Elastic-plastic analysis of annular plate problems using NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, P. C. T.
1983-01-01
The plate elements of the NASTRAN code are used to analyze two annular plate problems loaded beyond the elastic limit. The first problem is an elastic-plastic annular plate loaded externally by two concentrated forces. The second problem is stressed radially by uniform internal pressure for which an exact analytical solution is available. A comparison of the two approaches together with an assessment of the NASTRAN code is given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dai-Heng; Nisitani, Hironobu
This article is concerned with the elastic-plastic analysis of an infinite plate with an elliptic hole or a crack. The method of analysis is the body force method extended to the elastic-plastic problems. In this method, the solutions are obtained by superposing the elastic fields due to the force doublets acting in an infinite plate with an elliptic hole or a crack, so as to satisfy the constitutive equation of plasticity. The elastic-plastic behaviors near a notch root or a crack tip are discussed from the viewpoint of the linear notch mechanics.
Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates: Phase I Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, D. N.; Allen, P. A.
2012-01-01
An analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted with 15 participants. Experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 2219-T8 aluminum plate provided the basis for the inter-laboratory study (ILS). The study proceeded in a blind fashion given that the analysis methodology was not specified to the participants, and key experimental results were withheld. This approach allowed the ILS to serve as a current measure of the state of the art for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The analytical results and the associated methodologies were collected for comparison, and sources of variability were studied and isolated. The results of the study revealed that the J-integral analysis methodology using the domain integral method is robust, providing reliable J-integral values without being overly sensitive to modeling details. General modeling choices such as analysis code, model size (mesh density), crack tip meshing, or boundary conditions, were not found to be sources of significant variability. For analyses controlled only by far-field boundary conditions, the greatest source of variability in the J-integral assessment is introduced through the constitutive model. This variability can be substantially reduced by using crack mouth opening displacements to anchor the assessment. Conclusions provide recommendations for analysis standardization.
Analytical Round Robin for Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Surface Cracked Plates, Phase II Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.
2017-01-01
The second phase of an analytical round robin for the elastic-plastic analysis of surface cracks in flat plates was conducted under the auspices of ASTM Interlaboratory Study 732. The interlaboratory study (ILS) had 10 participants with a broad range of expertise and experience, and experimental results from a surface crack tension test in 4142 steel plate loaded well into the elastic-plastic regime provided the basis for the study. The participants were asked to evaluate a surface crack tension test according to the version of the surface crack initiation toughness testing standard published at the time of the ILS, E2899-13. Data were provided to each participant that represent the fundamental information that would be provided by a mechanical test laboratory prior to evaluating the test result. Overall, the participant’s test analysis results were in good agreement and constructive feedback was received that has resulted in an improved published version of the standard E2899-15.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graba, M.
2017-02-01
This paper provides a numerical analysis of selected parameters of fracture mechanics for double-edge notched specimens in tension, DEN(T), under plane strain conditions. The analysis was performed using the elastic-plastic material model. The study involved determining the stress distribution near the crack tip for both small and large deformations. The limit load solution was verified. The J-integral, the crack tip opening displacement, and the load line displacement were determined using the numerical method to propose the new hybrid solutions for calculating these parameters. The investigations also aimed to identify the influence of the plate geometry and the material characteristics on the parameters under consideration. This paper is a continuation of the author's previous studies and simulations in the field of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics.
Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piriz, A. R.; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.
2015-03-01
A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.
Finite stretching of an annular plate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biricikoglu, V.; Kalnins, A.
1971-01-01
The problem of the finite stretching of an annular plate which is bonded to a rigid inclusion at its inner edge is considered. The material is assumed to be isotropic and incompressible with a Mooney-type constitutive law. It is shown that the inclusion of the effect of the transverse normal strain leads to a rapid variation in thickness which is confined to a narrow edge zone. The explicit solutions to the boundary layer equations, which govern the behavior of the plate near the edges, are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ward, Steven N.
1988-01-01
Data obtained by Mark III VLBI measurements of radio signals from permanent and mobile VLBI sites for 5.5 years of observations, starting in October 1982, were used to derive a picture of the earth crust deformation near the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The data, which included the vector positions of the VLBI sites and their rate of change, were used for comparison with a number of lithospheric deformation models based upon the concept that the motions of points near the North America-Pacific plate boundary are a linear combination of North America and Pacific velocities. The best of these models were found to fit 95 percent of the variance in 139 VLBI length and transverse velocity observations. Instantaneous shear deformation associated with plate tectonics is apparently developing in a zone 450 km wide paralleling the San Andreas Fault; some of this deformation will be recovered through elastic rebound, while the rest will be permanently set through plastic processes. Because the VLBI data have not been collected for a significant fraction of the earthquake cycle, they cannot discriminate between elastic and plastic behaviors.
Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlus, D.
2017-02-01
Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.
Stability of Three-Layered Annular Plate with Composite Facings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlus, D.
2016-10-01
Paper presents the behaviour of three-layered annular plates subjected to loads acting in plate plane. Plates are composed of laminated fibre-reinforced composite facings and foam core. The static and dynamic parameters of plate critical state were evaluated. The sensitivity of composite structure of plate to the acting of quickly increasing in time loads is shown. The problem has been solved numerically using the finite element method. Results have been compared with ones obtained for plate models with isotropic layers. These plate models have also been calculated solving formulated task analytically and numerically by means of the finite difference method. Solutions to the problem concern the axisymmetrical and asymmetrical plate buckling modes. Numerous presented tables and figures create the image of the stability behaviour of examined composite plates.
Standing wave acoustic levitation on an annular plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandemir, Mehmet Hakan; Çalışkan, Mehmet
2016-11-01
In standing wave acoustic levitation technique, a standing wave is formed between a source and a reflector. Particles can be attracted towards pressure nodes in standing waves owing to a spring action through which particles can be suspended in air. This operation can be performed on continuous structures as well as in several numbers of axes. In this study an annular acoustic levitation arrangement is introduced. Design features of the arrangement are discussed in detail. Bending modes of the annular plate, known as the most efficient sound generation mechanism in such structures, are focused on. Several types of bending modes of the plate are simulated and evaluated by computer simulations. Waveguides are designed to amplify waves coming from sources of excitation, that are, transducers. With the right positioning of the reflector plate, standing waves are formed in the space between the annular vibrating plate and the reflector plate. Radiation forces are also predicted. It is demonstrated that small particles can be suspended in air at pressure nodes of the standing wave corresponding to a particular bending mode.
Three-Dimensional Vibrations of Thick Circular and Annular Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
So, J.; Leissa, A. W.
1998-01-01
The Ritz method is applied in a three- dimensional (3-D) analysis to obtain accurate frequencies for thick circular and annular plates. The method is formulated in a manner which allows one to have any combination of free or fixed plate boundaries. Admissible functions for the three displacement components are chosen as trigonometric functions in the circumferential co-ordinate, and algebraic polynomials in the radial and axial co-ordinates. Upper bound convergence of the non-dimensional frequencies to at least four significant figures is demonstrated. Comparisons of results are made with ones obtained by others using 2-D Mindlin thick plate theory, and with other 3-D solutions. Extensive and accurate (four significant figure) frequencies are presented for completely free circular plates having thickness-to-diameter ratios of 0·2, 0·3, 0·4 and 0·5 for Poisson's ratios ν=0, 0·3 and 0·499. Frequencies are also given for thick annular plates having a thickness-to-outer-diameter of 0·2, inside-to-outside-diameter ratios of 0·1, 0·5 and 0·9, and ν=0·3. All 3-D modes are included in the analyses; e.g., flexural thickness-shear, in plane stretching, and torsional. The circular and annular plate frequency data given isexactto at least four digits, thus being benchmark data against which results from 2-D thick plate theories or other approximate methods (e.g., finite elements) may be compared.
Takano, T; Hirata, H; Tomikawa, Y
1990-01-01
The development of an ultrasonic motor using nonaxisymmetric vibration modes of a piezoelectric annular plate is described. A piezoelectric annular plate is analyzed to find its mode patterns, elliptic motions of displacement for the motor, and the distributions of the induced charge on the plate surface, and to calculate electromechanical coupling factors. On the basis of the analyzed results, motors using the annular plate have been built and their characteristics measured. The construction and characteristics of these motors are discussed.
Elastic-plastic models for multi-site damage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Actis, Ricardo L.; Szabo, Barna A.
1994-01-01
This paper presents recent developments in advanced analysis methods for the computation of stress site damage. The method of solution is based on the p-version of the finite element method. Its implementation was designed to permit extraction of linear stress intensity factors using a superconvergent extraction method (known as the contour integral method) and evaluation of the J-integral following an elastic-plastic analysis. Coarse meshes are adequate for obtaining accurate results supported by p-convergence data. The elastic-plastic analysis is based on the deformation theory of plasticity and the von Mises yield criterion. The model problem consists of an aluminum plate with six equally spaced holes and a crack emanating from each hole. The cracks are of different sizes. The panel is subjected to a remote tensile load. Experimental results are available for the panel. The plasticity analysis provided the same limit load as the experimentally determined load. The results of elastic-plastic analysis were compared with the results of linear elastic analysis in an effort to evaluate how plastic zone sizes influence the crack growth rates. The onset of net-section yielding was determined also. The results show that crack growth rate is accelerated by the presence of adjacent damage, and the critical crack size is shorter when the effects of plasticity are taken into consideration. This work also addresses the effects of alternative stress-strain laws: The elastic-ideally-plastic material model is compared against the Ramberg-Osgood model.
Practical solution of plastic deformation problems in elastic-plastic range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendelson, A; Manson, S
1957-01-01
A practical method for solving plastic deformation problems in the elastic-plastic range is presented. The method is one of successive approximations and is illustrated by four examples which include a flat plate with temperature distribution across the width, a thin shell with axial temperature distribution, a solid cylinder with radial temperature distribution, and a rotating disk with radial temperature distribution.
Elastic-Plastic Analysis of Screw Threads
1980-11-01
stress-strain curve defined out to 6% strain. ELASTIC PLASTIC METHOD The NASTRAN Rigid Format 6, Piecewise Linear Analysis is covered in the...34"Aero Space Structural Metals Handbook," Mechanical Properties Data Center, Belfour Sluton Inc., Code 3207, pp. 15-16. 7"The NASTRAN Theoretical...Manual," R. H. MacNeal, Editor, NASA SP-221, Level 15. "P, Chen, G. P. O’Hara, "Implementation of a Trapezoidal Ring Element in NASTRAN for Elastic
Semi Inextensional Post Buckling Analysis of Annular Plates,
1981-09-01
exhibit rather large rotations and curvature changes while the midsurface extensional strains have a rather limited influence on the deformation patterns...length measure s’. The radial displacement of a material point on the plate midsurface is denoted by u (Fig. 2). The angle between the normal t3 the...deformed plate and the z axis is denoted by * , and the radius of curvature of the deformed plate midsurface is r’. The following relationships hold: 1
In-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions.
Shi, Xianjie; Shi, Dongyan; Qin, Zhengrong; Wang, Qingshan
2014-01-01
In comparison with the out-of-plane vibrations of annular plates, far less attention has been paid to the in-plane vibrations which may also play a vital important role in affecting the sound radiation from and power flows in a built-up structure. In this investigation, a generalized Fourier series method is proposed for the in-plane vibration analysis of annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions along each of its edges. Regardless of the boundary conditions, the in-plane displacement fields are invariantly expressed as a new form of trigonometric series expansions with a drastically improved convergence as compared with the conventional Fourier series. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Unlike most of the existing studies, the presented method can be readily and universally applied to a wide spectrum of in-plane vibration problems involving different boundary conditions, varying material, and geometric properties with no need of modifying the basic functions or adapting solution procedures. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the current solution for predicting the in-plane vibration characteristics of annular plates subjected to different boundary conditions.
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.
Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the
Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López Ortega, A.; Lombardini, M.; Hill, D. J.
2011-11-01
We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=es(I1)+eh(ρ,ς), where es accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and eh represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., eh=eh(ρ), with a power-law dependence eh∝ρα, shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M∝[log(1/R)]α, independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M∝R-(s-1) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part eh is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M∝R-(s-1)/n(γ) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the hydrostatic part of the energy essentially commands the strong-shock behavior, the shear
Experimental investigation of Rayleigh Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haley, Aaron Alan; Banerjee, Arindam
2010-11-01
The interface of an elastic-plastic plate accelerated by a fluid of lower density is Rayleigh Taylor (RT) unstable, the growth being mitigated by the mechanical strength of the plate. The instability is observed when metal plates are accelerated by high explosives, in explosive welding, and in volcanic island formation due to the strength of the inner crust. In contrast to the classical case involving Newtonian fluids, RT instability in accelerated solids is not well understood. The difficulties for constructing a theory for the linear growth phase in solids is essentially due to the character of elastic-plastic constitutive properties which has a nonlinear dependence on the magnitude of the rate of deformation. Experimental investigation of the phenomena is difficult due to the exceedingly small time scales (in high energy density experiments) and large measurement uncertainties of material properties. We performed experiments on our Two-Wheel facility to study the linear stage of the incompressible RT instability in elastic-plastic materials (yogurt) whose properties were well characterized. Rotation of the wheels imparted a constant centrifugal acceleration on the material interface that was cut with a small sinusoidal ripple. The controlled initial conditions and precise acceleration amplitudes are levied to investigate transition from elastic to plastic deformation and allow accurate and detailed measurements of flow properties.
3-D vibration analysis of annular sector plates using the Chebyshev-Ritz method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, D.; Lo, S. H.; Cheung, Y. K.
2009-02-01
The three-dimensional free vibration of annular sector plates with various boundary conditions is studied by means of the Chebyshev-Ritz method. The analysis is based on the three-dimensional small strain linear elasticity theory. The product of Chebyshev polynomials satisfying the necessary boundary conditions is selected as admissible functions in such a way that the governing eigenvalue equation can be conveniently derived through an optimization process by the Ritz method. The boundary functions guarantee the satisfaction of the geometric boundary conditions of the plates and the Chebyshev polynomials provide the robustness for numerical calculation. The present study provides a full vibration spectrum for the thick annular sector plates, which cannot be given by the two-dimensional (2-D) theories such as the Mindlin theory. Comprehensive numerical results with high accuracy are systematically produced, which can be used as benchmark to evaluate other numerical methods. The effect of radius ratio, thickness ratio and sector angle on natural frequencies of the plates with a sector angle from 120° to 360° is discussed in detail. The three-dimensional vibration solutions for plates with a re-entrant sector angle (larger than 180°) and shallow helicoidal shells (sector angle larger than 360°) with a small helix angle are presented for the first time.
Implementation of elastic-plastic structural analysis into NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, A.; Pifko, A. B.; Ogilvie, P. L.
