.

    2000-06-01

    The use of terrestrial heat could fulfill certain energy demands. For the evaluation of the possibilities in the energy system of Germany, the available potentials are one of the most important criteria. Within this context, in the past only the available resources and the reserves have been discussed. But these data have hardly practical relevance for the energy-political and energy-economic discussions, since they do not consider the conditions in the corresponding energy system. In this article, therefore, explanations additional to the overall existing amount of heat in underground portions are shown, which could be used also from a technical point of view. In addition, the demand-side restrictions are considered and the share of the available heat is pointed out which can be used within the energy system of Germany. The explanations show that consideration of the demand side is necessary to make relevant statements. The investigations also make clear that terrestrial heat will never be able to cover more than just a part of the energy demand for warmth in Germany.

  6. Random networks of fibres display maximal heterogeneity in the distribution of elastic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, J. A.; Timonen, J.; Myllys, M.; Fellman, J.; Lebell, J.

    2007-01-01

    Above a small length scale, the distribution of local elastic energies in a material under an external load is typically Gaussian, and the dependence of the average elastic energy on strain defines the stiffness of the material. Some particular materials, such as granular packings, suspensions at the jamming transition, crumpled sheets and dense cellular aggregates, display under compression an exponential distribution of elastic energies, but also in this case the elastic properties are well defined. We demonstrate here that networks of fibres, which form uncorrelated non-fractal structures, have under external load a scale invariant distribution of elastic energy (ɛ) at the fibre-fibre contacts proportional to 1/ɛ. This distribution is much broader than any other distribution observed before for elastic energies in a material. We show that for small compressions it holds over 10 orders of magnitude in ɛ. In such a material a few 'hot spots' carry most of the elastic load. Consequently, these materials are highly susceptible to local irreversible deformations, and are thereby extremely efficient for damping vibrations.

  7. Random networks of fibres display maximal heterogeneity in the distribution of elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Aström, J A; Timonen, J; Myllys, M; Fellman, J; LeBell, J

    2007-01-01

    Above a small length scale, the distribution of local elastic energies in a material under an external load is typically Gaussian, and the dependence of the average elastic energy on strain defines the stiffness of the material. Some particular materials, such as granular packings, suspensions at the jamming transition, crumpled sheets and dense cellular aggregates, display under compression an exponential distribution of elastic energies, but also in this case the elastic properties are well defined. We demonstrate here that networks of fibres, which form uncorrelated non-fractal structures, have under external load a scale invariant distribution of elastic energy (epsilon) at the fibre-fibre contacts proportional to 1/epsilon. This distribution is much broader than any other distribution observed before for elastic energies in a material. We show that for small compressions it holds over 10 orders of magnitude in epsilon. In such a material a few 'hot spots' carry most of the elastic load. Consequently, these materials are highly susceptible to local irreversible deformations, and are thereby extremely efficient for damping vibrations.

  8. Relativity, potential energy, and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2016-11-01

    This paper is an exploration of the concept of energy, illuminated by the transformative insights of the special theory of relativity. Focusing on potential energy (PE), it will be shown that PE as presently defined is in conflict with the tenets of special relativity. Even though PE remains an indispensable theoretical device its actual physicality is questionable. Moreover its ontological status is quite different from that of both kinetic energy and mass, a significant point that is not widely appreciated. We will establish that PE is a theoretical concept as opposed to an empirical one; it is a descriptor of mass-energy without a detectable physical presence of its own. PE is a measure of energy stored, it is not the energy stored.

  9. Store and recoil of elastic energy in slow and fast types of human skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Tihanyi, J; Komi, P V; Fekete, G; Apor, P

    1982-12-01

    Stretch-shortening cycle refers to the mechanical condition in which store and recoil of elastic energy occur in the skeletal muscle. This leads to a greater work output when compared to a simple shortening contraction. The subjects performed vertical jumps with and without preliminary counter-movement and with small and large knee angular displacement. The results indicated that those subjects who had more fast twitch (FT) fibers benefited more from the stretching phase performed with high speed and short angular displacement. The amounts of elastic energy stored in this phase were 30 and 26 N X kgBW-1, respectively, for FT and slow twitch (ST) type subjects. The recoil of elastic energy was proportional to the amount of energy storage. In large amplitude jumps where transient period between stretch and shortening is long the both types of subjects demonstrated similar amount of storage of elastic energy (17 and 16 N X kgBW-1, respectively). However, the re-use of this elastic energy was greater in ST group (24%) as compared to the FT group (17%). The results can be interpreted through differences in sarcomere crossbridge life times between fast and slow muscle fibers. The slow type muscle may be able to retain the cross-bridge attachment for a longer period of time and therefore it may utilize elastic energy better in a slow type ballistic motion.

  10. Analytical representation of elastic scattering cross sections of low energy electrons by atmospheric gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Sipov, N. K.; Shneyder, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical representations of the elastic scattering cross sections of electrons with energies of 0.01-1 keV in atmospheric gases of N2, O2, O are given. These representations are suitable for the Monte Carlo method.

  11. Stress fields and energy of disclination-type defects in zones of localized elastic distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, Ivan I.; Tyumentsev, Alexander N.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper studies theoretically the elastically deformed state and analyzes deformation mechanisms in nanocrystals in the zones of localized elastic distortions and related disclination-type defects, such as dipole, quadrupole and multipole of partial disclinations. Significant differences in the energies of quadrupole and multipole configurations in comparison with nanodipole are revealed. The mechanism of deformation localization in the field of elastic distortions is proposed, which is a quasi-periodic sequence of formation and relaxation of various disclination ensembles with a periodic change in the energy of the defect.

  12. Nudged elastic band calculation of the binding potential for liquids at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Buller, Oleg; Tewes, Walter; Archer, Andrew J; Heuer, Andreas; Thiele, Uwe; Gurevich, Svetlana V

    2017-07-14

    The wetting behavior of a liquid on solid substrates is governed by the nature of the effective interaction between the liquid-gas and the solid-liquid interfaces, which is described by the binding or wetting potential g(h) which is an excess free energy per unit area that depends on the liquid film height h. Given a microscopic theory for the liquid, to determine g(h), one must calculate the free energy for liquid films of any given value of h, i.e., one needs to create and analyze out-of-equilibrium states, since at equilibrium there is a unique value of h, specified by the temperature and chemical potential of the surrounding gas. Here we introduce a Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) approach to calculate g(h) and illustrate the method by applying it in conjunction with a microscopic lattice density functional theory for the liquid. We also show that the NEB results are identical to those obtained with an established method based on using a fictitious additional potential to stabilize the non-equilibrium states. The advantages of the NEB approach are discussed.

  13. Nudged elastic band calculation of the binding potential for liquids at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buller, Oleg; Tewes, Walter; Archer, Andrew J.; Heuer, Andreas; Thiele, Uwe; Gurevich, Svetlana V.

    2017-07-01

    The wetting behavior of a liquid on solid substrates is governed by the nature of the effective interaction between the liquid-gas and the solid-liquid interfaces, which is described by the binding or wetting potential g(h) which is an excess free energy per unit area that depends on the liquid film height h. Given a microscopic theory for the liquid, to determine g(h), one must calculate the free energy for liquid films of any given value of h, i.e., one needs to create and analyze out-of-equilibrium states, since at equilibrium there is a unique value of h, specified by the temperature and chemical potential of the surrounding gas. Here we introduce a Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) approach to calculate g(h) and illustrate the method by applying it in conjunction with a microscopic lattice density functional theory for the liquid. We also show that the NEB results are identical to those obtained with an established method based on using a fictitious additional potential to stabilize the non-equilibrium states. The advantages of the NEB approach are discussed.

  14. Curve crossing for low energy elastic scattering of He (plus) by Ne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbio, S. M.; Doverspike, L. D.; Champion, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The perturbation seen in the experimental differential elastic scattering cross section for the 40 eV He(+) + Ne system was attributed to a single crossing of two intermolecular potential energy curves. A new theoretical treatment of the curve crossing problem, that of Delos and Thorson, is employed to obtain the crossing probabilities and phases associated with the crossing. These are determined by utilizing ab initio potentials involved in the crossing and are further used in a partial wave calculation of the cross section, which is compared with our experiment. The origin of the oscillatory structure observed in the differential cross section is discussed in semiclassical terms by defining the problem in terms of two pseudo-deflection functions. A rainbow effect is shown to be related to a particular feature (a maximum rather than a minimum) of these deflection functions.

  15. Low energy elastic electron scattering from CF{sub 3}Br molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, L. R.; Brunton, J. R.; Maddern, T. M.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-03-28

    CF{sub 3}Br is a potentially valuable precursor molecule for generating beams of gas phase Br radicals suitable for electron collisions studies. However, the utility of CF{sub 3}Br for this purpose depends critically on the availability of sound scattering cross sections to allow the contribution of the precursor to be isolated within the total scattering signal. To this end, here we present elastic differential cross section (DCS) measurements for CF{sub 3}Br at incident energies between 15 and 50 eV. Comparison of these DCSs to those from the only other available experimental study [Sunohara et al., J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 1843 (2003)] and a Schwinger multichannel with pseudo potentials (SMCPPs) calculation [Bettega et al., J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 1263 (2003)] shows generally a very good accord. Integral elastic and momentum transfer cross sections, derived from our DCSs, are also found to be in quite good agreement with the SMCPP results.

  16. The cross-bridge spring: can cool muscles store elastic energy?

    PubMed

    George, N T; Irving, T C; Williams, C D; Daniel, T L

    2013-06-07

    Muscles not only generate force. They may act as springs, providing energy storage to drive locomotion. Although extensible myofilaments are implicated as sites of energy storage, we show that intramuscular temperature gradients may enable molecular motors (cross-bridges) to store elastic strain energy. By using time-resolved small-angle x-ray diffraction paired with in situ measurements of mechanical energy exchange in flight muscles of Manduca sexta, we produced high-speed movies of x-ray equatorial reflections, indicating cross-bridge association with myofilaments. A temperature gradient within the flight muscle leads to lower cross-bridge cycling in the cooler regions. Those cross-bridges could elastically return energy at the extrema of muscle lengthening and shortening, helping drive cyclic wing motions. These results suggest that cross-bridges can perform functions other than contraction, acting as molecular links for elastic energy storage.

  17. Unusual potential behavior for the weakly bound nucleus 9Be in elastic scattering from 208Pb and 209Bi near the threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Jia, H. M.; Zhang, S. T.; Ruan, M.; Yang, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Xu, X. X.; Bai, C. L.

    2010-07-01

    The elastic scattering angular distributions of the weakly bound 9Be projectile from 208Pb and 209Bi have been measured for 14 beam energies near the threshold from 37 to 50 MeV. The parameters of the optical potential are extracted by means of phenomenological optical model analysis with PTOLEMY. Both of the systems show unusual potential behavior in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier that the strength of the imaginary (absorptive) part of the potential is increasing (rather than decreasing) with decreasing energy, which is quite different from the results of some previous reports. This unusual threshold phenomenon indicates that the breakup channel is strongly coupled with the elastic channel and has obvious effects on the optical potential. The analyses also show that high precision elastic scattering angular distributions, especially those below the Coulomb barrier, are very important for extracting correct threshold behavior of the optical potential.

  18. Silk elasticity as a potential constraint on spider body size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Corcobado, Guadalupe; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2010-10-07

    Silk is known for its strength and extensibility and has played a key role in the radiation of spiders. Individual spiders use different glands to produce silk types with unique sets of proteins. Most research has studied the properties of major ampullate and capture spiral silks and their ecological implications, while little is known about minor ampullate silk, the type used by those spider species studied to date for bridging displacements. A biomechanical model parameterised with available data shows that the minimum radius of silk filaments required for efficient bridging grows with the square root of the spider's body mass, faster than the radius of minor ampullate silk filaments actually produced by spiders. Because the morphology of spiders adapted to walking along or under silk threads is ill suited for moving on a solid surface, for these species there is a negative relationship between body mass and displacement ability. As it stands, the model suggests that spiders that use silk for their displacements are prevented from attaining a large body size if they must track their resources in space. In particular, silk elasticity would favour sexual size dimorphism because males that must use bridging lines to search for females cannot grow large. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elastic strain relaxation in interfacial dislocation patterns: I. A parametric energy-based framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattré, A.

    2017-08-01

    A parametric energy-based framework is developed to describe the elastic strain relaxation of interface dislocations. By means of the Stroh sextic formalism with a Fourier series technique, the proposed approach couples the classical anisotropic elasticity theory with surface/interface stress and elasticity properties in heterogeneous interface-dominated materials. For any semicoherent interface of interest, the strain energy landscape is computed using the persistent elastic fields produced by infinitely periodic hexagonal-shaped dislocation configurations with planar three-fold nodes. A finite element based procedure combined with the conjugate gradient and nudged elastic band methods is applied to determine the minimum-energy paths for which the pre-computed energy landscapes yield to elastically favorable dislocation reactions. Several applications on the Au/Cu heterosystems are given. The simple and limiting case of a single set of infinitely periodic dislocations is introduced to determine exact closed-form expressions for stresses. The second limiting case of the pure (010) Au/Cu heterophase interfaces containing two crossing sets of straight dislocations investigates the effects due to the non-classical boundary conditions on the stress distributions, including separate and appropriate constitutive relations at semicoherent interfaces and free surfaces. Using the quantized Frank-Bilby equation, it is shown that the elastic strain landscape exhibits intrinsic dislocation configurations for which the junction formation is energetically unfavorable. On the other hand, the mismatched (111) Au/Cu system gives rise to the existence of a minimum-energy path where the fully strain-relaxed equilibrium and non-regular intrinsic hexagonal-shaped dislocation rearrangement is accompanied by a significant removal of the short-range elastic energy.

  20. Assessment of Triton Potential Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friar, J. L.; Payne, G. L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  1. Energies of Screened Coulomb Potentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    This article shows that, by applying the Hellman-Feynman theorem alone to screened Coulomb potentials, the first four coefficients in the energy series in powers of the perturbation parameter can be obtained from the unperturbed Coulomb system. (Author/HM)

  2. Analysis of Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, G. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces different methodological strategies in analyzing potential energy surfaces (PES) used in chemical reactivity studies. Discusses the theory of PES and gives examples to be used for student work. Provides procedures for calculating normal coordinates and vibrational properties of an activated complex. (ML)

  3. Analysis of Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, G. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces different methodological strategies in analyzing potential energy surfaces (PES) used in chemical reactivity studies. Discusses the theory of PES and gives examples to be used for student work. Provides procedures for calculating normal coordinates and vibrational properties of an activated complex. (ML)

  4. The human iliotibial band is specialized for elastic energy storage compared with the chimp fascia lata.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether the human iliotibial band (ITB) is specialized for elastic energy storage relative to the chimpanzee fascia lata (FL). To quantify the energy storage potential of these structures, we created computer models of human and chimpanzee lower limbs based on detailed anatomical dissections. We characterized the geometry and force-length properties of the FL, tensor fascia lata (TFL) and gluteus maximus (GMax) in four chimpanzee cadavers based on measurements of muscle architecture and moment arms about the hip and knee. We used the chimp model to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the chimp FL during bipedal walking, and compared these data with analogous estimates from a model of the human ITB, accounting for differences in body mass and lower extremity posture. We estimate that the human ITB stores 15- to 20-times more elastic energy per unit body mass and stride than the chimp FL during bipedal walking. Because chimps walk with persistent hip flexion, the TFL and portions of GMax that insert on the FL undergo smaller excursions (origin to insertion) than muscles that insert on the human ITB. Also, because a smaller fraction of GMax inserts on the chimp FL than on the human ITB, and thus its mass-normalized physiological cross-sectional area is about three times less in chimps, the chimp FL probably transmits smaller muscle forces. These data provide new evidence that the human ITB is anatomically derived compared with the chimp FL and potentially contributes to locomotor economy during bipedal locomotion. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The energy dependence of the diffraction minimum in the elastic scattering and new LHC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyugin, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    The soft diffraction phenomena in the elastic proton-proton scattering are reviewed from the viewpoint of experiments at the LHC (TOTEM and ATLAS collaboration). In the framework of the High Energy Generalized Structure (HEGS) model the form of the diffraction minimum in the nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering in a wide energy region is analyzed. The energy dependencies of the main characteristics of the diffraction dip are obtained. The numerical predictions at LHC energies are presented. The comparison of the model predictions with the new LHC data at √{ s} = 13 TeV is made.

  6. Price Elasticities for Energy Use in Buildings of the United States

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Energy demand tends to be responsive to changes in energy prices, a concept in economics known as price elasticity. Generally, an increase in a fuel price causes users to use less of that fuel or switch to a different fuel. The extent to which each of these changes takes place is of high importance to stakeholders in the energy sector and especially in energy planning. The purpose of this analysis is to determine fuel-price elasticities in stationary structures, particularly in the residential and commercial sectors.

  7. Measurements of angular distributions for7Li elastically scattered from58Ni at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Valenzuela, P.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Lizcano, D.; Morales-Rivera, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    Recently, experimental measurements of elastic scattering angular distributions for the system7Li+58Ni at ten different energies around the Coulomb barrier were made by the Heavy-Ion Group. The measurements were made at the Tandem Van de Graaff Particle Accelerator Laboratory in the National Institute for Nuclear Research (ININ) in Mexico. In this work, preliminary elastic scattering angular distributions for five energies (E lab , = 12.0, 12.5, 13.0, 13.5 and 14.22 MeV) are presented. The preliminary experimental data were analyzed using the São Paulo Optical Model Potential (SPP) which is based on a double-folding potential, reproducing very well these data. A comparison is made with old data reported back in 1973 and in 2012. Further analysis is in progress in order to fully understand this particular system, specially because7Li is known to be a weakly bound nucleus.

  8. The curvature elastic-energy function of the lipid-water cubic mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hesson; Caffrey, Martin

    1994-03-01

    CELL and lipid membranes are able to bend, as manifested during membrane fusion and the formation of non-lamellar lyotropic mesopbases in water. But there is an energy cost to bending of lipid layers, called the curvature elastic energy. Although the functional form of this energy is known1, a complete quantitative knowledge of the curvature elastic energy, which is central to predicting the relative stability of the large number of phases that lipid membranes can adopt, has been lacking. Here we use X-ray synchrotron diffraction measurements of the variation of lattice parameter with pressure and temperature for the periodic Ia3d (Q230) cubic phase of hydrated monoolein to calculate the complete curvature elastic-energy function for the lipid cubic mesophase. This allows us to predict the stabilities of different cubic and lamellar phases for this system as a function of composition.

  9. Analytical potential for the elastic scattering of light halo nuclei below and close to the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Borowska, L.; Terenetsky, K.; Verbitsky, V.; Fritzsche, S.

    2009-04-15

    An analytical expression for the dynamic polarization potential is derived for the elastic scattering of light halo nuclei in the Coulomb field of heavy targets. The derivation is based on the adiabatic motion of the projectile below and close to the Coulomb barrier together with a uniform approximation for the Coulomb functions. Detailed computations have been carried out for the elastic scattering of d+{sup 208}Pb and {sup 6}He+{sup 208}Pb at collision energies of 8 and 17.8 MeV and are compared with measurements as far as available. The obtained expression for the dynamic polarization potential is simple and can be applied for any arbitrary system with a dineutron configuration.

  10. Elastic energy storage in human articular cartilage: estimation of the elastic modulus for type II collagen and changes associated with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Silver, Frederick H; Bradica, Gino; Tria, Alfred

    2002-03-01

    The viscoelastic mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic articular were analyzed based on data reported by Kempson [in: Adult Articular Cartilage (1973)] and Silver et al. (Connect. Tissue Res., 2001b). Results of the analysis of tensile elastic stress-strain curves suggest that the elastic modulus of cartilage from the superficial zone is approximately 7.0 GPa parallel and 2.21 GPa perpendicular to the cleavage line pattern. Collagen fibril lengths in the superficial zone were found to be approximately 1265 microm parallel and 668 microm perpendicular to the cleavage line direction. The values for the elastic modulus and fibril lengths decreased with increased extent of osteoarthritis. The elastic modulus of type II collagen parallel to the cleavage line pattern in the superficial zone approaches that of type I collagen in tendon, suggesting that elastic energy storage occurs in the superficial zone due to the tensile pre-tension that exists in this region. Decreases in the elastic modulus associated with osteoarthritis reflect decreased ability of cartilage to store elastic energy, which leads to cartilage fibrillation and fissure formation. We hypothesize that under normal physiological conditions, collagen fibrils in cartilage function to store elastic energy associated with weight bearing and locomotion. Enzymatic cleavage of cartilage proteoglycans and collagen observed in osteoarthritis may lead to fibrillation and fissure formation as a result of impaired energy storage capability of cartilage.

  11. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  12. Detailed study and mean field interpretation of {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C elastic scattering at seven medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.; Morsad, A.; Satchler, G. R.; Brandan, M. E.

    2000-03-01

    Detailed measurements of the elastic scattering of {sup 16}O ions from {sup 12}C have been carried out at seven energies from 62 to 124 MeV, at center-of-mass angles from about 10 degree sign to about 145 degree sign . A coherent optical model analysis of these data has been performed using both the Woods-Saxon and the folding-model potentials. The extracted results are consistent with analyses of data at higher energies for this and similar light heavy-ion systems. Some model-independent spline forms for the real potentials were also investigated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. Examining the Potential of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    This outreach document goes to potential partners for NREL's Renewable Energy Potential Initiative, which will explore the long-term potential of Renewable Energy to meet a substantial share of U.S. energy needs.

  14. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  15. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-02-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  16. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  17. The potential of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials on predicting the elastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-06-01

    Choice of appropriate force field is one of the main concerns of any atomistic simulation that needs to be seriously considered in order to yield reliable results. Since investigations on the mechanical behavior of materials at micro/nanoscale have been becoming much more widespread, it is necessary to determine an adequate potential which accurately models the interaction of the atoms for desired applications. In this framework, reliability of multiple embedded atom method based interatomic potentials for predicting the elastic properties was investigated. Assessments were carried out for different copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials at room temperature which is considered as the most applicable case. Examined force fields for the three species were taken from online repositories of National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as the Sandia National Laboratories, the LAMMPS database. Using molecular dynamic simulations, the three independent elastic constants, C11, C12, and C44, were found for Cu, Al, and Ni cubic single crystals. Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation was then implemented to convert elastic constants of the single crystals into isotropic polycrystalline elastic moduli including bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus as well as Poisson's ratio. Simulation results from massive molecular dynamic were compared with available experimental data in the literature to justify the robustness of each potential for each species. Eventually, accurate interatomic potentials have been recommended for finding each of the elastic properties of the pure species. Exactitude of the elastic properties was found to be sensitive to the choice of the force fields. Those potentials that were fitted for a specific compound may not necessarily work accurately for all the existing pure species. Tabulated results in this paper might be used as a benchmark to increase assurance of using the interatomic potential that was designated for a problem.

  19. Evaluation of copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials on predicting the elastic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Mao, Yijin; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-06-28

    Choice of appropriate force field is one of the main concerns of any atomistic simulation that needs to be seriously considered in order to yield reliable results. Since investigations on the mechanical behavior of materials at micro/nanoscale have been becoming much more widespread, it is necessary to determine an adequate potential which accurately models the interaction of the atoms for desired applications. In this framework, reliability of multiple embedded atom method based interatomic potentials for predicting the elastic properties was investigated. Assessments were carried out for different copper, aluminum, and nickel interatomic potentials at room temperature which is considered as the most applicable case. Examined force fields for the three species were taken from online repositories of National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as the Sandia National Laboratories, the LAMMPS database. Using molecular dynamic simulations, the three independent elastic constants, C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 44}, were found for Cu, Al, and Ni cubic single crystals. Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation was then implemented to convert elastic constants of the single crystals into isotropic polycrystalline elastic moduli including bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus as well as Poisson's ratio. Simulation results from massive molecular dynamic were compared with available experimental data in the literature to justify the robustness of each potential for each species. Eventually, accurate interatomic potentials have been recommended for finding each of the elastic properties of the pure species. Exactitude of the elastic properties was found to be sensitive to the choice of the force fields. Those potentials that were fitted for a specific compound may not necessarily work accurately for all the existing pure species. Tabulated results in this paper might be used as a benchmark to increase assurance of using the interatomic potential that was

  20. Giant linear strain gradient with extremely low elastic energy in a perovskite nanostructure array

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y. L.; Zhu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Ma, X. L.

    2017-01-01

    Although elastic strains, particularly inhomogeneous strains, are able to tune, enhance or create novel properties of some nanoscale functional materials, potential devices dominated by inhomogeneous strains have not been achieved so far. Here we report a fabrication of inhomogeneous strains with a linear gradient as giant as 106 per metre, featuring an extremely lower elastic energy cost compared with a uniformly strained state. The present strain gradient, resulting from the disclinations in the BiFeO3 nanostructures array grown on LaAlO3 substrates via a high deposition flux, induces a polarization of several microcoulomb per square centimetre. It leads to a large built-in electric field of several megavoltage per metre, and gives rise to a large enhancement of solar absorption. Our results indicate that it is possible to build up large-scale strain-dominated nanostructures with exotic properties, which in turn could be useful in the development of novel devices for electromechanical and photoelectric applications. PMID:28665413

  1. Giant linear strain gradient with extremely low elastic energy in a perovskite nanostructure array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. L.; Zhu, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y. J.; Ma, X. L.

    2017-06-01

    Although elastic strains, particularly inhomogeneous strains, are able to tune, enhance or create novel properties of some nanoscale functional materials, potential devices dominated by inhomogeneous strains have not been achieved so far. Here we report a fabrication of inhomogeneous strains with a linear gradient as giant as 106 per metre, featuring an extremely lower elastic energy cost compared with a uniformly strained state. The present strain gradient, resulting from the disclinations in the BiFeO3 nanostructures array grown on LaAlO3 substrates via a high deposition flux, induces a polarization of several microcoulomb per square centimetre. It leads to a large built-in electric field of several megavoltage per metre, and gives rise to a large enhancement of solar absorption. Our results indicate that it is possible to build up large-scale strain-dominated nanostructures with exotic properties, which in turn could be useful in the development of novel devices for electromechanical and photoelectric applications.

  2. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-07

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity.

  3. Elastic scattering of 17O ions from 58Ni at near-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Parascandolo, L.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Toniolo, N.; Grebosz, J.; Filipescu, D.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Stroe, L.; Miyatake, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S.; Kim, Y. H.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.; Zerva, K.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering has been studied for the collisions induced by 17O on 58Ni target at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. The elastic scattering angular distributions were measured for several energies and were analyzed within the framework of the optical model to obtain total reaction cross sections. The reaction cross-sections of the tightly bound 17O were compared with those of weakly bound 17F on the same targets in order to investigate the effects of the low binding energy in the reaction dynamics.

  4. Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analyses showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.

  5. Failure of the Woods-Saxon nuclear potential to simultaneously reproduce precise fusion and elastic scattering measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Newton, J. O.; Butt, R. D.; Hagino, K.

    2007-04-15

    A precise fusion excitation function has been measured for the {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb reaction at energies around the barrier, allowing the fusion barrier distribution to be extracted. The fusion cross sections at high energies differ significantly from existing fusion data. Coupled reaction channels calculations have been carried out with the code FRESCO. A bare potential previously claimed to uniquely describe a wide range of {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb near-barrier reaction channels failed to reproduce the new fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness of 0.95 fm which fits the fusion excitation function over a broad energy range fails to reproduce the elastic scattering. A diffuseness of 0.55 fm reproduces the fusion barrier distribution and elastic scattering data, but significantly overpredicts the fusion cross sections at high energies. This may be due to physical processes not included in the calculations. To constrain calculations, it is desirable to have precisely measured fusion cross sections, especially at energies around the barrier.

  6. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration

    PubMed Central

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a ‘shock-absorber’ mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle–tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5–1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle–tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length–tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. PMID:25716796

  7. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  8. Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  9. Biodegradable, elastic shape-memory polymers for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lendlein, Andreas; Langer, Robert

    2002-05-31

    The introduction of biodegradable implant materials as well as minimally invasive surgical procedures in medicine has substantially improved health care within the past few decades. This report describes a group of degradable thermoplastic polymers that are able to change their shape after an increase in temperature. Their shape-memory capability enables bulky implants to be placed in the body through small incisions or to perform complex mechanical deformations automatically. A smart degradable suture was created to illustrate the potential of these shape-memory thermoplastics in biomedical applications.

  10. Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the

  11. The elastic free energy of a tandem modular protein under force.

    PubMed

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Eckels, Edward C; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Fernandez, Julio M

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have provided a theoretical framework for including entropic elasticity in the free energy landscape of proteins under mechanical force. Accounting for entropic elasticity using polymer physics models has helped explain the hopping behavior seen in single molecule experiments in the low force regime. Here, we expand on the construction of the free energy of a single protein domain under force proposed by Berkovich et al. to provide a free energy landscape for N tandem domains along a continuous polypeptide. Calculation of the free energy of individual domains followed by their concatenation provides a continuous free energy landscape whose curvature is dominated by the worm-like chain at forces below 20 pN. We have validated our free energy model using Brownian dynamics and reproduce key features of protein folding. This free energy model can predict the effects of changes in the elastic properties of a multidomain protein as a consequence of biological modifications such as phosphorylation or the formation of disulfide bonds. This work lays the foundations for the modeling of tissue elasticity, which is largely determined by the properties of tandem polyproteins.

  12. Diuretic potential of energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Riesenhuber, A; Boehm, M; Posch, M; Aufricht, C

    2006-07-01

    Recent literature suggests that both caffeine and taurine can induce diuresis and natriuresis in rat and man. Although they act via different cellular mechanisms, their diuretic actions might be additive. This is of considerable interest, as several commercially available energy drinks contain both substances. In this study we examined the possible diuretic effects of caffeine and taurine in a cross-over-design in which 12 healthy male volunteers received each of 4 different test drinks (750 ml of energy drink containing 240 mg caffeine and 3 g taurine, the three other test drinks either lacked caffeine, taurine or both) after restraining from fluids for 12 h. Mixed model analyses demonstrated that urinary output and natriuresis were significantly increased by caffeine (mean differences 243 ml and 27 mmol; both p < 0.001) and that there were no such effects of taurine (mean differences 59 ml and -4 mmol). Additionally, urinary osmolarity at baseline was significantly related to the urinary output (p < 0.001). Urine osmolarity values at baseline and in the 6 h urine collection did not differ significantly between treatments. Taken together, our study demonstrates that diuretic and natriuretic effects of the tested energy drink were largely mediated by caffeine. Taurine played no significant role in the fluid balance in moderately dehydrated healthy young consumers. Consequently, the diuretic potential of energy drinks will not differ significantly from other caffeine containing beverages.

  13. Effect of coupled channels on the energy dependence of phenomenological optical potential parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rayashi, W. S.; Jaghoub, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    The phenomenological optical potential parameters are known to vary with incident energy due to sources of nonlocalities in the nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering process. Here we investigate the effect of one source, which is coupling the ground-state elastic channel to collective inelastic excitations on the energy dependence of the optical potential parameters. For incident energies in the range 10-70 MeV, we considered elastic and inelastic nucleon scattering from light, medium, and heavy nuclei ranging from 6Li to 208Pb. The potential parameters were first determined by fitting the elastic angular distributions only. Then we included coupling to collective excitation channels and determined the potential parameters that reproduced the elastic and inelastic angular distribution data simultaneously. Our results show that coupling to inelastic excitations reduces the energy variations of the potential parameters compared to that of the elastic scattering case. In particular, the our best fit values for the real part of the spin-orbit term are highly stable as a function of energy. The values of the surface imaginary term are not only more stable but are also reduced compared to the elastic case. The reduction is a direct consequence of the channel coupling accounting explicitly for part of the flux removed from the elastic channel. In the fitting process we also searched for the best fit values of the deformation parameters. Our values compare well with the corresponding ones obtained in previous works. Finally, we used our best fit values for the potential and deformation parameters to theoretically predict the total elastic, total cross section, and polarization data. The predicted values are in very good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Analyses of alpha-alpha elastic scattering data in the energy range 140 - 280 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadeh, Zuhair F.

    2017-01-01

    The differential and the reaction cross-sections for 4He-4He elastic scattering data have been nicely obtained at four energies ranging from 140 MeV to 280 MeV (lab system), namely, 140, 160, 198 and 280 MeV, by using a new optical potential with a short-range repulsive core. The treatment has been handled relativistically as v/c > 0.25 for the two lower energies and v/c > 0.31 for the two higher ones. In addition to explaining the elastic angular distributions, the adopted potentials accounted for the structure that may exist at angles close to 90°, especially for the 198 and the 280-MeV incident energies. No renormalization has been used, and all our potential parameters are new. The necessity of including a short-range repulsive potential term in our real nuclear potential part has been demonstrated. Our results contribute to solving a long-standing problem concerning the nature of the alpha-alpha potential. This is very beneficial in explaining unknown alpha-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus relativistic reactions by using the cluster formalism.

  15. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  16. Experimental study of the variation of alpha elastic scattering cross sections along isotopic and isotonic chains at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Somorjai, E.; Galaviz, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Zilges, A.; Mohr, P.; Goerres, J.; Wiescher, M.; Oezkan, N.; Gueray, T.; Yalcin, C.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2008-05-21

    To improve the reliability of statistical model calculations in the region of heavy proton rich isotopes alpha elastic scattering experiments have been performed at ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary. The experiments were carried out at several energies above and below the Coulomb barrier with high precision. The measured angular distributions can be used for testing the predictions of the global and regional optical potential parameter sets. Moreover, we derived the variation of the elastic alpha scattering cross section along the Z = 50 ({sup 112}Sn-{sup 124}Sn) isotopic and N = 50 ({sup 89}Y-{sup 92}Mo) isotonic chains. In this paper we summarize the efforts to provide high precision experimental angular distributions for several A{approx_equal}100 nuclei to test the global optical potential parameterizations applied to p-process network calculations.