1983-01-01
Elastic-plastic analytic capabilities were incorporated into the NASTRAN program. The present implementation includes a general rigid format and additional bulk data cards as well as to two new modules. The modules are specialized to include only perfect plasticity of the CTRMEN and CROD elements but can easily be expanded to include other plasticity theories and elements. The practical problem of an elastic-plastic analysis of a ship's bracket connection is demonstrated and compared to an equivalent analysis using Grumman's PLANS program. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating general elastic-plastic capabilities into NASTRAN.
Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.
Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin
2016-01-01
Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by
Elastic-plastic response charts for nuclear overpressures. Final report
Guice, L.K.; Kiger, S.A.
1984-06-01
The single-degree-of-freedom equation of motion for an elastic-plastic system with forcing functions that are representative of nuclear weapon simulations is nondimensionalized and solved. Numerical solutions are calculated by the Newmark Beta method, and response charts incorporating nondimensionalized structural and loading parameters for the Speicher-Brode nuclear pressure history description are provided. A computer code is presented for solving the elastic-plastic problem for Speicher-Brode overpressure as well as triangular-shaped overpressures.
Description of the M-integral in an elastic plastic material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Huiyu; Gao, Cheng; Xu, Jinyong; Tang, Yan; Cai, Dayong; Huang, Ranran
2017-01-01
By use of finite element analysis method of elastic-plasticity, a calculation of M-integral for 7075 aluminum alloy plate containing different configuration defects was conducted. The effect of plastic energy on path independence of the M-integral is discussed, The variation of M-integral of the holes before and after coalescence under tension loading is studied. Analysis result indicates that M-integral will be path dependent when the plastic zone is passed through by the selected integration contours. There is a jump of the M-integral when coalescence of the holes in a plate occurs. The value of the M-integral is always configuration dependent.
Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.
2013-01-01
No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.
Vibrations of Base Plates in Annular Cylindrical Tanks: Theory and Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, M.; Dalpiaz, G.
1998-02-01
In this paper, the bulging modes (i.e., modes where the walls oscillate moving the liquid) of the flexible bottom annular plate of an otherwise rigid annular cylindrical container are studied. The tank has a vertical axis and is partially filled with liquid, so that the free surface of the liquid is orthogonal to the tank axis. The volume occupied by the liquid is delimited by two coaxial rigid cylinders and the liquid deformation potential is obtained by using variables separation. First, by using the simplifying hypothesis that the mode shapes of the plates in contact with the liquid (wet modes) are the samein vacuo, the approach based on the non-dimensionalized added virtual mass incremental (NAVMI) factor is applied, so that all numerical computations can be made non-dimensional. Second, the accuracy of this method is checked by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method, which removes the restrictive hypothesis on the wet mode shapes. Finally, several experimental modal analyses were performed on two different test tanks filled with different water levels in order to verify the accuracy of the theoretical results.
Aerodynamic performance of an annular flat plate airfoil cascade with nonuniform inlet velocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffum, D.; Fleeter, S.
1986-01-01
The demand for increased gas turbine engine efficiency with minimum weight is leading to more complex blading designs, in which viscous and three-dimensional effects are significant. As a result, design procedures based on first principle, experimentally verified, three-dimensional aerodynamic analyses are required. This paper describes a series of experiments performed in a large-scale, subsonic, annular cascade facility specifically designed to provide three-dimensional aerodynamic data suitable for code verification. In particular, the effect of inlet velocity profile on the overall three-dimensional performance of a classical flat plate airfoil cascade is investigated over a range of incidence angles including those resulting in airfoil surface flow separation. All of the data are analyzed and correlated with appropriate nonseparated flow predictions.
2014-11-01
Shock Compression of Metal Crystals: A Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Elastic- Plastic Theories by JD Clayton ARL-RP-0513...of Metal Crystals: A Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Elastic- Plastic Theories JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...SUBTITLE Shock Compression of Metal Crystals: A Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Elastic- Plastic Theories 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Elastic-plastic-brittle transitions and avalanches in disordered media.
Kale, Sohan; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin
2014-01-31
A spring lattice model with the ability to simulate elastic-plastic-brittle transitions in a disordered medium is presented. The model is based on bilinear constitutive law defined at the spring level and power-law-type disorder introduced in the yield and failure limits of the springs. The key parameters of the proposed model effectively control the disorder distribution, significantly affecting the stress-strain response, the damage accumulation process, and the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates a plastic strain avalanche behavior for perfectly plastic as well as hardening materials with a power-law distribution, in agreement with the experiments and related models. The strength of the model is in its generality and ability to interpolate between elastic-plastic hardening and elastic-brittle transitions.
Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen
Majumdar, S.
1998-09-01
Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.
Elastic-plastic behavior of non-woven fibrous mats
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silberstein, Meredith N.; Pai, Chia-Ling; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Boyce, Mary C.
2012-02-01
Electrospinning is a novel method for creating non-woven polymer mats that have high surface area and high porosity. These attributes make them ideal candidates for multifunctional composites. Understanding the mechanical properties as a function of fiber properties and mat microstructure can aid in designing these composites. Further, a constitutive model which captures the membrane stress-strain behavior as a function of fiber properties and the geometry of the fibrous network would be a powerful design tool. Here, mats electrospun from amorphous polyamide are used as a model system. The elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers are obtained in tensile tests. Uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tensile tests are conducted on non-woven mats. The mat exhibits elastic-plastic stress-strain behavior. The transverse strain behavior provides important complementary data, showing a negligible initial Poisson's ratio followed by a transverse:axial strain ratio greater than -1:1 after an axial strain of 0.02. A triangulated framework has been developed to emulate the fibrous network structure of the mat. The micromechanically based model incorporates the elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers into a macroscopic membrane model of the mat. This representative volume element based model is shown to capture the uniaxial elastic-plastic response of the mat under monotonic and cyclic loading. The initial modulus and yield stress of the mat are governed by the fiber properties, the network geometry, and the network density. The transverse strain behavior is linked to discrete deformation mechanisms of the fibrous mat structure including fiber alignment, fiber bending, and network consolidation. The model is further validated in comparison to experiments under different constrained axial loading conditions and found to capture the constraint effect on stiffness, yield, post-yield hardening, and post-yield transverse strain behavior. Due to the direct connection between
On shakedown theory for elastic-plastic materials and extensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinh, Pham Duc
The idea that an elastic-plastic structure under given loading history may shake down to some purely elastic state (and hence to a safe state) after a finite amount of initial plastic deformation, can apply to many sophisticated material models with possible allowable changes of additional material characteristics, as has been done in the literature. Despite some claims to the contrary, it is shown; however, that the shakedown theorems in a Melan-Koiter path-independent sense have been extended successfully only for certain elastic-plastic hardening materials of practical significance. Shakedown of kinematic hardening material is determined by the ultimate and initial yield stresses, not the generally plastic deformation history-dependent hardening curve between. The initial yield stress is no longer the convenient one (corresponding to the plastic deformation at the level of 0.2%) as in usual elastic-plastic analysis but to be related to the shakedown safety requirement of the structure and should be as small as the fatigue limit for arbitrary high-cycle loading. Though the ultimate yield strength is well defined in the standard monotonic loading experiment, it also should be reduced to the so-called "high-cycle ratchetting" stress for the path-independent shakedown analysis. A reduced simple form of the shakedown kinematic theorem without time integrals is conjectured for general practical uses. Application of the theorem is illustrated by examples for a hollow cylinder, sphere, and a clamped disk, under variable (including quasiperiodic dynamic) pressure.
Efficient parallel algorithms for elastic plastic finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, K. Z.; Qin, Q.-H.; Cardew-Hall, M.; Kalyanasundaram, S.
2008-03-01
This paper presents our new development of parallel finite element algorithms for elastic plastic problems. The proposed method is based on dividing the original structure under consideration into a number of substructures which are treated as isolated finite element models via the interface conditions. Throughout the analysis, each processor stores only the information relevant to its substructure and generates the local stiffness matrix. A parallel substructure oriented preconditioned conjugate gradient method, which is combined with MR smoothing and diagonal storage scheme are employed to solve linear systems of equations. After having obtained the displacements of the problem under consideration, a substepping scheme is used to integrate elastic plastic stress strain relations. The procedure outlined controls the error of the computed stress by choosing each substep size automatically according to a prescribed tolerance. The combination of these algorithms shows a good speedup when increasing the number of processors and the effective solution of 3D elastic plastic problems whose size is much too large for a single workstation becomes possible.
ZIP3D: An elastic and elastic-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1990-01-01
ZIP3D is an elastic and an elastic-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode strain energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an elastic analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an elastic-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.
Acoustic radiation from out-of-plane modes of an annular disk using thin and thick plate theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyeongill; Singh, Rajendra
2005-04-01
Out-of-plane (flexural) vibration is a major source of sound radiation from many mechanical or structural components having annular or circular disk shape. The typical thickness of practical components is often beyond the thin plate theory limit and it may have considerable effect on sound radiation. But, traditionally, thin annular disk models have been employed for such structures neglecting the thickness effect. In this article, structural eigensolutions for the out-of-plane modes and sound radiation from the modal vibration of a thick annular disk with free-free boundaries have been calculated using both thick and thin plate theories. A new analytical formulation is proposed for the sound radiation problem. In addition, the same problem has been solved by a semi-analytical procedure in which the disk surface velocity is numerically defined by a finite-element model and sound radiation is then analytically obtained using a modified circular radiator model. Also, the effects of radii and thickness ratios on the structural and acoustic radiation characteristics are investigated using the analytical procedure. Finally, the effect of boundary conditions is briefly examined.
Void growth in an elastic-plastic medium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Needleman, A.
1972-01-01
The uniaxial deformation of an elastic-plastic medium containing a doubly periodic square array of circular cylindrical voids is studied under plane-strain conditions. Both the effects of geometrical nonlinearities resulting from large deformation and physical nonlinearities arising from plastic material behavior are included in formulating the problem. A variational principle is used as the basis for implementing a finite-element solution. Results are obtained for the change in void shape and size under increasing overall strain, the overall tensile behavior of the material with voids, and the development of the plastic zone about a void.
Engineering approach for elastic-plastic fracture analysis
Kumar, V; German, M D; Shih, C F
1981-07-01
This report for RP1237-1 presents formulas, charts, and background material that allow calculation of safety margins in ductile structures containing flaws. It is intended as a reference book for engineers who are concerned with design and analysis of flawed structures. The work extends the analysis procedures already available for brittle elastic materials to the tough and ductile steels used in the construction of pressure-boundary components. These new elastic-plastic methods more accurately describe the behavior of ductile materials and show more tolerance to flaws than the elastic methods contained in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the Code of Federal Regulations.
Cyclic material properties tests supporting elastic-plastic analysis development
Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.
1996-11-01
Correlation studies have shown that hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS finite element code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture the inelastic strain reversals that occur due to structural rebounding from a rapidly applied transient dynamic load. The purpose of the Cyclic Material properties Test program was to obtain response data for the first several cycles of inelastic strain reversal from a cyclic properties test. This data is needed to develop elastic-plastic analysis methods that can accurately predict strains and permanent sets in structures due to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. Test specimens were cycled at inelastic strain levels typical of rapidly applied transient dynamic analyses (0.5% to 4.0%). In addition to the inelastic response data, cyclic material properties for high yield strength (80 ksi) steel were determined including a cyclic stress-strain curve for a stabilized specimen. Two test methods, the Incremental Step method and the Companion specimen Method, were sued to determine cyclic properties. The incrementally decreasing strain amplitudes in the first loading block of the Incremental Step method test is representative of the response of structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loads. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program will be used to support development of a material model that can accurately predict inelastic material behavior including inelastic strain reversals. Additionally, this data can be used to verify material model enhancements to elastic-plastic finite element analysis codes.
Elastic plastic fracture mechanics methodology for surface cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ernst, Hugo A.; Lambert, D. M.
1994-01-01
The Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics Methodology has evolved significantly in the last several years. Nevertheless, some of these concepts need to be extended further before the whole methodology can be safely applied to structural parts. Specifically, there is a need to include the effect of constraint in the characterization of material resistance to crack growth and also to extend these methods to the case of 3D defects. As a consequence, this project was started as a 36 month research program with the general objective of developing an elastic plastic fracture mechanics methodology to assess the structural reliability of pressure vessels and other parts of interest to NASA which may contain flaws. The project is divided into three tasks that deal with (1) constraint and thickness effects, (2) three-dimensional cracks, and (3) the Leak-Before-Burst (LBB) criterion. This report period (March 1994 to August 1994) is a continuation of attempts to characterize three dimensional aspects of fracture present in 'two dimensional' or planar configuration specimens (Chapter Two), especially, the determination of, and use of, crack face separation data. Also, included, are a variety of fracture resistance testing results (J(m)R-curve format) and a discussion regarding two materials of NASA interest (6061-T651 Aluminum alloy and 1N718-STA1 nickel-base super alloy) involving a bases for like constraint in terms of ligament dimensions, and their comparison to the resulting J(m)R-curves (Chapter Two).
Elastic plastic fracture mechanics methodology for surface cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ernst, Hugo A.; Boatwright, D. W.; Curtin, W. J.; Lambert, D. M.
1993-01-01
The Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) Methodology has evolved significantly in the last several years. Nevertheless, some of these concepts need to be extended further before the whole methodology can be safely applied to structural parts. Specifically, there is a need to include the effect of constraint in the characterization of material resistance to crack growth and also to extend these methods to the case of 3D defects. As a consequence, this project was started as a 36 month research program with the general objective of developing an EPFM methodology to assess the structural reliability of pressure vessels and other parts of interest to NASA containing defects. This report covers a computer modelling algorithm used to simulate the growth of a semi-elliptical surface crack; the presentation of a finite element investigation that compared the theoretical (HRR) stress field to that produced by elastic and elastic-plastic models; and experimental efforts to characterize three dimensional aspects of fracture present in 'two dimensional', or planar configuration specimens.
Elastic/Plastic Drop Analysis Using Finite Element Techniques
R. E. Spears
1999-08-01
A Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) can, which is called the High Integrity Can (HIC), is being designed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Its intended use is to contain SNF sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). INTEC will then do the final work with the HIC to send it to the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for long-term storage. One portion of the analysis, which was required for the HIC, was accidental drop scenarios. This consisted of 19 simulated drops from a height of 30-feet with impact on a flat rigid surface. Elastic/plastic analyses were performed for the simulated drops. Additionally, two elastic/plastic analyses were performed for drops from a height of 17-feet with impact on a rigid surface having a narrow raised portion across its center. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if any breach occurred which opened a crack wider than 0.05-inches from these drop scenarios. Also some plastic deformations were needed from certain drop scenarios to support the Criticality Safety documentation. The analytical results for the simulated drop scenarios showed that, though the seal in the lid may be broken, no 0.05-inch breach occurred. Also, the deformations for Criticality Safety documentation were calculated and show on the applicable output plots.
Elastic-plastic mixed-iterative finite element analysis: Implementation and performance assessment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.