  17. New measurements and phase shift analysis of p16O elastic scattering at astrophysical energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, Sergey; Burtebayev, Nassurlla; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, Albert; Zazulin, Denis; Kerimkulov, Zhambul; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Omarov, Chingis; Tkachenko, Alesya; Shmygaleva, Tatyana; Kliczewski, Stanislaw; Sadykov, Turlan

    2017-01-01

    The results of new experimental measurements of p16O elastic scattering in the energy range of 0.6-1.0 MeV at angles of 40°-160° are given. Phase shift analysis of p16O elastic scattering was made using these and other experimental data on differential cross sections in excitation functions and angular distributions at energies of up to 2.5 MeV. Supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (0073/PCF-IS-MES)

  18. H-He elastic scattering at low energies: Contribution of nonzero partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports the nonzero partial wave elastic cross sections together with s-wave results for the scattering of an antihydrogen atom off a gaseous helium target at thermal energies (up to 10{sup -2} a.u.). We have used a nonadiabatic atomic orbital method having different basis sets to investigate the system. The consideration of all the significant partial waves (up to J=24) reduces the oscillatory nature present in the individual partial wave cross section. The added elastic cross section is almost constant up to 10{sup -7} a.u. and then decreases steadily and very slowly with increasing energy.

  19. Potential energy surface of cyclooctatetraene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, José L.; Castaño, Obis; Morreale, Antonio; Palmeiro, Raul; Gomperts, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the cyclooctatetraene (COT) molecule. Seven COT structures are located on the singlet ground state potential energy surface. Four of them, which present D2d (tub), Cs (bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4,7-triene or BOT), C2h (chair) and D4 (crown) symmetries are stable species, and the other three are transition state structures showing Cs, D4h, and D8h symmetry. We discuss the symmetry of wave functions for these stationary points. Geometries, energies, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of these structures, and energy gaps between singlet-triplet states and low-lying singlets are presented. For the planar D4h and D8h structures, Jahn-Teller and tunneling effects have also been discussed. Ring inversion, bond shifting and valence isomerization reactive channels from the tub COT conformer are discussed from the point of view of the corresponding transition state structures. Where possible, in order to lend support to this theoretical information comparisons with recent transition state spectroscopy data are made.

  20. The scattering potential of partial derivative wavefields in 3-D elastic orthorhombic media: an inversion prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-09-01

    Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.

  1. A proof of the cancellation of the redistribution tidal potential effects on the rotation of an elastic Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baenas, Tomás; Escapa, Alberto; Ferrándiz, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun on the elastic Earth originates a redistribution of its mass. In turn, this redistribution is responsible of an additional term in the gravitational potential energy of the system, commonly referred to as tidal potential of redistribution. Its effects on the Earth rotation were previously discussed in Escapa et al. (2004) and Lambert & Mathews (2006). A numerical approach was followed in those works to show that for an elastic Earth model, assumed to be spherical and non-rotating in the undeformed state, there is no net contribution to the motion of the figure axis. This result is consistent with the corresponding one deduced from the torque approach, where one can derive analytically that the redistribution torque for that elastic Earth model vanishes (e.g., Krasinsky 1999). However, it is far from being a trivial question to recover the same result when working directly with the tidal potential of redistribution, as in Escapa et al. (2004) or Lambert & Mathews (2006). In this investigation we revisit the issue, enhancing and completing former results by Escapa et al. (2004). In particular, we aim at proving, by analytical means, that the redistribution tidal potential of the former elastic Earth model does not affect its rotational motion. To this end we expand that potential in terms of an Andoyer-like set of canonical variables, and then compute the torque associated to it. This choice was motivated by the suitability of this set of variables to extend our calculations to the nutations of other different elastic or anelastic Earth models, through the Hamiltonian framework (e.g., Ferrándiz et al. 2012). We show the exact cancellation of the derived expressions as a consequence of certain properties fulfilled by the expansions of the orbital motion of the perturbing bodies. Acknowledgement. - This work has been partially supported by the Spanish government trhough the MINECO projects I+D+I AYA201022039-C02-01, AYA

  2. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low- to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work.

  3. Effect of anchoring energy and elastic anisotropy on spherical inclusions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    James, Richard; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores how pairs of spherical particles with homeotropic (normal) surface anchoring cluster when immersed in nematic liquid crystal. By means of the Landau-de Gennes continuum theory we calculate how the equilibrium separation of a particle pair depends on the anchoring energy at the particle surface and the elastic anisotropy of the liquid crystal. We find that, for modest to strong anchoring strengths, the particle separation depends linearly on the elastic anisotropy and the inverse of the anchoring strength. Thus, the anchoring strength can be estimated by measuring the particle-pair separation.

  4. Generalized Chou-Yang Model and Meson-Proton Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Aleem, Fazal-E.; Rashid, Haris

    The various characteristics of meson-proton elastic scattering at high energies are explained by using the generalized Chou-Yang model which takes into consideration the anisotropic scattering of objects constituting pions(kaons) and protons. A new parametrization of the proton form factor consistent with the recent experimental data is proposed. It is then shown that all the data for meson-proton elastic scattering at 200 and 250 GeV/c are in agreement with theoretical computations. The physical picture of generalized Chou-Yang model which is based on multiple scattering theory is given in detail.

  5. Elastic and inelastic low-energy electron collisions with pyrazine.

    PubMed

    Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D

    2011-10-14

    We present results of ab-initio scattering calculations for electron collisions with pyrazine using the R-matrix method, carried out at various levels of approximation. We confirm the existing experimental and theoretical understanding of the three well-known π∗ shape resonances. In addition, we find numerous core-excited resonances (above 4.8 eV) and identify their most likely parent states. We also present differential cross sections, showing high sensitivity to the scattering model chosen at low energies. We make recommendations regarding the selection of models for scattering calculations with this type of targets. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  6. Elastic Scattering of Low-Energy Electrons byTetrahydrofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, Cynthia S.; Orel, Ann E.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2006-05-09

    We present the results of ab initio calculations for elasticelectron scattering by tetrahydrofuran (THF) using the complex Kohnvariational method. We carried out fixed-nuclei calculations at theequilibrium geometry of the target molecule for incident electronenergies up to 20 eV. The calculated momentum transfer cross sectionsclearly reveal the presence of broad shape resonance behavior in the 8-10eV energy range, in agreement with recent experiments. The calculateddifferential cross sections at 20 eV, which include the effects of thelong-range electron-dipole interaction, are alsofound to be in agreementwith the most recent experimental findings.

  7. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  8. A numerical modeling capability for the interplay between surface energy and elasticity in soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henann, David; Wang, Yuhao

    Surface energy is an important factor in the deformation of fluids but is typically a minimal or negligible effect in solids. However, when a solid is soft and its characteristic dimension is small, forces due to surface energy can become important and induce significant elastic deformation. The interplay between surface energy and elasticity can lead to interesting elasto-capillary phenomena. We have developed a finite-element formulation for problems involving these effects in both 2D and 3D settings and will demonstrate the simulation capability by examining two elasto-capillary problems. (1) The Rayleigh-Plateau instability in an elastic material - In a fluid, this instability causes fluid jets to break up into droplets; however, as shown in recent experiments (Mora et al., PRL, 2010), break-up is prohibited in an elastic material, resulting in a stable undulatory configuration. (2) The effect of fluid-filled droplet inclusions on a soft solid - When the matrix material is stiff, the presence of fluid-filled inclusions leads to a more compliant composite material; however, recent experiments (Style, et al., Nature Physics, 2014) have shown that when the matrix material is more compliant, the presence of droplets leads to stiffening. In this talk, we will show that our simulation capability predicts all experimentally observed phenomena and provides a straightforward route for describing nonlinear aspects of elasto-capillarity, which are difficult to address via analytics.

  9. Temperature dependence of elastic constants using thermal energy for geophysical minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Panwar, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed relationship to predict temperature dependence of elastic constants for geophysical minerals by using a formulation for volume dependence of isothermal Anderson-Grünesien parameter which is valid up to extreme compression limit P →∞ or V → 0. An alternative formulation based on thermal pressure or thermal energy has also been used for determining elastic constants as a function of temperature. The basic idea used in this study is to generalize the expression of bulk modulus for determining temperature dependence of elastic constants. The results thus obtained for MgO, CaO, Mg2SiO4 and Al2O3 from the two different methods are very close to each other and also experimental data. The good agreement reveals the validity of the formulations given in this study.

  10. Energy dissipation in heavy systems: the transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; van den Berg, A.; Kolata, J.J.; Kovar, D.G.; Kutschera, W.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Yntema, J.L.; Lee, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of medium mass projectiles (A = 28 - 64) with /sup 208/Pb has been studied using a split-pole spectrograph which allows single mass and charge identification. The reaction process in all systems studied so far is dominated by quasi-elastic neutron transfer reactions, especially at incident energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition to the quasi-elastic component deep inelastic contributions are present in all reaction channels. The good mass and charge separation allows to generate Wilczynski plots for individual channels; for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb we observe that the transition between the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic reactions occurs around Q = -(30 to 35) MeV.

  11. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  12. Incorporating elastic and plastic work rates into energy balance for long-term tectonic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, M. S.; Choi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation-related energy budget is usually considered in the simplest form or even completely omitted from the energy balance equation. We derive an energy balance equation that accounts not only for heat energy but also for elastic and plastic work. Such a general description of the energy balance principle will be useful for modeling complicated interactions between geodynamic processes such as thermoelastisity, thermoplasticity and mechanical consequences of metamorphism. Following the theory of large deformation plasticity, we start from the assumption that Gibbs free energy (g) is a function of temperature (T), the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress (S), density (ρ) and internal variables (qj, j=1…n). In this formulation, new terms are derived, which are related to the energy dissipated through plastic work and the elastically stored energy that are not seen in the usual form of the energy balance equation used in geodynamics. We then simplify the generic equation to one involving more familiar quantities such as Cauchy stress and material density assuming that the small deformation formulation holds for our applications. The simplified evolution equation for temperature is implemented in DyanEarthSol3D, an unstructured finite element solver for long-term tectonic deformation. We calculate each of the newly derived terms separately in simple settings and compare the numerical results with a corresponding analytic solution. We also present the effects of the new energy balance on the evolution of a large offset normal fault.

  13. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  14. Phenomenological optical potential analysis of proton-carbon elastic scattering at 200 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Differential cross sections for 200 MeV protons elastically scattered from C-12 were analyzed utilizing a local, complex, spin-dependent optical potential with a harmonic well radial dependence. Analyses were performed using the WKB and eikonal approximations. For the latter, first-order corrections to he phase shifts were incorporated to account for the spin-orbit contribution. Large disagreement between theory and experiment was observed when the usual Thomas form for the spin-orbit potential was utilized. Substantial improvement was obtained by allowing the parameters in the central and spin-orbit potential terms to vary independently.

  15. Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.

    2010-01-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.

  16. Comparison of stress and total energy methods for calculation of elastic properties of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Caro, M A; Schulz, S; O'Reilly, E P

    2013-01-16

    We explore the calculation of the elastic properties of zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors using two different approaches: one based on stress and the other on total energy as a function of strain. The calculations are carried out within the framework of density functional theory in the local density approximation, with the plane wave-based package VASP. We use AlN as a test system, with some results also shown for selected other materials (C, Si, GaAs and GaN). Differences are found in convergence rate between the two methods, especially in low symmetry cases, where there is a much slower convergence for total energy calculations with respect to the number of plane waves and k points used. The stress method is observed to be more robust than the total energy method with respect to the residual error in the elastic constants calculated for different strain branches in the systems studied.

  17. Investigation of the dp Breakup and dp Elastic Reactions at Intermediate Energies at Nuclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, Marian; Ladygin, Vladimir P.; Piyadin, Semen M.; Batyuk, Pavel N.; Gurchin, Yuri V.; Isupov, Alexander Yu.; Karachuk, Julia-Tatiana; Kurilkin, Alexei K.; Kurilkin, Pavel K.; Livanov, Alexei N.; Martinska, Gabriela; Merts, Sergei P.; Reznikov, Sergei G.; Tarjanyiova, Gabriela; Terekhin, Arkadyi A.; Vnukov, Igor E.

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of the deuteron spin structure project is to investigate the spin structure of nucleon-nucleon and three nucleon short-range correlations via the measurements of the polarization observables in the deuteron induced reactions at intermediate energies at Nuclotron (Dubna, Russia). In this framework, dp nonmesonic breakup and dp elastic reactions are investigated using internal target station. The dp breakup data are obtained with the detection of two outgoing protons at the angles of 19°-54° in lab. frame at the deuteron energies of 300-500 MeV. The data of dp elastic scattering for the deuteron energies up to 2000 MeV are obtained in angular range 70°-120° in cm. The further perspectives of the investigations using polarized deuteron beam as well as the studies of the {}^3{He}(d,p){}^4{He} reaction are discussed.

  18. Elastic Scattering Of {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 80}Se At Near And Above Barrier Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Barbara, E. de; Testoni, J. E.; Zalazar, L.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-08-04

    In this work we propose to study the elastic scattering of the weakly bound projectiles {sup 6,7}Li on an intermediate mass target {sup 80}Se. From the experimental results presented here, precise angular distributions at energies below, around and above the nominal Coulomb barriers of the systems were obtained. The final goal of our work is to determine the characteristic parameters of the optical potential and use them to address the question of whether the usual threshold anomaly or the breakup threshold anomaly are present or not in these systems.

  19. Energy and momentum transfer to a 'fully-clamped' elastic plate in an air-blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Tan, P. J.

    2013-07-01

    The momentum transfer by a planar wave impinging upon a rigid, free-standing plate in water, a largely incompressible medium, is well understood [1]. Kambouchev et al. [2] extended the results of Taylor [1] to include the nonlinear effects of compressibility whilst Hutchinson [3] has recently addressed the issues of energy and momentum transfer to a rigid, free-standing plate. In this paper, key conclusions from the aforementioned studies are critically re-examined in the context of a 'fully-clamped' elastic plate. The dynamic response of an elastic plate is represented by an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equations of compressible flow and conventional shock-capturing techn iques, similar to that employed in [2, 3], were employed to solve numerically the interaction between the air blast wave and elastic plate. Particular emphasis is placed on elucidating the energy and momentum transfer to a 'fully-clamped' elastic plate compared to its rigid, free-standing counterpart, and on whether enhancement in the beneficial effects of FSI as a result of fluid compressibility remains and to what extent.

  20. On granular elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  1. Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Avijit; Ray, Debasis

    2015-03-01

    The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.

  2. Validity of the relativistic impulse approximation for elastic proton-nucleus scattering at energies lower than 200 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Hillhouse, G. C.; Meng, J.

    2008-07-15

    We present the first study to examine the validity of the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) for describing elastic proton-nucleus scattering at incident laboratory kinetic energies lower than 200 MeV. For simplicity we choose a {sup 208}Pb target, which is a spin-saturated spherical nucleus for which reliable nuclear structure models exist. Microscopic scalar and vector optical potentials are generated by folding invariant scalar and vector scattering nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitudes, based on our recently developed relativistic meson-exchange model, with Lorentz scalar and vector densities resulting from the accurately calibrated PK1 relativistic mean field model of nuclear structure. It is seen that phenomenological Pauli blocking (PB) effects and density-dependent corrections to {sigma}N and {omega}N meson-nucleon coupling constants modify the RIA microscopic scalar and vector optical potentials so as to provide a consistent and quantitative description of all elastic scattering observables, namely, total reaction cross sections, differential cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation functions. In particular, the effect of PB becomes more significant at energies lower than 200 MeV, whereas phenomenological density-dependent corrections to the NN interaction also play an increasingly important role at energies lower than 100 MeV.

  3. Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Avijit Ray, Debasis

    2015-03-15

    The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.

  4. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  5. Hulthén potential models for α-α and α-He 3 elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BHOI, J.; LAHA, U.

    2017-03-01

    Simple Hulthén-type potential models are proposed to treat the α- α and α {-} {He}3 elastic scattering. The merit of our approach is examined by computing elastic scattering phases through the judicious use of the phase function method. Reasonable agreements in scattering phase shifts are obtained with the standard data.

  6. Radius exponent in elastic and rigid arterial models optimized by the least energy principle.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Awa, Shoichi

    2014-02-01

    It was analyzed in normal physiological arteries whether the least energy principle would suffice to account for the radius exponent x. The mammalian arterial system was modeled as two types, the elastic or the rigid, to which Bernoulli's and Hagen-Poiseuille's equations were applied, respectively. We minimized the total energy function E, which was defined as the sum of kinetic, pressure, metabolic and thermal energies, and loss of each per unit time in a single artery transporting viscous incompressible blood. Assuming a scaling exponent α between the vessel radius (r) and length (l) to be 1.0, x resulted in 2.33 in the elastic model. The rigid model provided a continuously changing x from 2.33 to 3.0, which corresponded to Uylings' and Murray's theories, respectively, through a function combining Reynolds number with a proportional coefficient of the l - r relationship. These results were expanded to an asymmetric arterial fractal tree with the blood flow preservation rule. While x in the optimal elastic model accounted for around 2.3 in proximal systemic (r >1 mm) and whole pulmonary arteries (r ≥0.004 mm), optimal x in the rigid model explained 2.7 in elastic-muscular (0.1 < r ≤1 mm) and 3.0 in peripheral resistive systemic arteries (0.004 ≤ r ≤0.1 mm), in agreement with data obtained from angiographic, cast-morphometric, and in vivo experimental studies in the literature. The least energy principle on the total energy basis provides an alternate concept of optimality relating to mammalian arterial fractal dimensions under α = 1.0.

  7. Electron Attachment in Low-Energy Electron Elastic Collisions with Au and Pt Atoms: Identification of Excited Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msezane, A. Z.; Eure, A.; Felfli, Z.; Sokolovski, D.

    2009-11-01

    The recent Regge-pole methodology has been benchmarked [1] on the accurately measured binding energies of the excited Ge= and Sn= anions [2] through the binding energies (BEs) extracted from the Regge-pole calculated elastic total cross sections (TCSs). Here the methodology is applied together with a Thomas-Fermi type potential that incorporates the vital core polarization interaction to investigate the possibility of forming excited Au= and Pt= anions in low-energy electron elastic collisions with Au and Pt atoms. From the positions of the characteristic extremely narrow resonances in the total cross sections, we extract the binding energies of the excited Au= and Pt= anions formed as Regge resonances during the collisions. The angular life of the complexes thus formed is used to differentiate the stable excited bound states of the anions from the shape resonances [3]. The BEs for the excited Au= and Pt= anions are found to be 0.475eVand 0.543eV, respectively, challenging both theory and experiment to verify. [1] A. Msezane et al, Phys. Rev. A, Submitted (2009) [2] M. Scheer et al, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2844 (1998) [3] Z. Felfli et al, Phys. Rev. A 79, 012714 (2009)

  8. Clutchable series-elastic actuator: design of a robotic knee prosthesis for minimum energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Elliott J; Mooney, Luke M; Martinez-Villalpando, Ernesto C; Herr, Hugh M

    2013-06-01

    The cyclic and often linear torque-angle relationship of locomotion presents the opportunity to innovate on the design of traditional series-elastic actuators (SEAs). In this paper, a novel modification to the SEA architecture was proposed by adding a clutch in parallel with the motor within the SEA--denoted as a CSEA. This addition permits bimodal dynamics where the system is characterized by an SEA when the clutch is disengaged and a passive spring when the clutch is engaged. The purpose of the parallel clutch was to provide the ability to store energy in a tuned series spring, while requiring only reactionary torque from the clutch. Thus, when the clutch is engaged, a tuned elastic relationship can be achieved with minimal electrical energy consumption. The state-based model of the CSEA is introduced and the implementation of the CSEA mechanism in a powered knee prosthesis is detailed. The series elasticity was optimized to fit the spring-like torque-angle relationship of early stance phase knee flexion and extension during level ground walking. In simulation, the CSEA knee required 70% less electrical energy than a traditional SEA. Future work will focus on the mechanical implementation of the CSEA knee and an empirical demonstration of reduced electrical energy consumption during walking.

  9. Analysis of α-12C elastic scattering at intermediate energies by the S-matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    The results of calculations of differential cross-sections for α-12C elastic scattering by the S-matrix model are presented for 10 energy values in the energy range 65MeV ≤ Eα ≤ 386MeV in a wide range of scattering angles. The behavior of various scattering characteristics as functions of the projectile energy is analyzed. It is shown that the chosen parametrization of S-matrix allows describing correctly the Fraunhofer oscillations of the cross-sections in the region of small scattering angles and the rainbow scattering pattern in the region of sufficiently large angles.

  10. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  11. Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss. Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2015-06-16

    A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.

  12. Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss. Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-06-16

    A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.

  13. Computer simulation of material behavior at the notch tip: Effect of microrotations on elastic energy release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, D. D.; Panin, S. V.; Maksimov, P. V.; Panin, V. E.; Babich, D. S.; Berto, F.

    2016-11-01

    The paper is devoted to detailed investigation of rotational deformation modes at the notch tip during shock loading. Using hybrid discrete-continuum approach of Excitable Cellular Automata the series of numerical experiments were conducted to simulate deformation behavior of ductile steel in the vicinities of U-, I- and V-notches. The detailed analysis of the force moment distribution at the notch tip allowed revealing the relationship between the rotational deformation modes at different scales. It was found that the elastic energy release is realized by means of the modulation of the magnitude and the sign of the force moment. The obtained results makes possible to optimize crystal structure for improvement of mechanical properties of the material in the way of elastic energy release by reversible microrotations.

  14. An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2008-07-15

    The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.

  15. Analysis of Dermal Elastic Fibers in the Absence of Fibulin-5 Reveals Potential Roles for Fibulin-5 in Elastic Fiber Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwon; Bergdahl, Andreas; Zheng, Qian; Starcher, Barry; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Davis, Elaine C.

    2009-01-01

    Fibulin-5 is a 66 kDa modular, extracellular matrix protein that localizes to elastic fibers. Although in vitro protein-protein binding studies have shown that fibulin-5 binds many proteins involved in elastic fiber formation, the specific role of fibulin-5 in elastogenesis remains unclear. To provide a more detailed analysis of elastic fiber assembly in the absence of fibulin-5, the dermis of wild-type and fibulin-5 gene knockout (Fbln5−/−) mice was examined with electron microscopy (EM). Although light microscopy showed apparently normal elastic fibers near the hair follicles and the absence of elastic fibers in the intervening dermis of the Fbln5−/− mouse, EM revealed the presence of aberrantly assembled elastic fibers in both locales. Instead of the elastin being incorporated into the microfibrillar scaffold, the elastin appeared as globules juxtaposed to the microfibrils. Desmosine analysis showed significantly lower levels of mature cross-linked elastin in the the Fbln5−/− dermis, however, gene expression levels for tropoelastin and fibrillin-1, the major elastic fiber components, were unaffected. Based on these results, the nature of tropoelastin cross-linking was investigated using domain specific antibodies to lysyl oxidase like-1 (LOXL-1). Immunolocalization with an antibody to the N-terminal pro-peptide, which is cleaved to generate the active enzyme, revealed abundant staining in the Fbln5−/− dermis and no staining in the wild-type dermis. Overall, these results suggest two previously unrecognized functions for fibulin-5 in elastogenesis; first, to limit the extent of aggregation of tropoelastin monomers and/or coacervates and aid in the incorporation of elastin into the microfibril bundles, and second, to potentially assist in the activation of LOXL-1. PMID:19321153

  16. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  17. Isometric immersions, energy minimization and self-similar buckling in non-Euclidean elastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, John; Sharon, Eran; Shearman, Toby; Venkataramani, Shankar C.

    2016-04-01

    The edges of torn plastic sheets and growing leaves often display hierarchical buckling patterns. We show that this complex morphology i) emerges even in zero strain configurations, and ii) is driven by a competition between the two principal curvatures, rather than between bending and stretching. We identify the key role of branch point (or “monkey saddle”) singularities in generating complex wrinkling patterns in isometric immersions, and show how they arise naturally from minimizing the elastic energy.

  18. Outstanding mechanical properties of monolayer MoS2 and its application in elastic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qing; de, Suvranu

    2014-03-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene-like honeycomb monolayer structures of MoS2(g-MoS2) under various large strains are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). g-MoS2 is mechanically stable and can sustain extra large strains: the ultimate strains are 0.24, 0.37, and 0.26 for armchair, zigzag, and biaxial deformation, respectively. The in-plane stiffness is as high as 120 N/m (184 GPa equivalently). The third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are indispensable for accurate modeling of the mechanical properties under strains larger than 0.04, 0.07, and 0.13 respectively. The second order elastic constants, including in-plane stiffness, are predicted to monotonically increase with pressure while the Poisson ratio monotonically decreases with increasing pressure. With the prominent mechanical properties including large ultimate strains and in-plane stiffness, g-MoS2 is a promising candidate of elastic energy storage for clean energy. It possesses a theoretical energy storage capacity as high as 8.8 MJ/L and 1.7 MJ/kg, or 476 Wh/kg, larger than a Li-ion battery and is environmentally friendly. Financial support from the Defence Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant # BRBAA08-C-2-0130 and.

  19. Elastic scattering of 17O+208Pb at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Strano, E.; Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Toniolo, N.; Filipescu, D.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, Y. H.; Lay, J. A.; Miyatake, H.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V.; Stroe, L.; Vitturi, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Zerva, K.

    2016-05-01

    Within the frame of the commissioning of a new experimental apparatus EXPADES we undertook the measurement of the elastic scattering angular distribution for the system 17O+208Pb at energy around the Coulomb barrier. The reaction dynamics induced by loosely bound Radioactive Ion Beams is currently being extensively studied [4]. In particular the study of the elastic scattering process allows to obtain direct information on the total reaction cross section of the exotic nuclei. In order to understand the effect of the low binding energy on the reaction mechanism it is important to compare radioactive weakly bound nuclei with stable strongly-bound nuclei. In this framework the study of the 17O+208Pb elastic scattering can be considered to be complementary to a previous measurement of the total reaction cross section for the system 17F+208Pb at energies of 86, 90.4 MeV [5, 6]. The data will be compared with those obtained for the neighboring systems 16,18O+208Pb and others available in literature.

  20. Outstanding mechanical properties of monolayer MoS2 and its application in elastic energy storage.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu

    2013-11-28

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene-like honeycomb monolayer structures of MoS2 (g-MoS2) under various large strains are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). g-MoS2 is mechanically stable and can sustain extra large strains: the ultimate strains are 0.24, 0.37, and 0.26 for armchair, zigzag, and biaxial deformation, respectively. The in-plane stiffness is as high as 120 N m(-1) (184 GPa equivalently). The third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are indispensable for accurate modeling of the mechanical properties under strains larger than 0.04, 0.07, and 0.13 respectively. The second order elastic constants, including in-plane stiffness, are predicted to monotonically increase with pressure while the Poisson ratio monotonically decreases with increasing pressure. With the prominent mechanical properties including large ultimate strains and in-plane stiffness, g-MoS2 is a promising candidate of elastic energy storage for clean energy. It possesses a theoretical energy storage capacity as high as 8.8 MJ L(-1) and 1.7 MJ kg(-1), or 476 W h kg(-1), larger than a Li-ion battery and is environmentally friendly.

  1. Folded Elastic Strip-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Human Motion Energy for Multiple Applications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yue; Wang, Bo; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Pu, Yanping; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-09-16

    A folded elastic strip-based triboelectric nanogenerator (FS-TENG) made from two folded double-layer elastic strips of Al/PET and PTFE/PET can achieve multiple functions by low frequency mechanical motion. A single FS-TENG with strip width of 3 cm and length of 27 cm can generate a maximum output current, open-circuit voltage, and peak power of 55 μA, 840 V, and 7.33 mW at deformation frequency of 4 Hz with amplitude of 2.5 cm, respectively. This FS-TENG can work as a weight sensor due to its good elasticity. An integrated generator assembled by four FS-TENGs (IFS-TENG) can harvest the energy of human motion like flapping hands and walking steps. In addition, the IFS-TENG combined with electromagnetically induced electricity can achieve a completely self-driven doorbell with flashing lights. Moreover, a box-like generator integrated by four IFS-TENGs inside can work in horizontal or random motion modes and can be improved to harvest energy in all directions. This work promotes the research of completely self-driven systems and energy harvesting of human motion for applications in our daily life.

  2. Elastic Strain Energy Storage and Neighboring Organ Assistance for Fluid Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, C. P.

    2003-11-01

    Storage of elastic strain energy by non-muscular structures such as tendons and ligaments, is a common scheme employed by jumping animals. Also, since skeletal muscle is attached to bone, mechanical advantage is obtained, allowing a burst of power that is unobtainable by muscle contraction alone. This is important at launch since force may be applied for only the brief period when the legs are in contact with the ground. Liquid propelling structures such as the urinary bladder and the heart face the similar problem of being able to impart force to the content only as long as the wall is in a stretched state. Using data from videocystometry and cardiac catheterisation we show that the means employed to achieve liquid propulsion appears to involve a combination of isometric contraction (contraction against a closed sphincter or valve) with hyperelastic stretch of the wall, elastic strain energy storage by the wall, overshoot past the undistended state and neighboring organ assistance (NOA). Thus, the heart, a partially collapsible thick muscular shell without the benefit of NOA manages an ejection fraction of about 70%. Using all of the above means, the collapsible urinary bladder is able to nearly always empty. Elastic strain energy storage and NOA appear to be important strategies for liquid propulsion employed by hollow viscera.

  3. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  4. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.

  5. Microscopic study on proton elastic scattering of helium and lithium isotopes at energy range up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.; Maridi, H. M.

    2014-03-01

    The proton elastic scattering data on 4,6,8 He and 6,7,9,11Li nuclei at energies below 160 MeV/nucleon are analyzed using the optical model. The optical potential (OP) is taken microscopically, with few and limited fitting parameters, using the single folding model for the real part and high-energy approximation (HEA) for the imaginary one. Clear dependencies of the volume integrals on energy and rms radii are obtained from the results. The calculated differential and the reaction cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In general, this OP with few and limited fitting parameters, which have a systematic behavior with incident energy and matter radii, successfully describes the proton elastic scattering data with stable and exotic light nuclei at energies up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

  6. Microscopic positive-energy potential based on the Gogny interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchon, G.; Dupuis, M.; Arellano, H. F.; Vinh Mau, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present a nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the random-phase approximation. For the first time, the finite-range Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, nonlocal, and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross sections. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schrödinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from 40Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to a much-too-high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. This work opens the way to simultaneously assess effective interactions suitable for both nuclear structure and reactions.

  7. Guide for Conducting Energy Efficiency Potential Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide for Conducting Energy Efficiency Potential Studies is provided to assist state officials, regulators, legislators, and others in implementing the recommendations of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency.

  8. Controlled elastic postbuckling of bilaterally constrained non-prismatic columns: application to enhanced quasi-static energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suihan; Burgueño, Rigoberto

    2016-12-01

    Axially compressed bilaterally constrained columns, which can attain multiple snap-through buckling events in their elastic postbuckling response, can be used as energy concentrators and mechanical triggers to transform external quasi-static displacement input to local high-rate motions and excite vibration-based piezoelectric transducers for energy harvesting devices. However, the buckling location with highest kinetic energy release along the element, and where piezoelectric oscillators should be optimally placed, cannot be controlled or isolated due to the changing buckling configurations. This paper proposes the concept of stiffness variations along the column to gain control of the buckling location for optimal placement of piezoelectric transducers. Prototyped non-prismatic columns with piece-wise varying thickness were fabricated through 3D printing for experimental characterization and numerical simulations were conducted using the finite element method. A simple theoretical model was also developed based on the stationary potential energy principle for predicting the critical line contact segment that triggers snap-through events and the buckling morphologies as compression proceeds. Results confirm that non-prismatic column designs allow control of the buckling location in the elastic postbuckling regime. Compared to prismatic columns, non-prismatic designs can attain a concentrated kinetic energy release spot and a higher number of snap-buckling mode transitions under the same global strain. The direct relation between the column’s dynamic response and the output voltage from piezoelectric oscillator transducers allows the tailorable postbuckling response of non-prismatic columns to be used as multi-stable energy concentrators with enhanced performance in micro-energy harvesters.

  9. Low-energy elastic electron scattering from chloromethane, CH3Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, C.; Sakaamini, A.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2015-10-01

    We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloromethane, CH3Cl, also known as methyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles from {5}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to earlier previous results for this molecule.

  10. Low-energy elastic electron scattering form chloroethane, C2H5Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaamini, A.; Navarro, C.; Cross, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Fedus, Kamil; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2015-10-01

    We report theoretical as well as (normalized) experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from chloroethane, C2H5Cl, also known as ethyl chloride. The theoretical cross sections were computed using the Schwinger multichannel variational method in the single-channel approximation, with polarization effects included via virtual excitations. Cross section measurements were made at incident energies ranging from 1 to 30 eV and at scattering angles from {10}\\circ to {125}\\circ . We compare our data to previous results for C2H5Cl and for the related molecule chloromethane.

  11. A new measurement of the overlineνee - elastic cross section at very low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsler, C.; Avenier, M.; Broggini, C.; Busto, J.; Cerna, C.; Daraktchieva, Z.; Gervasio, G.; Jeanneret, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Koang, D. H.; Lamblin, J.; Lebrun, D.; Link, O.; Ould-Saada, F.; Puglierin, G.; Stutz, A.; Tadsen, A.; Vuilleumier, J. L.

    2002-10-01

    We have built a low background detector, a time projection chamber surrounded by an active anti-Compton, to measure the overlineνee - elastic cross section down to the antineutrino energy of 900 keV. With our detector, running at 18 m from the core of a nuclear reactor in Bugey, we could detect reactor antineutrinos by measuring both the energy and the direction of the recoiling electrons. We report here on a first analysis of the data using an automatic scanning procedure. The results we obtain are 1.5 σ higher than the ones predicted by the standard model.

  12. Elastic scattering for the system {sup 6}Li+p at near barrier energies with MAGNEX

    SciTech Connect

    Soukeras, V.; Pakou, A.; Sgouros, O.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M.; Nicolosi, D.; Acosta, L.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Alamanos, N.; De Napoli, M.; Foti, A.; and others

    2015-02-24

    Elastic scattering measurements have been performed for the {sup 6}Li+p system in inverse kinematics at the energies of 16, 20, 25 and 29 MeV. The heavy ejectile was detected by the large acceptance MAGNEX spectrometer at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) in Catania, in the angular range between ∼2{sup 0} and 12{sup 0} in the laboratory system, giving us the possibility to span almost a full angular range in the center of mass system. Results will be presented and discussed for one of the energies.

  13. Equivalence of a tip bremsstrahlung quantum and an elastically scattered electron at ultrahigh energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.

    2012-04-01

    In the scattering of relativistic spin-polarized electrons from point nuclei, two types of polarization correlations are compared: those of a left- or right-circular bremsstrahlung photon at the short-wavelength limit (when the outgoing electron is not observed) and those of an elastically scattered, left- or right-handed electron. Bremsstrahlung is calculated from the Dirac-Sommerfeld-Maue model, and elastic electron scattering is obtained from a partial-wave analysis. By considering a gold target and electron energies Ei up to 20 MeV, a striking similarity of the respective polarization correlations is found to develop when the collision energy is increased beyond 5 MeV. From analytical Born results for light targets it is shown that only for a longitudinally spin-polarized electron do the respective polarization correlations agree in the limit Ei→∞. In the general case, a very high nuclear charge is needed in addition, leading to a sum rule for bremsstrahlung well known from elastic electron scattering.

  14. Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping.

    PubMed

    Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J

    2012-06-23

    Anuran jumping is one of the most powerful accelerations in vertebrate locomotion. Several species are hypothesized to use a catapult-like mechanism to store and rapidly release elastic energy, producing power outputs far beyond the capability of muscle. Most evidence for this mechanism comes from measurements of whole-body power output; the decoupling of joint motion and muscle shortening expected in a catapult-like mechanism has not been demonstrated. We used high-speed marker-based biplanar X-ray cinefluoroscopy to quantify plantaris muscle fascicle strain and ankle joint motion in frogs in order to test for two hallmarks of a catapult mechanism: (i) shortening of fascicles prior to joint movement (during tendon stretch), and (ii) rapid joint movement during the jump without rapid muscle-shortening (during tendon recoil). During all jumps, muscle fascicles shortened by an average of 7.8 per cent (54% of total strain) prior to joint movement, stretching the tendon. The subsequent period of initial joint movement and high joint angular acceleration occurred with minimal muscle fascicle length change, consistent with the recoil of the elastic tendon. These data support the plantaris longus tendon as a site of elastic energy storage during frog jumping, and demonstrate that catapult mechanisms may be employed even in sub-maximal jumps.

  15. Temperature dependence of lysozyme hydration and the role of elastic energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jing; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan; Wu, Yue

    2011-03-01

    Water plays a critical role in protein dynamics and functions. However, the most basic property of hydration--the water sorption isotherm--remains inadequately understood. Surface adsorption is the commonly adopted picture of hydration. Since it does not account for changes in the conformational entropy of proteins, it is difficult to explain why protein dynamics and activity change upon hydration. The solution picture of hydration provides an alternative approach to describe the thermodynamics of hydration. Here, the flexibility of proteins could influence the hydration level through the change of elastic energy upon hydration. Using nuclear magnetic resonance to measure the isotherms of lysozyme in situ between 18 and 2 °C, the present work provides evidence that the part of water uptake associated with the onset of protein function is significantly reduced below 8 °C. Quantitative analysis shows that such reduction is directly related to the reduction of protein flexibility and enhanced cost in elastic energy upon hydration at lower temperature. The elastic property derived from the water isotherm agrees with direct mechanical measurements, providing independent support for the solution model. This result also implies that water adsorption at charged and polar groups occurring at low vapor pressure, which is known for softening the protein, is crucial for the later stage of water uptake, leading to the activation of protein dynamics. The present work sheds light on the mutual influence of protein flexibility and hydration, providing the basis for understanding the role of hydration on protein dynamics.

  16. Contribution to the theory of tidal oscillations of an elastic earth. External tidal potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1974-01-01

    The differential equations of the tidal oscillations of the earth were established under the assumption that the interior of the earth is laterally inhomogeneous. The theory was developed using vectorial and dyadic symbolism to shorten the exposition and to reduce the differential equations to a symmetric form convenient for programming and for numerical integration. The formation of tidal buldges on the surfaces of discontinuity and the changes in the internal density produce small periodic variations in the exterior geopotential which are reflected in the motion of artificial satellites. The analoques of Love elastic parameters in the expansion of exterior tidal potential reflect the asymmetric and inhomogeneous structure of the interior of the earth.

  17. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  18. Numerical simulations for width fluctuations in compound elastic and inelastic scattering at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick

    2012-09-18

    The statistical theories - the Hauser-Feshbach model with the width fluctuation correction - play a central role in studying nuclear reactions in the fast energy region, hence the statistical model codes are essential for the nuclear data evaluations nowadays. In this paper, we revisit issues regarding the statistical model calculations in the fast energy range, such as the inclusion of the direct channels, and the energy averaged cross sections using different statistical assumptions. Although they have been discussed for a long time, we need more precise quantitative investigations to understand uncertainties coming from the models deficiencies in the fast energy range. For example, the partition of compound formation cross section into the elastic and inelastic channels depends on the elastic enhancement factor calculated from the statistical models. In addition, unitarity of S-matrix constrains this partition when the direct reactions are involved. Practically some simple assumptions, which many nuclear reaction model codes adopt, may work reasonably for the nuclear data evaluations. However, the uncertainties on the evaluated cross sections cannot go lower than the model uncertainty itself. We perform numerical simulations by generating the resonances using the R-matrix theory, and compare the energy (ensemble) averaged cross sections with the statistical theories, such as the theories of Moldauer, HRTW (Hofmann, Richert, Tepel, and Weidenmueller), KKM (Kawai-Kerman-McVoy), and GOE (Gaussian orthogonal ensemble).

  19. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  20. Radius exponent in elastic and rigid arterial models optimized by the least energy principle

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Awa, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It was analyzed in normal physiological arteries whether the least energy principle would suffice to account for the radius exponent x. The mammalian arterial system was modeled as two types, the elastic or the rigid, to which Bernoulli's and Hagen‐Poiseuille's equations were applied, respectively. We minimized the total energy function E, which was defined as the sum of kinetic, pressure, metabolic and thermal energies, and loss of each per unit time in a single artery transporting viscous incompressible blood. Assuming a scaling exponent α between the vessel radius (r) and length (l) to be 1.0, x resulted in 2.33 in the elastic model. The rigid model provided a continuously changing x from 2.33 to 3.0, which corresponded to Uylings’ and Murray's theories, respectively, through a function combining Reynolds number with a proportional coefficient of the l − r relationship. These results were expanded to an asymmetric arterial fractal tree with the blood flow preservation rule. While x in the optimal elastic model accounted for around 2.3 in proximal systemic (r >1 mm) and whole pulmonary arteries (r ≥0.004 mm), optimal x in the rigid model explained 2.7 in elastic‐muscular (0.1 < r ≤1 mm) and 3.0 in peripheral resistive systemic arteries (0.004 ≤ r ≤0.1 mm), in agreement with data obtained from angiographic, cast‐morphometric, and in vivo experimental studies in the literature. The least energy principle on the total energy basis provides an alternate concept of optimality relating to mammalian arterial fractal dimensions under α = 1.0. PMID:24744905

  1. Low-energy photodetachment of Ga- and elastic electron scattering from neutral Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kedong; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the photodetachment of the negative gallium ion and elastic electron scattering from neutral Ga for photon and electron energies ranging from threshold to 12 eV. The calculations are carried out with the B -spline R -matrix method. A multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal term-dependent orbitals is employed to generate accurate initial- and final-state wave functions. The close-coupling expansions include the 4 s 24 p n l (k l ) bound and continuum states of Ga and the 4 s -excited autoionizing states 4 s 4 p2 . The calculated photodetachment and elastic cross sections exhibit prominent resonance features. In order to clarify the origin of these resonances, the contributions of the major ionization channels to the partial cross sections are analyzed in detail.

  2. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Multiscale design of coarse-grained elastic network-based potentials for the μ opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Fossépré, Mathieu; Leherte, Laurence; Laaksonen, Aatto; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this sense, CG force fields (FF) consist of a set of holonomic constraints guided by an elastic network model (ENM). Even though ENMs are used widely to perform normal mode analysis (NMA), they are not often implemented as a single FF in the context of MD simulations. In this work, various ENM-like potentials were investigated by varying their force constant schemes and connectivity patterns. A method was established to systematically parameterize ENM-like potentials at different spatial resolutions by using AA data. To do so, new descriptors were introduced. The choice of conformation descriptors that also include flexibility information is important for a reliable parameterization of ENMs with different degrees of sensitivity. Hence, ENM-like potentials, with specific parameters, can be sufficient to accurately reproduce AA MD simulations of μOR at highly coarse-grained resolutions. Therefore, the essence of the flexibility properties of μOR can be captured with simple models at different CG spatial resolutions, opening the way to mechanical approaches to understanding GPCR functions. Graphical Abstract All atom structure, residue interaction network and coarse-grained elastic network models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR).

  4. Price and income elasticities of energy demand: Some estimates for Kuwait using two econometric models

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.; Eltony, M.N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper estimates the demand for energy in Kuwait for the period 1965-1989 using two econometric models: a cointegration and error correction model (ECM) and a simultaneous-equation model (SEM). The results obtained from both models are similar. It is found that the energy demand is inelastic with respect to price in the short and long run, and while it is elastic in the long run, the energy demand is inelastic with respect to income in the short run. Both models` validation shows that the ECM performed better in replicating the past than the simultaneous model, suggesting the need to use the ECM to identify future prospects for energy demand in Kuwait.

  5. Dirac bubble potential for He-He and inadequacies in the continuum: Comparing an analytic model with elastic collision experiments.

    PubMed

    Chrysos, Michael

    2017-01-14

    We focus on the long-pending issue of the inadequacy of the Dirac bubble potential model in the description of He-He interactions in the continuum [L. L. Lohr and S. M. Blinder, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 53, 413 (1995)]. We attribute this failure to the lack of a potential wall to mimic the onset of the repulsive interaction at close range separations. This observation offers the explanation to why this excessively simple model proves incapable of quantitatively reproducing previous experimental findings of glory scattering in He-He, although being notorious for its capability of reproducing several distinctive features of the atomic and isotopic helium dimers and trimers [L. L. Lohr and S. M. Blinder, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 90, 419 (2002)]. Here, we show that an infinitely high, energy-dependent potential wall of properly calculated thickness rc(E) taken as a supplement to the Dirac bubble potential suffices for agreement with variable-energy elastic collision cross section experiments for (4)He-(4)He, (3)He-(4)He, and (3)He-(3)He [R. Feltgen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2360 (1982)]. In the very low energy regime, consistency is found between the Dirac bubble potential (to which our extended model is shown to reduce) and cold collision experiments [J. C. Mester et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1343 (1993)]; this consistency, which in this regime lends credence to the Dirac bubble potential, was never noticed by its authors. The revised model being still analytic is of high didactical value while expected to increase in predictive power relative to other appraisals.

  6. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.

    2005-09-28

    This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.

  7. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  8. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  9. Measurement of the elastic, total and diffraction cross sections at tevatron energies

    SciTech Connect

    Belforte, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    The CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}{sub sd}/dM{sup 2}dt and the total inelastic cross section for antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies {radical}s = 546 and 1,800 GeV. Data for this measurement have been collected in short dedicated runs during the 1988--1989 data taking period of CDF. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28 {+-} 0.58 (16.98 {+-} 0.25) GeV{sup {minus}2} at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method (1 + {rho}{sup 2}){sigma}{sub T} is measured to be 62.64 {+-} 0.95 (81.83 {+-} 2.29) mb at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV. Assuming {rho} = 0.15 the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections are {sigma}{sub el} = 12.87 {+-} 0.30, {sigma}{sub T} = 61.26 {+-} 0.93 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 7.89 {+-} 0.33 mb ({sigma}{sub el} = 19.70 {+-} 0.85, {sigma}{sub T} = 80.03 {+-} 2.24 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 9.46 {+-} 0.44 mb) at {radical}s = 546 (1,800) GeV.

  10. Measurement of the elastic, total and single diffraction cross sections at Tevatron energies

    SciTech Connect

    Belforte, S.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-11-01

    CDF collaboration has measured the differential elastic cross section d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, the single diffraction dissociation double differential cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}{sub sd}/dM{sup 2}dt and the total inelastic cross section in antiproton-proton collisions at center of mass energies {radical}s=546 and 1800 GeV. The elastic scattering slope is 15.28{plus_minus}0.58 (16.98{plus_minus}0.25) GeV{sup {minus}2} at {radical}s = 546 (1800) GeV. Using the luminosity independent method, (1 + {rho}{sup 2}){sigma}{sub T} is measured to be 62.64{plus_minus}0.95 (81.83{plus_minus}2.29) mb at {radical}s = 546 (1800) GeV. Assuming {rho} = 0.15, the elastic, total and signal diffraction cross sections are {sigma}{sub el} = 12.87{plus_minus}0.30, {sigma}{sub T} = 61.26{plus_minus}0.93 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 7.89{plus_minus}0.33 mb ({sigma}{sub el} = 19.70{plus_minus}0.85, {sigma}{sub T} = 80.03{plus_minus}2.24 and {sigma}{sub sd} = 9.46{plus_minus}0.44 mb) at 546 (1800) GeV.

  11. Investigation of the elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles from 13C in the energy range 26.6-65MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtebayev, N.; Sakhiyev, S. K.; Janseitov, D. M.; Kerimkulov, Zh.; Alimov, D.; Danilov, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the differential cross-sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles on 13C target at the isochronous cyclotron U-150 M INP Republic of Kazakhstan. The beam energies of α-particles were 29MeV and 50MeV. As a result of research we obtained new experimental data for the α + 13C elastic scattering and inelastic one leading to the 3.68 (3/2-), 6.86 (5/2+) and 7.5 (5/2-)MeV excited states of 13C nucleus. The experimental results on elastic scattering were analyzed within the framework of the optical model using Woods-Saxon potential and the double folding one. The theoretical calculations for the concerned excited states were performed using the coupled channel (CC) method. The optimal deformation parameters for the excited states of 13C nucleus were extracted.

  12. The capacity of the human iliotibial band to store elastic energy during running.

    PubMed

    Eng, Carolyn M; Arnold, Allison S; Lieberman, Daniel E; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-09-18

    The human iliotibial band (ITB) is a poorly understood fascial structure that may contribute to energy savings during locomotion. This study evaluated the capacity of the ITB to store and release elastic energy during running, at speeds ranging from 2-5m/s, using a model that characterizes the three-dimensional musculoskeletal geometry of the human lower limb and the force-length properties of the ITB, tensor fascia lata (TFL), and gluteus maximus (GMax). The model was based on detailed analyses of muscle architecture, dissections of 3-D anatomy, and measurements of the muscles' moment arms about the hip and knee in five cadaveric specimens. The model was used, in combination with measured joint kinematics and published EMG recordings, to estimate the forces and corresponding strains in the ITB during running. We found that forces generated by TFL and GMax during running stretch the ITB substantially, resulting in energy storage. Anterior and posterior regions of the ITB muscle-tendon units (MTUs) show distinct length change patterns, in part due to different moment arms at the hip and knee. The posterior ITB MTU likely stores more energy than the anterior ITB MTU because it transmits larger muscle forces. We estimate that the ITB stores about 1J of energy per stride during slow running and 7J during fast running, which represents approximately 14% of the energy stored in the Achilles tendon at a comparable speed. This previously unrecognized mechanism for storing elastic energy may be an adaptation to increase human locomotor economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy resolution and dynamical heterogeneity effects on elastic incoherent neutron scattering from molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torsten; Smith, Jeremy C

    2003-02-01

    Incoherent neutron scattering is widely used to probe picosecond-nanosecond time scale dynamics of molecular systems. In systems of spatially confined atoms the relatively high intensity of elastic incoherent neutron scattering is often used to obtain a first estimate of the dynamics present. For many complex systems, however, experimental elastic scattering is difficult to interpret unambiguously using analytical dynamical models that go beyond the determination of an average mean-square displacement. To circumvent this problem a description of the scattering is derived here that encompasses a variety of analytical models in a common framework. The framework describes the time-converged part of the dynamic structure factor [the elastic incoherent scattering function (EISF)] and lends itself to practical use by explicitly incorporating effects due to the finite energy resolution of the instrument used. The dependence of the elastic scattering on wave vector is examined, and it is shown how heterogeneity in the distribution of mean-square displacements can be related to deviations of the scattering from Gaussian behavior. In this case, a correction to fourth order in the scattering vector can be used to extract the variance of the distribution of mean-square displacements. The formalism is used in a discussion of measurements on dynamics accompanying the glass transition in molecular systems. By fitting to experimental data obtained on a protein solution the present methodology is used to show how the existence of a temperature-dependent relaxation frequency can lead to a transition in the measured mean-square displacement in the absence of an EISF change.

  14. Total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections for positron-methane (helium) collisions at low, intermediate, and high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ashok

    1987-06-01

    Theoretical calculations on the total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections σt for positron (e+)-methane collisions are reported at 2-600 eV. We evaluate a complex optical potential (COP) for the e+-CH4 system and treat it exactly in a partial-wave analysis to obtain the S matrix. The real part is composed of an accurate repulsive static potential plus a parameter-free attractive correlation polarization potential. The imaginary part of the COP, Vabs(r), is derived semiempirically in order to reproduce the sharp rise in σt just above the positronium-formation threshold (EPs). This form of Vabs is a function of target charge density, static plus polarization potential, local kinetic energy of the projectile, Fermi momentum, and the mean excitation energy of the system. Our final e+-CH4 σt compare very well with measurements in the EPs-600-eV region. Below EPs, the present results are in good accord with close-coupling calculations of Jain and Thompson and the measurements of Charlton and co-workers. We also test this absorption potential for the e+-He system and find qualitative agreement with measurements. It is also possible from this model to extract approximate values of the Ps-formation cross sections in the ore gap.

  15. Effect of the gel elasticity of model skin matrices on the distance/depth-dependent transmission of vibration energy supplied from a cosmetic vibrator.

    PubMed

    Jeong, M K; Hwang, C; Nam, H; Cho, Y S; Kang, B Y; Cho, E C

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the energies supplied from a cosmetic vibrator are deeply or far transferred into organs and tissues, and how these depths or distances are influenced by tissue elasticity. External vibration energy was applied to model skin surfaces through a facial cleansing vibrator, and we measured a distance- and depth-dependent energy that was transferred to model skin matrices. As model skin matrices, we synthesized hard and soft poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) gels, as well as hydrogels with a modulus of 2.63 MPa, 0.33 MPa and 21 kPa, respectively, mostly representing those of skin and other organs. The transfer of vibration energy was measured either by increasing the separation distances or by increasing the depth from the vibrator. The energies were transmitted deeper into the hard PDMS than into the soft PDMS and hydrogel matrices. This finding implies that the vibration forces influence a larger area of the gel matrices when the gels are more elastic (or rigid). There were no appreciable differences between the soft PDMS and hydrogel matrices. However, the absorbed energies were more concentrated in the area closest to the vibrator with decreasing elasticity of the matrix. Softer materials absorbed most of the supplied energy around the point of the vibrator. In contrast, harder materials scattered the external energy over a broad area. The current results are the first report in estimating how the external energy is deeply or distantly transferred into a model skins depending on the elastic moduli of the models skins. In doing so, the results would be potentially useful in predicting the health of cells, tissues and organs exposed to various stimuli. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos in low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2017-03-01

    A thorough account of electromagnetic interactions of massive neutrinos in the theoretical formulation of low-energy elastic neutrino-electron scattering is given. The formalism of neutrino charge, magnetic, electric, and anapole form factors defined as matrices in the mass basis is employed under the assumption of three-neutrino mixing. The flavor change of neutrinos traveling from the source to the detector is taken into account and the role of the source-detector distance is inspected. The effects of neutrino flavor-transition millicharges and charge radii in the scattering experiments are pointed out.

  17. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhumagulova, K. N. Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.

    2015-08-15

    Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer–Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.

  18. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons in partially ionized dense semiclassical plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Shalenov, E. O.; Ramazanov, T. S.

    2015-08-01

    Elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a dense semiclassical hydrogen plasma for low impact energies has been studied. Differential scattering cross sections were calculated within the effective model of electron-atom interaction taking into account the effect of screening as well as the quantum mechanical effect of diffraction. The calculations were carried out on the basis of the phase-function method. The influence of the diffraction effect on the Ramsauer-Townsend effect was studied on the basis of a comparison with results made within the effective polarization model of the Buckingham type.

  19. Parallel elastic elements improve energy efficiency on the STEPPR bipedal walking robot

    DOE PAGES

    Mazumdar, Anirban; Spencer, Steven J.; Hobart, Clinton; ...

    2016-11-23

    This study describes how parallel elastic elements can be used to reduce energy consumption in the electric motor driven, fully-actuated, STEPPR bipedal walking robot without compromising or significantly limiting locomotive behaviors. A physically motivated approach is used to illustrate how selectively-engaging springs for hip adduction and ankle flexion predict benefits for three different flat ground walking gaits: human walking, human-like robot walking and crouched robot walking. Based on locomotion data, springs are designed and substantial reductions in power consumption are demonstrated using a bench dynamometer. These lessons are then applied to STEPPR (Sandia Transmission-Efficient Prototype Promoting Research), a fully actuatedmore » bipedal robot designed to explore the impact of tailored joint mechanisms on walking efficiency. Featuring high-torque brushless DC motors, efficient low-ratio transmissions, and high fidelity torque control, STEPPR provides the ability to incorporate novel joint-level mechanisms without dramatically altering high level control. Unique parallel elastic designs are incorporated into STEPPR, and walking data shows that hip adduction and ankle flexion springs significantly reduce the required actuator energy at those joints for several gaits. These results suggest that parallel joint springs offer a promising means of supporting quasi-static joint torques due to body mass during walking, relieving motors of the need to support these torques and substantially improving locomotive energy efficiency.« less

  20. Phononic crystal Luneburg lens for omnidirectional elastic wave focusing and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tol, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Erturk, A.

    2017-07-01

    We explore a phononic crystal Luneburg lens through design, fabrication, and analysis for omnidirectional elastic wave focusing and enhanced energy harvesting both numerically and experimentally. The proposed lens is formed using hexagonal unit cells with blind holes of different diameters, which are determined according to the Luneburg lens refractive index distribution obtained by finite-element simulations of the lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave band structure. Wave simulations are performed numerically under plane wave excitation from a line source, and focusing is observed at the opposite border of the lens with respect to the incident wave direction. Numerically simulated elastic wave focusing results are validated through a set of experiments. Omnidirectionality is demonstrated by testing the lens under plane wave excitation for different angles of incidence. With piezoelectric energy harvesters located at the boundary of the phononic crystal Luneburg lens, more than an order of magnitude larger power output can be extracted as compared to the baseline case of energy harvesting without the lens under the same plane wave excitation.

  1. Parallel elastic elements improve energy efficiency on the STEPPR bipedal walking robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumdar, Anirban; Spencer, Steven J.; Hobart, Clinton; Salton, Jonathan; Quigley, Morgan; Wu, Tingfan; Bertrand, Sylvain; Pratt, Jerry; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2016-11-23

    This study describes how parallel elastic elements can be used to reduce energy consumption in the electric motor driven, fully-actuated, STEPPR bipedal walking robot without compromising or significantly limiting locomotive behaviors. A physically motivated approach is used to illustrate how selectively-engaging springs for hip adduction and ankle flexion predict benefits for three different flat ground walking gaits: human walking, human-like robot walking and crouched robot walking. Based on locomotion data, springs are designed and substantial reductions in power consumption are demonstrated using a bench dynamometer. These lessons are then applied to STEPPR (Sandia Transmission-Efficient Prototype Promoting Research), a fully actuated bipedal robot designed to explore the impact of tailored joint mechanisms on walking efficiency. Featuring high-torque brushless DC motors, efficient low-ratio transmissions, and high fidelity torque control, STEPPR provides the ability to incorporate novel joint-level mechanisms without dramatically altering high level control. Unique parallel elastic designs are incorporated into STEPPR, and walking data shows that hip adduction and ankle flexion springs significantly reduce the required actuator energy at those joints for several gaits. These results suggest that parallel joint springs offer a promising means of supporting quasi-static joint torques due to body mass during walking, relieving motors of the need to support these torques and substantially improving locomotive energy efficiency.

  2. Shear effects on energy dissipation from an elastic beam on a rigid foundation

    DOE PAGES

    Brink, Adam Ray; Quinn, D. Dane

    2015-10-20

    This paper describes the energy dissipation arising from microslip for an elastic shell incorporating shear and longitudinal deformation resting on a rough-rigid foundation. This phenomenon is investigated using finite element (FE) analysis and nonlinear geometrically exact shell theory. Both approaches illustrate the effect of shear within the shell and observe a reduction in the energy dissipated from microslip as compared to a similar system neglecting shear deformation. In particular, it is found that the shear deformation allows for load to be transmitted beyond the region of slip so that the entire interface contributes to the load carrying capability of themore » shell. The energy dissipation resulting from the shell model is shown to agree well with that arising from the FE model, and this representation can be used as a basis for reduced order models that capture the microslip phenomenon.« less

  3. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: Finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-01-09

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with a serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, then C2-NEB finds it too. Improved stability of C2-NEB makes it suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS, but guarantees, by construction, that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP. In addition, C2-NEB provides an accuracy estimate from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB.

  4. Nudged-elastic band method with two climbing images: Finding transition states in complex energy landscapes

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-01-09

    The nudged-elastic band (NEB) method is modified with concomitant two climbing images (C2-NEB) to find a transition state (TS) in complex energy landscapes, such as those with a serpentine minimal energy path (MEP). If a single climbing image (C1-NEB) successfully finds the TS, then C2-NEB finds it too. Improved stability of C2-NEB makes it suitable for more complex cases, where C1-NEB misses the TS because the MEP and NEB directions near the saddle point are different. Generally, C2-NEB not only finds the TS, but guarantees, by construction, that the climbing images approach it from the opposite sides along the MEP.more » In addition, C2-NEB provides an accuracy estimate from the three images: the highest-energy one and its climbing neighbors. C2-NEB is suitable for fixed-cell NEB and the generalized solid-state NEB.« less

  5. Nudged-elastic band used to find reaction coordinates based on the free energy.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Matthias U; Zeman, Johannes; Smiatek, Jens; Arnold, Axel; Kästner, Johannes

    2014-02-21

    Transition paths characterize chemical reaction mechanisms. In this paper, we present a new method to find mean reaction paths based on the free energy. A nudged elastic band (NEB) is optimized using gradients and Hessians of the free energy, which are obtained from umbrella integration. The transition state can be refined by a Newton-Raphson search starting from the highest point of the NEB path. All optimizations are done using Cartesian coordinates. Independent molecular dynamics (MD) runs are performed at each image used to discretize the path. This makes the method intrinsically parallel. In contrast to other free energy methods, the algorithm does not become more expensive when including more degrees of freedom in the active space. The method is applied to the alanine-dipeptide as a test case and compared to pathways that have been derived from metadynamics and forward flux sampling.

  6. Shear effects on energy dissipation from an elastic beam on a rigid foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Adam Ray; Quinn, D. Dane

    2015-10-20

    This paper describes the energy dissipation arising from microslip for an elastic shell incorporating shear and longitudinal deformation resting on a rough-rigid foundation. This phenomenon is investigated using finite element (FE) analysis and nonlinear geometrically exact shell theory. Both approaches illustrate the effect of shear within the shell and observe a reduction in the energy dissipated from microslip as compared to a similar system neglecting shear deformation. In particular, it is found that the shear deformation allows for load to be transmitted beyond the region of slip so that the entire interface contributes to the load carrying capability of the shell. The energy dissipation resulting from the shell model is shown to agree well with that arising from the FE model, and this representation can be used as a basis for reduced order models that capture the microslip phenomenon.

  7. Gradient-index phononic crystal lens-based enhancement of elastic wave energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tol, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Erturk, A.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the enhancement of structure-borne elastic wave energy harvesting, both numerically and experimentally, by exploiting a Gradient-Index Phononic Crystal Lens (GRIN-PCL) structure. The proposed GRIN-PCL is formed by an array of blind holes with different diameters on an aluminum plate, where the blind hole distribution is tailored to obtain a hyperbolic secant gradient profile of refractive index guided by finite-element simulations of the lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave band diagrams. Under plane wave excitation from a line source, experimentally measured wave field validates the numerical simulation of wave focusing within the GRIN-PCL domain. A piezoelectric energy harvester disk located at the first focus of the GRIN-PCL yields an order of magnitude larger power output as compared to the baseline case of energy harvesting without the GRIN-PCL on the uniform plate counterpart.

  8. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  9. Analysis of Elastic Scattering of 8He+208Pb System at around the Coulomb Barrier Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direkci, M.; Kucuk, Y.; Boztosun, I.

    2015-04-01

    The elastic scattering angular distribution of 8He+208Pb system is investigated at Elab = 22.0 MeV within the framework of Optical Model by using phenomenological and microscopic potentials. For the phenomenological Optical Model calculations, both real and imaginary parts of the complex nuclear potential have been chosen to have the Wood-Saxon shape. In the microscopic Optical Model calculations, we have used double folding procedure to calculate the real part of optical potential for different kinds of density distributions of 8He. A comparative study of this system has been conducted for the fist time by using phenomenological and microscopic potentials. It is observed that large imaginary radius value due to the existence of long-range absorption mechanism acting at large distances provides a very good agreement between theoretical results and experimental data with small χ2/N values.

  10. Energy-loss of He ions in carbon allotropes studied by elastic resonance in backscattering spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaki, Mitsuo; Rauhala, Eero

    2015-10-01

    Backscattering spectra for 4He ions incident on carbon allotropes have been measured in the energy range from 4.30 to 4.95 MeV in steps of 50-100 keV at scattering angles of 106° and 170°. We used three carbon allotropes: graphite, diamond and amorphous carbon. For all these allotropes, we can observe the sharp (4He, 12C) elastic nuclear resonance at the He ion energy of 4.265 MeV in the backscattering spectra. By varying the incident He energy, we have systematically analyzed the profiles of the resonance peaks to study the energy-loss processes: stopping cross-sections and energy-loss straggling around the interesting region of the stopping maximum at about 500 keV. We focus on the resonance profiles and investigate an allotropic effect concerning the energy-loss. Furthermore, an energy bunching effect on the straggling is presented and the mechanism is discussed.

  11. Elastic Energy Storage and Radial Forces in the Myofilament Lattice Depend on Sarcomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. David; Regnier, Michael; Daniel, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    We most often consider muscle as a motor generating force in the direction of shortening, but less often consider its roles as a spring or a brake. Here we develop a fully three-dimensional spatially explicit model of muscle to isolate the locations of forces and energies that are difficult to separate experimentally. We show the strain energy in the thick and thin filaments is less than one third the strain energy in attached cross-bridges. This result suggests the cross-bridges act as springs, storing energy within muscle in addition to generating the force which powers muscle. Comparing model estimates of energy consumed to elastic energy stored, we show that the ratio of these two properties changes with sarcomere length. The model predicts storage of a greater fraction of energy at short sarcomere lengths, suggesting a mechanism by which muscle function shifts as force production declines, from motor to spring. Additionally, we investigate the force that muscle produces in the radial or transverse direction, orthogonal to the direction of shortening. We confirm prior experimental estimates that place radial forces on the same order of magnitude as axial forces, although we find that radial forces and axial forces vary differently with changes in sarcomere length. PMID:23166482

  12. Energy-efficient routing, modulation and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yanxia; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-07-01

    With tremendous growth in bandwidth demand, energy consumption problem in elastic optical networks (EONs) becomes a hot topic with wide concern. The sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder in EON, which can transmit/receive multiple optical flows, was recently proposed to improve a transponder's flexibility and save energy. In this paper, energy-efficient routing, modulation and spectrum allocation (EE-RMSA) in EONs with sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder is studied. To decrease the energy consumption, we develop a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with corresponding EE-RMSA algorithm for EONs. The MILP model jointly considers the modulation format and optical grooming in the process of routing and spectrum allocation with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption. With the help of genetic operators, the EE-RMSA algorithm iteratively optimizes the feasible routing path, modulation format and spectrum resources solutions by explore the whole search space. In order to save energy, the optical-layer grooming strategy is designed to transmit the lightpath requests. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed scheme is able to reduce the energy consumption of the network while maintaining the blocking probability (BP) performance compare with the existing First-Fit-KSP algorithm, Iterative Flipping algorithm and EAMGSP algorithm especially in large network topology. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed EE-RMSA algorithm achieves almost the same performance as MILP on an 8-node network.