1993-01-01
An elastic-plastic algorithm based on Von Mises and associative flow criteria is implemented in MHOST-a mixed iterative finite element analysis computer program developed by NASA Lewis Research Center. The performance of the resulting elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors of 4-node quadrilateral shell finite elements are tested for elastic-plastic performance. Generally, the membrane results are excellent, indicating the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate.
Elastic-plastic analysis of crack in ductile adhesive joint
Ikeda, Toru; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Akira; Munakata, Tsuyoshi
1995-11-01
The fracture of a crack in adhesive is important to the structural integrity of adhesive structures and composite materials. Though the fracture toughness of a material should be constant according to fracture mechanics, it is said that the fracture toughness of a crack in an adhesive joint depends on the bond thickness. In the present study, the elastic-plastic stress analyses of a crack in a thin adhesive layer are performed by the combination of the boundary element method and the finite element method. The effect of adhesive thickness on the J-integral, the Q`-factor which is a modified version of the Q-factor, and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) are investigated. It is found from the analyses that the CTOD begins to decrease at very thin bond thickness, the Q`-factor being almost constant. The decrease of the fracture toughness at very thin adhesive layer is expected by the present analysis.
Derivation of a variational principle for plane strain elastic-plastic silk biopolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, J. H.; Liu, F. J.; Cao, J. H.; Zhang, L.
2014-01-01
Silk biopolymers, such as spider silk and Bombyx mori silk, behave always elastic-plastically. An elastic-plastic model is adopted and a variational principle for the small strain, rate plasticity problem is established by semi-inverse method. A trial Lagrangian is constructed where an unknown function is included which can be identified step by step.
Finite element elastic-plastic-creep and cyclic life analysis of a cowl lip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arya, Vinod K.; Melis, Matthew E.; Halford, Gary R.
1990-01-01
Results are presented of elastic, elastic-plastic, and elastic-plastic-creep analyses of a test-rig component of an actively cooled cowl lip. A cowl lip is part of the leading edge of an engine inlet of proposed hypersonic aircraft and is subject to severe thermal loadings and gradients during flight. Values of stresses calculated by elastic analysis are well above the yield strength of the cowl lip material. Such values are highly unrealistic, and thus elastic stress analyses are inappropriate. The inelastic (elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic-creep) analyses produce more reasonable and acceptable stress and strain distributions in the component. Finally, using the results from these analyses, predictions are made for the cyclic crack initiation life of a cowl lip. A comparison of predicted cyclic lives shows the cyclic life prediction from the elastic-plastic-creep analysis to be the lowest and, hence, most realistic.
Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element analyses of constraint variations in cracked bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Bigelow, C. A.; Shivakumar, K. N.
1993-01-01
Three-dimensional elastic-plastic (small-strain) finite-element analyses were used to study the stresses, deformations, and constraint variations around a straight-through crack in finite-thickness plates for an elastic-perfectly plastic material under monotonic and cyclic loading. Middle-crack tension specimens were analyzed for thicknesses ranging from 1.25 to 20 mm with various crack lengths. Three local constraint parameters, related to the normal, tangential, and hydrostatic stresses, showed similar variations along the crack front for a given thickness and applied stress level. Numerical analyses indicated that cyclic stress history and crack growth reduced the local constraint parameters in the interior of a plate, especially at high applied stress levels. A global constraint factor alpha(sub g) was defined to simulate three-dimensional effects in two-dimensional crack analyses. The global constraint factor was calculated as an average through-the-thickness value over the crack-front plastic region. Values of alpha(sub g) were found to be nearly independent of crack length and were related to the stress-intensity factor for a given thickness.
Elastic Plastic Fracture Analysis of an Aluminum COPV Liner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott; Gregg, Bradley; Bailey, Nathaniel
2012-01-01
Onboard any space-launch vehicle, composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) may be utilized by propulsion or environmental control systems. The failure of a COPV has the potential to be catastrophic, resulting in the loss of vehicle, crew or mission. The latest COPV designs have reduced the wall-thickness of the metallic liner to the point where the material strains plastically during operation. At this time, the only method to determine the damage tolerance lifetime (safe-life) of a plastically responding metallic liner is through full-scale COPV testing. Conducting tests costs substantially more and can be far more time consuming than performing an analysis. As a result of this cost, there is a need to establish a qualifying process through the use of a crack growth analysis tool. This paper will discuss fracture analyses of plastically responding metallic liners in COPVs. Uni-axial strain tests have been completed on laboratory specimens to collect elastic-plastic crack growth data. This data has been modeled with the crack growth analysis tool, NASGRO 6.20 to predict the response of laboratory specimens and subsequently the complexity of a COPV.
Elastic, Plastic, Cracking Aspects of the Hardness of Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, R. W.; Elban, W. L.; Walley, S. M.
2013-03-01
The hardness properties of materials are tracked from early history until the present time. Emphasis is placed on the hardness test being a useful probe for determining the local elastic, plastic and cracking properties of single crystal, polycrystalline, polyphase or amorphous materials. Beginning from connection made between individual hardness pressure measurements and the conventional stress-strain properties of polycrystalline materials, the newer consideration is described of directly specifying a hardness-type stress-strain relationship based on a continuous loading curve, particularly, as obtained with a spherical indenter. Such effort has received impetus from order-of-magnitude improvements in load and displacement measuring capabilities that are demonstrated for nanoindentation testing. Details of metrology assessments involved in various types of hardness tests are reviewed. A compilation of measurements is presented for the separate aspects of Hertzian elastic, dislocation-mechanics-based plasticity and indentation-fracture-mechanics-based cracking behaviors of materials, including elastic and plastic deformation rate effects. A number of test applications are reviewed, most notably involving the hardness of thin film materials and coatings.
Finite elastic-plastic deformation of polycrystalline metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwakuma, T.; Nemat-Nasser, S.
1984-01-01
Applying Hill's self-consistent method to finite elastic-plastic deformations, the overall moduli of polycrystalline solids are estimated. The model predicts a Bauschinger effect, hardening, and formation of vertex or corner on the yield surface for both microscopically non-hardening and hardening crystals. The changes in the instantaneous moduli with deformation are examined, and their asymptotic behavior, especially in relation to possible localization of deformations, is discussed. An interesting conclusion is that small second-order quantities, such as shape changes of grains and residual stresses (measured relative to the crystal elastic moduli), have a first-order effect on the overall response, as they lead to a loss of the overall stability by localized deformation. The predicted incipience of localization for a uniaxial deformation in two dimensions depends on the initial yield strain, but the orientation of localization is slightly less than 45 deg with respect to the tensile direction, although the numerical instability makes it very difficult to estimate this direction accurately.
Comparison of aerogrids and punched plates for smoothing flow from short annular diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumpf, R. L.; Shippen, W. B.
1972-01-01
Scale model tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of aerogrids and punched plates in producing flat velocity profiles downstream of short diffusers as would be used between the compressor and combustor of advanced aircraft engines. The diffuser had an area ratio of 4.17 and a length-to-inlet-height ratio of 2.07. The aerogrids tested were plates containing 1123 contoured venturis in parallel with geometric blockages of 83, 74, and 61 percent, respectively. The punched plates contained 1123 sharp-edged orifices with blockages of 58 and 30 percent. The results show that aerogrids, with higher effective blockage for the same pressure loss, are more effective flow-smoothing devices than the punched plates. Also, the overall pressure loss decreases and the exit velocity profile becomes flatter as either type of grid is moved closer to the diffuser exit plane.
On Elastic-Plastic Analysis of an Overloaded Breech Ring Using NASTRAN
1981-09-01
NASTRAN Code is used in both cases. However, for problems under prescribed displacements, the DMAP sequence should be slightly modified. The maximum...ACrAV^SASk* AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCB-TR-81040 ON ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF AN OVERLOADED BREECH RING USING NASTRAN P. C. T. Chen September...TITLE fand SubHMe; ON ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF AN OVERLOADED BREECH RING USING NASTRAN 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final 6
A More Accurate Solution to the Elastic-Plastic Problem of Pressurized Thick-Walled Cylinders
1985-02-01
ACCURATE SOLUTION TO THE ELASTIC- PLASTIC PROBLEM OF PRESSURIZED THICK-WALLED CYLINDERS S. TYPE OF REPORT 4’ PERIOD COVERED Final 8. PERFORMING...o £ ) A MORE ACCURATE SOLUTION TO THE ELASTIC- PLASTIC PROBLEM OF PREr SURIZED THICK-WALLED CYLINDERS < • Peter C. T. Chen U.S. Army Armament...Watervllet, NY 12189 I iJSTRACT. A new method has been developed for solving the partially plastic problems of thlc’ -walled cylinders made of strain
Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.
1992-01-01
Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.
Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.
Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.
Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.
1992-01-01
Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.
Fabrication of two-color annular hybrid wave plate for three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumagai, Hiroshi; Iketaki, Yoshinori; Jahn, Kornel; Bokor, Nador
2016-03-01
In super-resolution microscopy, we use fluorescence depletion, where an erase beam quenches a molecule in the S1 state generated by a pump beam, and then prevents fluorescence from the S1 state. When a tight doughnut shaped erase beam with is focused on the dyed sample together with a Gaussian pump beam, the remaining fluorescence spot in the focal plane becomes smaller than the diffraction-limited size. Applying destructive interference to the erase beam, erase beam has a minute three-dimensional dark spot surrounded by the light near the focal region. Since this spot introduces fluorescence depletion along the optical axis as in the focal plane, we can achieve three-dimensional super-resolution microscopy. However, to overcome the diffraction limit, an extremely precise optical alignment is required for projecting the focused pump beam into the dark spot of the erase beam. To resolve this technical issue, we fabricated a two-color annular hybrid wave plate (TAHWP) by combining two multi-order wave quartz plates. Although the pump and erase beams co-axially pass through the plate; the pump beam retains its original Gaussian shape, while the erase beam undergoes destructive interference. Inserting the TAHWP into a commercial scanning laser microscope, a three-dimensional spherical fluorescence spot with a volume of (~100 nm)3 can be created. Beside eliminating alignment problems and yielding a compact setup, the TAHWP makes our proposed method very suitable for commercial microscope systems. In this study, we report about detailed fabrication procedure and three-dimensional image properties given by the TAHWP.
Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics of compact bone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jiahau
Bone is a composite composed mainly of organics, minerals and water. Most studies on the fracture toughness of bone have been conducted at room temperature. Considering that the body temperature of animals is higher than room temperature, and that bone has a high volumetric percentage of organics (generally, 35--50%), the effect of temperature on fracture toughness of bone should be studied. Single-edged V-shaped notched (SEVN) specimens were prepared to measure the fracture toughness of bovine femur and manatee rib in water at 0, 10, 23, 37 and 50°C. The fracture toughness of bovine femur and manatee rib were found to decrease from 7.0 to 4.3 MPa·m1/2 and from 5.5 to 4.1 MPa·m1/2, respectively, over a temperature range of 50°C. The decreases were attributed to inability of the organics to sustain greater stresses at higher temperatures. We studied the effects of water and organics on fracture toughness of bone using water-free and organics-free SEVN specimens at 23°C. Water-free and organics-free specimens were obtained by placing fresh bone specimen in a furnace at different temperatures. Water and organics significantly affected the fracture toughness of bone. Fracture toughness of the water-free specimens was 44.7% (bovine femur) and 32.4% (manatee rib) less than that of fresh-bone specimens. Fracture toughness of the organics-free specimens was 92.7% (bovine femur) and 91.5% (manatee rib) less than that of fresh bone specimens. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) is widely used to study bone. However, bone often has small to moderate scale yielding during testing. We used J integral, an elastic-plastic fracture-mechanics parameter, to study the fracture process of bone. The J integral of bovine femur increased from 6.3 KJ/mm2 at 23°C to 6.7 KJ/mm2 at 37°C. Although the fracture toughness of bovine bone decreases as the temperature increases, the J integral results show a contrary trend. The energy spent in advancing the crack beyond the linear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Fuzhen; Li, Haichao; Miao, Xuhong; Wang, Xueren
2017-01-01
In this paper, a modified Fourier solution based on the first-order shear deformation theory is developed for the free vibration problem of moderately thick composite laminated annular sector plates with general boundary conditions, internal radial line and circumferential arc supports. In this solution approach, regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement and rotation components of the sector plate are written in the form of the trigonometric series expansion in which several auxiliary terms are added to ensure and accelerate the convergence of the series. Each of the unknown coefficients is taken as the generalized coordinate and determined using the Raleigh- Ritz method. The accuracy and reliability of the present solution are validated by the comparison with the results found in the literature, and numerous new results for composite laminated annular sector plates considering various kinds of boundary conditions are presented. Comprehensive studies on the effects of elastic restraint parameters, layout schemes and locations of line/arc supports are also made.New results are obtained for laminated annular sector plates subjected to elastic boundary restraints and arbitrary internal radial line and circumferential arc supports in both directions, and they may serve as benchmark solutions for future researches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, B. J.; Gupta, Y. M.
2008-07-01
Time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements were used to examine the lattice deformation during elastic-plastic deformation in Mg-doped (approximately 100 ppm) LiF single crystals shocked along [100]. The magnesium impurities significantly increase the elastic limit of the LiF crystals, as compared to the low values observed for ultrapure LiF crystals, leading to a large amplitude elastic wave and significant stress relaxation behind the elastic wave. The objective of the current work was to examine lattice deformation throughout this wave profile using time-resolved, x-ray diffraction methods (2 ns resolution) for plate impact experiments to gain insight into time-dependent, elastic-plastic deformation at the microscopic level. The diffraction data were analyzed using an x-ray model coupled to an existing wave propagation code that incorporated dislocation mechanisms for elastic-plastic deformation including stress relaxation. All experimental results revealed a uniaxial lattice compression at the elastic wave front followed by a rapid transition toward isotropic unit cell compression during stress relaxation. Furthermore, comparison between the experimental data and the calculated streak records indicated that the lattice transition proceeds at a faster rate than predicted by the model. Further implications of these results are discussed.
Finite-element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmeeking, R. M.; Rice, J. R.
1975-01-01
An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large elastic-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is ideally suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. Further, the formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for 'small strain' elastic-plastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-strain tension. The paper closes with a unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and strain measures. Further, a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for elastic-plastic finite element analysis at large strain, and the inadequacies of some of these are commented upon.
Elastic-plastic finite-element analyses of thermally cycled double-edge wedge specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.; Hunt, L. E.
1982-01-01
Elastic-plastic stress-strain analyses were performed for double-edge wedge specimens subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds at 316 and 1088 C. Four cases involving different nickel-base alloys (IN 100, Mar M-200, NASA TAZ-8A, and Rene 80) were analyzed by using the MARC nonlinear, finite element computer program. Elastic solutions from MARC showed good agreement with previously reported solutions obtained by using the NASTRAN and ISO3DQ computer programs. Equivalent total strain ranges at the critical locations calculated by elastic analyses agreed within 3 percent with those calculated from elastic-plastic analyses. The elastic analyses always resulted in compressive mean stresses at the critical locations. However, elastic-plastic analyses showed tensile mean stresses for two of the four alloys and an increase in the compressive mean stress for the highest plastic strain case.