  13. The calibration of elastic scattering angular distribution at low energies on HIRFL-RIBLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. X.; Zhang, G. L.; Lin, C. J.; Qu, W. W.; Yang, L.; Ma, N. R.; Zheng, L.; Jia, H. M.; Sun, L. J.; Liu, X. X.; Chu, X. T.; Yang, J. C.; Wang, J. S.; Xu, S. W.; Ma, P.; Ma, J. B.; Jin, S. L.; Bai, Z.; Huang, M. R.; Zang, H. L.; Yang, B.; Liu, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The precise calibration of angular distribution of heavy-ion elastic scattering induced by Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at energies around Coulomb barrier on the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) at the Heavy-Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is presented. The beam profile and the scattering angles on the target are deduced by a measurement with two Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), and four sets of detector telescopes (including Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) placed systematically along the beam line, incorporating with Monte Carlo simulation. The MWPCs were used to determine the beam trajectory before the target, and the energies and the positions of scattered particles on the detectors were measured by the DSSDs. Minor corrections on the beam spot and the detector position are performed by assuming the pure Rutherford scattering at angles which are smaller than the related grazing angle. This method is applied for the elastic scattering of 17F on 89Y target at Elab=59 MeV and 50 MeV.

  14. Elastic energy in locomotion: Spring-mass vs. poly-articulated models.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Pierre; Villeger, David; Costes, Antony; Watier, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The human is often modeled as a Poly-Articulated Model (PAM) with rigid segments while some authors use a Spring Mass Model (SMM) for modeling locomotion. These two models are considered independent, and the objective of this study was to link them in order to enlighten the origin of the elasticity in locomotion. Using the characteristics of the two models, a theoretical relationship demonstrates that the variation of elastic energy of the SMM equals the variation of the internal kinetic energy minus internal forces work of the PAM. This theoretical relationship was experimentally investigated among 19 healthy participants walking and running on a treadmill. The results showed that the equality is verified except during the double support phase at 0.56ms(-1), at high walking speeds (1.67 and 2.22ms(-1)) or during the aerial phase of running. The formal relationship showed that the global stiffness of the SMM is directly related to the work of the internal forces of the PAM, and thus, to the characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. It also showed the relevance of taking into account the participation of each joint in the global stiffness. Finally, the coordination of internal forces work to produce a global stiffness may be considered as a new criterion of movement optimization for clinical purposes or motion planning for humanoid robots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-linking cellulose nanofibrils for potential elastic cryo-structured gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syverud, Kristin; Kirsebom, Harald; Hajizadeh, Solmaz; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    2011-12-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils were produced from P. radiata kraft pulp fibers. The nanofibrillation was facilitated by applying 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl-mediated oxidation as pretreatment. The oxidized nanofibrils were cross-linked with polyethyleneimine and poly N-isopropylacrylamide- co-allylamine- co-methylenebisacrylamide particles and were frozen to form cryo-structured gels. Samples of the gels were critical-point dried, and the corresponding structures were assessed with scanning electron microscopy. It appears that the aldehyde groups in the oxidized nanofibrils are suitable reaction sites for cross-linking. The cryo-structured materials were spongy, elastic, and thus capable of regaining their shape after a given pressure was released, indicating a successful cross-linking. These novel types of gels are considered potential candidates in biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  16. Nucleation rate of critical droplets on an elastic string in a {phi}{sup 6} potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, W.C.; Graham, A.J.

    2004-12-01

    We obtain the nucleation rate of critical droplets for an elastic string moving in a {phi}{sup 6} local potential and subject to noise and damping forces. The critical droplet is a bound soliton-antisoliton pair that carries a section of the string out of the metastable central minimum into one of the stable side minima. The frequencies of small oscillations about the critical droplet are obtained from a Heun equation. We solve the Fokker-Planck equation for the phase-space probability density by projecting it onto the eigenfunction basis obtained from the Heun equation. We employ Farkas' 'flux-overpopulation' method to obtain boundary conditions for solving the Fokker-Planck equation; these restrict the validity of our solution to the moderate to heavy damping regime. We present results for the rate as a function of temperature, well depth, and damping.

  17. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiahai

    2016-07-01

    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9-14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  18. Elastic scattering of low energy pions by nuclei and the in-medium isovector πN amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Bauer, M.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Denz, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Erhardt, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Kritchman, S.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Yaari, G.

    2005-09-01

    Measurements of elastic scattering of 21.5 MeV π± by Si, Ca, Ni, and Zr were made by using a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Absolute calibration was made by parallel measurements of Coulomb scattering of muons. Parameters of a pion-nucleus optical potential were obtained from fits to all eight angular distributions put together. The anomalous s-wave repulsion known from pionic atoms is clearly observed and could be removed by introducing a chiral-motivated density dependence of the isovector scattering amplitude, which also greatly improved the fits to the data. The empirical energy dependence of the isoscalar amplitude also improves the fits to the data but, contrary to what is found with pionic atoms, on its own is incapable of removing the anomaly.

  19. Sufficient minimal model for DNA denaturation: Integration of harmonic scalar elasticity and bond energies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Raj; Granek, Rony

    2016-10-14

    We study DNA denaturation by integrating elasticity - as described by the Gaussian network model - with bond binding energies, distinguishing between different base pairs and stacking energies. We use exact calculation, within the model, of the Helmholtz free-energy of any partial denaturation state, which implies that the entropy of all formed "bubbles" ("loops") is accounted for. Considering base pair bond removal single events, the bond designated for opening is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all remaining base pair bonds. Despite of its great simplicity, for several known DNA sequences our results are in accord with available theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, we report free-energy profiles along the denaturation pathway, which allow to detect stable or meta-stable partial denaturation states, composed of bubble, as local free-energy minima separated by barriers. Our approach allows to study very long DNA strands with commonly available computational power, as we demonstrate for a few random sequences in the range 200-800 base-pairs. For the latter, we also elucidate the self-averaging property of the system. Implications for the well known breathing dynamics of DNA are elucidated.

  20. Wave energy transfer in elastic half-spaces with soft interlayers.

    PubMed

    Glushkov, Evgeny; Glushkova, Natalia; Fomenko, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The paper deals with guided waves generated by a surface load in a coated elastic half-space. The analysis is based on the explicit integral and asymptotic expressions derived in terms of Green's matrix and given loads for both laminate and functionally graded substrates. To perform the energy analysis, explicit expressions for the time-averaged amount of energy transferred in the time-harmonic wave field by every excited guided or body wave through horizontal planes and lateral cylindrical surfaces have been also derived. The study is focused on the peculiarities of wave energy transmission in substrates with soft interlayers that serve as internal channels for the excited guided waves. The notable features of the source energy partitioning in such media are the domination of a single emerging mode in each consecutive frequency subrange and the appearance of reverse energy fluxes at certain frequencies. These effects as well as modal and spatial distribution of the wave energy coming from the source into the substructure are numerically analyzed and discussed.

  1. Sufficient minimal model for DNA denaturation: Integration of harmonic scalar elasticity and bond energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit Raj; Granek, Rony

    2016-10-01

    We study DNA denaturation by integrating elasticity — as described by the Gaussian network model — with bond binding energies, distinguishing between different base pairs and stacking energies. We use exact calculation, within the model, of the Helmholtz free-energy of any partial denaturation state, which implies that the entropy of all formed "bubbles" ("loops") is accounted for. Considering base pair bond removal single events, the bond designated for opening is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all remaining base pair bonds. Despite of its great simplicity, for several known DNA sequences our results are in accord with available theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, we report free-energy profiles along the denaturation pathway, which allow to detect stable or meta-stable partial denaturation states, composed of bubble, as local free-energy minima separated by barriers. Our approach allows to study very long DNA strands with commonly available computational power, as we demonstrate for a few random sequences in the range 200-800 base-pairs. For the latter, we also elucidate the self-averaging property of the system. Implications for the well known breathing dynamics of DNA are elucidated.

  2. Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scobel, W.; Dohrmann, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Scobel, W.; Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bissel, T.; Bollmann, R.; Busch, M.; Büßer, K.; Cloth, P.; Danie, R.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Felden, O.; Flammer, J.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Hebbel, K.; Hinterberger, F.; Hüskes, T.; Jahn, R.; Koch, I.; Langkau, R.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Pfuff, M.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Steinbeck, S.; Sterzenbach, G.; Thomas, S.; Trelle, H. J.; Walker, M.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.; EDDA Collaboration at COSY; EDDA Collaboration

    1998-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic cross sections have been measured in narrow momentum steps Δp = 28 MeV/c in the kinetic energy range from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV and the angular range 35° ≤ Θcm ≤ 90° with a detector providing ΔΘcm ≈ 1.4° resolution and 82% solid angle coverage. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY with an internal CH 2 fiber target; background corrections were derived from measurements with a carbon fiber target and from Monte Carlo simulations of inelastic pp contributions. Particular care was taken to monitor the luminosity as a function of beam energy. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of unprecedented precision and internal consistency. The measured cross sections are compared to recent phase shift analyses, and their impact on the present solution SM97 [1] is discussed.

  3. Cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane in the intermediate-energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Sugohara, R. T.; Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Souza, G. L. C. de; Homem, M. G. P.

    2011-12-15

    Organosilicon compounds are of current interest due to the numerous applications of these species in industries. Some of these applications require the knowledge of electron collision cross sections, which are scarce for such compounds. In this work, we report absolute values of differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by tetramethylsilane (TMS) measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range. The relative-flow technique is used to normalize our data. In addition, the independent-atom-model (IAM) and the additivity rule (AR), widely used to model electron collisions with light hydrocarbons, are also applied for e{sup -}-TMS interaction. The comparison of our measured results of cross sections and the calculated data shows good agreement, particularly near the higher-end of incident energies.

  4. A balance between membrane elasticity and polymerization energy sets the shape of spherical clathrin coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Mohammed; Morlot, Sandrine; Hohendahl, Annika; Manzi, John; Lenz, Martin; Roux, Aurélien

    2015-02-01

    In endocytosis, scaffolding is one of the mechanisms to create membrane curvature by moulding the membrane into the spherical shape of the clathrin cage. However, the impact of membrane elastic parameters on the assembly and shape of clathrin lattices has never been experimentally evaluated. Here, we show that membrane tension opposes clathrin polymerization. We reconstitute clathrin budding in vitro with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), purified adaptors and clathrin. By changing the osmotic conditions, we find that clathrin coats cause extensive budding of GUVs under low membrane tension while polymerizing into shallow pits under moderate tension. High tension fully inhibits polymerization. Theoretically, we predict the tension values for which transitions between different clathrin coat shapes occur. We measure the changes in membrane tension during clathrin polymerization, and use our theoretical framework to estimate the polymerization energy from these data. Our results show that membrane tension controls clathrin-mediated budding by varying the membrane budding energy.

  5. Sub-wavelength energy trapping of elastic waves in a metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Rupin, Matthieu

    2014-08-01

    Deep sub-wavelength focusing has been demonstrated for locally resonant metamaterials using electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The elastic equivalents of such objects are made of sub-wavelength resonating beams fixed to a two-dimensional plate, as presented here. Independent of a random or regular arrangement of the resonators, the metamaterial shows large bandgaps that are independent of the incident wave direction. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the insertion of a defect in the layout, as a shorter resonator, creates strong amplification of the wave-field on the defect. This energy trapping, which is localized on a spatial scale that is much smaller than the wavelength in the two-dimensional plate, leads to a >1 factor in terms of the local density of energy.

  6. The surface-forming energy release rate based fracture criterion for elastic-plastic crack propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Si; Wang, He-Ling; Liu, Bin; Hwang, Keh-Chih

    2015-11-01

    The J-integral based criterion is widely used in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. However, it is not rigorously applicable when plastic unloading appears during crack propagation. One difficulty is that the energy density with plastic unloading in the J-integral cannot be defined unambiguously. In this paper, we alternatively start from the analysis on the power balance, and propose a surface-forming energy release rate (ERR), which represents the energy available for separating the crack surfaces during the crack propagation and excludes the loading-mode-dependent plastic dissipation. Therefore the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion has wider applicability, including elastic-plastic crack propagation problems. Several formulae are derived for calculating the surface-forming ERR. From the most concise formula, it is interesting to note that the surface-forming ERR can be computed using only the stress and deformation of the current moment, and the definition of the energy density or work density is avoided. When an infinitesimal contour is chosen, the expression can be further simplified. For any fracture behaviors, the surface-forming ERR is proven to be path-independent, and the path-independence of its constituent term, so-called Js-integral, is also investigated. The physical meanings and applicability of the proposed surface-forming ERR, traditional ERR, Js-integral and J-integral are compared and discussed. Besides, we give an interpretation of Rice paradox by comparing the cohesive fracture model and the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion.

  7. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  8. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    MRCI (configuration interaction) calculations were used to examine possible pathways for the O{sub 2} + CCH reaction. The H{sub 2} + CN potential surface was examined. An initial survey was made of the HCl + CN potential energy surface at a low level of theory.

  9. Simultaneous optical model analysis of elastic scattering, fusion, and breakup for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm system at near-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.

    2008-05-15

    A simultaneous optical model calculation of elastic scattering, complete fusion, and breakup cross sections for energies around the Coulomb barrier is presented for reactions involving the weakly bound projectile {sup 9}Be on the medium size target {sup 144}Sm. In the calculations, the nuclear polarization potential U is split into a volume part U{sub F}, which is responsible for fusion reactions, and a surface part U{sub DR}, which accounts for direct reactions. A simultaneous {chi}{sup 2} analysis of elastic and complete fusion data shows that the extracted optical potential parameters of the real V{sub F} and imaginary W{sub F} parts of U{sub F} and the corresponding parts V{sub DR} and W{sub DR} of U{sub DR} satisfy separately the dispersion relation. Energy-dependent forms for the fusion and direct reaction potentials indicate that, at the strong absorption radius, the direct reaction potentials dominate over the fusion potentials. Moreover, the imaginary direct reaction potential results in a rather smooth function of E around the barrier energy. These findings show that the threshold anomaly, usually present in reactions with tightly bound projectiles, is not exhibited for the system {sup 9}Be+{sup 144}Sm. Within this formalism, the effect of breakup reactions on complete fusion is studied by turning on and off the potentials responsible for breakup reactions.

  10. Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1988-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Applying supersymmetry to energy dependent potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Yekken, R.; Lassaut, M.; Lombard, R.J.

    2013-11-15

    We investigate the supersymmetry properties of energy dependent potentials in the D=1 dimensional space. We show the main aspects of supersymmetry to be preserved, namely the factorization of the Hamiltonian, the connections between eigenvalues and wave functions of the partner Hamiltonians. Two methods are proposed. The first one requires the extension of the usual rules via the concept of local equivalent potential. In this case, the superpotential becomes depending on the state. The second method, applicable when the potential depends linearly on the energy, is similar to what has been already achieved by means of the Darboux transform. -- Highlights: •Supersymmetry extended to energy dependent potentials. •Generalization of the concept of superpotential. •An alternative method used for linear E-dependence leads to the same results as Darboux transform.

  12. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  13. Elastic energy within the human plantar aponeurosis contributes to arch shortening during the push-off phase of running.

    PubMed

    Wager, Justin C; Challis, John H

    2016-03-21

    During locomotion, the lower limb tendons undergo stretch and recoil, functioning like springs that recycle energy with each step. Cadaveric testing has demonstrated that the arch of the foot operates in this capacity during simple loading, yet it remains unclear whether this function exists during locomotion. In this study, one of the arch׳s passive elastic tissues (the plantar aponeurosis; PA) was investigated to glean insights about it and the entire arch of the foot during running. Subject specific computer models of the foot were driven using the kinematics of eight subjects running at 3.1m/s using two initial contact patterns (rearfoot and non-rearfoot). These models were used to estimate PA strain, force, and elastic energy storage during the stance phase. To examine the release of stored energy, the foot joint moments, powers, and work created by the PA were computed. Mean elastic energy stored in the PA was 3.1±1.6J, which was comparable to in situ testing values. Changes to the initial contact pattern did not change elastic energy storage or late stance PA function, but did alter PA pre-tensioning and function during early stance. In both initial contact patterns conditions, the PA power was positive during late stance, which reveals that the release of the stored elastic energy assists with shortening of the arch during push-off. As the PA is just one of the arch׳s passive elastic tissues, the entire arch may store additional energy and impact the metabolic cost of running.

  14. Exploring elasticity and energy dissipation in mussel-inspired hydrogel transient networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindy, Scott; Learsch, Robert; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    Dynamic, reversible crosslinks have been shown to specifically control the mechanical properties of a wide variety of mechanically tough and resilient biomaterials. We have shown that reversible histidine-metal ion interactions, known to contribute to the strong mechanical properties and self-healing nature of mussel byssal threads, can be used to control and engineer the temporally-hierarchical mechanical properties of model hydrogels orthogonally from the spatial structure of the material. Here, we explore the scaling relationships in our model networks to further inform our abilities to control the relative elasticity and energy dissipation on hierarchical timescales. Scaling arguments suggest that the elasticity is dominated by long-range entanglements, while the dissipation is controlled by the exchange kinetics of the transient crosslinks. Further, we show that by using UV light, we can further control the viscoelastic properties of our mussel-inspired hydrogels in situ. This process opens the door for creating biocompatible hydrogel materials with arbitrary spatial control over their viscoelastic mechanical properties. Overall, we show that by understanding the interplay between bio-inspired dynamic crosslinks and soft matter physics allows us to rationally design high-strength hydrogels for specific states of dynamic loading.

  15. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H F

    2014-05-14

    We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy-electrons with 1,4-dioxane. Our calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were carried out in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations for energies up to 30 eV. Our results show the presence of three shape resonances belonging to the Bu, Au, and Bg symmetries and located at 7.0 eV, 8.4 eV, and 9.8 eV, respectively. We also report the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum located at around 0.05 eV. We compare our calculated cross sections with experimental data and R-matrix and independent atom model along with the additivity rule corrected by using screening coefficients theoretical results for 1,4-dioxane obtained by Palihawadana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 014308 (2013)]. The agreement between the present and the R-matrix theoretical calculations of Palihawadana et al. is relatively good at energies below 10 eV. Our calculated differential cross sections agree well with the experimental data, showing only some discrepancies at higher energies.

  16. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  17. Fully microscopic description of elastic and inelastic scattering at intermediate incident energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minomo, Kosho; Kohno, Michio; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Yahiro, Masanobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We aim for fully microscopic understanding of many-body nuclear reactions starting from two- and three-nucleon forces based on chiral effective field theory (Ch-EFT). We first construct a g-matrix with the nuclear forces based on Ch-EFT using Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory, in which the three-nucleon force effects are represented through the density dependence of the g-matrix. Then, the folding model and microscopic coupled-channels method with the g-matrix are applied to nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering at intermediate incident energies. This new microscopic framework well describes the elastic and inelastic cross sections with no ad-hoc parameters. In addition, the three-nucleon force and coupled-channels effects on many-body nuclear reactions are clarified.

  18. Antihydrogen-hydrogen elastic scattering at thermal energies using an atomic-orbital technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab; Ghosh, A.S.

    2003-05-01

    In view of the recent interest in the trapping of antihydrogen atom H(bar sign), at very low temperatures, H-bar-H scattering has been investigated at low incident energies using a close-coupling model with the basis set H-bar(1s,2s,2p-bar)+H(1s,2s,2p-bar). The predicted s-wave elastic phase shifts, scattering length, and effective range are in a good agreement with the other recent predictions of Jonsell et al. and of Armour and Chamberlain. The results indicate that the atomic orbital expansion model is suitable to study the H-bar-H scattering at ultracold temperatures.

  19. Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.

    1987-03-12

    A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.

  20. Potential energy surfaces for cluster emitting nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Gherghescu, Radu A.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-15

    Potential energy surfaces are calculated by use of the most advanced asymmetric two-center shell model that allows us to obtain shell-and-pairing corrections that are added to the Yukawa-plus-exponential model deformation energy. Shell effects are of crucial importance for the experimental observation of spontaneous disintegration by heavy-ion emission. Results for {sup 222}Ra, {sup 232}U, {sup 236}Pu, and {sup 242}Cm illustrate the main ideas and show for the first time, for a cluster emitter, a potential barrier obtained by use of the macroscopic-microscopic method.

  1. Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.

    1982-01-01

    DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.

  2. Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.

    1982-01-01

    DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.

  3. Free-end adaptive nudged elastic band method for locating transition states in minimum energy path calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayong; Zhang, Hongwu; Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang

    2016-09-07

    A free-end adaptive nudged elastic band (FEA-NEB) method is presented for finding transition states on minimum energy paths, where the energy barrier is very narrow compared to the whole paths. The previously proposed free-end nudged elastic band method may suffer from convergence problems because of the kinks arising on the elastic band if the initial elastic band is far from the minimum energy path and weak springs are adopted. We analyze the origin of the formation of kinks and present an improved free-end algorithm to avoid the convergence problem. Moreover, by coupling the improved free-end algorithm and an adaptive strategy, we develop a FEA-NEB method to accurately locate the transition state with the elastic band cut off repeatedly and the density of images near the transition state increased. Several representative numerical examples, including the dislocation nucleation in a penta-twinned nanowire, the twin boundary migration under a shear stress, and the cross-slip of screw dislocation in face-centered cubic metals, are investigated by using the FEA-NEB method. Numerical results demonstrate both the stability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Effects of the volume changes and elastic-strain energies on the phase transition in the Li-Sn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jianchuan; Liu, Shuhong; Du, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Sn and Sn-based compounds have been attracting a great interest as promising alternative materials for commercial anodes in lithium ion batteries. In this study, the phase evolution of the Li-Sn system during the lithiated processes and the effect of the elastic-strain energies caused by volume change on the phase transition are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that the distorted Li7Sn3 crystal tends to be formed in order to decrease the elastic-strain energy. In addition, our work indicates that the whole lithiated processes under the elastically constrained condition could be classified into two steps. The first step is the two-phase equilibrium process, in which the thermodynamic driving force is large enough to facilitate the phase transition and the plateau voltage could be established. The second step is considered to be the selective equilibrium, in which the thermodynamic driving force is not enough to facilitate the nucleation of the new equilibrium phase due to the elastically constrained conditions and the plateau voltage unformed. Besides, we find that in the Li0.4Sn matrix the nucleation of the αSn is more preferential than the βSn due to the effects of the elastic-strain energies.

  5. Free-end adaptive nudged elastic band method for locating transition states in minimum energy path calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiayong; Zhang, Hongwu; Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    A free-end adaptive nudged elastic band (FEA-NEB) method is presented for finding transition states on minimum energy paths, where the energy barrier is very narrow compared to the whole paths. The previously proposed free-end nudged elastic band method may suffer from convergence problems because of the kinks arising on the elastic band if the initial elastic band is far from the minimum energy path and weak springs are adopted. We analyze the origin of the formation of kinks and present an improved free-end algorithm to avoid the convergence problem. Moreover, by coupling the improved free-end algorithm and an adaptive strategy, we develop a FEA-NEB method to accurately locate the transition state with the elastic band cut off repeatedly and the density of images near the transition state increased. Several representative numerical examples, including the dislocation nucleation in a penta-twinned nanowire, the twin boundary migration under a shear stress, and the cross-slip of screw dislocation in face-centered cubic metals, are investigated by using the FEA-NEB method. Numerical results demonstrate both the stability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Tough and elastic hydrogel of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate as potential cell scaffold materials.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yilu; Tang, Zhurong; Cao, Wanxu; Lin, Hai; Fan, Yujiang; Guo, Likun; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Natural polysaccharides are extensively investigated as cell scaffold materials for cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biofunctions. However, their application is often severely limited by their mechanical behavior. In this study, a tough and elastic hydrogel scaffold was prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). HA and CS were conjugated with tyramine (TA) and the degree of substitution (DS) was 10.7% and 11.3%, respectively, as calculated by (1)H NMR spectra. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing HA-TA and CS-TA in presence of H2O2 and HRP. The sectional morphology of hydrogels was observed by SEM, static and dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed by Shimadzu electromechanical testing machine and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer Q800. All samples showed good ability to recover their appearances after deformation, the storage modulus (E') of hydrogels became higher as the testing frequency went up. Hydrogels also showed fatigue resistance to cyclic compression. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in hydrogels showed good cell viability as detected by CLSM. This study suggests that the hydrogels have both good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may serve as model systems to explore mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation or find some applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D printed elastic honeycombs with graded density for tailorable energy absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Simon R. G.; Farrow, Ian R.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the development and experimental analysis of hyperelastic honeycombs with graded densities, for the purpose of energy absorption. Hexagonal arrays are manufactured from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing and the density graded by varying cell wall thickness though the structures. Manufactured samples are subject to static compression tests and their energy absorbing potential analysed via the formation of energy absorption diagrams. It is shown that by grading the density through the structure, the energy absorption profile of these structures can be manipulated such that a wide range of compression energies can be efficiently absorbed.

  8. Potential energy sputtering of EUVL materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, J M; Ratliff, L P; Gillaspy, J D; Bajt, S

    2004-07-02

    Of the many candidates employed for understanding the erosion of critical Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) components, potential energy damage remains relatively uninvestigated. Unlike the familiar kinetic energy sputtering, which is a consequence of the momentum transferred by an ion to atoms in the target, potential energy sputtering occurs when an ion rapidly collects charge from the target as it neutralizes. Since the neutralization energy of a singly charged ion is typically on the order of 10 eV, potential energy effects are generally neglected for low charge state ions, and hence the bulk of the sputtering literature. As an ion's charge state is increased, the potential energy (PE) increases rapidly, e.g. PE(Xe{sup 1+})= 11 eV, PE(Xe{sup 10+}) = 810 eV, PE(Xe{sup 20+}) = 4.6 keV, etc. By comparison, the binding energy of a single atom on a surface is typically about 5 eV, so even relatively inefficient energy transfer mechanisms can lead to large quantities of material being removed, e.g. 25% efficiency for Xe{sup 10+} corresponds to {approx} 40 atoms/ion. By comparison, singly charged xenon ions with {approx} 20 keV of kinetic energy sputter only about 5 atoms/ion at normal incidence, and less than 1 atom/ion at typical EUV source energies. EUV light sources are optimized for producing approximately 10{sup 16} xenon ions per shot with an average charge state of q=10 in the core plasma. At operational rates of {approx}10 kHz, the number of ions produced per second becomes a whopping 10{sup 20}. Even if only one in a billion ions reaches the collector, erosion rates could reach {approx}10{sup 12} atoms per second, severely reducing the collector lifetime (for an average yield of 10 atoms/ion). In addition, efforts to reduce contamination effects may contribute to reduced neutralization and even larger potential energy damages rates (discussed further below). In order to provide accurate estimates for collector lifetimes and to develop mitigation schemes

  9. Energy release rates for interfacial cracks in elastic bodies with thin semirigid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present some rigorous results for an equilibrium problem arising from the study of fiber-reinforced composites. We consider a two-dimensional homogeneous anisotropic linear elastic body containing a thin semirigid inclusion. The semirigid inclusion is an anisotropic thin structure that stretches along one direction and moves like a rigid body possessing both rotational and translatory motion along the perpendicular direction. A pre-existing interfacial crack is subject to nonlinear conditions that do not allow the opposite crack faces to penetrate each other. We focus on a variational approach to modelling the physical phenomenon of equilibrium and to demonstrate that the energy release rate associated with perturbation of the crack along the interface is well defined. A higher regularity result for the displacement field is formulated and proved. Then, taking into account this result, we deduce representations for the energy release rates associated with local translation and self-similar expansion of the crack by means of path-independent energy integrals along smooth contour surrounding one or both crack tips. Finally, some relations between the integrals obtained are discussed briefly.

  10. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  11. Preferred orientation in carbon and boron nitride: Does a thermodynamic theory of elastic strain energy get it right. [C; BN

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, K.F. )

    1999-09-01

    We address whether the elastic strain-energy theory (minimizing the Gibbs energy of a stressed crystal) of McKenzie and co-workers [D. R. McKenzie and M. M. M. Bilek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 16], 2733 (1998)] adequately explains the preferred orientation observed in carbon and BN films. In the formalism, the Gibbs energy of the cubic materials diamond and cubic boron includes the strain that occurs when the phases form, through specific structural transformations, from graphitic precursors. This treatment violates the requirement of thermodynamics that the Gibbs energy be a path-independent, state function. If the cubic phases are treated using the same (path-independent) formalism applied to the graphitic materials, the crystallographic orientation of lowest Gibbs energy is not that observed experimentally. For graphitic (hexagonal) carbon and BN, an elastic strain approach seems inappropriate because the compressive stresses in energetically deposited films are orders of magnitude higher than the elastic limit of the materials. Furthermore, using the known elastic constants of either ordered or disordered graphitic materials, the theory does not predict the orientation observed by experiment. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  12. Structural, vibrational, and elastic properties of a calcium aluminosilicate glass from molecular dynamics simulations: The role of the potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bauchy, M.

    2014-07-14

    We study a calcium aluminosilicate glass of composition (SiO{sub 2}){sub 0.60}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.10}(CaO){sub 0.30} by means of molecular dynamics. To this end, we conduct parallel simulations, following a consistent methodology, but using three different potentials. Structural and elastic properties are analyzed and compared to available experimental data. This allows assessing the respective abilities of the potentials to produce a realistic glass. We report that, although all these potentials offer a reasonable glass structure, featuring tricluster oxygen atoms, their respective vibrational and elastic predictions differ. This allows us to draw some general conclusions about the crucial role, or otherwise, of the interaction potential in silicate systems.

  13. Structural, vibrational, and elastic properties of a calcium aluminosilicate glass from molecular dynamics simulations: the role of the potential.

    PubMed

    Bauchy, M

    2014-07-14

    We study a calcium aluminosilicate glass of composition (SiO2)0.60(Al2O3)0.10(CaO)0.30 by means of molecular dynamics. To this end, we conduct parallel simulations, following a consistent methodology, but using three different potentials. Structural and elastic properties are analyzed and compared to available experimental data. This allows assessing the respective abilities of the potentials to produce a realistic glass. We report that, although all these potentials offer a reasonable glass structure, featuring tricluster oxygen atoms, their respective vibrational and elastic predictions differ. This allows us to draw some general conclusions about the crucial role, or otherwise, of the interaction potential in silicate systems.

  14. Free energy of contact formation in proteins: Efficient computation in the elastic network approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Kay

    2011-07-01

    Biomolecular simulations have become a major tool in understanding biomolecules and their complexes. However, one can typically only investigate a few mutants or scenarios due to the severe computational demands of such simulations, leading to a great interest in method development to overcome this restriction. One way to achieve this is to reduce the complexity of the systems by an approximation of the forces acting upon the constituents of the molecule. The harmonic approximation used in elastic network models simplifies the physical complexity to the most reduced dynamics of these molecular systems. The reduced polymer modeled this way is typically comprised of mass points representing coarse-grained versions of, e.g., amino acids. In this work, we show how the computation of free energy contributions of contacts between two residues within the molecule can be reduced to a simple lookup operation in a precomputable matrix. Being able to compute such contributions is of great importance: protein design or molecular evolution changes introduce perturbations to these pair interactions, so we need to understand their impact. Perturbation to the interactions occurs due to randomized and fixated changes (in molecular evolution) or designed modifications of the protein structures (in bioengineering). These perturbations are modifications in the topology and the strength of the interactions modeled by the elastic network models. We apply the new algorithm to (1) the bovine trypsin inhibitor, a well-known enzyme in biomedicine, and show the connection to folding properties and the hydrophobic collapse hypothesis and (2) the serine proteinase inhibitor CI-2 and show the correlation to Φ values to characterize folding importance. Furthermore, we discuss the computational complexity and show empirical results for the average case, sampled over a library of 77 structurally diverse proteins. We found a relative speedup of up to 10 000-fold for large proteins with respect to

  15. Elastic energy storage in an unmineralized collagen type I molecular model with explicit solvation and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Kwansa, Albert L; Freeman, Joseph W

    2010-02-21

    Collagen type I is a structural protein that provides tensile strength to tendons and ligaments. Type I collagen molecules form collagen fibers, which are viscoelastic and can therefore store energy elastically via molecular elongation and dissipate viscous energy through molecular rearrangement and fibrillar slippage. The ability to store elastic energy is important for the resiliency of tendons and ligaments, which must be able to deform and revert to their initial lengths with changes in load. In an earlier paper by one of the present authors, molecular modeling was used to investigate the role of mineralization upon elastic energy storage in collagen type I. Their collagen model showed a similar trend to their experimental data but with an over-estimation of elastic energy storage. Their simulations were conducted in vacuum and employed a distance-dependent dielectric function. In this study, we performed a re-evaluation of Freeman and Silver's model data incorporating the effects of explicit solvation and water infiltration, in order to determine whether the model data could be improved with a more accurate representation of the solvent and osmotic effects. We observed an average decrease in the model's elastic energy storage of 45.1%+/-6.9% in closer proximity to Freeman and Silver's experimental data. This suggests that although the distance-dependent dielectric implicit solvation approach was favored for its increased speed and decreased computational requirements, an explicit representation of water may be necessary to more accurately model solvent interactions in this particular system. In this paper, we discuss the collagen model described by Freeman and Silver, the present model building approach, the application of the present model to that of Freeman and Silver, and additional assumptions and limitations. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigations of elastic scattering spectroscopy as a potential diagnostic for tissue pathologies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.; Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.