Elastic-plastic finite-element analyses of thermally cycled single-edge wedge specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1982-01-01
Elastic-plastic stress-strain analyses were performed for single-edge wedge alloys subjected to thermal cycling in fluidized beds. Three cases (NASA TAZ-8A alloy under one cycling condition and 316 stainless steel alloy under two cycling conditions) were analyzed by using the MARC nonlinear, finite-element computer program. Elastic solutions from MARC showed good agreement with previously reported solutions that used the NASTRAN and ISO3DQ computer programs. The NASA TAZ-8A case exhibited no plastic strains, and the elastic and elastic-plastic analyses gave identical results. Elastic-plastic analyses of the 316 stainless steel alloy showed plastic strain reversal with a shift of the mean stresses in the compressive direction. The maximum equivalent total strain ranges for these cases were 13 to 22 percent greater than that calculated from elastic analyses.
Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yuxin; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei
2017-01-01
A new inverse method was proposed to calculate the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties (flow stress) of thin electrodeposited Ag coating utilizing nanoindentation tests, previously reported inverse method for isotropic materials and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analyses (FEA). Indentation depth was ~4% of coating thickness (~10 μm) to avoid substrate effect and different indentation responses were observed in the longitudinal (L) and the transverse (T) directions. The estimated elastic-plastic properties were obtained in the newly developed inverse method by matching the predicted indentation responses in the L and T directions with experimental measurements considering indentation size effect (ISE). The results were validated with tensile flow curves measured from free-standing (FS) Ag film. The current method can be utilized to characterize the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of coatings and to provide the constitutive properties for coating performance evaluations.
Finite-element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmeeking, R. M.; Rice, J. R.
1975-01-01
An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large elastic-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is ideally suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. Further, the formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for 'small strain' elastic-plastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-strain tension. The paper closes with a unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and strain measures. Further, a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for elastic-plastic finite element analysis at large strain, and the inadequacies of some of these are commented upon.
An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package
Kuhr, Bryan; Brake, Matthew Robert; Lechman, Jeremy B.
2015-03-01
The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.
Implementation of a trapezoidal ring element in NASTRAN for elastic-plastic analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, P. C. T.; Ohara, G. P.
1980-01-01
The explicit expressions for an elastic-plastic trapezoidal ring element are presented and implemented in NASTRAN computer program. The material is assumed to obey the von Mises' yield criterion, isotropic hardening rule and the Prandtl-Reuss flow relations. For the purpose of demonstration, two elastic-plastic problems are solved and compared with previous results. The first is a plane-strain tube under uniform internal pressure and the second, a finite-length tube loaded over part of its inner surface. A very good agreement was found in both test problems.
Thermo-Elastic Finite Element Analyses of Annular Nuclear Fuels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B.; Rho, K. T.; Kim, M. S.; Song, H. J.
In this study, we tried to examine the pros and cons of the annular type of fuel concerning mainly with the temperatures and stresses of pellet and cladding. The inner and outer gaps between pellet and cladding may play an important role on the temperature distribution and stress distribution of fuel system. Thus, we tested several inner and outer gap cases, and we evaluated the effect of gaps on fuel systems. We conducted thermo-elastic-plastic-creep analyses using an in-house thermo-elastic-plastic-creep finite element program that adopted the 'effective-stress-function' algorithm. Most analyses were conducted until the gaps disappeared; however, certain analyses lasted for 1582 days, after which the fuels were replaced. Further study on the optimal gaps sizes for annular nuclear fuel systems is still required.
Development of Advanced Life Prediction Tools for Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to develop a systematic approach to improving the fracture control process, including analytical tools, standards, guidelines, and awareness. Analytical tools specifically for elastic-plastic fracture analysis is a regime that is currently empirical for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) and is handled by simulated service testing of pre-cracked panels.
An Elastic-Plastic Damage Model for Long-Fiber Thermoplastics
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil
2009-08-11
This article proposes an elastic-plastic damage model that combines micromechanical modeling with continuum damage mechanics to predict the stress-strain response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics. The model accounts for distributions of orientation and length of elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic matrix whose behavior is elastic-plastic and damageable. The elastic-plastic damage behavior of the matrix is described by the modified Ramberg-Osgood relation and the three-dimensional damage model in deformation assuming isotropic hardening. Fiber/matrix debonding is accounted for using a parameter that governs the fiber/matrix interface compliance. A linear relationship between this parameter and the matrix damage variable is assumed. First, the elastic-plastic damage behavior of the reference aligned-fiber composite containing the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite is computed using an incremental Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka mean field approach. The incremental response of the latter is then obtained from the solution for the aligned-fiber composite by averaging over all fiber orientations. The model is validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brünig, M.
The present paper is concerned with an efficient framework for a nonlinear finite element procedure for the rate-independent finite strain analysis of solids undergoing large elastic-plastic deformations. The formulation relies on the introduction of a mixed-variant metric transformation tensor which will be multiplicatively decomposed into a plastic and an elastic part. This leads to the definition of an appropriate logarithmic strain measure whose rate is shown to be additively decomposed into elastic and plastic strain rate tensors. The mixed-variant logarithmic elastic strain tensor provides a basis for the definition of a local isotropic hyperelastic stress response in the elastic-plastic solid. Additionally, the plastic material behavior is assumed to be governed by a generalized J2 yield criterion and rate-independent isochoric plastic strain rates are computed using an associated flow rule. On the numerical side, the computation of the logarithmic strain tensors is based on 1st and higher order Padé approximations. Estimates of the stress and strain histories are obtained via a highly stable and accurate explicit scalar integration procedure which employs a plastic predictor followed by an elastic corrector step. The development of a consistent elastic-plastic tangent operator as well as its implementation into a nonlinear finite element program will also be discussed. Finally, the numerical solution of finite strain elastic-plastic problems is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
A Displacement Pattern Matching Application in Elastic-Plastic Hybrid Stress Analysis
1988-08-01
the iterative solution scheme for the elastic- plastic problem is detailed. In order to simplify the following discussion, body forces are neglected...to Elasto- Plastic Problems ," in PROC. ASME CONF. ON BIEM, AMD-Vol. 11 (T. A. Cruse and F. J. Rizzo Eds.), ASME, Troy, New York, pp.47-84, 1975. 36
SMITE - A Second Order Eulerian Code for Hydrodynamic and Elastic-Plastic Problems
1975-08-01
et al Mathematical Applications Group, Incorporated Prepared for: Ballistic Research Laboratories August 1975 DISTRIBI,TED BY: mi] National...SMITE - A SECOND ORDER EULERIAN CODE FOR HYDRODYNAMIC AND ELASTIC-PLASTIC PROBLEMS Prepared by Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. 3...AODRcis jMathematical Applications Group, Inc. 13 Westchester Plaza IFlmsford, New York 10523 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA t WORK
Elastic-plastic-creep analysis of brazed carbon-carbon/OFHC divertor tile concepts for TPX
Chin, E.; Reis, E.E.
1995-12-31
The 7.5 MW/m{sup 2} heat flux requirements for the TPX divertor necessitate the use of high conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) tiles that are brazed to annealed copper (OFHC) coolant tubes. Significant residual stresses are developed in the C-C tiles during the braze process due to large differences in the thermal expansion coefficients between these materials. Analyses which account for only the elastic-plastic strains developed in the OFHC tube may not accurately characterize the behavior of the tube during brazing. The elevated temperature creep behavior of the copper coolant tubes intuitively should reduce the calculated residual stresses in the C-C tiles. Two divertor tile concepts, the monoblock and the archblock, were analyzed for residual stress using 2-D finite element analysis for elastic-plastic-creep behavior of the OFHC tube during an assumed braze cooldown cycle. The results show that the inclusion of elevated temperature creep effects decrease the calculated residual stresses by only about 10% when compared to those analyses in which only elastic-plastic behavior of the OFHC is accounted for. The primary reason that creep effects at higher temperatures are not more significant is due to the low yield stress and nearly flat-top stress-strain curve of annealed OFHC. Since high temperature creep plays less of a role in the residual stress levels than previously thought, future scoping studies can be done in an elastic-plastic analysis with confidence that the stresses will be within approximately 10% of an elastic-plastic-creep analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xi
2010-08-01
With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...
Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.
1987-01-01
Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analyses showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.
On the solution of elastic-plastic static and dynamic postbuckling collapse of general structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Tovichakchaikul, S.
1983-01-01
Many investigations have considered structural collapse from strictly the transient point of view. While such an approach is ideally correct, certain difficulties have to be overcome in its implementation. The present investigation is concerned with the development of self-adaptive algorithms which make it possible to conduct the analysis of both static elastic and elastic-plastic postbuckling, as well as static loading to the onset of buckling followed by subsequent dynamic postbuckling. The approach employed to solve the static portion of loading is to extend the constrained Incremental Newton-Raphson (INR) algorithm by incorporating elastic-plastic constitutive characterizations. Large deformation moderate strain theory is adopted to establish the overall strategy. Attention is given to governing field equations, aspects of algorithmic development, and numerical experiments conducted to illustrate the efficiency and stability of the developed schemes.
Restrictions on dynamically propagating surfaces of strong discontinuity in elastic-plastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drugan, W. J.; Shen, Yinong
F OR DYNAMIC three-dimensional deformations of elastic-plastic materials, we elicit conditions necessary for the existence of propagating surfaces of strong discontinuity (across which components of stress, strain or material velocity jump). This is accomplished within a small-displacement-gradient formulation of standard weak continuum-mechanical assumptions of momentum conservation and geometrical compatibility, and skeletal constitutive assumptions which permit very general elastic and plastic anisotropy including yield surface vertices and anisotropic hardening. In addition to deriving very explicit restrictions on propagating strong discontinuities in general deformations, we prove that for anti-plane strain and incompressible plane strain deformations, such strong discontinuities can exist only at elastic wave speeds in generally anisotropic elastic-ideally plastic materials unless a material's yield locus in stress space contains a linear segment. The results derived seem essential for correct and complete construction of solutions to dynamic elastic-plastic boundary-value problems.
On the solution of elastic-plastic static and dynamic postbuckling collapse of general structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Tovichakchaikul, S.
1983-01-01
Many investigations have considered structural collapse from strictly the transient point of view. While such an approach is ideally correct, certain difficulties have to be overcome in its implementation. The present investigation is concerned with the development of self-adaptive algorithms which make it possible to conduct the analysis of both static elastic and elastic-plastic postbuckling, as well as static loading to the onset of buckling followed by subsequent dynamic postbuckling. The approach employed to solve the static portion of loading is to extend the constrained Incremental Newton-Raphson (INR) algorithm by incorporating elastic-plastic constitutive characterizations. Large deformation moderate strain theory is adopted to establish the overall strategy. Attention is given to governing field equations, aspects of algorithmic development, and numerical experiments conducted to illustrate the efficiency and stability of the developed schemes.
Weinacht, Daniel J.
1995-12-01
A fully coupled thermomechanical diffusion theory describing the thermal and mechanically assisted mass transport of dilute mobile constituents in an elastic solid is extended to include the effects of elastic-plastic deformation. Using the principles of modern continuum mechanics and classical plasticity theory, balance laws and constitutive equations are derived for a continuum composed of an immobile, but deformable, parent material and a dilute mobile constituent. The resulting equations are cast into a finite element formulation for incorporation into a finite element code. This code serves as a tool for modeling thermomechanically assisted phenomena in elastic-plastic solids. A number of simplified problems for which analytical solutions can be derived are used to benchmark the theory and finite element code. Potential uses of the numerical implementation of the theory are demonstrated using two problems. Specifically, tritium diffusion in a titanium alloy and hydrogen diffusion in a multiphase stainless steel are examined.
Finite element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmeeking, R. M.; Rice, J. R.
1974-01-01
An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large elastic-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. The formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for "small strain" elasticplastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-strain tension. A unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and strain measures, and a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for elastic-plastic finite element analysis at large strain.
Damage mechanics approach to remove the constraint dependence of elastic-plastic fracture toughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, T.-J.; Kuang, Z.-B.
1995-02-01
It is now generally agreed that the applicability of a one-parameter J-based ductile fracture approach is limited to so-called high constraint crack geometries, and that the elastic-plastic fracture toughness J(Ic) is not a material constant but strongly specimen geometry constraint-dependent. In this paper, the constraint effect on elastic-plastic fracture toughness is investigated by use of a continuum damage mechanics approach. Based on a new local damage theory for ductile fracture (proposed by the author) which has a clear physical meaning and can describe both deformation and constraint effects on ductile fracture, a relationship is described between the conventional elastic-plastic fracture toughness, J(Ic), and crack tip constraint, characterized by crack tip stress triaxiality T. Then, a new parameter J(dc) (and associated criterion, J(d) = J(dc)) for ductile fracture is proposed. Experiments show that toughness variation with specimen geometry constraint changes can effectively be removed by use of the constraint correction procedure proposed in this paper, and that the new parameter J(dc) is a material constant independent of specimen geometry (constraint). This parameter can serve as a new parameter to differentiate the elastic-plastic fracture toughness of engineering materials, which provides a new approach for fracture assessments of structures. It is not necessary to determine which laboratory specimen matches the structural constraint; rather, any specimen geometry can be tested to measure the size-independent fracture toughness J(dc). The potential advantage is clear and the results are very encouraging.
Elastic-plastic deformations of a beam with the SD-effect
Pavilaynen, Galina V.
2015-03-10
The results for the bending of a cantilever beam with the SD-effect under a concentrated load are discussed. To solve this problem, the standard Bernoulli-Euler hypotheses for beams and the Ilyushin model of perfect plasticity are used. The problem is solved analytically for structural steel A40X. The SD-effect for elastic-plastic deformations is studied. The solutions for beam made of isotropic material and material with the SD-effect are compared.
Evolutions of elastic-plastic shock compression waves in different materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanel, G. I.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Garkushin, G. V.
2017-01-01
In the paper, we discuss such unexpected features in the wave evolution in solids as a departure from self-similar development of the wave process which is accompanied with apparent sub-sonic wave propagation, changes of shape of elastic precursor wave as a result of variations in the material structure and the temperature, unexpected peculiarities of reflection of elastic-plastic waves from free surface, effects of internal friction at shock compression of glasses and some other effects.
Elastic-plastic analysis using a triangular ring element in NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, P. C. T.
1980-01-01
An elastic plastic triangular ring element is implemented in NASTRAN computer program. The plane strain problem of partially plastic thick walled cylinder under internal pressure is solved and compared with the earlier finite difference solution. A very good agreement has been reached. In order to demonstrate its application to more general problems, an overloaded thread problem for the British Standard Buttress is examined. The maximum axial and principal stresses are located and their values are determined as functions of loadings.
1992-12-01
1Nb matrix was attained using a bilinear elastic -plastic model with temperature dependent elastic and plastic moduli , yield stress and coefficient of...J., "Investigation of the Thermomechanical Response of a Titanium - Aluminide /Silicon-Carbide Composite using a Unified State Variable Model and the...Analysis of MMC Subjected to Thermomechanical Fatigue", Titanium Aluminide Composites, WL-TR-91- 4020, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
Ferguson, V L
2009-08-01
The relative contributions of elastic, plastic, and viscous material behavior are poorly described by the separate extraction and analysis of the plane strain modulus, E('), the contact hardness, H(c) (a hybrid parameter encompassing both elastic and plastic behavior), and various viscoelastic material constants. A multiple element mechanical model enables the partitioning of a single indentation response into its fundamental elastic, plastic, and viscous deformation components. The objective of this study was to apply deformation partitioning to explore the role of hydration, tissue type, and degree of mineralization in bone and calcified cartilage. Wet, ethanol-dehydrated, and PMMA-embedded equine cortical bone samples and PMMA-embedded human femoral head tissues were analyzed for contributions of elastic, plastic and viscous deformation to the overall nanoindentation response at each site. While the alteration of hydration state had little effect on any measure of deformation, unembedded tissues demonstrated significantly greater measures of resistance to plastic deformation than PMMA-embedded tissues. The PMMA appeared to mechanically stabilize the tissues and prevent extensive permanent deformation within the bone material. Increasing mineral volume fraction correlated with positive changes in E('), H(c), and resistance to plastic deformation, H; however, the partitioned deformation components were generally unaffected by mineralization. The contribution of viscous deformation was minimal and may only play a significant role in poorly mineralized tissues. Deformation partitioning enables a detailed interpretation of the elastic, plastic, and viscous contributions to the nanomechanical behavior of mineralized tissues that is not possible when examining modulus and contact hardness alone. Varying experimental or biological factors, such as hydration or mineralization level, enables the understanding of potential mechanisms for specific mechanical behavior
Solution of elastic-plastic stress analysis problems by the p-version of the finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szabo, Barna A.; Actis, Ricardo L.; Holzer, Stefan M.
1993-01-01
The solution of small strain elastic-plastic stress analysis problems by the p-version of the finite element method is discussed. The formulation is based on the deformation theory of plasticity and the displacement method. Practical realization of controlling discretization errors for elastic-plastic problems is the main focus. Numerical examples which include comparisons between the deformation and incremental theories of plasticity under tight control of discretization errors are presented.
Solution of elastic-plastic stress analysis problems by the p-version of the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabo, Barna A.; Actis, Ricardo L.; Holzer, Stefan M.
1993-11-01
The solution of small strain elastic-plastic stress analysis problems by the p-version of the finite element method is discussed. The formulation is based on the deformation theory of plasticity and the displacement method. Practical realization of controlling discretization errors for elastic-plastic problems is the main focus. Numerical examples which include comparisons between the deformation and incremental theories of plasticity under tight control of discretization errors are presented.
Elastic-Plastic Coupling and Localization of Porous Sandstone Under Axisymmetric Compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewers, T. A.; Issen, K. A.; Holcomb, D.
2009-12-01
Multiple tests using a weak porous sandstone deformed under axisymmetric compression in dilational, compactional, and transitional regimes are analyzed to investigate elastic-plastic coupling (i.e. the influence of plastic deformation on elastic properties) and localization behaviors. Acoustic emissions track the onset and progression of high- and low-angle shear bands and low-angle compactional features. Multiple unloading loops show consistent degradation of elastic constants pre-failure and this degradation is parameterized as a function of work-conjugate plastic strains and increasing functions of stress magnitude. Interestingly, shear moduli (assuming elastic isotropy) in all tests which experience localization are observed to degrade to approximately the same magnitude just prior to onset of localization. Results were applied to both localization (bifurcation) theory and to an elastic-plastic model, and to test assumptions of isotropic hardening. The relevance of elastic-plastic coupling is seen when partitioning the measured shear and volume strains into elastic and plastic portions. Significant contributions to each are shown as “coupling” strains associated with the degradation of elastic moduli. This has an observable effect on magnitudes of bifurcation parameters and thus on the comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental results. A better comparison of shear band angles between theory and experiment is seen when including the elastic-plastic coupling. Low-angle compaction bands observed experimentally in the transitional regime are only predicted when including the coupling. A 3-invariant, mixed-hardening, continuous yield surface, elasto-plasticity model is applied to calculate stress-strain paths leading up to localization. Model features important to incorporate to best describe porous sandstone constitutive behavior include non-associativity, nonlinear elasticity, elastic-plastic coupling, and kinematic hardening. The authors
Jabbour, Toufic; Kuebler, Stephen
2006-02-06
Vector diffraction theory was applied to study the effect of two- and three-zone annular multi-phase plates (AMPs) on the three-dimensional point-spread-function (PSF) that results when linearly polarized light is focused using a high numerical aperture refractory lens. Conditions are identified for which a three-zone AMP generates a PSF that is axially superresolved by 19% with minimal change in the transverse profile and sufficiently small side lobes that the intensity pattern could be used for advanced photolithographic techniques, such as multi-photon 3D microfabrication, as well as multi-photon imaging. Conditions are also found in which a three-zone AMP generates a PSF that is axially elongated by 510% with only 1% change along the transverse direction. This intensity distribution could be used for sub-micron-scale laser drilling and machining.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.
2013-01-01
No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.
2013-01-01
No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.
Effects of initial conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor instability using elastic-plastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roach, Pamela Susan
When an elastic-plastic solid is accelerated by a fluid of lower density, Rayleigh- Taylor instability (RTI) is observed, and the instability is mitigated by the material's mechanical strength, initial conditions, and the acceleration that drives the instability. Such instances of RTI are observed in supernovas, explosive welding, and inertial confinement fusion. In contrast to Newtonian fluids, experimental study of RTI in accelerated solids is traditionally hindered by difficulty to measure material properties and exceedingly small time scales. An understanding of the role initial conditions and material properties have on the growth of RTI will lead to better control of the instability. We present the results for a series of experiments to study the effect of amplitude and wavelength on RT instability with an elastic-plastic solid. A novel rotating wheel RT experiment that uses centrifugal forces to accelerate the two-material interface is used for this purpose. The experiment consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise, a non-Newtonian emulsion, with an initial perturbation between the two materials. Single mode perturbations of various amplitudes and wavelength were analyzed and results found the instability required for acceleration was inversely proportional to both initial amplitude and wavelength. Three-dimensional (3D) interfaces were found to be more stable than two-dimensional (2D) interfaces. Elastic and plastic peak amplitude responses were observed for stable interfaces using a variable acceleration profile where the test section was first accelerated to slightly below the critical acceleration and then decelerated at the same rate. This exercise allowed for verification of the elastic-plastic (EP) transition process before instability was reached.
Elastic-plastic analysis of a propagating crack under cyclic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Armen, H., Jr.
1974-01-01
Development and application of a two-dimensional finite-element analysis to predict crack-closure and crack-opening stresses during specified histories of cyclic loading. An existing finite-element computer program which accounts for elastic-plastic material behavior under cyclic loading was modified to account for changing boundary conditions - crack growth and intermittent contact of crack surfaces. This program was subsequently used to study the crack-closure behavior under constant-amplitude and simple block-program loading.
The Riemann problem for longitudinal motion in an elastic-plastic bar
Trangenstein, J.A.; Pember, R.B. . Computing and Mathematics Research Div.)
1991-01-01
In this paper the analytical solution to the Riemann problem for the Antman-Szymczak model of longitudinal motion in an elastic-plastic bar is constructed. The model involves two surfaces corresponding to plastic yield in tension and compression, and exhibits the appropriate limiting behavior for total compressions. The solution of the Riemann problem involves discontinuous changes in characteristic speeds due to transitions from elastic to plastic response. Illustrations are presented, in both state-space and self-similar coordinates, of the variety of possible solutions to the Riemann problem for possible use with numerical algorithms.
Elastic-plastic analysis of a propagating crack under cyclic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Armen, H., Jr.
1974-01-01
Development and application of a two-dimensional finite-element analysis to predict crack-closure and crack-opening stresses during specified histories of cyclic loading. An existing finite-element computer program which accounts for elastic-plastic material behavior under cyclic loading was modified to account for changing boundary conditions - crack growth and intermittent contact of crack surfaces. This program was subsequently used to study the crack-closure behavior under constant-amplitude and simple block-program loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddag, Badis; Abed-Meraim, Farid; Balan, Tudor
2007-05-01
In this work, an advanced anisotropic elastic-plasticity model is combined with a damage model and a strain localization criterion in the aim to describe accurately the mechanical behavior of sheet metals. Large strain, fully three-dimensional, implicit time integration algorithms are developed for this model and implemented in the finite element code Abaqus. The resulting code is used to predict the strain localization limits as well as the springback after forming of sheet steels. The impact of strain-path dependent hardening models on the limit strains and on the amount of springback is addressed.
Dynamic Response in an Elastic-Plastic Projectile Due to Normal Impact
1985-06-01
A^’Avm^l ™A/679o/ TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCB-TR-8501 9 DYNAMIC RESPONSE IN AN ELASTIC-PLASTIC PROJECTILE DUE TO NORMAL IMPACT P . C. T. CHEN J. E...PROJECTILE DUE TO NORMAL IMPACT 5. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED Final S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORfa; P . C. T. Chen, J...the following material data will be used: E = 208 GPa, p = 0.783 g/cc, v = 0.293 ay = 1.3 GPa, Ep = 4 GPa, CD 1 Cristescu, N., Dynamic
Development of a Practical Methodology for Elastic-Plastic and Fully Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Lee, Y.-D.; Russell, D. A.; Orient, G. E.
1999-01-01
A practical engineering methodology has been developed to analyze and predict fatigue crack growth rates under elastic-plastic and fully plastic conditions. The methodology employs the closure-corrected effective range of the J-integral, (Delta)J(sub eff), as the governing parameter. The methodology contains original and literature J and (Delta)J solutions for specific geometries, along with general methods for estimating J for other geometries and other loading conditions, including combined mechanical loading and combined primary and secondary loading. The methodology also contains specific practical algorithms that translate a J solution into a prediction of fatigue crack growth rate or life, including methods for determining crack opening levels, crack instability conditions, and material properties. A critical core subset of the J solutions and the practical algorithms has been implemented into independent elastic-plastic NASGRO modules. All components of the entire methodology, including the NASGRO modules, have been verified through analysis and experiment, and limits of applicability have been identified.
W.R. Solonick
2003-04-01
Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.
An Elastic-Plastic and Strength Prediction Model for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.
2008-09-01
This paper applies a recently developed model to predict the elastic-plastic stress/strain response and strength of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model combines a micro-macro constitutive modeling approach with experimental characterization and modeling of the composite microstructure to determine the composite stress/strain response and strength. Specifically, it accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length, orientation and volume fraction distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Injection-molded-long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens were prepared for mechanical characterization and testing. Fiber length, orientation, and volume fraction distributions were then measured at some selected locations for use in the computation. Fiber orientations in these specimens were also predicted using an anisotropic rotary diffusion model developed for LFTs. The stress-strain response of the as-formed composite was computed by an incremental procedure that uses the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method, the Mori-Tanaka assumption and a fiber orientation averaging technique. The model has been validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for these long-glass-fiber/PP specimens.
Analytical modeling of elastic-plastic wave behavior near grain boundaries in crystalline materials
Loomis, Eric; Greenfield, Scott; Luo, Shengnian; Swift, Damian; Peralta, Pedro
2009-01-01
It is well known that changes in material properties across an interface will produce differences in the behavior of reflected and transmitted waves. This is seen frequently in planar impact experiments, and to a lesser extent, oblique impacts. In anisotropic elastic materials, wave behavior as a function of direction is usually accomplished with the aid of velocity surfaces, a graphical method for predicting wave scattering configurations. They have expanded this method to account for inelastic deformation due to crystal plasticity. The set of derived equations could not be put into a characteristic form, but instead led to an implicit problem. to overcome this difficulty an algorithm was developed to search the parameters space defined by a wave normal vector, particle velocity vector, and a wave speed. A solution was said to exist when a set from this parameter space satisfied the governing vector equation. Using this technique they can predict the anisotropic elastic-plastic velocity surfaces and grain boundary scattering configuration for crystalline materials undergoing deformation by slip. Specifically, they have calculated the configuration of scattered elastic-plastic waves in anisotropic NiAl for an incident compressional wave propagating along a <111> direction and contacting a 45 degree inclined grain boundary and found that large amplitude transmitted waves exist owing to the fact that the wave surface geometry forces it to propagate near the zero Schmid factor direction <100>.
Development of a Practical Methodology for Elastic-Plastic and Fully Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Lee, Y. -D.; Russell, D. A.; Orient, G. E.
1999-01-01
A practical engineering methodology has been developed to analyze and predict fatigue crack growth rates under elastic-plastic and fully plastic conditions. The methodology employs the closure-corrected effective range of the J-integral, delta J(sub eff) as the governing parameter. The methodology contains original and literature J and delta J solutions for specific geometries, along with general methods for estimating J for other geometries and other loading conditions, including combined mechanical loading and combined primary and secondary loading. The methodology also contains specific practical algorithms that translate a J solution into a prediction of fatigue crack growth rate or life, including methods for determining crack opening levels, crack instability conditions, and material properties. A critical core subset of the J solutions and the practical algorithms has been implemented into independent elastic-plastic NASGRO modules. All components of the entire methodology, including the NASGRO modules, have been verified through analysis and experiment, and limits of applicability have been identified.
Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.
1997-11-01
A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% and to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.
Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.
1996-11-01
A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.
Elastic-plastic characterization of a cast stainless steep pipe elbow material
Joyce, J.A.; Hackett, E.M.; Roe, C.
1992-01-01
Tests conducted in Japan as part of the High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program for reactor piping systems revealed fatigue crack growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow. The material tested was equivalent to ASME SA-351CF8M. The David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) was tasked to developed the appropriate material property data to characterize cyclic deformation, cyclic elastic-plastic crack growth and ductile tearing resistance in the pipe elbow material. It was found that the cast stainless steel was very resistant to ductile crack extension. J-R curves essentially followed a blunting behavior to very high J levels. Low cycle fatigue crack growth rate data obtained on this material using a cyclic J integral approach was consistent with the high cycle fatigue crack growth rate and with a standard textbook correlation equation typical for this type of material. Evaluation of crack closure effects was essential to accurately determine the crack driving force for cyclic elastic- plastic crack growth in this material. SEM examination of several of the cyclic J test fracture surfaces indicated that fatigue was the primary mode of fracture with ductile crack extension intervening only during the last few cycles of loading.