    1994-04-01

    The spectral distribution of the diffuse reflectance of five sizes of polystyrene microspheres has been measured with an elastic scatter spectrometer designed for optical biopsy of living tissue. The microsphere sizes are representative of the suspected scattering centers in living tissue. The experiment data are discussed and interpreted in the framework of Mie scattering theory and Monte-Carlo transport analysis. Present results support the assertion that Mie theory is necessary to describe the spectral features of elastic scatter spectroscopy in tissue.

  17. Decreased elastic energy storage, not increased material stiffness, characterizes central artery dysfunction in fibulin-5 deficiency independent of sex.

    PubMed

    Ferruzzi, J; Bersi, M R; Uman, S; Yanagisawa, H; Humphrey, J D

    2015-03-01

    Central artery stiffness has emerged over the past 15 years as a clinically significant indicator of cardiovascular function and initiator of disease. Loss of elastic fiber integrity is one of the primary contributors to increased arterial stiffening in aging, hypertension, and related conditions. Elastic fibers consist of an elastin core and multiple glycoproteins; hence defects in any of these constituents can adversely affect arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we focus on mechanical consequences of the loss of fibulin-5, an elastin-associated glycoprotein involved in elastogenesis. Specifically, we compared the biaxial mechanical properties of five central arteries-the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta, suprarenal abdominal aorta, infrarenal abdominal aorta, and common carotid artery-from male and female wild-type and fibulin-5 deficient mice. Results revealed that, independent of sex, all five regions in the fibulin-5 deficient mice manifested a marked increase in structural stiffness but also a marked decrease in elastic energy storage and typically an increase in energy dissipation, with all differences being most dramatic in the ascending and abdominal aortas. Given that the primary function of large arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use this energy during diastole to work on the blood, fibulin-5 deficiency results in a widespread diminishment of central artery function that can have significant effects on hemodynamics and cardiac function.

  18. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  19. Divacancy binding energy, formation energy and surface energy of BCC transition metals using MEAM potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, Shweta; Chand, Manesh; Joshi, Subodh; Semalty, P. D.

    2016-05-01

    The modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential parameters have been employed to calculate the unrelaxed divacancy formation energy, binding energy and surface energies for low index planes in bcc transition metals. The calculated results of divacancy binding energy and vacancy formation energy compare well with experimental and other available calculated results.

  20. Divacancy binding energy, formation energy and surface energy of BCC transition metals using MEAM potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Uniyal, Shweta Chand, Manesh Joshi, Subodh Semalty, P. D.

    2016-05-06

    The modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential parameters have been employed to calculate the unrelaxed divacancy formation energy, binding energy and surface energies for low index planes in bcc transition metals. The calculated results of divacancy binding energy and vacancy formation energy compare well with experimental and other available calculated results.

  1. Ionization, negative ion formation, elastic scattering and spin exchange in H + H collisions at low- to intermediate-energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Kamyshkov, Y.; Zaman, T.; Schultz, D. R.

    2017-04-01

    A new, two-electron transition mechanism is identified that provides the dominant pathway for negative ion formation in 1-20 keV H + H collisions revealed by use of the so-called ‘hidden crossings’ theoretical framework. This transition is made via a branch point between sheets of the complex, quasi-molecular, electronic potential energy surface for singlet states. Good agreement between measurements and the theoretically predicted cross sections is obtained. This mechanism also provides a pathway for ionization in this energy range adding to that previously identified (Bent et al 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 108 1459) involving hidden crossings among the triplet quasi-molecular states, improving the agreement of the resulting theoretical predictions with measurements between 2 and 20 keV. Also improving agreement with measurements is the addition of the effect of Rosenthal oscillations that are superposed upon the ionization and negative ion formation cross sections. We note that in addition to fundamental new insight provided by these calculations, the resulting data support modeling of hydrogen gases and plasmas such as in astrophysical environments and terrestrial laboratory experiments. Further supporting such needs for H + H collision data, we have also created a new and more comprehensive data set that significantly updates previous work (Krstic and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3485 and references therein) of elastic scattering and spin exchange integral and differential cross sections.

  2. Low-energy elastic electron scattering from isobutanol and related alkyl amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedus, Kamil; Navarro, C.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Silva, F. M.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2014-09-01

    Normalized experimental differential and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from isobutanol (C4H9OH ) are presented. The differential cross sections are measured at incident energies from 1 to 100 eV and scattering angles from 5∘ to 130∘. These cross sections are compared to earlier experimental and theoretical results for isobutanol and n-butanol, as well as to results for smaller alcohols and for alkanes. Further comparisons are made with calculated cross sections for isobutylamine (C4H9NH2) and for smaller amines, including ethylamine (C2H5NH2), dimethylamine (CH3NHCH3), the two C3H7NH2 isomers n-propylamine and isopropylamine, and ethylene diamine (NH2C2H4NH2). The calculated cross sections are obtained using the Schwinger multichannel method. The comparisons illuminate the role of molecular structure in determining the angular distribution of resonantly scattered electrons.

  3. The role of chemical free energy and elastic strain in the nucleation of zirconium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, A. T. W.; Toffolon-Masclet, C.; Almer, J.; Daymond, M. R.

    2013-10-01

    In this work a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic modelling has been used to study the dissolution and precipitation of zirconium hydride in α-Zr establishing the role of elastic misfit strain and chemical free energy in the α → α + δ phase transformation. The nucleation of zirconium hydride is dominated by the chemical free energy where the chemical driving force for hydride precipitation is proportional to the terminal-solid solubility for precipitation and can be predicted by a function that is analogous to the universal nucleation parameter for the bainite transformation in ferrous alloys. The terminal-solid solubility for precipitation was found to be kinetically limited ⩾287 °C at a cooling rate of 5 °C min-1 or greater. The terminal solubilities were established using an offset method applied to the lattice strain data where a resolution of ∼10 wppm H can be achieved in the -direction. This is aided by the introduction of intra-granular strains in the -direction during cooling as a result of the thermal expansion anisotropy which increases the anisotropy associated with the misfitting H atoms within the α-Zr lattice.

  4. Potential energy hypersurface and molecular flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koča, Jaroslav

    1993-02-01

    The molecular flexibility phenomenon is discussed from the conformational potential energy(hyper) surface (PES) point of view. Flexibility is considered as a product of three terms: thermodynamic, kinetic and geometrical. Several expressions characterizing absolute and relative molecular flexibility are introduced, depending on a subspace studied of the entire conformational space, energy level E of PES as well as absolute temperature. Results obtained by programs DAISY, CICADA and PANIC in conjunction with molecular mechanics program MMX for flexibility analysis of isopentane, 2,2-dimethylpentane and isohexane molecules are introduced.

  5. Breakup of 6Li+p at near-barrier energies and the effect on elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukeras, V.; Pakou, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Acosta, L.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Calabrese, S.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Foti, A.; Keeley, N.; Marquınez-Duràn, G.; Martel, I.; Mazzocco, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Rusek, K.; Santagati, G.; Sgouros, O.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Zerva, K.

    2017-05-01

    Exclusive breakup measurements have been performed for the 6Li+p system in inverse kinematics at 6Li incident energies of 25 and 29 MeV. The results are considered in the Continuum Discretized Coupled-Channels framework, together with elastic scattering data at 16, 20, 25, and 29 MeV, obtained simultaneously in the same experiment and reported previously. Good agreement between data and theory is observed, interpreted as evidence for strong coupling to the continuum. The direct and sequential (via the 6Li31+ resonance) breakup cross sections are found to be equally large at the higher incident energies but the dominant effect on the elastic scattering is due to coupling to the sequential breakup. This effect remains dominant even at the lowest energy of 16 MeV, despite the negligible cross section for excitation of the resonance at this low incident energy.

  6. Convective Available Potential Energy of World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Thompson, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy (OCAPE), which is the maximum kinetic energy (KE) per unit seawater mass achievable by ocean convection. OCAPE occurs through a different mechanism from atmospheric CAPE, and involves the interplay of temperature and salinity on the equation of state of seawater. The thermobaric effect, which arises because the thermal coefficient of expansion increases with depth, is an important ingredient of OCAPE. We develop an accurate algorithm to calculate the OCAPE for a given temperature and salinity profile. We then validate our calculation of OCAPE by comparing it with the conversion of OCAPE to KE in a 2-D numerical model. We propose that OCAPE is an important energy source of ocean deep convection and contributes to deep water formation. OCAPE, like Atmospheric CAPE, can help predict deep convection and may also provide a useful constraint for modelling deep convection in ocean GCMs. We plot the global distribution of OCAPE using data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and see many important features. These include large values of OCAPE in the Labrador, Greenland, Weddell and Mediterranean Seas, which are consistent with our present observations and understanding, but also identify some new features like the OCAPE pattern in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). We propose that the diagnosis of OCAPE can improve our understanding of global patterns of ocean convection and deep water formation as well as ocean stratification, the meridional overturning circulation and mixed layer processes. The background of this work is briefly introduced as below. Open-ocean deep convection can significantly modify water properties both at the ocean surface and throughout the water column (Gordon 1982). Open-ocean convection is also an important mechanism for Ocean Deep Water formation and the transport of heat, freshwater and nutrient (Marshall and Schott 1999). Open

  7. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.

  8. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  9. Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even-even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic-microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny-Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.

  10. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  11. Potential Energy Curves of Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, Robert J.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.; Mason, Edward A.

    1960-01-01

    Potential energy curves for the X(sup 1)sigma+ and V(sup 1)sigma+ states of HF and DF have been calculated by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method. The results calculated from the different sets of data for HF and DF are found to be in very good agreement. The theoretical results of Karo are compared to the experimental results obtained here.

  12. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  13. Potential energy landscapes of tetragonal pyramid molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yuichiro; Sato, Hirofumi; Morgan, John W. R.; Wales, David J.

    2016-11-01

    Hiraoka et al. have developed a self-assembling system referred to as a nanocube (Hiraoka et al., 2008). In the present contribution a coarse-grained model for this system is analysed, focusing on how the potential energy landscape for self-assembly is related to the geometry of the building blocks. We find that six molecules assemble to form various clusters, with cubic and sheet structures the most stable. The relative stability is determined by the geometry of the building blocks.

  14. Elastic scattering, inelastic excitation, and neutron transfer for 7Li+120Sn at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Lubian, J.; Gasques, L. R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Chamon, L. C.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Alcántara-Núñez, J. A.; Medina, N. H.; Scarduelli, V.; Freitas, A.; Padron, I.; Rossi, E. S.; Shorto, J. M. B.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental angular distributions for the 7Li+120Sn elastic and inelastic (projectile and target excitations) scattering, and for the neutron stripping reaction, have been obtained at ELAB= 20 , 22, 24, and 26 MeV, covering an energy range around the Coulomb barrier (VB(LAB )≈21.4 MeV). Coupled channel and coupled reaction channel calculations were performed and both describe satisfactorily the experimental data sets. The 1/2- state 7Li inelastic excitation (using a rotational model), as well as the projectile coupling to the continuum (α plus a tritium particle) play a fundamental role on the proper description of elastic, inelastic, and transfer channels. Couplings to the one-neutron stripping channel do not significantly affect the theoretical elastic scattering angular distributions. The spectroscopic amplitudes of the transfer channel were obtained through a shell model calculation. The theoretical angular distributions for the one-neutron stripping reaction agreed with the experimental data.

  15. Potential Energy Surfaces and Dynamics of High Energy Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-13

    such calculations with dynamics and condensed phase models, and (b) apply these methods to design and evaluate potentially new high energy species. The...IBM SP2 at the Maui High Performance Computation Center, the heat of formation for 1 is predicted to be 456.8 kcallmol. This translates to an l sp...which numerical derivatives become trivially parallel in a coarse-grained sense by having each function evaluation performed on a different node. If

  16. Effect of inelastic and elastic energy losses of Xe ions on the evolution of hydrogen blisters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, V. F.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Sokhatskii, A. S.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of irradiation by heavy ions on the formation of blisters on the silicon surface preliminarily ion-doped with hydrogen. An attempt is made at differentiating inelastic and elastic processes of interaction between ions and Si atoms using bombardment of the sample with high-energy charged particles through a bent absorbing filter by varying the radiation doses and the energy of bombarding Xe ions. It is found that irrespective of specific ionization energy losses of heavy ions, the blister formation is completely suppressed in the zone of the inelastic interaction during postradiation annealing. Conversely, stimulated development of hydrogen porosity takes place at the same time in the zone of elastic interaction, which is manifested in the form of blisters and flaking.

  17. Stability analysis of dielectric elastomer using the elastic strain energy function with two material constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Kai; Deng, Gang; Sun, Shouhua; Shi, Liang; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) are the most promising electroactive polymer materials capable of being applied in smart actuators. When the DE film sandwiched between two compliant electrodes is applied high electric field, due to the electrostatic force between two electrodes, the film expands in-plane and contracts out-of-plane such that its thickness becomes thinner. The thinner thickness results in higher electric field which inversely squeezes the film again. This positive feedback induces a mode of instability, known as electromechanical instability or pull-in instability. When the electric field exceeds certain critical value, the DE film collapses. In this paper, the elastic strain energy function with two material constants is applied to analyze the stability of dielectric elastomers, which facilitates to understand fully Suo's nonlinear theory. The results verify again the truth of this theory and exploit larger application spectrum. The method is capable of analyzing the stability of different dielectric materials with different values of k and the result can be useful on design of the dielectric elastomer actuator.

  18. Forward pd elastic scattering and total spin-dependent pd cross sections at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.

    2009-02-15

    Spin-dependent total pd cross sections are considered using the optical theorem. For this aim the full spin dependence of the forward pd elastic scattering amplitude is considered in a model independent way. The single-scattering approximation is used to relate this amplitude to the elementary amplitudes of pp and pn scattering and the deuteron form factor. A formalism allowing to take into account Coulomb-nuclear interference effects in polarized pd cross sections is developed. Numerical calculations for the polarized total pd cross sections are performed at beam energies 20-300 MeV using the NN interaction models developed by the Juelich group. Double-scattering effects are estimated within the Glauber approach and found to be in the order of 10-20%. Existing experimental data on differential pd cross sections are in good agreement with the performed Glauber calculations. It is found that for the used NN models the total longitudinal and transversal pd cross sections are comparable in absolute value to those for pp scattering.

  19. Elastic energy storage in the shoulder and the evolution of high-speed throwing in Homo

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Neil T.; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Rainbow, Michael J.; Lieberman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Although some primates, including chimpanzees, throw objects occasionally1,2, only humans regularly throw projectiles with high speed and great accuracy. Darwin noted that humans’ unique throwing abilities, made possible when bipedalism emancipated the arms, enabled foragers to effectively hunt using projectiles3. However, there has been little consideration of the evolution of throwing in the years since Darwin made his observations, in part because of a lack of evidence on when, how, and why hominins evolved the ability to generate high-speed throws4-8. Here, we show using experimental studies of throwers that human throwing capabilities largely result from several derived anatomical features that enable elastic energy storage and release at the shoulder. These features first appear together approximately two million years ago in the species Homo erectus. Given archaeological evidence that suggests hunting activity intensified around this time9, we conclude that selection for throwing in order to hunt likely played an important role in the evolution of the human genus. PMID:23803849

  20. California's biomass and its energy potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lucarelli, F.B. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The potentials for using California's biomass for energy have been assessed. The study relies on the recent work of Amory Lovins and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Distributed Energy System's Project to specify an energy future for Californians. These works identify transportation fuels as the most valuable energy conversion for biomass. Within this context, the extent of five categories of terrestial biomass is estimated, in addition to the environmental impacts and monetary cost of collecting and transporting each biomass category. Estimates of the costs of transforming biomass into different fuels as well as a survey of government's role in a biomass energy program are presented. The major findings are summarized below. (1) California's existing biomass resources are sufficient to provide only 20 percent of its future liquid fuel requirements. (2) Meeting the full transportation demand with biomass derived fuels will require the development of exotic biomass sources such as kelp farms and significant reductions in automobile travel in the State. (3) Under assumptions of moderate increases in gasoline prices and without major new government incentives, the cost of transforming biomass into transport fuels will be competitive with the price of gasoline on a Btu basis by the year 1990. (4) The environmental impacts of collecting most forms of biomass are beneficial and should reduce air pollution from agricultural burning and water pollution from feedlot and dairy farm runoff. Moreover, the collection of logging residues should improve timber stand productivity and the harvest of chaparral should reduce the risk of wildfire in the State. (5) The institutional context for implementing biomass energy projects is complex and fragmented.

  1. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  2. Grain-boundary free energy in an assembly of elastic disks.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Mark T; Beale, Paul D

    2004-02-01

    Grain-boundary free energy is estimated as a function of misoriention for symmetric tilt boundaries in an assembly of nearly hard disks. Fluctuating cell theory is used to accomplish this since the most common techniques for calculating interfacial free energy cannot be applied to such assemblies. The results are analogous to those obtained using a Leonard-Jones potential, but in this case the interfacial energy is dominated by an entropic contribution. Disk assemblies colorized with free and specific volume elucidate differences between these two characteristics of boundary structure. Profiles are also provided of the Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies as a function of distance from the grain boundaries. Low angle grain boundaries are shown to follow the classical relationship between dislocation orientation/spacing and misorientation angle.

  3. Sport-Specific Capacity to Use Elastic Energy in the Patellar and Achilles Tendons of Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Hans-Peter; Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During running and jumping activities, elastic energy is utilized to enhance muscle mechanical output and efficiency. However, training-induced variations in tendon spring-like properties remain under-investigated. The present work extends earlier findings on sport-specific profiles of tendon stiffness and cross-sectional area to examine whether years of distinct loading patterns are reflected by tendons' ability to store and return energy. Methods:Ultrasound scans were performed to examine the morphological features of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle-tendon units in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players, and sedentary controls. Tendon strain energy and hysteresis were measured with combined motion capture, ultrasonography, and dynamometry. Results: Apart from the fractional muscle-to-tendon cross-sectional area ratio being lower in the knee extensors of ski jumpers (-31%) and runners (-33%) than in water polo players, no difference in the considered muscle-tendon unit morphological features was observed between groups. Similarly, no significant difference in tendon energy storage or energy return was detected between groups. In contrast, hysteresis was lower in the patellar tendon of ski jumpers (-33%) and runners (-30%) compared to controls, with a similar trend for the Achilles tendon (significant interaction effect and large effect sizes η(2) = 0.2). Normalized to body mass, the recovered strain energy of the patellar tendon was ~50% higher in ski jumpers than in water polo players and controls. For the Achilles tendon, recovered strain energy was ~40% higher in ski jumpers and runners than in controls. Discussion: Advantageous mechanical properties related to tendon spring-like function are observed in elite athletes whose sport require effective utilization of elastic energy. However, the mechanisms underpinning the better tendon capacity of some athletes to retain elastic energy could not be ascribed to intrinsic or

  4. Sport-Specific Capacity to Use Elastic Energy in the Patellar and Achilles Tendons of Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wiesinger, Hans-Peter; Rieder, Florian; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich; Seynnes, Olivier R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During running and jumping activities, elastic energy is utilized to enhance muscle mechanical output and efficiency. However, training-induced variations in tendon spring-like properties remain under-investigated. The present work extends earlier findings on sport-specific profiles of tendon stiffness and cross-sectional area to examine whether years of distinct loading patterns are reflected by tendons' ability to store and return energy. Methods:Ultrasound scans were performed to examine the morphological features of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle-tendon units in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players, and sedentary controls. Tendon strain energy and hysteresis were measured with combined motion capture, ultrasonography, and dynamometry. Results: Apart from the fractional muscle-to-tendon cross-sectional area ratio being lower in the knee extensors of ski jumpers (−31%) and runners (−33%) than in water polo players, no difference in the considered muscle-tendon unit morphological features was observed between groups. Similarly, no significant difference in tendon energy storage or energy return was detected between groups. In contrast, hysteresis was lower in the patellar tendon of ski jumpers (−33%) and runners (−30%) compared to controls, with a similar trend for the Achilles tendon (significant interaction effect and large effect sizes η2 = 0.2). Normalized to body mass, the recovered strain energy of the patellar tendon was ~50% higher in ski jumpers than in water polo players and controls. For the Achilles tendon, recovered strain energy was ~40% higher in ski jumpers and runners than in controls. Discussion: Advantageous mechanical properties related to tendon spring-like function are observed in elite athletes whose sport require effective utilization of elastic energy. However, the mechanisms underpinning the better tendon capacity of some athletes to retain elastic energy could not be ascribed to

  5. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

  6. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.

  7. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  8. How well do we understand quasi-elastic reactions at energies close to the barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    In collisions between too heavy nuclei a wide spectrum of different reaction modes is observed covering the range from simple processes like elastic scattering to complicated multistep transfers and fusion. On the theoretical side heavy ion reactions are usually analyzed using models that were developed first for light ion induced reactions: the optical model for elastic scattering and the DWBA for more inelastic processes like transfer and inelastic scattering. Some of the assumptions going into these approximations, however, are not valid for heavy ion induced reactions. The region between fusion and quasi-elastic reactions is not well understood theoretically. This region is associated with deep inelastic collisions, which are complex multiparticle reactions involving transfer of several protons and neutrons. In this paper, the author discusses to what extent experiments in the field of quasi-elastic scattering are understood within the framework of various theoretical models and in what areas more work is needed.

  9. Triton Binding Energy of Kharkov Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, H.; Shebeko, O.; Arslanaliev, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Kharkov potential is a recent field theoretical model of nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction that has been built up in the framework of the instant form of relativistic dynamics starting with the total Hamiltonian of interacting meson and nucleon fields and using the method of unitary clothing transformations. The latter connect the representation of "bare" particles and the representation of "clothed" particles, i.e., the particles with physical properties. Unlike many available NN potentials each of which is the kernel of the corresponding nonrelativistic Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation this potential being dependent in momentum space on the Feynman-like propagators and covariant cutoff factors at the meson-nucleon vertices is the kernel of relativistic integral equations for the NN bound and scattering states. Therefore we do not need to invent any transform of a given nonrelativistic potential to its relativistic counterpart. As a feasible study, we have started with the so-called 5ch Faddeev calculation for three-nucleon bound state (triton) and obtained a reasonable value of its binding energy (-7.42 MeV).

  10. Potential energy surfaces of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, M.; Rutz, K.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.; Reinhard, P.-G. Rutz, K.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.

    1998-10-01

    We investigate the structure of the potential energy surfaces of the superheavy nuclei {sub 158}{sup 258}Fm{sub 100}, {sub 156}{sup 264}Hs{sub 108}, {sub 166}{sup 278}112, {sub 184}{sup 298}114, and {sub 172}{sup 292}120 within the framework of self-consistent nuclear models, i.e., the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model. We compare results obtained with one representative parametrization of each model which is successful in describing superheavy nuclei. We find systematic changes as compared to the potential energy surfaces of heavy nuclei in the uranium region: there is no sufficiently stable fission isomer any more, the importance of triaxial configurations to lower the first barrier fades away, and asymmetric fission paths compete down to rather small deformation. Comparing the two models, it turns out that the relativistic mean-field model gives generally smaller fission barriers. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Nonintuitive Diabatic Potential Energy Surfaces for Thioanisole.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaohong L; Xu, Xuefei; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-09-03

    Diabatization of potential energy surfaces is a technique that enables convenient molecular dynamics simulations of electronically nonadiabatic processes, but diabatization itself is nonunique and can be inconvenient; the best methods to achieve diabatization are still under study. Here, we present the diabatization of two electronic states of thioanisole in the S-CH3 bond stretching and C-C-S-C torsion two-dimensional nuclear coordinate space containing a conical intersection. We use two systematic methods: the (orbital-dependent) 4-fold way and the (orbital-free) Boys localization diabatization method. These very different methods yield strikingly similar diabatic potential energy surfaces that cross at geometries where the adiabatic surfaces are well separated and do not exhibit avoided crossings, and the contours of the diabatic gap and diabatic coupling are similar for the two methods. The validity of the diabatization is supported by comparing the nonadiabatic couplings calculated from the diabatic matrix elements to those calculated by direct differentiation of the adiabatic states.

  12. Free energy perturbation method for measuring elastic constants of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhijeet

    There is considerable interest in designing liquid crystals capable of yielding specific morphological responses in confined environments, including capillaries and droplets. The morphology of a liquid crystal is largely dictated by the elastic constants, which are difficult to measure and are only available for a handful of substances. In this work, a first-principles based method is proposed to calculate the Frank elastic constants of nematic liquid crystals directly from atomistic models. These include the standard splay, twist and bend deformations, and the often-ignored but important saddle-splay constant. The proposed method is validated using a well-studied Gay-Berne(3,5,2,1) model; we examine the effects of temperature and system size on the elastic constants in the nematic and smectic phases. We find that our measurements of splay, twist, and bend elastic constants are consistent with previous estimates for the nematic phase. We further outline the implementation of our approach for the saddle-splay elastic constant, and find it to have a value at the limits of the Ericksen inequalities. We then proceed to report results for the elastic constants commonly known liquid crystals namely 4-pentyl-4'-cynobiphenyl (5CB) using atomistic model, and show that the values predicted by our approach are consistent with a subset of the available but limited experimental literature.

  13. Simple theory of elastically deformed metals: Surface energy, stress, and work function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiejna, Adam; Pogosov, Valentin V.

    2000-10-01

    The effect of uniaxial strain on surface properties of simple metals is considered within the stabilized jellium model. The modified equations for the stabilization energy of the deformed Wigner-Seitz cells are derived as a function of the bulk electron density and the given deformation. The model requires as input the density parameter rs, the Poisson ratio, and Young's modulus of the metal. The results for surface energy, surface stress, and work function of simple metals calculated within the self-consistent Kohn-Sham method are also presented and discussed. A consistent explanation of the independent experiments on stress-induced contact potential difference at metal surfaces is given.

  14. Surface tension, surface energy, and chemical potential due to their difference.

    PubMed

    Hui, C-Y; Jagota, A

    2013-09-10

    It is well-known that surface tension and surface energy are distinct quantities for solids. Each can be regarded as a thermodynamic property related first by Shuttleworth. Mullins and others have suggested that the difference between surface tension and surface energy cannot be sustained and that the two will approach each other over time. In this work we show that in a single-component system where changes in elastic energy can be neglected, the chemical potential difference between the surface and bulk is proportional to the difference between surface tension and surface energy. By further assuming that mass transfer is driven by this chemical potential difference, we establish a model for the kinetics by which mass transfer removes the difference between surface tension and surface energy.

  15. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Chiari, L.; Buckman, S. J.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  16. Study of Ocean Bottom Interactions with Acoustic Waves by a New Elastic Wave Propagation Algorithm and an Energy Flow Analysis Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Study Of Ocean Bottom Interactions With Acoustic Waves By A New Elastic Wave Propagation Algorithm And An Energy Flow Analysis Technique Ru-Shan Wu...imaging to study the wave/sea-bottom interaction, energy partitioning, scattering mechanism and other problems that are crucial for many ocean bottom...Elastic Wave Propagation Algorithm And An Energy Flow Analysis Technique 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  17. The energy release rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large deformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the energy required to create new surfaces. Thus, the energy released to the crack tip must overcome the surface energy in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant deformation and can reduce the energy release rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the energy release rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the deformed crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the energy release rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the energy release rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials.

  18. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  19. Coherent-form energy conservation relation for the elastic scattering of a guided mode in a symmetric scattering system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao

    2013-10-07

    We propose a coherent-form energy conservation relation (ECR) that is generally valid for the elastic transmission and reflection of a guided mode in a symmetric scattering system. In contrast with the classical incoherent-form ECR, |τ|2 + |ρ|2≤1 with τ and ρ denoting the elastic transmission and reflection coefficients of a guided mode, the coherent-form ECR is expressed as |τ + ρ|≤1, which imposes a constraint on a coherent superposition of the transmitted and reflected modes. The coherent-form ECR is rigorously demonstrated and is numerically tested by considering different types of modes in various scattering systems. Further discussions with the scattering matrix formalism indicate that two coherent-form ECRs, |τ + ρ|≤1 and |τ-ρ|≤1, along with the classical ECR |τ|2 + |ρ|2≤1 constitute a complete description of the energy conservation for the elastic scattering of a guided mode in a symmetric scattering system. The coherent-form ECR provides a common tool in terms of energy transfer for understanding and analyzing the scattering dynamics in currently interested scattering systems.

  20. Non-contacting transfer of elastic energy into explosive simulants for dynamic property estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeney, Nathan S.; Strovink, Kurt M.; Scales, John A.; Jessop, Andrew M.; Stuart Bolton, J.; Watson, Christopher C.; Adams, Douglas E.

    2014-05-01

    Non-contacting acoustical methods can be used to extract various material properties of liquid or solid samples without disturbing the sample. These methods are useful even in the lab since they do not involve coupling anything to the sample, which might change its properties. A forteriori, when dealing with potentially dangerous materials, non-contacting methods may be the only safe solutions to mechanical characterization. Here, we show examples of using laser ultrasound to remotely insonify and monitor the elastic properties of several granular explosive simulants. The relatively short near-infrared laser pulse length (a few hundred nanoseconds) provides a broad-band thermoelastic source of ultrasound; we intentionally stay in the thermoelastic regime to avoid damaging the material. Then, we use a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the ultrasonic response of the sample. LDV technology is well established and very sensitive at ultrasonic frequencies; atomic level motions can be measured with modest averaging. The resulting impulse response of the explosive simulant can be analyzed to determine decay rates and wave speeds, with stiffer samples showing faster wave speeds and lower decay rates. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the acoustic spectrum, we use an electronically phased array to couple into a freely suspended sample's normal modes. This allows us to gently heat up the sample (3 °C in just under 5 min, as shown with a thermal IR camera). In addition to the practical interest in making the sample more chemically visible through heat, these two measurements (low-frequency resonant excitation vs high-frequency wave propagation) bracket the frequency range of acoustic non-destructive evaluation methods available.

  1. Non-contacting transfer of elastic energy into explosive simulants for dynamic property estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Greeney, Nathan S.; Strovink, Kurt M.; Scales, John A.; Jessop, Andrew M.; Stuart Bolton, J.; Watson, Christopher C.; Adams, Douglas E.

    2014-05-21

    Non-contacting acoustical methods can be used to extract various material properties of liquid or solid samples without disturbing the sample. These methods are useful even in the lab since they do not involve coupling anything to the sample, which might change its properties. A forteriori, when dealing with potentially dangerous materials, non-contacting methods may be the only safe solutions to mechanical characterization. Here, we show examples of using laser ultrasound to remotely insonify and monitor the elastic properties of several granular explosive simulants. The relatively short near-infrared laser pulse length (a few hundred nanoseconds) provides a broad-band thermoelastic source of ultrasound; we intentionally stay in the thermoelastic regime to avoid damaging the material. Then, we use a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the ultrasonic response of the sample. LDV technology is well established and very sensitive at ultrasonic frequencies; atomic level motions can be measured with modest averaging. The resulting impulse response of the explosive simulant can be analyzed to determine decay rates and wave speeds, with stiffer samples showing faster wave speeds and lower decay rates. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the acoustic spectrum, we use an electronically phased array to couple into a freely suspended sample's normal modes. This allows us to gently heat up the sample (3 °C in just under 5 min, as shown with a thermal IR camera). In addition to the practical interest in making the sample more chemically visible through heat, these two measurements (low-frequency resonant excitation vs high-frequency wave propagation) bracket the frequency range of acoustic non-destructive evaluation methods available.

  2. Synergy of elastic and inelastic energy loss on ion track formation in SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Sachan, Ritesh; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Liu, Peng; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen

    2015-01-12

    While the interaction of energetic ions with solids is well known to result in inelastic energy loss to electrons and elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei in the solid, the coupled effects of these energy losses on defect production, nanostructure evolution and phase transformations in ionic and covalently bonded materials are complex and not well understood due to dependencies on electron-electron scattering processes, electron-phonon coupling, localized electronic excitations, diffusivity of charged defects, and solid-state radiolysis. Here we show that a colossal synergy occurs between inelastic energy loss and pre-existing atomic defects created by elastic energy loss in single crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO3), resulting in the formation of nanometer-sized amorphous tracks, but only in the narrow region with pre-existing defects. These defects locally decrease the electronic and atomic thermal conductivities and increase electron-phonon coupling, which locally increase the intensity of the thermal spike for each ion. This work identifies a major gap in understanding on the role of defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron-phonon coupling; it also provides insights for creating novel interfaces and nanostructures to functionalize thin film structures, including tunable electronic, ionic, magnetic and optical properties.

  3. Synergy of elastic and inelastic energy loss on ion track formation in SrTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Weber, William J.; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; ...

    2015-01-12

    While the interaction of energetic ions with solids is well known to result in inelastic energy loss to electrons and elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei in the solid, the coupled effects of these energy losses on defect production, nanostructure evolution and phase transformations in ionic and covalently bonded materials are complex and not well understood due to dependencies on electron-electron scattering processes, electron-phonon coupling, localized electronic excitations, diffusivity of charged defects, and solid-state radiolysis. Here we show that a colossal synergy occurs between inelastic energy loss and pre-existing atomic defects created by elastic energy loss in single crystal strontiummore » titanate (SrTiO3), resulting in the formation of nanometer-sized amorphous tracks, but only in the narrow region with pre-existing defects. These defects locally decrease the electronic and atomic thermal conductivities and increase electron-phonon coupling, which locally increase the intensity of the thermal spike for each ion. This work identifies a major gap in understanding on the role of defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron-phonon coupling; it also provides insights for creating novel interfaces and nanostructures to functionalize thin film structures, including tunable electronic, ionic, magnetic and optical properties.« less

  4. Synergy of elastic and inelastic energy loss on ion track formation in SrTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Weber, William J.; Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Sachan, Ritesh; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Liu, Peng; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen

    2015-01-01

    While the interaction of energetic ions with solids is well known to result in inelastic energy loss to electrons and elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei in the solid, the coupled effects of these energy losses on defect production, nanostructure evolution and phase transformations in ionic and covalently bonded materials are complex and not well understood due to dependencies on electron-electron scattering processes, electron-phonon coupling, localized electronic excitations, diffusivity of charged defects, and solid-state radiolysis. Here we show that a colossal synergy occurs between inelastic energy loss and pre-existing atomic defects created by elastic energy loss in single crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO3), resulting in the formation of nanometer-sized amorphous tracks, but only in the narrow region with pre-existing defects. These defects locally decrease the electronic and atomic thermal conductivities and increase electron-phonon coupling, which locally increase the intensity of the thermal spike for each ion. This work identifies a major gap in understanding on the role of defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron-phonon coupling; it also provides insights for creating novel interfaces and nanostructures to functionalize thin film structures, including tunable electronic, ionic, magnetic and optical properties. PMID:25578009

  5. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Glen; de Gosson, Maurice A.; Hiley, Basil J.

    2015-06-01

    We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the 'particle' referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  6. Elastic resistance change and action potential generation of non-faradaic Pt/TiO2/Pt capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyungkwang; Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Inho; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2013-06-01

    Electric current in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor TiO2 is hysteretic, i.e. history-dependent, and its use is versatile in electronic devices. Nowadays, biologically inspired, analogue-type computing systems, known as neuromorphic systems, are being actively investigated owing to their new and intriguing physical concepts. The realization of artificial synapses is important for constructing neuromorphic systems. In mammalians' brains, the plasticity of synapses between neighbouring nerve cells arises from action potential firing. Emulating action potential firing via inorganic systems has therefore become important in neuromorphic engineering. In this work, the current-voltage hysteresis of TiO2-based non-faradaic capacitors is investigated to primarily focus on the correlation between the blocking contact and the elasticity, i.e. non-plasticity, of the capacitors' resistance change, in experimental and theoretical methods. The similarity between the action potential firing behaviour in nerve cells and the elasticity of the non-faradaic capacitors is addressed.Electric current in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor TiO2 is hysteretic, i.e. history-dependent, and its use is versatile in electronic devices. Nowadays, biologically inspired, analogue-type computing systems, known as neuromorphic systems, are being actively investigated owing to their new and intriguing physical concepts. The realization of artificial synapses is important for constructing neuromorphic systems. In mammalians' brains, the plasticity of synapses between neighbouring nerve cells arises from action potential firing. Emulating action potential firing via inorganic systems has therefore become important in neuromorphic engineering. In this work, the current-voltage hysteresis of TiO2-based non-faradaic capacitors is investigated to primarily focus on the correlation between the blocking contact and the elasticity, i.e. non-plasticity, of the capacitors' resistance change, in

  7. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms.

  8. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowski, L.J.; Pernisz, U.C.; Fraas, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of {open_quote}{open_quote}moving down the learning curve,{close_quote}{close_quote} growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  10. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Leon J.; Pernisz, Udo C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1996-02-01

    This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of ``moving down the learning curve,'' growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells.

  11. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000–2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997–2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042

  12. EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

    2010-08-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

  13. Extended optical model analyses of elastic scattering and fusion cross sections for heavy-ion collisions with loosely bound projectiles at near-Coulomb-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, W. Y.; Hong, S. W.; Kim, B. T.; Udagawa, T.

    2004-06-01

    Within the framework of an extended optical model, simultaneous χ2 analyses are performed for elastic scattering and fusion cross-section data for 9Be + 209 Bi and 6Li + 208 Pb systems, both involving loosely bound projectiles, at near-Coulomb-barrier energies to determine the polarization potential as decomposed into direct reaction (DR) and fusion parts. We show that both DR and fusion potentials extracted from χ2 analyses separately satisfy the dispersion relation, and that the expected threshold anomaly appears in the fusion part. The DR potential turns out to be a rather smooth function of the incident energy, and has a magnitude at the strong absorption radius much larger than the fusion potential, explaining why a threshold anomaly has not been seen in optical potentials deduced from fits to the elastic-scattering data without such a decomposition. Using the extracted DR potential, we examine the effects of projectile breakup on fusion cross sections σF . The observed suppression of σF in the above-barrier region can be explained in terms of the flux loss due to breakup. However, the observed enhancement of σF in the subbarrier region cannot be understood in terms of the breakup effect. Rather, the enhancement can be related to the Q value of the neutron transfer within the systems, supporting the ideas of

    Stelson et al. [Phys. Lett. B 205, 190 (1988)
    ;
    Stelson et al.Phys. Rev. C 41, 1584 (1990)]
    that subbarrier fusion starts to occur when the colliding ions are at a distance where the barrier against the flow of the valence neutrons disappears and thus neutron exchange can take place freely.

  14. A method for using neutron elastic scatter to create a variable energy neutron beam from a nearly monoenergetic neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, Z. D.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    This work describes preliminary investigation into the design of a compact, portable, variable energy neutron source. The proposed method uses elastic neutron scatter at specific angles to reduce the energy of deuterium-deuterium or deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutrons. The research focuses on D-T Monte Carlo simulations, both in idealized and more realistic scenarios. Systematic uncertainty of the method is also analyzed. The research showed promise, but highlighted the need for discrimination of multiply-scattered neutrons, either through a pulsed generator or associated particle imaging.

  15. Elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O at energies E/A between 5 and 8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Aissaoui, N.; Beck, C.; Elanique, A.; Nouicer, R.; Morsad, A.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.

    1999-12-01

    The elastic scattering of {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O has been measured at nine energies between E{sub lab}=75 and 124 MeV. The data cover up to 100 degree sign in the c.m. and can be described in terms of phenomenological and folding model potentials which reproduce the main features observed. In agreement with studies at higher energies in this and similar systems, refractive effects are present in the angular distributions at all energies. In particular, the passage of Airy minima through 90 degree sign at E{sub c.m.}=40, 47.5, and 62 MeV explains the deep minima observed in the excitation function. The real part of the optical potential is found to vary very little with energy over the studied interval, but the imaginary part shows a rapid change in its shape at incident energy about 90 MeV. Nonetheless, the energy dependence of the volume integral of the real and imaginary parts is in agreement with dispersion relation predictions. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  16. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  17. Deuteron Analyzing Powers for \\varvec{dp} Elastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies and Three-Nucleon Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Wada, Y.; Watanabe, A.; Eto, D.; Akieda, T.; Kon, H.; Miki, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakai, H.; Sasano, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Dozono, M.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, C. S.; Yako, K.; Maeda, Y.; Kawakami, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Wakasa, T.; Yasuda, J.; Ohkura, A.; Shindo, Y.; Tabata, M.; Milman, E.; Chebotaryov, S.; Okamura, H.; Tang, T. L.

    2017-03-01

    We have measured a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers in deuteron-proton elastic scattering at 190, 250, and 294 MeV/nucleon. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon-nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne'99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces. The data are also presented with the calculations based on the N4LO NN potentials of the chiral effective field theory.

  18. Elastic actuation for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.

  19. On the relation between the energy of a distorted crystal lattice and the bending modulus of strain gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, M.; Khatibi, G.

    2017-01-01

    It is a well known fact that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) predicts stress singularities at the tips of sharp cracks, at sharp edges, at corners and at the surface of material transitions. However, from the viewpoint of the strengths of atomic bonds it is clear that only finite forces may be present at the tip of a stable crack. Therefore, theories of strain gradient elasticity were developed which reduce the values of stress concentrations. Within these theories a bending modulus is postulated which introduces an increased stiffness of the crystal lattice against bending. In the present study, the value of this bending modulus is evaluated on the basis of the electrostatic energy of a bent crystal lattice. This is done for the face centred cubic structure of NaCl. In fact, results for the bending modulus could be obtained although they depend on the crystal size.

  20. The Intermediate Energy Elastic Scattering of Protons by α-CLUSTER 20Ne and 24Mg Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Mikhailyuk, V. P.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    The multiple diffraction scattering theory and the α-cluster model with dispersion have been applied for calculations of the observables for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy protons by 20Ne and 24Mg nuclei. The target nuclei are considered as composed of the core (16O nucleus) and additional α-clusters (one α-cluster for 20Ne nucleus and a dumb-bell α-cluster configuration for 24Mg nucleus). Taking into account the α-cluster configuration of the core, it was supposed that the additional α-cluster or center of mass of the dumb-bell are arranged with the most probability inside or outside of the core. The calculated observables for the elastic p-20Ne and p-24Mg scattering are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The influence of the deformed core contribution on the behavior of the calculated observables also is tested.

  1. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. III - SF6 and UF6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed technique has been used to measure the ratios of elastic differential electron scattering cross sections (DCS) for SF6 and UF6 to those of He at electron impact energies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 75 eV and at scattering angles of 20 to 135 deg. In order to obtain the absolute values of DCS from these ratios, He DCS of McConkey and Preston have been employed in the 20 to 90 deg range. At angles in the 90 to 135 deg range the recently determined cross sections of Srivastava and Trajmar have been utilized. From these DCS, elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been obtained.

  2. Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Eric

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)

  3. Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Eric

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)

  4. Transiting the molecular potential energy surface along low energy pathways: the TRREAT algorithm.

    PubMed

    Campañá, Carlos; Miller, Ronald E

    2013-11-05

    The Transition Rapidly exploring Random Eigenvector Assisted Tree (TRREAT) algorithm is introduced to perform searches along low curvature pathways on a potential energy surface (PES). The method combines local curvature information about the PES with an iterative Rapidly exploring Random Tree algorithm (LaValle, Computer Science Department, Iowa State University, 1998, TR98-11) that quickly searches high-dimensional spaces for feasible pathways between local minima. Herein, the method is applied to identifying conformational changes of molecular systems using Cartesian coordinates while avoiding a priori definition of collective variables. We analyze the pathway identification problem for alanine dipeptide, cyclohexane and glycine using nonreactive and reactive forcefields. We show how TRREAT-identified pathways can be used as valuable input guesses for double-ended methods such as the Nudged Elastic Band when ascertaining transition state energies. This method can be utilized to improve/extend the reaction databases that lie at the core of automatic chemical reaction mechanism generator software currently developed to build kinetic models of chemical reactions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Relativistic analysis of proton elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nohy, N. A.; El-Hammamy, M. N.; Yoseph, S. I.; Abdel-Moneim, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The Dirac equation as the relevant wave equation, is used in modified DWUCK4 program to calculate the elastic scattering cross section throughout the energy range suitable for relativistic treatment of proton elastic scattering by nuclei 40Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr and 208Pb. A good fit to the experimental data is presented. The real and imaginary potentials are well determined and behave regularly with energy. The behaviour of the real central effective potential shows the development of a "wine-bottle" shape in the transition energy region and the persistence of a small attractive potential in the nuclear surface region, even at 800 MeV.

  6. Van der Waals Type Model for Neutron-Proton Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, F.

    1980-12-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution and total cross-section for neutron-proton elastic scattering between 70< pL <400 GeV/c with squared four momentum transfer -t ≤ 3.6 (GeV/c)2 have been explained using Van der Waals type model.

  7. Elastic resistance change and action potential generation of non-faradaic Pt/TiO2/Pt capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyungkwang; Jang, Ho Won; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Inho; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2013-07-21

    Electric current in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor TiO2 is hysteretic, i.e. history-dependent, and its use is versatile in electronic devices. Nowadays, biologically inspired, analogue-type computing systems, known as neuromorphic systems, are being actively investigated owing to their new and intriguing physical concepts. The realization of artificial synapses is important for constructing neuromorphic systems. In mammalians' brains, the plasticity of synapses between neighbouring nerve cells arises from action potential firing. Emulating action potential firing via inorganic systems has therefore become important in neuromorphic engineering. In this work, the current-voltage hysteresis of TiO2-based non-faradaic capacitors is investigated to primarily focus on the correlation between the blocking contact and the elasticity, i.e. non-plasticity, of the capacitors' resistance change, in experimental and theoretical methods. The similarity between the action potential firing behaviour in nerve cells and the elasticity of the non-faradaic capacitors is addressed.

  8. Quantum-elastic bump on a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Victor; Dandoloff, Rossen

    2017-01-01

    We use an exact solution of the elastic membrane shape equation, representing the curvature, which will serve as a quantum potential in the quantum mechanical two dimensional Schrödinger equation for a (quasi-) particle on the surface of the membrane. Surface curvature in the quasi one-dimensional case is related to an unexpected static formation: on one hand the elastic energy has a maximum where surface curvature has a maximum and on the other hand the concentration of the expectation value to find the (quasi-) particle is again where the elastic energy is concentrated, namely where surface curvature has a maximum. This represents a particular form of a conformon.

  9. Vertical leaping mechanics of the Lesser Egyptian Jerboa reveal specialization for maneuverability rather than elastic energy storage.

    PubMed

    Moore, Talia Y; Rivera, Alberto M; Biewener, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous historical descriptions of the Lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus, a small bipedal mammal with elongate hindlimbs, make special note of their extraordinary leaping ability. We observed jerboa locomotion in a laboratory setting and performed inverse dynamics analysis to understand how this small rodent generates such impressive leaps. We combined kinematic data from video, kinetic data from a force platform, and morphometric data from dissections to calculate the relative contributions of each hindlimb muscle and tendon to the total movement. Jerboas leapt in excess of 10 times their hip height. At the maximum recorded leap height (not the maximum observed leap height), peak moments for metatarso-phalangeal, ankle, knee, and hip joints were 13.1, 58.4, 65.1, and 66.9 Nmm, respectively. Muscles acting at the ankle joint contributed the most work (mean 231.6 mJ / kg Body Mass) to produce the energy of vertical leaping, while muscles acting at the metatarso-phalangeal joint produced the most stress (peak 317.1 kPa). The plantaris, digital flexors, and gastrocnemius tendons encountered peak stresses of 25.6, 19.1, and 6.0 MPa, respectively, transmitting the forces of their corresponding muscles (peak force 3.3, 2.0, and 3.8 N, respectively). Notably, we found that the mean elastic energy recovered in the primary tendons of both hindlimbs comprised on average only 4.4% of the energy of the associated leap. The limited use of tendon elastic energy storage in the jerboa parallels the morphologically similar heteromyid kangaroo rat, Dipodomys spectabilis. When compared to larger saltatory kangaroos and wallabies that sustain hopping over longer periods of time, these small saltatory rodents store and recover less elastic strain energy in their tendons. The large contribution of muscle work, rather than elastic strain energy, to the vertical leap suggests that the fitness benefit of rapid acceleration for predator avoidance dominated over the need to enhance

  10. Coulomb suppression in the low-energy p-p elastic scattering via the Trojan Horse Method

    SciTech Connect

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Campajola, L.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, G.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Gialanella, L.

    2010-11-24

    We present here an important test of the main feature of the Trojan Horse Method (THM), namely the suppression of Coulomb effects in the entrance channel due to off-energy-shell effects. This is done by measuring the THM p-p elastic scattering via the p+d{yields}p+p+n reaction at 4.7 and 5 MeV, corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. In contrast to the on-energy-shell (OES) case, the extracted p-p cross section does not exhibit the Coulomb-nuclear interference minimum due to the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude. This is confirmed by the half-off-energy shell (HOES) calculations and strengthened by the agreement with the calculated OES nuclear cross sections.

  11. An ab initio method for locating potential energy minima

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Nicolas; Peery, Travis; Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric; Wallace, Duane; Lizarraga, Raquel; Holmstrom, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We study the potential energy landscape underlying the motion of monatomic liquids by quenching from random initial configurations (stochastic configurations) to the nearest local minimum of the potential energy. We show that this procedure reveals the underlying potential energy surface directly. This is in contrast to the common technique of quenching from a molecular dynamics trajectory which does not allow a direct view of the underlying potential energy surface, but needs to be corrected for thermodynamic weighting factors.

  12. Elastic Carbon Aerogels Reconstructed from Electrospun Nanofibers and Graphene as Three-Dimensional Networked Matrix for Efficient Energy Storage/Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunpeng; Lai, Feili; Zhang, Longsheng; Lu, Hengyi; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) all-carbon nanofibrous aerogels with good structural stability and elasticity are highly desirable in flexible energy storage/conversion devices. Hence, an efficient surface-induced co-assembly strategy is reported for the novel design and reconstruction of electrospun nanofibers into graphene/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite aerogels (GCA) with hierarchical structures utilizing graphene flakes as cross-linkers. The as-obtained GCA monoliths possess interconnected macropores and integrated conductive networks, which exhibit high elasticity and great structural robustness. Benefitting from the largely increased surface area and charge-transfer efficiency derived from the multi-form firm interconnections (including pillaring, bridging and jointing) between graphene flakes and CNF ribs, GCA not only reveals prominent capacitive performance as supercapacitor electrode, but also shows excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity in both acidic and alkaline solutions as a 3D template for decoration of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, holding great potentials for energy-related applications. PMID:27511271

  13. Strong pickup-coupling effect on p+{sup 10}Be and {sup 11}Be elastic scattering around 40A MeV incident energy

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, N.; Lapoux, V.

    2008-01-15

    To explore the nature of the coupling effects on p+{sup 10}Be and p+{sup 11}Be elastic scattering at incident energies of 39.1A and at 38.4A MeV, respectively, coupled reaction channels (CRC) calculations were performed for the {sup 10}Be(p,d){sup 9}Be and {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be* pickup to the ground state of {sup 9}Be and the 5.960 MeV 1{sup -} and 6.263 MeV 2{sup -} doublet of excited states in {sup 10}Be at the corresponding incident energies. We show that within the CRC framework, the coupling effect on the elastic scattering is significant in both cases and produces effective absorption in the entrance channel. This suggests that the use of a fitted p+{sup 10}Be optical model potential may lead to too much absorption in the core plus proton interaction in extended coupled discretized continuum channels type of calculations for the p+{sup 11}Be system and that coupling to the {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be* pickup should be explicitly included in such studies.

  14. Elastic Carbon Aerogels Reconstructed from Electrospun Nanofibers and Graphene as Three-Dimensional Networked Matrix for Efficient Energy Storage/Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Lai, Feili; Zhang, Longsheng; Lu, Hengyi; Miao, Yue-E.; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) all-carbon nanofibrous aerogels with good structural stability and elasticity are highly desirable in flexible energy storage/conversion devices. Hence, an efficient surface-induced co-assembly strategy is reported for the novel design and reconstruction of electrospun nanofibers into graphene/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite aerogels (GCA) with hierarchical structures utilizing graphene flakes as cross-linkers. The as-obtained GCA monoliths possess interconnected macropores and integrated conductive networks, which exhibit high elasticity and great structural robustness. Benefitting from the largely increased surface area and charge-transfer efficiency derived from the multi-form firm interconnections (including pillaring, bridging and jointing) between graphene flakes and CNF ribs, GCA not only reveals prominent capacitive performance as supercapacitor electrode, but also shows excellent hydrogen evolution reaction activity in both acidic and alkaline solutions as a 3D template for decoration of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets, holding great potentials for energy-related applications.

  15. Renewable Energy Potential for New Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RE-Powering America's Land: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land and Mining Sites was presented by Penelope McDaniel, during the 2008 Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop.

  16. Eliciting patients' preferences for elastic compression stocking therapy after deep vein thrombosis: potential for improving compliance.

    PubMed

    Bouman, A C; Ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Dirksen, C D; Joore, M A

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Elastic compression stocking (ECS) therapy is used to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). We aimed to elicit patient preferences regarding ECS therapy after deep vein thrombosis. The most valued attributes were PTS risk reduction and the ability to put on the ECS independently. Heterogeneous results with respect to education level stress the importance of proper counselling. Elastic compression stocking (ECS) therapy is used for prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Current evidence on its effectiveness is conflicting. Compliance, a major determinant of the effectiveness of ECS therapy, remained largely ignored in former studies. To gain insight into preferences regarding ECS therapy in patients after DVT. A discrete choice experiment was conducted 3 months after DVT in patients enrolled in the IDEAL DVT study, a randomized controlled trial comparing 2 years of ECS therapy with individually tailored duration of ECS therapy for the prevention of PTS. Nine unlabeled, forced-choice sets of two hypothetical types of ECS were presented to each patient. Data were analyzed with multinomial logit models. The respondent sample consisted of 81% (300/369) of invited patients. The most important determinants of preference were PTS risk reduction and putting on the ECS. Patients were willing to increase the duration of therapy by 1 year if this increases the PTS risk reduction with 10%. Patients accepted an increase in the risk of PTS of 29% if they were able to put on the ECS themselves. Preferences were heterogeneous with respect to education level. Reduction of the risk of PTS and the ability to put on the ECS without help are the most important characteristics of ECS therapy. Physicians should pay considerable attention to patient education regarding PTS. In addition, patients should be supported in their ability to put on and take off the ECS independently. These rather simple interventions could improve compliance

  17. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  18. The elastic fibre network of the human lumbar anulus fibrosus: architecture, mechanical function and potential role in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fazzalari, Nicola L.

    2009-01-01

    Elastic fibres are critical constituents of dynamic biological structures that functionally require elasticity and resilience. The network of elastic fibres in the anulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is extensive, however until recently, the majority of histological, biochemical and biomechanical studies have focussed on the roles of other extracellular matrix constituents such as collagens and proteoglycans. The resulting lack of detailed descriptions of elastic fibre network architecture and mechanical function has limited understanding of the potentially important contribution made by elastic fibres to healthy disc function and their possible roles in the progression of disc degeneration. In addition, it has made it difficult to postulate what the consequences of elastic fibre related disorders would be for intervertebral disc behaviour, and to develop treatments accordingly. In this paper, we review recent and historical studies which have examined both the structure and the function of the human lumbar anulus fibrosus elastic fibre network, provide a synergistic discussion in an attempt to clarify its potentially critical contribution both to normal intervertebral disc behaviour and the processes relating to its degeneration, and recommend critical areas for future research. PMID:19263091

  19. Jumping sans legs: does elastic energy storage by the vertebral column power terrestrial jumps in bony fishes?

    PubMed

    Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Perlman, Benjamin M; Gibb, Alice C; Long, John H

    2014-02-01

    Despite having no obvious anatomical modifications to facilitate movement over land, numerous small fishes from divergent teleost lineages make brief, voluntary terrestrial forays to escape poor aquatic conditions or to pursue terrestrial prey. Once stranded, these fishes produce a coordinated and effective "tail-flip" jumping behavior, wherein lateral flexion of the axial body into a C-shape, followed by contralateral flexion of the body axis, propels the fish into a ballistic flight-path that covers a distance of multiple body lengths. We ask: how do anatomical structures that evolved in one habitat generate effective movement in a novel habitat? Within this context, we hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the axial skeleton play a critical role in producing effective overland movement, and that tail-flip jumping species demonstrate enhanced elastic energy storage through increased body flexural stiffness or increased body curvature, relative to non-jumping species. To test this hypothesis, we derived a model to predict elastic recoil work from the morphology of the vertebral (neural and hemal) spines. From ground reaction force (GRF) measurements and high-speed video, we calculated elastic recoil work, flexural stiffness, and apparent material stiffness of the body for Micropterus salmoides (a non-jumper) and Kryptolebias marmoratus (adept tail-flip jumper). The model predicted no difference between the two species in work stored by the vertebral spines, and GRF data showed that they produce the same magnitude of mass-specific elastic recoil work. Surprisingly, non-jumper M. salmoides has a stiffer body than tail-flip jumper K. marmoratus. Many tail-flip jumping species possess enlarged, fused hypural bones that support the caudal peduncle, which suggests that the localized structures, rather than the entire axial skeleton, may explain differences in terrestrial performance.

  20. Van der Waals Type Model and Structure in π-p Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, F.

    1982-10-01

    The most recent measurement of the angular distribution for π-p elastic scattering at pL =50 and 200 GeV/c which show a structure near -t ≈ 4(GeV/c)2, with squared four momentum transfer -t extended to 10(GeV/c)2, and the total cross section data for 50 ≤ pL ≤ 370 GeV/c have been simultaneously explained by using Van der Waal's type model.

  1. Effect of high-energy X-ray doses on bone elastic properties and residual strains.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, J D; Dunand, D C

    2011-11-01

    Bone X-ray irradiation occurs during medical treatments, sterilization of allografts, space travel and in vitro studies. High doses are known to affect the post-yield properties of bone, but their effect on the bone elastic properties is unclear. The effect of such doses on the mineral-organic interface has also not been adequately addressed. Here, the evolution of elastic properties and residual strains with increasing synchrotron X-ray dose (5-3880 kGy) is examined on bovine cortical bone. It is found that these doses affect neither the degree of nanometer-level load transfer between the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and the collagen up to stresses of -60 MPa nor the microscopic modulus of collagen fibrils (both measured by synchrotron X-ray scattering during repeated in situ loading and unloading). However, the residual elastic strains in the HAP phase decrease markedly with increased irradiation, indicating damage at the HAP-collagen interface. The HAP residual strain also decreases after repeated loading/unloading cycles. These observations can be explained by temporary de-bonding at the HAP/collagen interface (thus reducing the residual strain), followed by rapid re-bonding (so that load transfer capability is not affected). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An energy-efficient and elastic optical multiple access system based on coherent interleaved frequency division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Maruta, Akihiro; Ishii, Kenji; Akiyama, Yuji; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koguchi, Kazuumi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Mizuochi, Takashi; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-20

    This paper proposes a novel bandwidth-elastic and energy-efficient passive optical network (PON) based on the coherent interleaved frequency division multiple access (IFDMA) scheme. We experimentally demonstrate the coherent IFDMA-PON uplink transmission up-to 30 Gbps over a 30 km standard single-mode fiber with 2 × optical network units (ONUs). A low-complexity digital carrier synchronization technique enables multiple access of the ONUs on the basis of 78.1 MHz narrow band orthogonal subcarriers without any guard-bands.

  3. Elastic Scattering of Low Energy Pions by Nuclei and the In-Medium Isovector πN Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Bauer, M.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Denz, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Erhardt, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Kritchman, S.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Yaari, G.

    2006-07-01

    Measurements of elastic scattering of 21.5 MeV π± by Si, Ca, Ni and Zr were made using a single arm magnetic spectrometer and absolute calibration was made by parallel measurements of Coulomb scattering of muons. Optical model fits to the data reveal the `anomalous' s-wave repulsion known from pionic atoms. Introducing a chiral-motivated density dependence of the isovector scattering amplitude, and considering the energy dependence of the free πN interaction greatly improve fits to the data and remove the `anomaly'.

  4. Energy dependence of the optical potentials for the 9Be +208Pb and 9Be +209Bi systems at near-Coulomb-barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Yu, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Jia, H. M.; Lubian, J.; Lin, C. J.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the energy dependence of the interacting optical potential, at near barrier energies, for two systems involving the weakly bound projectile 9Be and the heavy 208Pb and 209Bi targets, by the simultaneous fit of elastic scattering angular distributions and fusion excitation functions. The approach used consists of dividing the optical potential into two parts. A short-range potential VF+i WF that is responsible for fusion, and a superficial potential VDR+i WDR for direct reactions. It is found, for both systems studied, that the fusion imaginary potential WF presents the usual threshold anomaly (TA) observed in tightly bound systems, whereas the direct reaction imaginary potential WDR shows a breakup threshold anomaly (BTA) behavior. Both potentials satisfy the dispersion relation. The direct reaction polarization potential predominates over the fusion potential and so a net overall behavior is found to follow the BTA phenomenon.

  5. First principles molecular dynamics studies of elastic constants, ideal tensile strength, chemistry of crack initiation, and surface and cohesive energies in amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shodja, Hossein M.; Tabatabaei, Maryam; Esfarjani, Keivan

    2014-09-01

    First principles Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (MD) is employed to investigate some physical and mechanical properties of amorphous Si (a-Si) samples, as-quenched and annealed containing dangling and floating bonds as well as distorted tetrahedral bonds. The total energy and true stress as functions of the engineering strain for a-Si samples subjected to uniaxial tensile stress as well as uniaxial extension are obtained. It is well-known that the electron density of the state of matters can be determined via ab initio DFT-based MD with high accuracy. Using this technique, such inherent properties as the elastic constants, ideal tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength, and surface and cohesive energies will be calculated. Since the employed ab initio MD, in contrast to the empirical potentials simulations, is capable of providing the evolution of the electronic charge distribution, we can afford to study the chemistry of crack initiation and reconstructed surfaces at final rupture. The calculated cohesive and surface energies are compared with the available theoretical and experimental results; Tyson's empirical relation and universal binding energy relations (UBERs) are also examined. The calculated elastic constants using the symmetry-general scheme satisfy well the isotropic relation ?. To date, the ab initio MD samples of a-Si generated from the completely melted scheme were all free of three-fold-coordinated Si. In contrast, as we will show, by implementing special thermal treatments, generation of all inherent structural defects is possible. Based on the electronic charge distribution, dative bonds and trigonal prisms for, respectively, floating and dangling bonds have been observed.

  6. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  7. The Potential Energy of an Autoencoder.

    PubMed

    Kamyshanska, Hanna; Memisevic, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Autoencoders are popular feature learning models, that are conceptually simple, easy to train and allow for efficient inference. Recent work has shown how certain autoencoders can be associated with an energy landscape, akin to negative log-probability in a probabilistic model, which measures how well the autoencoder can represent regions in the input space. The energy landscape has been commonly inferred heuristically, by using a training criterion that relates the autoencoder to a probabilistic model such as a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). In this paper we show how most common autoencoders are naturally associated with an energy function, independent of the training procedure, and that the energy landscape can be inferred analytically by integrating the reconstruction function of the autoencoder. For autoencoders with sigmoid hidden units, the energy function is identical to the free energy of an RBM, which helps shed light onto the relationship between these two types of model. We also show that the autoencoder energy function allows us to explain common regularization procedures, such as contractive training, from the perspective of dynamical systems. As a practical application of the energy function, a generative classifier based on class-specific autoencoders is presented.

  8. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  9. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  10. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  11. The {sup 6}He Optical Potential at energies around the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Moro, A. M.

    2010-04-26

    We present an Optical Model (OM) study of {sup 6}He on {sup 208}Pb elastic scattering data, measured at laboratory energies around the Coulomb barrier (E{sub lab} = 14, 16, 18, 22, and 27 MeV)[1]. For the projectile-target bare interaction, we use the microscopic Sao Paulo Potential (SPP). This bare interaction is supplemented with a Coulomb Dipole Polarization (CDP) potential, as well as a diffuse complex Woods-Saxon potential. Four-body Continuum-Discretized-Coupled-Channels (CDCC) calculations have been performed in order to support the optical model analysis. We have also studied the alpha channel, which is the dominant reaction process. In the analysis of this channel, we compare the angular and energy distributions of the alpha particles measured at 22 MeV, with Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculations.

  12. Optimal utilization of total elastic scattering cross section data for the determination of interatomic potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R. B.; Labudde, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of inversion is considered in relation to absolute total cross sections Q(v) for atom-atom collisions and their velocity dependence, and the glory undulations and the transition to high velocity behavior. There is a limit to the amount of information available from Q(v) even when observations of good accuracy (e.g., + or - 0.25%) are in hand over an extended energy range (from thermal energies upward by a factor of greater than 1000 in relative kinetic energy). Methods were developed for data utilization, which take full advantage of the accuracy of the experimental Q(v) measurements.

  13. On the Landau-de Gennes Elastic Energy of a Q-Tensor Model for Soft Biaxial Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucci, Domenico; Nicolodi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    In the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, the propensities for alignments of molecules are represented at each point of the fluid by an element Q of the vector space S_0 of 3× 3 real symmetric traceless matrices, or Q -tensors. According to Longa and Trebin (1989), a biaxial nematic system is called soft biaxial if the tensor order parameter Q satisfies the constraint tr(Q^2) = const. After the introduction of a Q-tensor model for soft biaxial nematic systems and the description of its geometric structure, we address the question of coercivity for the most common four-elastic-constant form of the Landau-de Gennes elastic free-energy (Iyer et al. 2015) in this model. For a soft biaxial nematic system, the tensor field Q takes values in a four-dimensional sphere S^4_ρ of radius ρ ≤ √{2/3} in the five-dimensional space S_0 with inner product < Q, P \\rangle = tr(Q{P}) . The rotation group SO(3) acts orthogonally on S_0 by conjugation and hence induces an action on S^4_ρ \\subset S_0 . This action has generic orbits of codimension one that are diffeomorphic to an eightfold quotient S^3/H of the unit three-sphere S^3 , where H={± 1, ± i, ± j, ± k} is the quaternion group, and has two degenerate orbits of codimension two that are diffeomorphic to the projective plane RP^2 . Each generic orbit can be interpreted as the order parameter space of a constrained biaxial nematic system and each singular orbit as the order parameter space of a constrained uniaxial nematic system. It turns out that S^4_ρ is a cohomogeneity one manifold, i.e., a manifold with a group action whose orbit space is one-dimensional. Another important geometric feature of the model is that the set Σ _ρ of diagonal Q-tensors of fixed norm ρ is a (geodesic) great circle in S^4_ρ which meets every orbit of S^4_ρ orthogonally and is then a section for S^4_ρ in the sense of the general theory of canonical forms. We compute necessary and sufficient coercivity conditions for the

  14. Potential Advantages of Reusing Potentially Contaminated Land for Renewable Energy Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA promotes the reuse of potentially contaminated lands and landfills for renewable energy. This strategy creates new markets for potentially contaminated lands, while providing a sustainable land development strategy for renewable energy.