Effects of Initial Conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Elastic-Plastic Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roach, Pamela; Banerjee, Arindam
2012-11-01
In contrast to Newtonian fluids, experimental study of Rayleigh Taylor instability (RTI) in accelerated solids is traditionally hindered by difficulty to measure material properties and exceedingly small time scales of the processes. When an elastic-plastic solid is accelerated due to a density gradient, the instability is dependent on the material's mechanical strength, initial conditions, and acceleration that drive the instability. RTI in solids is observed in supernovas, explosive welding, and inertial confinement fusion. A novel experimental technique is used to study the effects of initial conditions and variable accelerations on the growth and instability in an elastic-plastic solid. The experiment consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise, a non-Newtonian emulsion, with an initial perturbation between the two materials. Single mode perturbations of various amplitudes are analyzed and effects of two-dimensional versus three-dimensional interfaces are discussed. Furthermore, the instability threshold and stable elastic and plastic regions are investigated by controlling the acceleration. The instability threshold and perturbation growth rate are compared to linear analysis of incompressible RTI. The authors acknowledge financial support through DOE-LANL subcontract # 173667-1.
Effects of acceleration rate on Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Arindam; Polavarapu, Rinosh
2016-11-01
The effect of acceleration rate in the elastic-plastic transition stage of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated non-Newtonian material is investigated experimentally using a rotating wheel experiment. A non-Newtonian material (mayonnaise) was accelerated at different rates by varying the angular acceleration of a rotating wheel and growth patterns of single mode perturbations with different combinations of amplitude and wavelength were analyzed. Experiments were run at two different acceleration rates to compare with experiments presented in prior years at APS DFD meetings and the peak amplitude responses are captured using a high-speed camera. Similar to the instability acceleration, the elastic-plastic transition acceleration is found to be increasing with increase in acceleration rate for a given amplitude and wavelength. The experimental results will be compared to various analytical strength models and prior experimental studies using Newtonian fluids. Authors acknowledge funding support from Los Alamos National Lab subcontract(370333) and DOE-SSAA Grant (DE-NA0001975).
Solonick, W.
1996-11-01
Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local, or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proust, Gwénaëlle; Kalidindi, Surya R.
2006-08-01
Microstructure-sensitive design (MSD) is a novel mathematical framework that facilitates a rigorous consideration of the material microstructure as a continuous design variable in the engineering design enterprise [Adams, B.L., Henrie, A., Henrie, B., Lyon, M., Kalidindi, S.R., Garmestani, H., 2001. Microstructure-sensitive design of a compliant beam. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49(8), 1639-1663; Adams, B.L., Lyon, M., Henrie, B., 2004. Microstructures by design: linear problems in elastic-plastic design. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1577-1602; Kalidindi, S.R., Houskamp, J.R., Lyons, M., Adams, B.L., 2004. Microstructure sensitive design of an orthotropic plate subjected to tensile load. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1561-1575]. MSD employs spectral representations of the local state distribution functions in describing the microstructure quantitatively, and these in turn enable development of invertible linkages between microstructure and effective properties using established homogenization (composite) theories. As a natural extension of the recent publications in MSD, we provide in this paper a detailed account of the methods that can be readily used by mechanical designers to construct first-order elastic-plastic property closures. The main focus in this paper is on the crystallographic texture (also called Orientation Distribution Function or ODF) as the main microstructural parameter controlling the elastic and yield properties of cubic (fcc and bcc) polycrystalline metals. The following specific advances are described in this paper: (i) derivation of rigorous first-order bounds for the off-diagonal terms of the effective elastic stiffness tensor and their incorporation in the MSD framework, (ii) delineation of the union of the property closures corresponding to both the upper and lower bound theories resulting in comprehensive first-order closures, (iii) development of generalized and readily usable expressions for effective anisotropic elastic-plastic properties
Elastic-plastic analysis of AS4/PEEK composite laminate using a one-parameter plasticity model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, C. T.; Yoon, K. J.
1992-01-01
A one-parameter plasticity model was shown to adequately describe the plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK (APC-2) unidirectional thermoplastic composite. This model was verified further for unidirectional and laminated composite panels with and without a hole. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relations of coupon specimens were measured and compared with those predicted by the finite element analysis using the one-parameter plasticity model. The results show that the one-parameter plasticity model is suitable for the analysis of elastic-plastic deformation of AS4/PEEK composite laminates.
Simplified computational methods for elastic and elastic-plastic fracture problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atluri, Satya N.
1992-01-01
An overview is given of some of the recent (1984-1991) developments in computational/analytical methods in the mechanics of fractures. Topics covered include analytical solutions for elliptical or circular cracks embedded in isotropic or transversely isotropic solids, with crack faces being subjected to arbitrary tractions; finite element or boundary element alternating methods for two or three dimensional crack problems; a 'direct stiffness' method for stiffened panels with flexible fasteners and with multiple cracks; multiple site damage near a row of fastener holes; an analysis of cracks with bonded repair patches; methods for the generation of weight functions for two and three dimensional crack problems; and domain-integral methods for elastic-plastic or inelastic crack mechanics.
Elastic-plastic cube model for ultrasonic friction reduction via Poisson's effect.
Dong, Sheng; Dapino, Marcelo J
2014-01-01
Ultrasonic friction reduction has been studied experimentally and theoretically. This paper presents a new elastic-plastic cube model which can be applied to various ultrasonic lubrication cases. A cube is used to represent all the contacting asperities of two surfaces. Friction force is considered as the product of the tangential contact stiffness and the deformation of the cube. Ultrasonic vibrations are projected onto three orthogonal directions, separately changing contact parameters and deformations. Hence, the overall change of friction forces. Experiments are conducted to examine ultrasonic friction reduction using different materials under normal loads that vary from 40 N to 240 N. Ultrasonic vibrations are generated both in longitudinal and vertical (out-of-plane) directions by way of the Poisson effect. The tests show up to 60% friction reduction; model simulations describe the trends observed experimentally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Large deflection elastic-plastic dynamic response of stiffened shells of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stricklin, J. A.; Haisler, W. E.; Von Riesemann, W. A.
1974-01-01
This paper presents the formulation and check-out problems for a computer code DYNAPLAS, which analyzes the large deflection elastic-plastic dynamic response of stiffened shells of revolution. The formulation for spacial discretization is by the finite element method with finite differences being used for the evaluation of the pseudo forces due to material and geometric nonlinearities. Time integration is by the Houbolt method or central differences. The stiffeners may be due to concentrated or distributed eccentric rings and spring supports at arbitrary angles around the circumference of the elements. Check-out problems include the comparison of solutions from DYNAPLAS with experimental and other computer solutions for rings and conical and cylindrical shells. A hypothetical submarine including stiffeners and missile tube is studied under a combination of hydrostatic and dynamically applied asymmetrical pressure loadings.
Elastic, plastic, and creep buckling of imperfect cylinders under mechanical and thermal loading
Eslami, M.R.; Shariyat, M.
1997-02-01
Based on the concept of secant and tangent modulus, the nonlinear equilibrium and stability equations of thin cylindrical shells under axial compression, external pressure, or external fluid pressure are derived. The resulting equations are applicable to shells without length limitation as the rotations and transverse shears are included in the derivations. The reduction factors for plastic and creep buckling are then obtained. A procedure for determining secant and tangent modulus in the very general case of elastic, plastic, or creep stress in the presence of temperature gradient is proposed. Then, using Donnell`s nonlinear theory of shells, the effect of initial imperfection on the strength of the elastic shell is discussed. The foregoing results are extended to plastic and creep buckling of cylindrical shells of arbitrary length and temperature gradient. Some design curves are proposed using the obtained equations. Finally, the present results are compared with available results in the literature and the accuracy of the method is examined.
Determining Pore Pressures Along a Slip Surface Within a Saturated Elastic-Plastic Porous Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viesca, R. C.; Rice, J. R.; Dunham, E. M.
2008-12-01
Here we consider shear rupture along a slip surface in a fluid-saturated elastic-plastic porous medium, like in landslide and earthquake modeling, and assume that there are different poro-elasto-plastic response properties on the two sides of the slip surface. This different response may be because the fault bordering materials are dissimilar, or just because one side is actively yielding and the other is not, or is yielding but in a different mode. In effect, we are representing a core about a slip surface that divides two similar or contrasting materials. This representation is especially relevant in earthquake rupture dynamics. Studies of mature fault zones have noted a trend of fractured host rock extending 10--100m from the fault, with an ultracataclastic core ~100mm about or to one side of the principal slip surface (e.g., Chester and Chester, Tectonophys, 1998; Chester et al., Columbia Univ Pr, 2004). Furthermore, there is likely to exist a material contrast that may come from accumulating km of slip and a bias in accumulated damage. The local pore pressure at the slip surface influences the rupture dynamics because, through the effective stress concept, it controls the local shear strength along the fault, a feature neglected as a simplification in our preliminary poro-elasto-plastic modeling of dynamic rupture (Viesca et al., JGR, 2008). To determine pore pressures at the slip surface under locally elastic-plastic response, we must consider pore pressure discontinuities about that surface that arise in an undrained treatment of off-fault material and their amelioration within resulting thin diffusive boundary layers, such that pore pressure and fluid mass flux in the normal direction are continuous at the slip surface. Our approach builds on previous work considering the effect of contrasts in poroelastic properties on rupture propagation (Rudnicki and Rice, JGR, 2006; Dunham and Rice, JGR, 2008). Here we find expressions for the undrained pore pressure
Comparison of experiment and theory for elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth
Hermann, L; Rice, J R
1980-02-01
Recent theoretical results on elastic-plastic plane strain crack growth, and experimental results for crack growth in a 4140 steel in terms of the theoretical concepts are reviewed. The theory is based on a recent asymptotic analysis of crack surface opening and strain distributions at a quasi-statically advancing crack tip in an ideally-plastic solid. The analysis is incomplete in that some of the parameters which appear in it are known only approximately, especially at large scale yielding. Nevertheless, it suffices to derive a relation between the imposed loading and amount of crack growth, prior to general yielding, based on the assumption that a geometrically similar near-tip crack profile is maintained during growth. The resulting predictions for the variation of J with crack growth are found to fit well to the experimental results obtained on deeply cracked compact specimens.
Application of an Uncoupled Elastic-plastic-creep Constitutive Model to Metals at High Temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.
1983-01-01
A uniaxial, uncoupled constitutive model to predict the response of thermal and rate dependent elastic-plastic material behavior is presented. The model is based on an incremental classicial plasticity theory extended to account for thermal, creep, and transient temperature conditions. Revisions to he combined hardening rule of the theory allow for better representation of cyclic phenomenon including the high rate of strain hardening upon cyclic reyield and cyclic saturation. An alternative approach is taken to model the rate dependent inelastic deformation which utilizes hysteresis loops and stress relaxation test data at various temperatures. The model is evaluated and compared to experiments which involve various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.
Addendum to the User Manual for NASGRO Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Software Module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregg, M. Wayne (Technical Monitor); Chell, Graham; Gardner, Brian
2003-01-01
The elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modules in NASGRO have been enhanced by the addition of of the following: new J-integral solutions based on the reference stress method and finite element solutions; the extension of the critical crack and critical load modules for cracks with two degrees of freedom that tear and failure by ductile instability; the addition of a proof test analysis module that includes safe life analysis, calculates proof loads, and determines the flaw screening 1 capability for a given proof load; the addition of a tear-fatigue module for ductile materials that simultaneously tear and extend by fatigue; and a multiple cycle proof test module for estimating service reliability following a proof test.
Gao, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Wang, Xu
2016-01-01
To compute the stability of underground engineering, a constitutive model of surrounding rock must be identified. Many constitutive models for rock mass have been proposed. In this model identification study, a generalized constitutive law for an elastic-plastic constitutive model is applied. Using the generalized constitutive law, the problem of model identification is transformed to a problem of parameter identification, which is a typical and complicated optimization. To improve the efficiency of the traditional optimization method, an immunized genetic algorithm that is proposed by the author is applied in this study. In this new algorithm, the principle of artificial immune algorithm is combined with the genetic algorithm. Therefore, the entire computation efficiency of model identification will be improved. Using this new model identification method, a numerical example and an engineering example are used to verify the computing ability of the algorithm. The results show that this new model identification algorithm can significantly improve the computation efficiency and the computation effect.
Bifurcation analysis of the onset of necking in an elastic/plastic cylinder under uniaxial tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hutchinson, J. W.; Miles, J. P.
1974-01-01
The bifurcation problem governing the onset of axisymmetric necking in a circular cylindrical specimen in uniaxial tension is analysed. The specimen is made of an incompressible elastic/plastic material. One end is subject to a prescribed uniform axial displacement relative to the other and both ends are shear free. The true stress at bifurcation is greater than the stress at which the maximum load is attained by an amount which depends on (a) the radius to length ratio of the specimen, (b) the ratio of the elastic shear modulus to the tangent modulus, and (c) the derivative of the tangent modulus with respect to the stress. Bifurcation takes place immediately following attainment of the maximum load when the specimen is sufficiently slender.
Straightening of a wavy strip: An elastic-plastic contact problem including snap-through
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, D. F.; Rammerstorfer, F. G.
1980-01-01
The nonlinear behavior of a wave like deformed metal strip during the levelling process were calculated. Elastic-plastic material behavior as well as nonlinearities due to large deformations were considered. The considered problem lead to a combined stability and contact problem. It is shown that, despite the initially concentrated loading, neglecting the change of loading conditions due to altered contact domains may lead to a significant error in the evaluation of the nonlinear behavior and particularly to an underestimation of the stability limit load. The stability was examined by considering the load deflection path and the behavior of a load-dependent current stiffness parameter in combination with the determinant of the current stiffness matrix.
Simplified computational methods for elastic and elastic-plastic fracture problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atluri, Satya N.
1992-01-01
An overview is given of some of the recent (1984-1991) developments in computational/analytical methods in the mechanics of fractures. Topics covered include analytical solutions for elliptical or circular cracks embedded in isotropic or transversely isotropic solids, with crack faces being subjected to arbitrary tractions; finite element or boundary element alternating methods for two or three dimensional crack problems; a 'direct stiffness' method for stiffened panels with flexible fasteners and with multiple cracks; multiple site damage near a row of fastener holes; an analysis of cracks with bonded repair patches; methods for the generation of weight functions for two and three dimensional crack problems; and domain-integral methods for elastic-plastic or inelastic crack mechanics.
Large deflection elastic-plastic dynamic response of stiffened shells of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stricklin, J. A.; Haisler, W. E.; Von Riesemann, W. A.
1974-01-01
This paper presents the formulation and check-out problems for a computer code DYNAPLAS, which analyzes the large deflection elastic-plastic dynamic response of stiffened shells of revolution. The formulation for spacial discretization is by the finite element method with finite differences being used for the evaluation of the pseudo forces due to material and geometric nonlinearities. Time integration is by the Houbolt method or central differences. The stiffeners may be due to concentrated or distributed eccentric rings and spring supports at arbitrary angles around the circumference of the elements. Check-out problems include the comparison of solutions from DYNAPLAS with experimental and other computer solutions for rings and conical and cylindrical shells. A hypothetical submarine including stiffeners and missile tube is studied under a combination of hydrostatic and dynamically applied asymmetrical pressure loadings.
Large deflection elastic-plastic dynamic response of stiffened shells of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stricklin, J. A.; Haisler, W. E.; Vonriesemann, W. A.; Leick, R. D.; Hunsaker, B.; Saczalski, K. J.
1972-01-01
The formulation and check out porblems for a computer code DYNAPLAS, which analyzes the large deflection elastic-plastic dynamic response of stiffened shells of revolution, are presented. The formulation for special discretization is by the finite element method with finite differences being used for the evaluation of the pseudo forces due to material and geometric nonlinearities. Time integration is by the Houbolt method. The stiffeners may be due to concentrated or distributed eccentric rings and spring supports at arbitrary angles around the circumference of the elements. Check out porblems include the comparison of solutions from DYNAPLAS with experimental and other computer solutions for rings, conical and cylindrical shells and a curved panel. A hypothetical submarine including stiffeners and missile tube is studied under a combination of hydrostatic and dynamically applied asymmetrical pressure loadings.
An elastic-plastic finite element analysis of crack initiation, stable crack growth, and instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1984-01-01
Studies have been conducted to develop efficient techniques to simulate crack extension and to examine various local and global fracture criteria. Of the considered criteria, the crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) or displacement (CTOD) at a specified distance from the crack tip was shown to be most suited for modeling stable crack growth and instability during the fracture process. The results obtained in a number of studies show the necessity for studying different crack configurations when assessing the validity of any fracture criteria. One of the objectives of the present investigation is related to a critical evaluation of the CTOD growth criterion using an elastic-plastic finite element analysis under monotonic loading to failure. The analysis was found to predict three stages of crack growth behavior under monotonic loading to failure. Calculated CTOD values agreed well with experimental values for crack growth initiation.
Bifurcation analysis of the onset of necking in an elastic/plastic cylinder under uniaxial tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hutchinson, J. W.; Miles, J. P.
1974-01-01
The bifurcation problem governing the onset of axisymmetric necking in a circular cylindrical specimen in uniaxial tension is analysed. The specimen is made of an incompressible elastic/plastic material. One end is subject to a prescribed uniform axial displacement relative to the other and both ends are shear free. The true stress at bifurcation is greater than the stress at which the maximum load is attained by an amount which depends on (a) the radius to length ratio of the specimen, (b) the ratio of the elastic shear modulus to the tangent modulus, and (c) the derivative of the tangent modulus with respect to the stress. Bifurcation takes place immediately following attainment of the maximum load when the specimen is sufficiently slender.
Elastic-Plastic Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barker, J. Mark; Field, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank contribute strongly to the state of stress of the tank material and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A previous preliminary elastic analysis showed that the thermal stress on the inner wall would reach approximately 1,000MPa (145,000 psi). This stress far exceeds the ASTM specified room temperature values for both yield (170MPa) and ultimate (485 MPa) strength for 304L stainless steel. The present analysis determines the thermal stresses using an elastic-plastic model. The commercial software application ANSYS was used to determine the transient spatial temperature profile and the associated spatial thermal stress profiles in a segment of a thick-walled vessel during a typical cooldown process. A strictly elastic analysis using standard material properties for 304L stainless steel showed that the maximum thermal stress on the inner and outer walls was approximately 960 MPa (tensile) and - 270 MPa (compressive) respectively. These values occurred early in the cooldown process, but at different times, An elastic-plastic analysis showed significantly reducing stress, as expected due to the plastic deformation of the material. The maximum stress for the inner wall was approximately 225 MPa (tensile), while the maximum stress for the outer wall was approximately - 130 MPa (compressive).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Si; Wang, He-Ling; Liu, Bin; Hwang, Keh-Chih
2015-11-01
The J-integral based criterion is widely used in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. However, it is not rigorously applicable when plastic unloading appears during crack propagation. One difficulty is that the energy density with plastic unloading in the J-integral cannot be defined unambiguously. In this paper, we alternatively start from the analysis on the power balance, and propose a surface-forming energy release rate (ERR), which represents the energy available for separating the crack surfaces during the crack propagation and excludes the loading-mode-dependent plastic dissipation. Therefore the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion has wider applicability, including elastic-plastic crack propagation problems. Several formulae are derived for calculating the surface-forming ERR. From the most concise formula, it is interesting to note that the surface-forming ERR can be computed using only the stress and deformation of the current moment, and the definition of the energy density or work density is avoided. When an infinitesimal contour is chosen, the expression can be further simplified. For any fracture behaviors, the surface-forming ERR is proven to be path-independent, and the path-independence of its constituent term, so-called Js-integral, is also investigated. The physical meanings and applicability of the proposed surface-forming ERR, traditional ERR, Js-integral and J-integral are compared and discussed. Besides, we give an interpretation of Rice paradox by comparing the cohesive fracture model and the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion.
Elastic-plastic deformation of molybdenum single crystals shocked along [100
Mandal, A.; Gupta, Y. M.
2017-01-24
To understand the elastic-plastic deformation response of shock-compressed molybdenum (Mo) – a body-centered cubic (BCC) metal, single crystal samples were shocked along the [100] crystallographic orientation to an elastic impact stress of 12.5 GPa. Elastic-plastic wave profiles, measured at different propagation distances ranging between ~0.23 to 2.31 mm using laser interferometry, showed a time-dependent material response. Within experimental scatter, the measured elastic wave amplitudes were nearly constant over the propagation distances examined. These data point to a large and rapid elastic wave attenuation near the impact surface, before reaching a threshold value (elastic limit) of ~3.6 GPa. Numerical simulations ofmore » the measured wave profiles, performed using a dislocation-based continuum model, suggested that {110}<111> and/or {112}<111> slip systems are operative under shock loading. In contrast to shocked metal single crystals with close-packed structures, the measured wave profiles in Mo single crystals could not be explained in terms of dislocation multiplication alone. A dislocation generation mechanism, operative for shear stresses larger than that at the elastic limit, was required to model the rapid elastic wave attenuation and to provide a good overall match to the measured wave profiles. However, the physical basis for this mechanism was not established for the high-purity single crystal samples used in this study. As a result, the numerical simulations also suggested that Mo single crystals do not work harden significantly under shock loading in contrast to the behavior observed under quasi-static loading.« less
Elastic-plastic deformation of molybdenum single crystals shocked along [100
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, A.; Gupta, Y. M.
2017-01-01
To understand the elastic-plastic deformation response of shock-compressed molybdenum (Mo) - a body-centered cubic metal, single crystal samples were shocked along the [100] crystallographic orientation to an elastic impact stress of 12.5 GPa. Elastic-plastic wave profiles, measured at different propagation distances ranging between ˜0.23 to 2.31 mm using laser interferometry, showed a time-dependent material response. Within the experimental scatter, the measured elastic wave amplitudes were nearly constant over the propagation distances examined. These data point to a large and rapid elastic wave attenuation near the impact surface, before reaching a threshold value (elastic limit) of ˜3.6 GPa. Numerical simulations of the measured wave profiles, performed using a dislocation-based continuum model, suggested that {110}⟨111⟩ and/or {112}⟨111⟩ slip systems are operative under shock loading. In contrast to shocked metal single crystals with close-packed structures, the measured wave profiles in Mo single crystals could not be explained in terms of dislocation multiplication alone. A dislocation generation mechanism, operative for shear stresses larger than that at the elastic limit, was required to model the rapid elastic wave attenuation and to provide a good overall match to the measured wave profiles. However, the physical basis for this mechanism was not established for the high-purity single crystal samples used in this study. The numerical simulations also suggested that Mo single crystals do not work harden significantly under shock loading in contrast to the behavior observed under quasi-static loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peng; Liu, Jin-Yang; Lu, Guang-Can
2017-02-01
Impact processes between flexible bodies often lead to local stress concentration and wave propagation of high frequency. Therefore, the modeling of flexible multibody systems involving impact should consider the local plastic deformation and the strict requirements of the spatial discretization. Owing to the nonlinearity of the stiffness matrix, the reduction of the element number is extremely important. For the contact-impact problem, since different regions have different requirements regarding the element size, a new subregion mesh method is proposed to reduce the number of the unnecessary elements. A dynamic model for flexible multibody systems with elastic-plastic contact impact is established based on a floating frame of reference formulation and complete Lagrange incremental nonlinear finite-element method to investigate the effect of the elastic-plastic deformation as well as spatial discretization. Experiments on the impact between two bodies are carried out to validate the correctness of the elastic-plastic model. The proposed formulation is applied to a slider-crank system with elastic-plastic impact.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, H. J. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
An annular wing particularly suited for use in supporting in flight an aircraft characterized by the absence of directional stabilizing surfaces is described. The wing comprises a rigid annular body of a substantially uniformly symmetrical configuration characterized by an annular positive lifting surface and cord line coincident with the segment of a line radiating along the surface of an inverted truncated cone. A decalage is established for the leading and trailing semicircular portions of the body, relative to instantaneous line of flight, and a dihedral for the laterally opposed semicircular portions of the body, relative to the line of flight. The direction of flight and climb angle or glide slope angle are established by selectively positioning the center of gravity of the wing ahead of the aerodynamic center along the radius coincident with an axis for a selected line of flight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poon, Poh Chieh Benny
This study examines the accuracy of the extracted elastic properties using nanoindentation. Since the conventional method to extract these properties utilizes Sneddon's elastic solution, this study first considers indentations of linearly elastic solids for direct comparison. The study proposes a criterion for a converged specimen's geometry and modifies Sneddon's equation to account for the finite tip radius and specimen compressibility effects. A composite correction factor is derived to account for the violations of the underlying assumptions behind Sneddon's derivation. This factor is a function of indentation depth, and a critical depth is derived beyond which the finite tip radius effect will be insignificant. Techniques to identify the radius of curvature of the indenter and to decouple the elastic constants for linear elastic materials are proposed. Experimental results on nanoindentation of natural latex are reported and discussed in light of the proposed modified relation and techniques.The second part of the study examines the accuracy of the extracted material properties in elastic-plastic nanoindentations. The study establishes that the accurate determination of the projected area of contact, A, is crucial. However, the conventional method to determine A is largely limited to elastic materials, hence a new electrical resistance method is proposed to measure A for elastic-plastic materials. With an accurate A, the error associated with the extracted elastic material properties is reduced by more than 50% in some cases. This error remains to be a function of the material's Poisson's ratio, which is identified to influence the amount of residual stresses at the plastic imprint.Finally, this study examines the accuracy of the extracted material properties in the nanoindentation of soft materials using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The effects of cantilever stiffness, preload, and surface interaction forces are observed to influence the measurements
Reider, Samuel B.
1979-01-01
An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.
A review of path-independent integrals in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Kwang S.; Orange, Thomas W.
1988-01-01
The objective of this paper is to review the path-independent (P-I) integrals in elastic plastic fracture mechanics which have been proposed in recent years to overcome the limitations imposed on the J-integral. The P-I integrals considered are the J-integral by Rice (1968), the thermoelastic P-I integrals by Wilson and Yu (1979) and Gurtin (1979), the J-integral by Blackburn (1972), the J(theta)-integral by Ainsworth et al. (1978), the J-integral by Kishimoto et al. (1980), and the Delta-T(p) and Delta T(p)-asterisk integrals by Alturi et al. (1982). The theoretical foundation of the P-I integrals is examined with an emphasis on whether or not the path independence is maintained in the presence of nonproportional loading and unloading in the plastic regime, thermal gradient, and material inhomogeneities. The simularities, difference, salient features, and limitations of the P-I integrals are discussed. Comments are also made with regard to the physical meaning, the possibility of experimental measurement, and computational aspects.
Lester, Brian; Scherzinger, William
2017-01-19
Here, a new method for the solution of the non-linear equations forming the core of constitutive model integration is proposed. Specifically, the trust-region method that has been developed in the numerical optimization community is successfully modified for use in implicit integration of elastic-plastic models. Although attention here is restricted to these rate-independent formulations, the proposed approach holds substantial promise for adoption with models incorporating complex physics, multiple inelastic mechanisms, and/or multiphysics. As a first step, the non-quadratic Hosford yield surface is used as a representative case to investigate computationally challenging constitutive models. The theory and implementation are presented, discussed, andmore » compared to other common integration schemes. Multiple boundary value problems are studied and used to verify the proposed algorithm and demonstrate the capabilities of this approach over more common methodologies. Robustness and speed are then investigated and compared to existing algorithms. Through these efforts, it is shown that the utilization of a trust-region approach leads to superior performance versus a traditional closest-point projection Newton-Raphson method and comparable speed and robustness to a line search augmented scheme.« less
A review of path-independent integrals in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, task 4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K. S.
1985-01-01
The path independent (P-I) integrals in elastic plastic fracture mechanics which have been proposed in recent years to overcome the limitations imposed on the J integral are reviewed. The P-I integrals considered herein are the J integral by Rice, the thermoelastic P-I integrals by Wilson and Yu and by Gurtin, the J* integral by Blackburn, the J sub theta integral by Ainsworth et al., the J integral by Kishimoto et al., and the delta T sub p and delta T* sub p integrals by Atluri et al. The theoretical foundation of these P-I integrals is examined with emphasis on whether or not path independence is maintained in the presence of nonproportional loading and unloading in the plastic regime, thermal gradients, and material inhomogeneities. The similarities, differences, salient features, and limitations of these P-I integrals are discussed. Comments are also made with regard to the physical meaning, the possibility of experimental measurement, and computational aspects.
Elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) modeling of plastic deformation in fayalite olivine
Burnley, Pamela C
2015-07-01
Elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) simulations are used to model synchrotron X-ray diffraction observations from deformation experiments on fayalite olivine using the deformation DIA apparatus. Consistent with results from other in situ diffraction studies of monomineralic polycrystals, the results show substantial variations in stress levels among grain populations. Rather than averaging the lattice reflection stresses or choosing a single reflection to determine the macroscopic stress supported by the specimen, an EPSC simulation is used to forward model diffraction data and determine a macroscopic stress that is consistent with lattice strains of all measured diffraction lines. The EPSC simulation presented here includes kink band formation among the plastic deformation mechanisms in the simulation. The inclusion of kink band formation is critical to the success of the models. This study demonstrates the importance of kink band formation as an accommodation mechanism during plastic deformation of olivine as well as the utility of using EPSC models to interpret diffraction from in situ deformation experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldakheel, Fadi
2017-05-01
The coupled thermo-mechanical strain gradient plasticity theory that accounts for microstructure-based size effects is outlined within this work. It extends the recent work of Miehe et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 268:704-734, 2014) to account for thermal effects at finite strains. From the computational viewpoint, the finite element design of the coupled problem is not straightforward and requires additional strategies due to the difficulties near the elastic-plastic boundaries. To simplify the finite element formulation, we extend it toward the micromorphic approach to gradient thermo-plasticity model in the logarithmic strain space. The key point is the introduction of dual local-global field variables via a penalty method, where only the global fields are restricted by boundary conditions. Hence, the problem of restricting the gradient variable to the plastic domain is relaxed, which makes the formulation very attractive for finite element implementation as discussed in Forest (J Eng Mech 135:117-131, 2009) and Miehe et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A Math Phys Eng Sci 374:20150170, 2016).