  15. A Note on the Energy Release Rate in Quasi-Static Elastic Crack Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    dimensional problem in nonlinear as well as linear elasticity. Ris arguments, however, rely on a 1 The results comunicated in this paper were obtained in...The derivative in (2.2) is in the direction of the unit outward normal vector n on C. The faces of the crack are to be traction-free, so that u O at x2...fact that u and a are harmonic in L and have vanishing first normal derivatives on the crack- faces (see (2.1), (2.3), (2.9), (2.11)), it follows that v

  16. Modification of nucleon-nucleon interactions in nuclear medium and neutron densities extracted via proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    Spin rotation parameters of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni have been measured at Ep=200, 300 and 400 MeV. By combining them with the previously measured cross sections and analyzing powers at the same energies, the series of measurements has become the "complete" experiment. Cross sections and analyzing powers of proton elastic scattering from 58Ni at 250 MeV, those of 120Sn at Ep=200, 250, 300 and 400 MeV and spin rotation parameters of 120Sn at Ep=300 MeV have been also newly measured. The experiment has been performed at Research Center for Nuclear Phyiscs, Osaka University. In order to explain the 58Ni data, it has been necessary to use realistic density distributions deduced from the nuclear charge distribution and to modify coupling constants and masses of σ and ω mesons. For 120Sn, we have assumed the same modification and used the proton distribution deduced from the charge distribution, we have searched the neutron density distribution which has reproduced 120Sn data at 300 MeV. The deduced neutron distribution has an increase at the nuclear center, which seems to be due to wave functions of neutrons in the 3s1/2 orbit. It also explains the 120Sn data at other energies than 300 MeV. Effects of ρ meson modifications on neutron densities are also mentioned.

  17. Atomic bond fluctuations and crossover to potential-energy-landscape-influenced regime in supercooled liquid.

    PubMed

    Levashov, V A; Egami, T; Aga, R S; Morris, J R

    2008-10-01

    The ideas related to potential-energy landscape and cooperativity of atomic rearrangements are widely discussed in the research field of glass transition. The crossover transition from high-temperature regime to potential-energy-landscape-influenced regime was extensively studied using the concept of inherent structure. However, the interpretation of this crossover behavior in terms of microscopic changes in real structures is still lacking. In this paper we present several observations on the crossover behavior on real structures. We compare fluctuations in the global properties (total number of bonds, total potential energy, pressure) versus fluctuations in the local properties (coordination number, atomic potential energy, local atomic pressure) by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We then show that the total and local fluctuations in the number of atomic bonds in the system depend on temperature differently above and below the temperature of crossover to the landscape-influenced regime. Similarly, the ratio between the global and local fluctuations in the potential energy and pressure changes in the vicinity of the crossover temperature, whereas the change is less distinct than in the case of the bond fluctuations. Our results indicate that local fluctuations become more correlated below the crossover temperature, most likely via the interaction through the dynamic shear elastic field.

  18. Potential for energy recovery from humid air streams.

    Treesearch

    Howard H. Rosen

    1979-01-01

    The potential for energy recovery from the vent stream of dryers is examined by assuming the vent stream transfers its energy in a regenerative heat exchanger. Tables present energy recovery over a range of conditions. Example problems demonstrate the use of the energy recovery tables.

  19. Calcium Binding Restores Gel Formation of Succinylated Gelatin and Reduces Brittleness with Preservation of the Elastically Stored Energy.

    PubMed

    Baigts Allende, Diana; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2015-08-12

    To better tailor gelatins for textural characteristics in (food) gels, their interactions are destabilized by introduction of electrostatic repulsions and creation of affinity sites for calcium to "lock" intermolecular interactions. For that purpose gelatins with various degrees of succinylation are obtained. Extensive succinylation hampers helix formation and gel strength is slightly reduced. At high degrees of succinylation the helix propensity, gelling/melting temperatures, concomitant transition enthalpy, and gel strength become calcium-sensitive, and relatively low calcium concentrations largely restore these properties. Although succinylation has a major impact on the brittleness of the gels formed and the addition of calcium makes the material less brittle compared to nonmodified gelatin, the modification has no impact on the energy balance in the gel, where all energy applied is elastically stored in the material. This is explained by the unaffected stress relaxation by the network and high water-holding capacity related to the small mesh sizes in the gels.

  20. Absolute differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from atomic hydrogen at low incident energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Kenneth; Leonard, Linda; Proctor, Stephanie; Childers, J. G.; Khakoo, Murtadha A.

    2003-05-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for electrons elastically scattered from atomic hydrogen have been measured at low incident energies. The measurements were facilitated by the moveable nozzle source recently developed in our lab. Data taken at the incident energies of 20 eV, 40 eV, and 100 eV, and spanning the angular range of 10^rc to 120^rc will be presented. The results will be compared to the earlier measurements of Williams(Joseph Callaway and J. F. Williams, Phys. Rev. A) 12, 2312 (1975), J. F. Williams, J. Phys. B 8, 2191 (1975) and Shyn(T. W. Shyn and S. Y. Cho, Phys. Rev. A) 40, 1315 (1989), T. W. Shyn and Alan Grafe, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2949 (1992), and the theoretical calculations of Bray(Igor Bray, Phys. Rev. A) 46, 6995 (1992). Funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant # NSF-RUI-PHY-0096808.

  1. Solar Energy: Potential Powerhouse for Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallion, Tom

    1976-01-01

    Components of solar energy systems are described, the development of the solar industry discussed, and implications are drawn for employment opportunities in industries (which may expand into new, solar-related areas) and in the professions, from law to sales, upon the advent of solar heating. (AJ)

  2. Search for rapid angular and energy dependence of dsigma/d. cap omega. and iT/sub 11/ in large angle. pi. -d elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mathie, E.L.; Smith, G.R.; Boschitz, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Vogler, F.; Daum, M.; Mango, S.; Konter, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    The ..pi..-d elastic differential cross-section and the vector analyzing power have been measured between CTHETA/sub c.m./ = 95/sup 0/ and 165/sup 0/ at incident pion energies between 117 and 151 MeV. Both observables show a smooth behavior as a function of angle and energy.

  3. Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.

  4. The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Godinho, Marta S.C.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R.C.

    2015-01-01

    While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330

  5. The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2015-12-01

    While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury.

  6. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  7. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  8. Diffuse elastic waves in a nearly axisymmetric body: Energy distribution, transport and dynamical localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Richard L.; Yoritomo, John Y.; Coleman, J. Patrick

    2017-05-01

    We report measurements and theory on the distribution and evolution of diffuse ultrasonic waves in elastic bodies with weakly broken axisymmetry. Aluminum cylinders with dimensions large compared to wavelength were excited by transient point sources at the center of one of the circular faces. The resulting power spectral density PSD was then examined as a function of time and frequency and position on that face. It was found that the PSD showed a marked concentration at the center at early times, a concentration that subsequently slowly diminished towards a state of uniformity across the face, over times long compared to ultrasonic transit time across the sample. The evolution is attributed to scattering by symmetry breaking heterogeneities. Relaxation did not proceed all the way to uniformity and equipartition, behavior shown to be consistent with Enhanced Backscatter and Dynamical Anderson Localization.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  10. Wood Energy Potential in Northwestern South Carolina

    Treesearch

    James W. McMinn

    1986-01-01

    The quantity of unused wood in an Ill-county area in northwestern South Carolina was projected to be more than 16 million tons annually. Wood that is unsuitable for products other than fuel amounts to nearly 9 million tons annually.The most likely energy demand by industrial plants that are good candidates for wood fuel systems is 1.5 million tons annually.Maximum...

  11. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study.

  12. First Principles Investigation of the Elastic, Optoelectronic and Thermal Properties of XRuSb: (X = V, Nb, Ta) Semi-Heusler Compounds Using the mBJ Exchange Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencherif, K.; Yakoubi, A.; Della, N.; Miloud Abid, O.; Khachai, H.; Ahmed, R.; Khenata, R.; Bin Omran, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Murtaza, G.

    2016-07-01

    Semi-Heusler materials are intensively investigated due to their potential use in diverse applications, such as in spintronics and green energy applications. In this work, we employ the density functional theory to calculate the structural, electronic, elastic, thermal and optical properties of the VRuSb, NbRuSb and TaRuSb semi-Heusler compounds. The calculated results for the lattice constants, bulk moduli and their corresponding pressure derivative values are in fairly good agreement with previous works. In addition, besides the local density approximation, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential is also used to improve the value of the band gaps. The bonding nature reveals a mixture of covalent and ionic bonding character of the VRuSb, NbRuSb and TaRuSb compounds. Furthermore, the elastic constants ( C ij) and the related elastic moduli confirm their stability in the cubic phase and demonstrate their ductile nature. We also analyze the influence of the pressure and temperature on the primitive cell volume, heat capacity, volume expansion coefficient, and Debye temperature of the semi-Heusler compounds. Additionally, we investigate the optical properties, such as the complex dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity, and the energy loss function.

  13. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  14. Atomistic potentials based energy flux integral criterion for dynamic adiabatic shear banding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The energy flux integral criterion based on atomistic potentials within the framework of hyperelasticity-plasticity is proposed for dynamic adiabatic shear banding (ASB). System Helmholtz energy decomposition reveals that the dynamic influence on the integral path dependence is originated from the volumetric strain energy and partial deviatoric strain energy, and the plastic influence only from the rest part of deviatoric strain energy. The concept of critical shear banding energy is suggested for describing the initiation of ASB, which consists of the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) threshold energy and the thermal softening energy. The criterion directly relates energy flux to the basic physical processes that induce shear instability such as dislocation nucleations and multiplications, without introducing ad-hoc parameters in empirical constitutive models. It reduces to the classical path independent J-integral for quasi-static loading and elastic solids. The atomistic-to-continuum multiscale coupling method is used to simulate the initiation of ASB. Atomic configurations indicate that DRX induced microstructural softening may be essential to the dynamic shear localization and hence the initiation of ASB.

  15. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  16. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  17. Band-gap deformation potential and elasticity limit of semiconductor free-standing nanorods characterized in situ by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Erdélyi, Róbert; Volk, János

    2015-03-24

    Modern field-effect transistors or laser diodes take advantages of band-edge structures engineered by large uniaxial strain εzz, available up to an elasticity limit at a rate of band-gap deformation potential azz (= dEg/dεzz). However, contrary to aP values under hydrostatic pressure, there is no quantitative consensus on azz values under uniaxial tensile, compressive, and bending stress. This makes band-edge engineering inefficient. Here we propose SEM-cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy under in situ nanomanipulation (Nanoprobe-CL). An apex of a c-axis-oriented free-standing ZnO nanorod (NR) is deflected by point-loading of bending stress, where local uniaxial strain (εcc = r/R) and its gradient across a NR (dεcc/dr = R(-1)) are controlled by a NR local curvature (R(-1)). The NR elasticity limit is evaluated sequentially (εcc = 0.04) from SEM observation of a NR bending deformation cycle. An electron beam is focused on several spots crossing a bent NR, and at each spot the local Eg is evaluated from near-band-edge CL emission energy. Uniaxial acc (= dEg/dεcc) is evaluated at regulated surface depth, and the impact of R(-1) on observed acc is investigated. The acc converges with -1.7 eV to the R(-1) = 0 limit, whereas it quenches with increasing R(-1), which is attributed to free-exciton drift under transversal band-gap gradient. Surface-sensitive CL measurements suggest that a discrepancy from bulk acc = -4 eV may originate from strain relaxation at the side surface under uniaxial stress. The nanoprobe-CL technique reveals an Eg(εij) response to specific strain tensor εij (i, j = x, y, z) and strain-gradient effects on a minority carrier population, enabling simulations and strain-dependent measurements of nanodevices with various structures.

  18. ElaStic: A tool for calculating second-order elastic constants from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golesorkhtabar, Rostam; Pavone, Pasquale; Spitaler, Jürgen; Puschnig, Peter; Draxl, Claudia

    2013-08-01

    Elastic properties play a key role in materials science and technology. The elastic tensors at any order are defined by the Taylor expansion of the elastic energy or stress in terms of the applied strain. In this paper, we present ElaStic, a tool that is able to calculate the full second-order elastic stiffness tensor for any crystal structure from ab initio total-energy and/or stress calculations. This tool also provides the elastic compliances tensor and applies the Voigt and Reuss averaging procedure in order to obtain an evaluation of the bulk, shear, and Young moduli as well as the Poisson ratio of poly-crystalline samples. In a first step, the space-group is determined. Then, a set of deformation matrices is selected, and the corresponding structure files are produced. In a next step, total-energy or stress calculations for each deformed structure are performed by a chosen density-functional theory code. The computed energies/stresses are fitted as polynomial functions of the applied strain in order to get derivatives at zero strain. The knowledge of these derivatives allows for the determination of all independent components of the elastic tensor. In this context, the accuracy of the elastic constants critically depends on the polynomial fit. Therefore, we carefully study how the order of the polynomial fit and the deformation range influence the numerical derivatives, and we propose a new approach to obtain the most reliable results. We have applied ElaStic to representative materials for each crystal system, using total energies and stresses calculated with the full-potential all-electron codes exciting and WIEN2k as well as the pseudo-potential code Quantum ESPRESSO.

  19. Development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Madland, D.G.; Sierk, A.J.

    1997-08-01

    The authors report on the development of new global optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus scattering at medium energies. Using both Schroedinger and Dirac scattering formalisms, the goal is to construct a physically realistic optical potential describing nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering observables for a projectile energy range of (perhaps) 20 meV to (perhaps) 2 GeV and a target mass range of 16 to 209, excluding regions of strong nuclear deformation. They use a phenomenological approach guided by conclusions from recent microscopic studies. The experimental database consists largely of proton-nucleus elastic differential cross sections, analyzing powers, spin-rotation functions, and total reaction cross sections, and neutron-nucleus total cross sections. They will use this database in a nonlinear least-squares adjustment of optical model parameters in both relativistic equivalent Schroedinger (including relativistic kinematics) and Dirac (second-order reduction) formalisms. Isospin will be introduced through the standard Lane model and a relativistic generalization of that model.

  20. Vanishing rainbows near orbiting and the energy dependence of rainbow scattering - Relation to properties of the potential. [molecular beam scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. F.; Hall, R. B.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The energy threshold behavior of elastic rainbow scattering near the transition to orbiting is derived. Analysis of the energy dependence of the rainbow angle shows that the full range from high energies down to orbiting can be fitted with two parameters. Thus, measurements of the rainbow angle can give essentially only two pieces of information about the potential. For potentials of common shapes, such measurements are sensitive to regions of the potential just beyond the minimum and give information about the shape of the potential in this range. However, neither a minimum nor a point of inflection in the potential is necessary for rainbow scattering.

  1. Plasticity, elasticity, and adhesion energy of plant cell walls: nanometrology of lignin loss using atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Farahi, R. H.; Charrier, Anne M.; Tolbert, Allison K.; ...

    2017-03-10

    The complex organic polymer, lignin, abundant in plants, prevents the efficient extraction of sugars from the cell walls that is required for large scale biofuel production. Because lignin removal is crucial in overcoming this challenge, the question of how the nanoscale properties of the plant cell ultrastructure correlate with delignification processes is important. Here, we report how distinct molecular domains can be identified and how physical quantities of adhesion energy, elasticity, and plasticity undergo changes, and whether such quantitative observations can be used to characterize delignification. By chemically processing biomass, and employing nanometrology, the various stages of lignin removal aremore » shown to be distinguished through the observed morphochemical and nanomechanical variations. Such spatially resolved correlations between chemistry and nanomechanics during deconstruction not only provide a better understanding of the cell wall architecture but also is vital for devising optimum chemical treatments.« less

  2. Magnetic inhomogeneity on a triangular lattice: the magnetic-exchange versus the elastic energy and the role of disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zorko, A.; Kokalj, J.; Komelj, M.; Adamopoulos, O.; Luetkens, H.; Arčon, D.; Lappas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneity in the ground state is an intriguing, emergent phenomenon in magnetism. Recently, it has been observed in the magnetostructural channel of the geometrically frustrated α-NaMnO2, for the first time in the absence of active charge degrees of freedom. Here we report an in-depth numerical and local-probe experimental study of the isostructural sister compound CuMnO2 that emphasizes and provides an explanation for the crucial differences between the two systems. The experimentally verified, much more homogeneous, ground state of the stoichiometric CuMnO2 is attributed to the reduced magnetoelastic competition between the counteracting magnetic-exchange and elastic-energy contributions. The comparison of the two systems additionally highlights the role of disorder and allows the understanding of the puzzling phenomenon of phase separation in uniform antiferromagnets. PMID:25786810

  3. Reaction mechanism and characteristics of T20 in d+3He backward elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Uesaka, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Satou, Y.; Itoh, K.; Sakai, H.; Tamii, A.; Ohnishi, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Yako, K.; Sakoda, S.; Okamura, H.; Suda, K.; Wakasa, T.

    2000-02-01

    For backward elastic scattering of deuterons by 3He, cross sections σ, and tensor analyzing power T20 are measured at Ed=140-270 MeV. The data are analyzed by the plane wave impluse approximation (PWIA) and by the general formula which includes virtual excitations of other channels, with the assumption of the proton transfer from 3He to the deuteron. Using 3He wave functions calculated by the Faddeev equation, the PWIA describes global features of the experimental data, while the virtual excitation effects are important for quantitative fits to the T20 data. Theoretical predictions on T20, Kyy (polarization transfer coefficient), and Cyy (spin correlation coefficient) are provided up to GeV energies.

  4. Plasticity, elasticity, and adhesion energy of plant cell walls: nanometrology of lignin loss using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Farahi, R H; Charrier, A M; Tolbert, A; Lereu, A L; Ragauskas, A; Davison, B H; Passian, A

    2017-12-01

    The complex organic polymer, lignin, abundant in plants, prevents the efficient extraction of sugars from the cell walls that is required for large scale biofuel production. Because lignin removal is crucial in overcoming this challenge, the question of how the nanoscale properties of the plant cell ultrastructure correlate with delignification processes is important. Here, we report how distinct molecular domains can be identified and how physical quantities of adhesion energy, elasticity, and plasticity undergo changes, and whether such quantitative observations can be used to characterize delignification. By chemically processing biomass, and employing nanometrology, the various stages of lignin removal are shown to be distinguished through the observed morphochemical and nanomechanical variations. Such spatially resolved correlations between chemistry and nanomechanics during deconstruction not only provide a better understanding of the cell wall architecture but also is vital for devising optimum chemical treatments.

  5. Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Dennis P. Bradley; David C. Lothner

    1987-01-01

    A study of wood energy potential in northeastern Minnesota concludes that (1) the forests of the region could support a much larger wood energy harvest without significant cost increases for other forest products; (2) existing stands are predominantly overmature and cutting more now will enhance future wood supplies for all users; (3) converting to wood energy could...

  6. Elastic Barrier Dynamical Freezing in Free Energy Calculations: A Way To Speed Up Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations by Orders of Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Edoardo; Cardini, Gianni; Chelli, Riccardo

    2016-03-08

    An important issue concerning computer simulations addressed to free energy estimates via nonequilibrium work theorems, such as the Jarzynski equality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 78, 2690], is the computational effort required to achieve results with acceptable accuracy. In this respect, the dynamical freezing approach [Phys. Rev. E 2009, 80, 041124] has been shown to improve the efficiency of this kind of simulations, by blocking the dynamics of particles located outside an established mobility region. In this report, we show that dynamical freezing produces a systematic spurious decrease of the particle density inside the mobility region. As a consequence, the requirements to apply nonequilibrium work theorems are only approximately met. Starting from these considerations, we have developed a simulation scheme, called "elastic barrier dynamical freezing", according to which a stiff potential-energy barrier is enforced at the boundaries of the mobility region, preventing the particles from leaving this region of space during the nonequilibrium trajectories. The method, tested on the calculation of the distance-dependent free energy of a dimer immersed into a Lennard-Jones fluid, provides an accuracy comparable to the conventional steered molecular dynamics, with a computational speedup exceeding a few orders of magnitude.

  7. Potential energy changes and the Boussinesq approximation in stratified fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, K.; Rottman, J. W.; Nomura, K. K.; Stretch, D. D.

    2002-11-01

    The evolution of the potential energy of an ideal binary fluid mixture that is initially stably stratified is re-examined. The initial stable stratification evolves to a state of uniform density under the influence of molecular diffusion. We derive the appropriate governing equations using either a mass-averaged or a volume-averaged definition of velocity, and develop an energy budget describing the changes between kinetic, potential and internal energies without invoking the Boussinesq approximation. We compare the energy evolution equations with those based on the commonly used Boussinesq approximation and clarify some subtleties associated with the exchanges between the different forms of energy in this problem. In particular, we show that the mass-averaged velocity is nonzero and that all of the increase in potential energy comes from the initial kinetic energy.

  8. Elastic Fluctuations and Rubber Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul; Rradzihovsky, Leo

    2006-03-01

    A coarse-grained phenomenological model is constructed to describe both phonon fluctuations and elastic heterogeneities in rubbery materials. It is a nonlocal, spatially heterogeneous generalization of the classical model of rubber elasticity, and with a tunable repulsion interaction. This model can also be derived from the Vulcanization theory. The residual stress and the non-affine deformation field, as well as their correlations, are calculated perturbatively, to the leading order of quenched randomness. It is explicitly shown that the interplay between the repulsive interaction and quenched randomness induces non- affine deformation. The spatial correlations of the non- affine deformation field and residual stress exhibit power-law scaling, with no characteristic length scale. We also calculate the contributions to the elastic free energy from both thermal and quenched fluctuations for arbitrary deformation. We find that they naturally explain the universal features in the Mooney-Rivlin plot of the stress-strain curve for rubbery materials. The (disorder averaged) thermal fluctuation of monomers is shown to depend on deformation, and becomes anisotropic upon shear deformation, as long as the repulsive interaction is finite.

  9. Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirko, Vladimír

    2016-12-01

    Effective (mass-dependent) potential energy curves of the ground electronic states of 9BeH, 9BeD, and 9BeT are constructed by morphing a very accurate MR-ACPF ab initio potential of Koput (2011) within the framework of the reduced potential energy curve approach of Jenč (1983). The morphing is performed by fitting the RPC parameters to available experimental ro-vibrational data. The resulting potential energy curves provide a fairly quantitative reproduction of the fitted data. This allows for a reliable prediction of the so-far unobserved molecular states in terms of only a small number of fitting parameters.

  10. Potential for energy recovery from solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Velzy, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technologies, opportunities, and problems of energy-from-refuse systems. Topics considered include the direct combustion of as-received refuse, the mass-burn systems, the combustion of refuse-derived fuel, and the production of methane gas from the organic and cellulosic fraction of solid waste. A DOE-sponsored methane plant operated by Waste Management is now being evaluated at Pompano Beach, Florida. The Europeans have moved ahead so rapidly in the beneficial use of heat from the combustion of their solid waste because of the availability of a ready market for the heat in municipal facilities and/or town district heating systems. It is suggested that the use of the heat from the combustion of solid waste should be broadened to include district heating and cooling, complementary municipal functions (e.g. the disposal of sludges from wastewater treatment), integration in power generation facilities in uses other than direct production of power (e.g. boiler feedwater heating), and in industrial processing.

  11. Potential environmental problems of photovoltaic energy technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Patten, D.; Berry, W.; Conway, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the ten papers of this proceedings of a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1980. The purposes of this proceedings are to provide a preliminary identificaton and assessment of environmental hazards which might be realistically associated with growth of the photovoltaic industry, and to provide a reference for environmental considerations by obtaining a 1980 state-of-the-art assessment of growth anticipated for the industry. Currently the industry is considered to be in the early stages of development and several possible technological options are available for large-scale manufacturing as the industry grows. Estimates of the industrial emissions of materials considered to be potentially harmful in the environment were obtained by several different analytical methods. (KRM)

  12. Analysis of energy dissipation and deposition in elastic bodies impacting at hypervelocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, David F.; Allahdadi, Firooz A.

    1992-01-01

    A series of impact problems were analyzed using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH. The objective was to quantify the amount of energy dissipated locally by a projectile-infinite plate impact. A series of six impact problems were formulated such that the mass and speed of each projectile were varied in order to allow for increasing speed with constant kinetic energy. The properties and dimensions of the plate were the same for each projectile impact. The resulting response of the plate was analyzed for global Kinetic Energy, global momentum, and local maximum shear stress. The percentage of energy dissipated by the various hypervelocity impact phenomena appears as a relative change of shear stress at a point away from the impact in the plate.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  14. Atomic geometry of GaSb(110): Determination via elastic low-energy electron diffraction intensity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, C. B.; Paton, A.; Kahn, A.

    1983-03-01

    Elastic low-energy electron diffraction (ELEED) intensities from GaSb(110) of normally incident electrons with energies 30<=E<=210 eV were measured at T=125 K. Intensity versus incident-energy profiles were recorded for 14 diffracted beams. The surfaces were prepared by a chemical-polish-ion-bombard-anneal cycle. The stoichiometry of the surfaces and reproducibility of the data from one sample to another were verified explicitly. Comparison of these measured intensities with dynamical ELEED intensity calculations indicates that the dimensions of the surface unit cell are identical to those of truncated bulk GaSb, but that the atomic geometry within that cell is reconstructed. The best-fit structure consists of a bond-length-conserving rotation by ω1=(30+/-2)∘ of species in the uppermost atomic layer with the Sb relaxing outward and the Ga inward. No displacements of the second-layer species are indicated by the analysis. The structure resembles those of ZnTe(110) and GaP(110), but is quite distinct from those of GaAs(110), InSb(110), and CdTe(110). This result reveals that ionicity alone is an inadequate index of the surface atomic geometries of compound semiconductors, independent of the definition chosen for the ionicity.

  15. Brittle fracture in a periodic structure with internal potential energy

    PubMed Central

    Mishuris, Gennady S.; Slepyan, Leonid I.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a brittle fracture taking account of self-equilibrated distributed stresses existing at microlevel in the absence of external forces. To determine how the latter can affect the crack equilibrium and growth, a model of a structured linearly elastic body is introduced, consisting of two equal symmetrically arranged layers (or half-planes) connected by an interface as a prospective crack path. The interface comprises a discrete set of elastic bonds. In the initial state, the bonds are assumed to be stressed in such a way that tensile and compressive forces of the same value alternate. In the general considerations, the layers are assumed to be of an unspecified periodic structure, where such self-equilibrated stresses may also exist. A two-line chain and a lattice are examined as the specified structure. We consider the states of the body-with-a-crack under such microlevel stresses (MS) and under a combined action of the remote forces and MS. Analytical solutions to the considered problems are presented based on the introduction of a selective discrete transform. We demonstrate that MS can increase as well as decrease the crack resistance depending on the internal energy level. We also discuss different scenarios of the crack growth. PMID:24808756

  16. Elastic internal flywheel gimbal

    SciTech Connect

    Rabenhorst, D.W.

    1981-01-13

    An elastic joint mounting and rotatably coupling a rotary inertial energy storage device or flywheel, to a shaft, the present gimbal structure reduces vibration and shock while allowing precession of the flywheel without the need for external gimbal mounts. The present elastic joint usually takes the form of an annular elastic member either integrally formed into the flywheel as a centermost segment thereof or attached to the flywheel or flywheel hub member at the center thereof, the rotary shaft then being mounted centrally to the elastic member.

  17. Enhancement of elastic wave energy harvesting using adaptive piezo-lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Chesne, S.; Monteil, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper exploits an adaptive piezo-lens to improve the harvested power (energy) from traveling waves. The piezo-lens comprises a host plate and piezoelectric patches bonded on the plate surfaces. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance (NC) circuits. The spatial variation of the refractive index inside the piezo-lens domain is designed to fulfill a hyperbolic secant function by tuning the NC values. This design allows the piezo-lens to continuously bend the incident waves toward a designed focal point, resulting in an energy concentration zone with a high level of energy density. This energy concentration effect may be exploited to improve the harvested power from waves. In addition, the piezo-lens is tunable - the waves can be focused at different locations by designing the NC values. This tunability may make the harvesting systems incorporating a piezo-lens be adaptable to environment changes. The above expected practical interests of the piezo-lens for wave energy harvesting are discussed and verified in the paper. Fully coupled numerical models are developed to predict the dynamical responses of the piezoelectric systems.

  18. Smart metacomposite-based systems for transient elastic wave energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Monteil, M.; Collet, M.; Chesne, S.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, novel harvesting systems are proposed and studied to obtain enhanced energy from transient waves. Each of these systems contains a piezo-lens to focus waves and a harvester to yield energy from the induced focused waves. The piezo-lens comprises a host plate and piezoelectric patches bonded on the plate surfaces. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance (NC) circuits in order to control the spatial variation of the effective refractive index inside the piezo-lens domain. The harvester is placed at the designed focal point of the piezo-lens, two different synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) based harvesters are analyzed in the studies. Corrected reduced models are developed to predict the transient responses of the harvesting systems. The performances of the systems incorporating SSHI-based harvesters in transient wave energy harvesting are studied and compared with the system using a standard DC harvester. The focusing effect of the piezo-lens on transient waves and its capability to improve the harvested energy are verified. Since the NC circuits are active elements, an energy balance analysis is performed. Applicability of the harvesting systems is also discussed.

  19. Evidence of Cholesterol Accumulated in High Curvature Regions: Implication ot the Curvature Elastic Energy for Lipid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,W.; Yang, L.; Huang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent experiments suggested that cholesterol and other lipid components of high negative spontaneous curvature facilitate membrane fusion. This is taken as evidence supporting the stalk-pore model of membrane fusion in which the lipid bilayers go through intermediate structures of high curvature. How do the high-curvature lipid components lower the free energy of the curved structure? Do the high-curvature lipid components modify the average spontaneous curvature of the relevant monolayer, thereby facilitate its bending, or do the lipid components redistribute in the curved structure so as to lower the free energy? This question is fundamental to the curvature elastic energy for lipid mixtures. Here we investigate the lipid distribution in a monolayer of a binary lipid mixture before and after bending, or more precisely in the lamellar, hexagonal, and distorted hexagonal phases. The lipid mixture is composed of 2:1 ratio of brominated di18:0PC and cholesterol. Using a newly developed procedure for the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method, we are able to isolate the bromine distribution and reconstruct the electron density distribution of the lipid mixture in the three phases. We found that the lipid distribution is homogenous and uniform in the lamellar and hexagonal phases. But in the distorted hexagonal phase, the lipid monolayer has nonuniform curvature, and cholesterol almost entirely concentrates in the high curvature region. This finding demonstrates that the association energies between lipid molecules vary with the curvature of membrane. Thus, lipid components in a mixture may redistribute under conditions of nonuniform curvature, such as in the stalk structure. In such cases, the spontaneous curvature depends on the local lipid composition and the free energy minimum is determined by lipid distribution as well as curvature.

  20. Regional Differences in the Price-Elasticity of Demand for Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M. A.; Griffin, J.

    2006-02-01

    At the request of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the RAND Corporation examined the relationship between energy demand and energy prices with the focus on whether the relationships between demand and price differ if these are examined at different levels of data resolution. In this case, RAND compares national, regional, state, and electric utility levels of data resolution. This study is intended as a first step in helping NREL understand the impact that spatial disaggregation of data can have on estimating the impacts of their programs. This report should be useful to analysts in NREL and other national laboratories, as well as to policy nationals at the national level. It may help them understand the complex relationships between demand and price and how these might vary across different locations in the United States.

  1. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on Public Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    This report represents an initial activity of the Bureau of Land Managements (BLM) proposed National Energy Policy Implementation Plan: identify and evaluate renewable energy resources on federal lands and any limitations on accessing them. Ultimately, BLM will prioritize land-use planning activities to increase industrys development of renewable energy resources. These resources include solar, biomass, geothermal, water, and wind energy. To accomplish this, BLM and the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of renewable energy resources on BLM lands in the western United States. The objective of this collaboration was to identify BLM planning units in the western states with the highest potential for private-sector development of renewable resources. The assessment resulted in the following findings: (1) 63 BLM planning units in nine western states have high potential for one or more renewable energy technologies; and (2) 20 BLM planning units in seven western states have high potential for power production from three or more renewable energy sources. This assessment report provides BLM with information needed to prioritize land-use planning activities on the basis of potential for the development of energy from renewable resources.

  2. Elastic scattering and transfer reactions for the system 7Be + 58Ni at Coulomb barrier energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Lay, J. A.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Parascandolo, C.; Parkar, V. V.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Rusek, K.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Stroe, L.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the reaction induced by the Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be on the closed proton shell nucleus 58Ni at 22.0 MeV bombarding energy. The 7Be beam was produced by means of the in-flight technique with the facility EXOTIC at INFN-LNL (Italy). Charged reaction products were mass and charge identified in a rather wide angular range and their energy distributions were analyzed to infer some information on the production mechanism. The relevance of direct processes, especially 3He- and 4He-stripping, as well as compound nucleus reactions is critically reviewed.

  3. An experimental method to obtain the elastic strain energy function from torsion-tension tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that by employing a torsion-tension test, it is possible to have a complete mapping near the origin of the two principal strain invariants associated with the rate of change of the strain energy function. However, the mathematical representation of the twist moment and normal forces vs strain and the strain energy function are complex. This problem is solved by using a set of solid cylindrical bars with different diameters such that the difference in diameter of two successive bars is small. The stress-strain equations can be grossly oversimplified by considering differences in twist moment and normal force as a function of difference in radius.

  4. Coupled magneto-electro-mechanical lumped parameter model for a novel vibration-based magneto-electro-elastic energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirbani, Meisam Moory; Shishesaz, Mohammad; Hajnayeb, Ali; Sedighi, Hamid Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a coupled magneto-electro-mechanical (MEM) lumped parameter model for the response of the proposed magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) energy harvesting systems under base excitation. The proposed model can be used to create self-powering systems, which are not limited to a finite battery energy. As a novel approach, the MEE composites are used instead of the conventional piezoelectric materials in order to enhance the harvested electrical power. The considered structure consists of a MEE layer deposited on a layer of non-MEE material, in the framework of unimorph cantilever bars (longitudinal displacement) and beams (transverse displacement). To use the generated electrical potential, two electrodes are connected to the top and bottom surfaces of the MEE layer. Additionally, a stationary external coil is wrapped around the vibrating structure to induce a voltage in the coil by the magnetic field generated in the MEE layer. In order to simplify the design procedure of the proposed energy harvester and obtain closed form solutions, a lumped parameter model is prepared. As a first step in modeling process, the governing constitutive equations, Gauss's and Faraday's laws, are used to derive the coupled MEM differential equations. The derived equations are then solved analytically to obtain the dynamic behavior and the harvested voltages and powers of the proposed energy harvesting systems. Finally, the influences of the parameters that affect the performance of the MEE energy harvesters such as excitation frequency, external resistive loads and number of coil turns are discussed in detail. The results clearly show the benefit of the coil circuit implementation, whereby significant increases in the total useful harvested power as much as 38% and 36% are obtained for the beam and bar systems, respectively.

  5. An integral equation method for the homogenization of unidirectional fibre-reinforced media; antiplane elasticity and other potential problems

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    In Parnell & Abrahams (2008 Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 1461–1482. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.0254)), a homogenization scheme was developed that gave rise to explicit forms for the effective antiplane shear moduli of a periodic unidirectional fibre-reinforced medium where fibres have non-circular cross section. The explicit expressions are rational functions in the volume fraction. In that scheme, a (non-dilute) approximation was invoked to determine leading-order expressions. Agreement with existing methods was shown to be good except at very high volume fractions. Here, the theory is extended in order to determine higher-order terms in the expansion. Explicit expressions for effective properties can be derived for fibres with non-circular cross section, without recourse to numerical methods. Terms appearing in the expressions are identified as being associated with the lattice geometry of the periodic fibre distribution, fibre cross-sectional shape and host/fibre material properties. Results are derived in the context of antiplane elasticity but the analogy with the potential problem illustrates the broad applicability of the method to, e.g. thermal, electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The efficacy of the scheme is illustrated by comparison with the well-established method of asymptotic homogenization where for fibres of general cross section, the associated cell problem must be solved by some computational scheme. PMID:28588412

  6. Unifying interatomic potential, g (r), elasticity, viscosity, and fragility of metallic glasses: analytical model, simulations, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagogianni, A. E.; Krausser, J.; Evenson, Z.; Samwer, K.; Zaccone, A.

    2016-08-01

    An analytical framework is proposed to describe the elasticity, viscosity and fragility of metallic glasses in relation to their atomic-level structure and the effective interatomic interaction. The bottom-up approach starts with forming an effective Ashcroft-Born-Mayer interatomic potential based on Boltzmann inversion of the radial distribution function g (r) and on fitting the short-range part of g (r) by means of a simple power-law approximation. The power exponent λ represents a global repulsion steepness parameter. A scaling relation between atomic connectivity and packing fraction Z˜ {φ1+λ} is derived. This relation is then implemented in a lattice-dynamical model for the high-frequency shear modulus where the attractive anharmonic part of the effective interaction is taken into account through the thermal expansion coefficient which maps the ϕ-dependence into a T-dependence. The shear modulus as a function of temperature calculated in this way is then used within the cooperative shear model of the glass transition to yield the viscosity of the supercooled melt as a double-exponential function of T across the entire Angell plot. The model, which has only one adjustable parameter (the characteristic atomic volume for high-frequency cage deformation) is tested against new experimental data of ZrCu alloys and provides an excellent one-parameter description of the viscosity down to the glass transition temperature.

  7. Heparinized PLLA/PLCL nanofibrous scaffold for potential engineering of small-diameter blood vessel: tunable elasticity and anticoagulation property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhong; Hu, Jinwei; He, Chuanglong; Nie, Wei; Feng, Wei; Qiu, Kexin; Zhou, Xiaojun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-05-01

    The success of tissue engineered vascular grafts depends greatly on the synthetic tubular scaffold, which can mimic the architecture, mechanical, and anticoagulation properties of native blood vessels. In this study, small-diameter tubular scaffolds were fabricated with different weight ratios of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) by means of thermally induced phase separation technique. To improve the anticoagulation property of materials, heparin was covalently linked to the tubular scaffolds by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling chemistry. The as-prepared PLLA/PLCL scaffolds retained microporous nanofibrous structure as observed in the neat PLLA scaffolds, and their structural and mechanical properties can be fine-tuned by changing the ratio of two components. The scaffold containing 60% PLCL content was found to be the most promising scaffold for engineering small-diameter blood vessel in terms of elastic properties and structural integrity. The heparinized scaffolds showed higher hydrophilicity, lower protein adsorption ability, and better in vitro anticoagulation property than their untreated counterparts. Pig iliac endothelial cells seeded on the heparinized scaffold showed good cellular attachment, spreading, proliferation, and phenotypic maintenance. Furthermore, the heparinized scaffolds exhibited neovascularization after subcutaneous implantation into the New Zealand white rabbits for 1 and 2 months. Taken together, the heparinized PLLA/PLCL nanofibrous scaffolds have the great potential for vascular tissue engineering application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intermolecular potential energy surface for CS2 dimer.

    PubMed

    Farrokhpour, Hossein; Mombeini, Zainab; Namazian, Mansoor; Coote, Michelle L

    2011-04-15

    A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for CS(2) dimer is obtained by ab initio calculation of the interaction energies for a range of configurations and center-of-mass separation distances for the first time. The calculations were performed using the supermolecular approach at the Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) level of theory with the augmented correlation consistent basis sets (aug-cc-pVxZ, x = D, T) and corrected for the basis-set superposition error using the full counterpoise correction method. A two-point extrapolation method was used to extrapolate the calculated energy points to the complete basis set limit. The effect of using the higher levels of theory, quadratic configuration interaction containing single, double, and perturbative triple excitations QCISD(T) and coupled cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples excitations CCSD(T), on the shape of potential energy surface was investigated. It is shown that the MP2 level of theory apparently performs extremely poorly for describing the intermolecular potential energy surface, overestimating the total energy by a factor of nearly 1.73 in comparison with the QCISD(T) and CCSD(T) values. The value of isotropic dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient (C(6) ) of CS(2) fluid was obtained from the extrapolated MP2 potential energy surface. The MP2 extrapolated energy points were fitted to well-known analytical potential functions using two different methods to represent the potential energy surface analytically. The most stable configuration of the dimer was determined at R = 6.23 au, α = 90°, β = 90°, and γ = 90°, with a well depth of 3.980 kcal mol(-1) at the MP2 level of theory. Finally, the calculated second virial coefficients were compared with experimental values to test the quality of the presented potential energy surface. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  10. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Tsang, P. H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2016-11-01

    A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  11. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV {sup 6}Li ions from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca and tests of a systematic optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Krishichayan,; Chen, X.; Lui, Y.-W.; Button, J.; Youngblood, D. H.

    2010-04-15

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV {sup 6}Li particles from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca were measured with the multipole-dipole-multipole spectrometer from 4 deg. <=theta{sub c.m.}<=40 deg. Optical potential parameters were obtained by fitting the elastic-scattering data with the double-folding model using the density-dependent M3Y NN effective interaction and B(E2) and B(E3) values obtained for low-lying 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states agreed with the adopted values. The results are compared with those obtained using potentials derived from the systematics of potentials previously obtained for {sup 24}Mg, {sup 28}Si, {sup 58}Ni, and {sup 90}Zr. Cross sections for excitation of giant resonances were also calculated with the potentials obtained.

  12. Mechanobiology of cartilage: how do internal and external stresses affect mechanochemical transduction and elastic energy storage?

    PubMed

    Silver, Frederick H; Bradica, Gino

    2002-12-01

    Articular cartilage is a multilayered structure that lines the surfaces of all articulating joints. It contains cells, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans with compositions that vary from the surface layer to the layer in contact with bone. It is composed of several zones that vary in structure, composition, and mechanical properties. In this paper we analyze the structure of the extracellular matrix found in articular cartilage in an effort to relate it to the ability of cartilage to store, transmit, and dissipate mechanical energy during locomotion. Energy storage and dissipation is related to possible mechanisms of mechanochemical transduction and to changes in cartilage structure and function that occur in osteoarthritis. In addition, we analyze how passive and active internal stresses affect mechanochemical transduction in cartilage, and how this may affect cartilage behavior in health and disease.

  13. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  14. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  15. Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?

    PubMed Central

    Touchette, Brant W.; Marcus, Sarah E.; Adams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Bulk modulus of elasticity (ɛ), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ɛ and comparatively low osmotic potential (Ψπ) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the ‘cell water conservation hypothesis’, may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in Ψπ, play an important role in plant–water relations and likely works with higher ɛ to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ɛ, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ɛ and Ψπ in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ɛ values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ɛ values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower Ψπ, wherein the majority of marine plants were below −1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above −1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (θsym), we did observe higher θsym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low θsym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ɛ and lower Ψπ, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

  16. Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?

    PubMed

    Touchette, Brant W; Marcus, Sarah E; Adams, Emily C

    2014-03-28

    Bulk modulus of elasticity (ɛ), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ɛ and comparatively low osmotic potential (Ψπ) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the 'cell water conservation hypothesis', may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in Ψπ, play an important role in plant-water relations and likely works with higher ɛ to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ɛ, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ɛ and Ψπ in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ɛ values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ɛ values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower Ψπ, wherein the majority of marine plants were below -1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above -1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (θsym), we did observe higher θsym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low θsym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ɛ and lower Ψπ, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis.

  17. Representing Global Reactive Potential Energy Surfaces Using Gaussian Processes.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Brian; Marshall, Paul; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-06

    Representation of multidimensional global potential energy surfaces suitable for spectral and dynamical calculations from high-level ab initio calculations remains a challenge. Here, we present a detailed study on constructing potential energy surfaces using a machine learning method, namely, Gaussian process regression. Tests for the (3)A″ state of SH2, which facilitates the SH + H ↔ S((3)P) + H2 abstraction reaction and the SH + H' ↔ SH' + H exchange reaction, suggest that the Gaussian process is capable of providing a reasonable potential energy surface with a small number (∼1 × 10(2)) of ab initio points, but it needs substantially more points (∼1 × 10(3)) to converge reaction probabilities. The implications of these observations for construction of potential energy surfaces are discussed.

  18. Semiclassical energy levels and the corresponding potentials in nonhydrogenic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, P.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.

    1992-11-01

    A semiclassical expression is derived for the potential seen by an nl-shell electron in a nonhydrogenic ion. Corresponding energies Enl are compared with experimental values and with results of self-consistent-field calculations.

  19. Potential energy stored by planets and grand minima events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, Rodolfo G.

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Wolff & Patrone (2010), have developed a simple but very interesting model by which the movement of the Sun around the barycentre of the Solar system could create potential energy that could be released by flows pre-existing inside the Sun. The authors claim that it is the first mechanism showing how planetary movements can modify internal structure in the Sun that can be related to solar cycle. In this work we point out limitations of mentioned mechanism (which is based on interchange arguments), which could be inapplicable to a real star. Then, we calculate the temporal evolution of potential energy stored in zones of Sun's interior in which the potential energy could be most efficiently stored taking into account detailed barycentric Sun dynamics. We show strong variations of potential energy related to Maunder Minimum, Dalton Minimum and the maximum of Cycle 22, around 1990. We discuss briefly possible implications of this putative mechanism to solar cycle specially Grand Minima events.

  20. Momentum-space calculation of electron—CO elastic collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Ma, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Jun

    2013-02-01

    We report a momentum-space study on low-energy electron-CO collisions. Elastic differential cross sections (DCS) are obtained using a static-exchange-optical (SEO) model for the incident energies of 2, 3, 5, and 10 eV. Polarization effect of higher reaction channels, including the ionization continuum, on the elastic collision is represented by an ab initio equivalent-local optical potential. The cross sections are compared with experimental measurements and other theoretical results.

  1. Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2: determination of molecular vibrational energies.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ekadashi; Carreón-Macedo, José-Luis; Cuervo, Javier E; Schröder, Markus; Brown, Alex

    2013-08-15

    The ground state potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for CS2 have been determined at the CASPT2/C:cc-pVTZ,S:aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z level of theory. The potential energy surface has been fit to a sum-of-products form using the neural network method with exponential neurons. A generic interface between neural network potential energy surface fitting and the Heidelberg MCTDH software package is demonstrated. The potential energy surface has also been fit using the potfit procedure in MCTDH. For fits to the low-energy regions of the potential, the neural network method requires fewer parameters than potfit to achieve high accuracy; global fits are comparable between the two methods. Using these potential energy surfaces, the vibrational energies have been computed for the four most abundant CS2 isotopomers. These results are compared to experimental and previous theoretical data. The current potential energy surfaces are shown to accurately reproduce the low-lying vibrational energies within a few wavenumbers. Hence, the potential energy and dipole moments surfaces will be useful for future study on the control of quantum dynamics in CS2.

  2. Possible explanation of the atmospheric kinetic and potential energy spectra.

    PubMed

    Vallgren, Andreas; Deusebio, Enrico; Lindborg, Erik

    2011-12-23

    We hypothesize that the observed wave number spectra of kinetic and potential energy in the atmosphere can be explained by assuming that there are two related cascade processes emanating from the same large-scale energy source, a downscale cascade of potential enstrophy, giving rise to the k(-3) spectrum at synoptic scales and a downscale energy cascade giving rise to the k(-5/3) spectrum at mesoscales. The amount of energy which is going into the downscale energy cascade is determined by the rate of system rotation, with negligible energy going downscale in the limit of very fast rotation. We present a set of simulations of a system with strong rotation and stratification, supporting these hypotheses and showing good agreement with observations.

  3. Potential energy landscapes of elemental and heterogeneous chalcogen clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, John C.; Loucks, Roger J.; Balakrishnan, Jitendra; Varshneya, Arun K.

    2006-02-15

    We describe the potential energy landscapes of elemental S{sub 8}, Se{sub 8}, and Te{sub 8} clusters using disconnectivity graphs. Inherent structures include both ring and chain configurations, with rings especially dominant in Se{sub 8}. We also map the potential energy landscapes of heterogeneous Se{sub n}(S,Te){sub 8-n} clusters, which offer insights into the structure of heterogeneous chalcogen glasses.

  4. Energy potential of municipal solid waste is limited

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste has the potential for making only a limited contribution to the nation`s overall energy production. Although the current contribution of waste-derived energy production is less than one-half of 1 percent of the nation`s total energy Supply, DOE has set a goal for energy from waste at 2 percent of the total supply by 2010. The industry`s estimates show a smaller role for waste as an energy source in the future. The energy potential from waste is limited not only by the volume and energy content of the waste itself, but also by the factors affecting the use of waste disposal options, including public opposition and the availability of financing. Energy production from waste combustors and from landfill gases generates pollutants, although these are reduced through current regulations that require the use of emissions control technology and define operational criteria for the facilities. Although DOE estimates that one-third of the energy available from waste is available in the form of energy savings through the recycling of materials, the Department`s research in this area is ongoing.

  5. Effect of the electronic kinetic energy on the elastic strain in metallic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, M. L.; Grimsditch, M.

    1992-09-01

    A recent theory of induced strain in metallic multilayers, caused by electron transfer effects, is revised by taking into account the electronic kinetic energy. When this is done, it is found that the predicted sign of the strain is opposite to what was found previously. For a multilayer having abrupt composition changes, the predicted magnitude of the strain is greater by a factor of 9/5 than what was found previously, whereas for a multilayer having smooth composition changes, it is the same as what was found previously.

  6. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  7. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

    output • Uses the organic portion of solid waste (such as food waste , paper products, and agricultural waste ) to fuel an anaerobic digestion ...Sustainability Symposium & Exhibition Anaerobic Digestion • What does it do? • Offers sustainability by addressing renewable energy, waste ... Waste to Energy Potential – A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor Presenter: Scott Murphy & Rebecca Robbennolt ARCADIS/Malcolm Pirnie Date

  8. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: Energy decomposition analysis and energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode ak and its companion mode a-k is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  9. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  10. Superpropulsion of Droplets and Soft Elastic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raufaste, Christophe; Chagas, Gabriela Ramos; Darmanin, Thierry; Claudet, Cyrille; Guittard, Frédéric; Celestini, Franck

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of droplets and soft elastic objects propelled with a catapult. Experiments show that the ejection velocity depends on both the projectile deformation and the catapult acceleration dynamics. With a subtle matching given by a peculiar value of the projectile/catapult frequency ratio, a 250% kinetic energy gain is obtained as compared to the propulsion of a rigid projectile with the same engine. This superpropulsion has strong potentialities: actuation of droplets, sorting of objects according to their elastic properties, and energy saving for propulsion engines.

  11. High-energy transmission Laue micro-beam X-ray diffraction: a probe for intra-granular lattice orientation and elastic strain in thicker samples.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Abbey, Brian; Jun, Tea-Sung; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2012-05-01

    An understanding of the mechanical response of modern engineering alloys to complex loading conditions is essential for the design of load-bearing components in high-performance safety-critical aerospace applications. A detailed knowledge of how material behaviour is modified by fatigue and the ability to predict failure reliably are vital for enhanced component performance. Unlike macroscopic bulk properties (e.g. stiffness, yield stress, etc.) that depend on the average behaviour of many grains, material failure is governed by `weakest link'-type mechanisms. It is strongly dependent on the anisotropic single-crystal elastic-plastic behaviour, local morphology and microstructure, and grain-to-grain interactions. For the development and validation of models that capture these complex phenomena, the ability to probe deformation behaviour at the micro-scale is key. The diffraction of highly penetrating synchrotron X-rays is well suited to this purpose and micro-beam Laue diffraction is a particularly powerful tool that has emerged in recent years. Typically it uses photon energies of 5-25 keV, limiting penetration into the material, so that only thin samples or near-surface regions can be studied. In this paper the development of high-energy transmission Laue (HETL) micro-beam X-ray diffraction is described, extending the micro-beam Laue technique to significantly higher photon energies (50-150 keV). It allows the probing of thicker sample sections, with the potential for grain-level characterization of real engineering components. The new HETL technique is used to study the deformation behaviour of individual grains in a large-grained polycrystalline nickel sample during in situ tensile loading. Refinement of the Laue diffraction patterns yields lattice orientations and qualitative information about elastic strains. After deformation, bands of high lattice misorientation can be identified in the sample. Orientation spread within individual scattering volumes is

  12. Free energy calculations: an efficient adaptive biasing potential method.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Bradley M; Legoll, Frédéric; Lelièvre, Tony; Stoltz, Gabriel; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul

    2010-05-06

    We develop an efficient sampling and free energy calculation technique within the adaptive biasing potential (ABP) framework. By mollifying the density of states we obtain an approximate free energy and an adaptive bias potential that is computed directly from the population along the coordinates of the free energy. Because of the mollifier, the bias potential is "nonlocal", and its gradient admits a simple analytic expression. A single observation of the reaction coordinate can thus be used to update the approximate free energy at every point within a neighborhood of the observation. This greatly reduces the equilibration time of the adaptive bias potential. This approximation introduces two parameters: strength of mollification and the zero of energy of the bias potential. While we observe that the approximate free energy is a very good estimate of the actual free energy for a large range of mollification strength, we demonstrate that the errors associated with the mollification may be removed via deconvolution. The zero of energy of the bias potential, which is easy to choose, influences the speed of convergence but not the limiting accuracy. This method is simple to apply to free energy or mean force computation in multiple dimensions and does not involve second derivatives of the reaction coordinates, matrix manipulations nor on-the-fly adaptation of parameters. For the alanine dipeptide test case, the new method is found to gain as much as a factor of 10 in efficiency as compared to two basic implementations of the adaptive biasing force methods, and it is shown to be as efficient as well-tempered metadynamics with the postprocess deconvolution giving a clear advantage to the mollified density of states method.

  13. Separable representation of energy-dependent optical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n +48Ca ,n +208Pb , and p +208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the S matrix elements.

  14. The Effect of VMoS3 Point Defect on the Elastic Properties of Monolayer MoS2 with REBO Potentials.

    PubMed

    Li, Minglin; Wan, Yaling; Tu, Liping; Yang, Yingchao; Lou, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Structural defects in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have significant influence on the electric, optical, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of the material. Among all the types of structural defects of the chemical vapor phase-grown monolayer MoS2, the VMoS3 point defect (a vacancy complex of Mo and three nearby S atoms) is another type of defect preferentially generated by the extended electron irradiation. Here, using the classical molecular dynamics simulation with reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potential, we first investigate the effect of VMoS3 point defects on the elastic properties of monolayer MoS2 sheets. Under the constrained uniaxial tensile test, the elastic properties of monolayer MoS2 sheets containing VMoS3 vacancies with defect fraction varying from 0.01 to 0.1 are obtained based on the plane anisotropic constitutive relations of the material. It is found that the increase of VMoS3 vacancy concentration leads to the noticeable decrease in the elastic modulus but has a slight effect on Poisson's ratio. The maximum decrease of the elastic modulus is up to 25 %. Increasing the ambient temperature from 10 K to 500 K has trivial influences on the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio for the monolayer MoS2 without defect and with 5 % VMoS3 vacancies. However, an anomalous parabolic relationship between the elastic modulus and the temperature is found in the monolayer MoS2 containing 0.1 % VMoS3 vacancy, bringing a crucial and fundamental issue to the application of monolayer MoS2 with defects.

  15. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  16. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  17. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  18. Metallic bionanocatalysts: potential applications as green catalysts and energy materials.

    PubMed

    Macaskie, Lynne E; Mikheenko, Iryna P; Omajai, Jacob B; Stephen, Alan J; Wood, Joseph

    2017-08-22

    Microbially generated or supported nanocatalysts have potential applications in green chemistry and environmental application. However, precious (and base) metals biorefined from wastes may be useful for making cheap, low-grade catalysts for clean energy production. The concept of bionanomaterials for energy applications is reviewed with respect to potential fuel cell applications, bio-catalytic upgrading of oils and manufacturing 'drop-in fuel' precursors. Cheap, effective biomaterials would facilitate progress towards dual development goals of sustainable consumption and production patterns and help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Potential of energy farms in the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L.C.; Park, W.R.; Trehan, R.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report assesses the potential of biomass energy farms to supply feedstock for electrical energy needs in the Dominican Republic. That part of the dry forest area not used for agriculture production (1.3 million acres) is found to have a production potential of 200 MW to 1400 MW, depending upon the level of management and choice of species. A biomass energy farm design and conversion facility is described and the economics of operating a wood fired facility of 50 MW, 20 MW, 5 MW, and 2 MW is compared to 50 MW and 20 MW.

  20. A triangular element based on generalized potential energy concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Stiffness equations are formulated for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell finite element. The strain energy component of the potential energy is first expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients with the aid of consistent deep shell strain-displacement equations. The element in-plane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. These functions do not satisfy the interelement displacement admissibility conditions. Satisfaction is forced by the imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Some numerical results for a pinched cylinder, a cylindrical sphere, and a pinched sphere are examined.

  1. A triangular element based on generalized potential energy concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Stiffness equations are formulated for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell finite element. The strain energy component of the potential energy is first expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients with the aid of consistent deep shell strain-displacement equations. The element in-plane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. These functions do not satisfy the interelement displacement admissibility conditions. Satisfaction is forced by the imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Some numerical results for a pinched cylinder, a cylindrical sphere, and a pinched sphere are examined.

  2. Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-02-20

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit.

  3. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  4. Proton-proton elastic scattering analyzing power in the 2.16 to 2.28 GeV energy region.

    SciTech Connect

    Arvieux, J.; Ball, J.; Bystricky, J.; Fontaine, J. M.; Gaillard, G.; Goudour, J. P.; Hess, R.; Kunne, R.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lopiano, D.; de Mali, M.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Rapin, D.; van Rossum, L.; Sans, J. L.; Spinka, H. M.; High Energy Physics; Lab. National Saturne; CEA; Univ. of Geneva; CENB; Lab. National Saturne; Univ. of Geneva

    1997-11-01

    The angular dependence of the pp elastic scattering analyzing power was measured at SATURNE II with an unpolarized proton beam and the Saclay polarized proton target. The energy region in the vicinity of the accelerator depolarizing resonance G g = 6 at Tkin = 2.202 GeV was studied. Measurements were carried out at seven energies between 2.16 and 2.28 GeV from 17 to 55 CM. No significant anomaly was observed in the angular and energy dependence of the results presented, whereas the existing data sets differ in this energy range.

  5. Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.

  6. Kappa distribution in the presence of a potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2015-02-01

    The present paper develops the theory and formulations of the kappa distributions that describe particle systems characterized by a nonzero potential energy. As yet, kappa distributions were used for the statistical description of the velocity or kinetic energy of particles but not of the potential energy. With the results provided here, it is straightforward to use the developed kappa distributions to describe any particle population of space plasmas subject to a nonnegligible potential energy. Starting from the kappa distribution of the Hamiltonian function, we develop the distributions that describe either the complete phase space or the marginal spaces of positions and velocities. The study shows, among others: (a) The kappa distributions of velocities that describe space plasmas can be vastly different from the standard formulation of the kappa distribution, because of the presence of a potential energy; the correct formulation should be given by the marginal kappa distribution of velocities by integrating the distribution of the Hamiltonian over the potential energy. (b) The long-standing problem of the divergence of the Boltzmannian exponential distribution for bounded radial potentials is solved using kappa distributions of negative kappa index. (c) Anisotropic distributions of velocities can exist in the presence of a velocity-dependent potential. (d) A variety of applications, including derivations/verifications of the following: (i) the Jeans', the most frequent, and the maximum radii in spherical/linear gravitational potentials; (ii) the Virial theorem for power law potentials; (iii) the generalized barometric formula, (iv) the plasma density profiles in Saturnian magnetosphere, and (v) the average electron magnetic moment in Earth's magnetotail.

  7. New Methods for Exploring QM:MM Potential Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the applicability of quantum chemical methods for large system studies has been greatly enhanced by the development of hybrid QM:MM techniques. Despite these advancements, exploring the associated potential energy surfaces continues to present two key challenges. First, the QM energy and derivative evaluations may be too costly for simulations; and second, the system size for many QM:MM cases are too large to effectively store or use second-order information, an approach often used in QM studies to allow for larger integration steps and fewer QM evaluations of the potential energy surface. Our most recent work is focused on overcoming both computational bottlenecks. Using surface fitting models together with direct Hessian-vector and diagonalization algorithms, we are developing models that can accurately and efficiently explore QM:MM potential energy landscapes for very large systems. Our current development status and results from initial applications will be described.

  8. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant.

  9. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  10. Calculation of molecular free energies in classical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Singh, Bipin

    2016-02-01

    Free energies of molecules can be calculated by quantum chemistry computations or by normal mode classical calculations. However, the first can be computationally impractical for large molecules and the second is based on the assumption of harmonic dynamics. We present a novel, accurate and complete calculation of molecular free energies in standard classical potentials. In this method we transform the molecule by relaxing potential terms which depend on the coordinates of a group of atoms in that molecule and calculate the free energy difference associated with the transformation. Then, since the transformed molecule can be treated as non-interacting systems, the free energy associated with these atoms is analytically or numerically calculated. This two-step calculation can be applied to calculate free energies of molecules or free energy difference between (possibly large) molecules in a general environment. We demonstrate the method in free energy calculations for methanethiol and butane molecules in vacuum and solvent. We suggest the potential application of free energy calculation of chemical reactions in classical molecular simulations.

  11. Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.

    2009-03-04

    For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.

  12. Polar cap potential saturation: An energy conservation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. William

    2007-07-01

    In the long run, energy entering the magnetosphere from the solar wind must be balanced by energy dissipation in or escape from the system. It then follows that the Joule heating rate in the ionosphere statistically should be bounded from the upside by the solar wind energy input function (e.g., the Perrault-Akasofu parameter). We show that this energy constraint, coupled with some observationally motivated assumptions about the behavior of the auroral oval under escalating solar wind conditions, leads to the prediction of polar cap potential saturation.

  13. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  14. Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Werner Zhang, Dong H.

    2014-07-14

    We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.

  15. Adapting the nudged elastic band method for determining minimum-energy paths of chemical reactions in enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Li; Liu, Haiyan; Yang, Weitao

    2004-05-01

    Optimization of reaction paths for enzymatic systems is a challenging problem because such systems have a very large number of degrees of freedom and many of these degrees are flexible. To meet this challenge, an efficient, robust and general approach is presented based on the well-known nudged elastic band reaction path optimization method with the following extensions: (1) soft spectator degrees of freedom are excluded from path definitions by using only inter-atomic distances corresponding to forming/breaking bonds in a reaction; (2) a general transformation of the distances is defined to treat multistep reactions without knowing the partitioning of steps in advance; (3) a multistage strategy, in which path optimizations are carried out for reference systems with gradually decreasing rigidity, is developed to maximize the opportunity of obtaining continuously changing environments along the path. We demonstrate the applicability of the approach using the acylation reaction of type A β-lactamase as an example. The reaction mechanism investigated involves four elementary reaction steps, eight forming/breaking bonds. We obtained a continuous minimum energy path without any assumption on reaction coordinates, or on the possible sequence or the concertedness of chemical events. We expect our approach to have general applicability in the modeling of enzymatic reactions with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical models.

  16. Gas chromatographic/thermal energy analyzer method for N-nitrosodibenzylamine in hams processed in elastic rubber netting.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, J W; Fiddler, W

    1994-01-01

    We previously described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure for determining volatile nitrosamines in hams processed in elastic rubber nettings. This same procedure was found to successfully isolate N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA), a semivolatile nitrosamine. This nitrosamine may form as a result of the reformulated rubber now used in nettings. Reformulation became necessary because of the reported presence of N-nitrosodibutylamine in both the old nettings and on the exterior portion of commercial hams. After SPE, NDBzA was quantitated by using a gas chromatographic (GC) system interfaced to a nitrosamine-specific chemiluminescence detector [thermal energy analyzer (TEA)]. The GC system was equipped with a heated interface external to the TEA furnace to facilitate quantitation of NDBzA. With separation on a packed column, the method can be used to analyze 10 volatile nitrosamines and NDBzA. Repeatability of the method for NDBzA was found to be 2.1 ppb, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 10.6%. Analysis of 18 commercial hams from 9 different producers, purchased from local retailers, indicated that 12 were positive for NDBzA (range, 2.6-128.5 ppb). NDBzA was confirmed by GC/mass spectrometry.

  17. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  18. Low-energy elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons from SO{sub 2} using the R-matrix method

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Monika; Baluja, K. L.

    2006-04-15

    R-matrix method is used to calculate elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections for electron-SO{sub 2} collision. The electron-impact excitation cross sections for first seven low-lying electronic excited states of SO{sub 2} molecule from the ground state of SO{sub 2} molecule have been calculated for the first time. Sixteen low-lying electronic states of SO{sub 2} molecule are included in the close coupling expansion of the wave function of the entire scattering system, which have vertical excitation energies up to 10.51 eV. Configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions are used to calculate these excitation energies. In our CI model, we keep the core 14 electrons frozen in doubly occupied molecular orbitals 1a{sub 1}, 2a{sub 1}, 3a{sub 1}, 4a{sub 1}, 1b{sub 1}, 1b{sub 2}, 2b{sub 2} and the remaining 18 electrons span the relevant active space: 5a{sub 1}, 6a{sub 1}, 7a{sub 1}, 8a{sub 1}, 9a{sub 1}, 2b{sub 1}, 3b{sub 1}, 3b{sub 2}, 4b{sub 2}, 5b{sub 2}, 6b{sub 2}, and 1a{sub 2}. Our calculated dipole moment of the ground state of SO{sub 2} at its equilibrium geometry is 0.79 a.u., which is in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental value 0.64 a.u. Our calculations detect one bound SO{sub 2}{sup -} state ({sup 2}B{sub 1}) at the equilibrium geometry of SO{sub 2} molecule. Both shape as well as core-excited shape resonances have been identified in the present work and are correlated with the experimental results on dissociative electron attachment study. A detailed analysis of resonances is provided. Cross sections are reported for the electron impact energy range 0-15 eV. All cross section calculations are performed in the fixed-nuclei approximation at the experimental equilibrium geometry of the ground state of SO{sub 2} molecule. We have also investigated dependence of resonances on the geometry of SO{sub 2} molecule to probe the possible pathways for dissociation of resulting negative ion upon electron attachment. We

  19. RKRV potential energy curves and dissociation energies of NH and PH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. R.; Viswanath, R.

    1989-05-01

    The turning points of the potential energy curves for the ground states of NH and PH molecules were calculated using the approach of Rydberg-Klein-Rees modified by Vanderslice et al. (1960), together with the energy values obtained from the Lippincott potential function. These values were compared with those obtained by Jarmain (1960). The values of the dissociation energies of the NH and PH were estimated to be about 3.45 and 3.16, respectively.

  20. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P; McCormick, David A

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+) channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+), and outward K(+), currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+) entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.