A review of path-independent integrals in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Kwang S.; Orange, Thomas W.
1988-01-01
The objective of this paper is to review the path-independent (P-I) integrals in elastic plastic fracture mechanics which have been proposed in recent years to overcome the limitations imposed on the J-integral. The P-I integrals considered are the J-integral by Rice (1968), the thermoelastic P-I integrals by Wilson and Yu (1979) and Gurtin (1979), the J-integral by Blackburn (1972), the J(theta)-integral by Ainsworth et al. (1978), the J-integral by Kishimoto et al. (1980), and the Delta-T(p) and Delta T(p)-asterisk integrals by Alturi et al. (1982). The theoretical foundation of the P-I integrals is examined with an emphasis on whether or not the path independence is maintained in the presence of nonproportional loading and unloading in the plastic regime, thermal gradient, and material inhomogeneities. The simularities, difference, salient features, and limitations of the P-I integrals are discussed. Comments are also made with regard to the physical meaning, the possibility of experimental measurement, and computational aspects.
Elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) modeling of plastic deformation in fayalite olivine
Burnley, Pamela C
2015-07-01
Elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) simulations are used to model synchrotron X-ray diffraction observations from deformation experiments on fayalite olivine using the deformation DIA apparatus. Consistent with results from other in situ diffraction studies of monomineralic polycrystals, the results show substantial variations in stress levels among grain populations. Rather than averaging the lattice reflection stresses or choosing a single reflection to determine the macroscopic stress supported by the specimen, an EPSC simulation is used to forward model diffraction data and determine a macroscopic stress that is consistent with lattice strains of all measured diffraction lines. The EPSC simulation presented here includesmore » kink band formation among the plastic deformation mechanisms in the simulation. The inclusion of kink band formation is critical to the success of the models. This study demonstrates the importance of kink band formation as an accommodation mechanism during plastic deformation of olivine as well as the utility of using EPSC models to interpret diffraction from in situ deformation experiments.« less
Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu
2007-05-01
Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix — WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.
Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element analysis of fatigue crack propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goglia, G. L.; Chermahini, R. G.
1985-01-01
Fatigue cracks are a major problem in designing structures subjected to cyclic loading. Cracks frequently occur in structures such as aircraft and spacecraft. The inspection intervals of many aircraft structures are based on crack-propagation lives. Therefore, improved prediction of propagation lives under flight-load conditions (variable-amplitude loading) are needed to provide more realistic design criteria for these structures. The main thrust was to develop a three-dimensional, nonlinear, elastic-plastic, finite element program capable of extending a crack and changing boundary conditions for the model under consideration. The finite-element model is composed of 8-noded (linear-strain) isoparametric elements. In the analysis, the material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. The cycle stress-strain curve for the material is shown Zienkiewicz's initial-stress method, von Mises's yield criterion, and Drucker's normality condition under small-strain assumptions are used to account for plasticity. The three-dimensional analysis is capable of extending the crack and changing boundary conditions under cyclic loading.
Rahman, S.
1996-12-01
A new probabilistic model was developed for predicting elastic-plastic fracture response of circumferentially cracked pipes with finite-length, constant-depth, internal surface flaws subject to remote bending loads. It involves engineering estimation of energy release rate, J-tearing theory for characterizing ductile fracture, and standard methods of structural reliability theory. The underlying J-estimation model is based on deformation theory of plasticity, constitutive law characterized by power law model for stress-strain curve, and an equivalence criterion incorporating reduced thickness analogy for simulating system compliance due to the presence of a crack. New equations were developed to predict J-integral and were evaluated by comparing with available finite-element results from the current literature. Both analytical and simulation methods were formulated to determine the probabilistic characteristics of J. The same methods were used later to predict the probability of crack initiation and net-section collapse as a function of the applied load. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the proposed methodology.
Evolutions of elastic-plastic shock compression waves in different materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanel, G. I.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Razorenov, S. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Garkushin, G. V.
2015-06-01
Measurements of decay of the elastic precursor wave are used to determine the initial plastic strain rate as a function of the stress. Last years we performed large series of such kind experiments with metals and alloys at various temperatures, ceramics and glasses. In course of these measurements we observed several unexpected effects which have not got exhaustive explanations yet. In the presentation, we'll discuss a departure from self-similar development of the wave process which is accompanied with apparent sub-sonic wave propagation, changes of shape of elastic precursor wave as a result of variations in the material structure and the temperature, unexpected peculiarities of reflection of elastic-plastic waves from free surface, effects of internal friction at shock compression of glasses and some other effects. It seems the experimental data contain more information about kinetics of the time-dependent phenomena than we are able to get from their analysis now. Financial support from the Russian Science Foundation via Grant No 14-12-01127 is gratefully acknowledged.
Simple structures test for elastic-plastic strain acceptance criterion validation
Trimble, T.F.; Krech, G.R.
1997-11-01
A Simple Structures Test Program was performed where several cantilevered beam and fixed-end beam test specimens (fabricated from HY-80 steel) were subjected to a series of analytically predetermined rapidly applied transient dynamic input loads. The primary objective of the test program was to obtain dynamic nonlinear response for simple structures subjected to these load inputs. Data derived from these tests was subsequently used to correlate to analysis predictions to assess the capability to analytically predict elastic-plastic nonlinear material behavior in structures using typical time-dependent (transient) design methods and the ABAQUS finite element analysis code. The installation of a significant amount of instrumentation on these specimens and post-test measurements enabled the monitoring and recording of strain levels, displacements, accelerations, and permanent set. An assessment of modeling parameters such as the element type and mesh refinement was made using these test results. In addition, currently available material models and the incremental time step procedure used in the transient analyses were evaluated. Comparison of test data to analysis results shows that displacements, accelerations, and peak strain can be predicted with a reasonable level of accuracy using detailed solid models of the tested specimens. Permanent set is overpredicted by a factor of approximately two. However, the accuracy of the prediction of permanent set is being enhanced by updating material modeling in the ABAQUS code to account for effects of strain reversal in oscillatory behavior of dynamically loaded specimens.
Simple structures tests for elastic-plastic strain acceptance criterion validation
Trimble, T.F.; Krech, G.R.
1996-11-01
A Simple Structures Test Program was performed where several cantilevered beam and fixed-end beam test specimens were subjected to a series of analytically predetermined rapidly applied transient dynamic input loads. The primary objective of the test program was to obtain dynamic nonlinear response for simple structures subjected to these load inputs. Data derived from these tests was subsequently used to correlate to analysis predictions to assess the capability to analytically predict elastic-plastic nonlinear material behavior in structures using typical time-dependent (transient) design methods and the ABAQUS finite element analysis code. The installation of a significant amount of instrumentation on these specimens and post-test measurements enabled the monitoring and recording of strain levels, displacements, accelerations, and permanent set. An assessment of modeling parameters such as the element type and mesh refinement was made using these test results. In addition, currently available material models and the incremental time step procedure used in the transient analyses were evaluated. Comparison of test data to analysis results shows that displacements, accelerations, and peak strain can be predicted with a reasonable level of accuracy using detailed solid models of the tested specimens. Permanent set is overpredicted by a factor of approximately two. However, the accuracy of the prediction of permanent set is being enhanced by updating material modeling in the ABAQUS code to account for effects of strain reversal in oscillatory behavior of dynamically loaded specimens.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.
2012-01-01
Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.
(In)stability of quasi-static paths of some finite dimensional smooth or elastic-plastic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, J. A. C.; Monteiro Marques, M. D. P.; Petrov, A.; Rebrova, N. V.; Sobolev, V. A.; Coelho, I.
2005-01-01
In this paper we discuss some mathematical issues related to the stability of quasistatic paths of finite dimensional mechanical systems that have a smooth or an elastic-plastic behavior. The concept of stability of quasi-static paths used here is essentially a continuity property relatively to the size of the initial perturbations (as in Lyapunov stability) and to the smallness of the rate of application of the external forces (which here plays the role of the small parameter in singular perturbation problems). A related concept of attractiveness is also proposed. Sufficient conditions for attractiveness or for instability of quasi-static paths of smooth systems are presented. The Ziegler column and other examples illustrate these situations. Mathematical formulations (plus existence and uniqueness results) for dynamic and quasi-static elastic-plastic problems with linear hardening are recalled. A stability result is proved for the quasi-static evolution of these systems.
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.
2009-01-26
This paper proposes a model to predict the elastic-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using the anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed by Phelps and Tucker for LFTs. An incremental procedure using the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka model is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall strain increment for an aligned fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the later is then obtained from the solution for the aligned fiber composite that is averaged over all possible fiber orientations using the orientation averaging method. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The elastic-plastic and strength prediction model for LFTs was validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long glass fiber/polypropylene specimens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heuzé, Thomas
2017-10-01
We present in this work two finite volume methods for the simulation of unidimensional impact problems, both for bars and plane waves, on elastic-plastic solid media within the small strain framework. First, an extension of Lax-Wendroff to elastic-plastic constitutive models with linear and nonlinear hardenings is presented. Second, a high order TVD method based on flux-difference splitting [1] and Superbee flux limiter [2] is coupled with an approximate elastic-plastic Riemann solver for nonlinear hardenings, and follows that of Fogarty [3] for linear ones. Thermomechanical coupling is accounted for through dissipation heating and thermal softening, and adiabatic conditions are assumed. This paper essentially focuses on one-dimensional problems since analytical solutions exist or can easily be developed. Accordingly, these two numerical methods are compared to analytical solutions and to the explicit finite element method on test cases involving discontinuous and continuous solutions. This allows to study in more details their respective performance during the loading, unloading and reloading stages. Particular emphasis is also paid to the accuracy of the computed plastic strains, some differences being found according to the numerical method used. Lax-Wendoff two-dimensional discretization of a one-dimensional problem is also appended at the end to demonstrate the extensibility of such numerical scheme to multidimensional problems.
How tough is bone? Application of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics to bone.
Yan, Jiahau; Mecholsky, John J; Clifton, Kari B
2007-02-01
Bone, with a hierarchical structure that spans from the nano-scale to the macro-scale and a composite design composed of nano-sized mineral crystals embedded in an organic matrix, has been shown to have several toughening mechanisms that increases its toughness. These mechanisms can stop, slow, or deflect crack propagation and cause bone to have a moderate amount of apparent plastic deformation before fracture. In addition, bone contains a high volumetric percentage of organics and water that makes it behave nonlinearly before fracture. Many researchers used strength or critical stress intensity factor (fracture toughness) to characterize the mechanical property of bone. However, these parameters do not account for the energy spent in plastic deformation before bone fracture. To accurately describe the mechanical characteristics of bone, we applied elastic-plastic fracture mechanics to study bone's fracture toughness. The J integral, a parameter that estimates both the energies consumed in the elastic and plastic deformations, was used to quantify the total energy spent before bone fracture. Twenty cortical bone specimens were cut from the mid-diaphysis of bovine femurs. Ten of them were prepared to undergo transverse fracture and the other 10 were prepared to undergo longitudinal fracture. The specimens were prepared following the apparatus suggested in ASTM E1820 and tested in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The average J integral of the transverse-fractured specimens was found to be 6.6 kPa m, which is 187% greater than that of longitudinal-fractured specimens (2.3 kPa m). The energy spent in the plastic deformation of the longitudinal-fractured and transverse-fractured bovine specimens was found to be 3.6-4.1 times the energy spent in the elastic deformation. This study shows that the toughness of bone estimated using the J integral is much greater than the toughness measured using the critical stress intensity factor. We suggest that the J integral method is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Tovichakchaikul, S.
1983-01-01
This paper will develop a new solution strategy which can handle elastic-plastic-creep problems in an inherently stable manner. This is achieved by introducing a new constrained time stepping algorithm which will enable the solution of creep initiated pre/postbuckling behavior where indefinite tangent stiffnesses are encountered. Due to the generality of the scheme, both monotone and cyclic loading histories can be handled. The presentation will give a thorough overview of current solution schemes and their short comings, the development of constrained time stepping algorithms as well as illustrate the results of several numerical experiments which benchmark the new procedure.
Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth in Mode 1 and Mode 2 Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakagaki, M.; Atluri, S. N.
1978-01-01
Presented is an alternate cost-efficient and accurate elastic-plastic finite element procedure to analyze fatigue crack closure and its effects under general spectrum loading. Both Modes 1 and 2 type cycling loadings are considered. Also presented are the results of an investigation, using the newly developed procedure, of various factors that cause crack growth acceleration or retardation and delay effects under high-to-low, low-to-high, single overload, and constant amplitude type cyclic loading in a Mode 1 situation. Further, the results of an investigation of a centercracked panel under external pure shear (Mode 2) cyclic loading, of constant amplitude, are reported.
Kahl, W.K.
1997-03-01
The paper describes a study which attempted to extrapolate meaningful elastic-plastic fracture toughness data from flexure tests of a chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC/Nicalon fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite. Fibers in the fabricated composites were pre-coated with pyrolytic carbon to varying thicknesses. In the tests, crack length was not measured and the study employed an estimate procedure, previously used successfully for ductile metals, to derive J-R curve information. Results are presented in normalized load vs. normalized displacements and comparative J{sub Ic} behavior as a function of fiber precoating thickness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherepanov, Roman O.; Gerasimov, Alexander V.
2016-11-01
A fully conservative first order accuracy smooth particle method is proposed for elastic-plastic flows. The paper also provides an algorithm for calculating free boundary conditions. A weak variational formulation is used to achieve energy and momentum conservation and to decrease an order of spatial derivatives for the boundary condition calculation, and the Taylor series expansion is used for restoring particle inconsistence and for getting at least the first order of accuracy of spatial derivatives. The approach proposed allows us to avoid the "ghost" particle usage.
Robinson, A.C.
1988-04-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability response of elastic-plastic solids can be modeled by approximate means. However, neither the linear elastic response equation nor the so-called /open quotes/minimum amplitude/close quotes/ instability criterion derived from rigid plastic analyses is sufficient to describe overall stability characteristics at very large driving pressures. We compare several versions of the modal or one-degree-of-freedom approximation technique and indicate the common features which must be included to obtain the qualitative response seen in numerical experiments.
Hutula, D.N.
1980-03-01
A finite element procedure is presented for finite deformation analysis of continuum structures with time-dependent anisotropic elastic-plastic material behavior. An updated Lagrangian formulation is used to describe the kinematics of deformation. Anisotropic constitutive relations are referred, at each material point, to a set of three mutually orthogonal axes which rotate as a unit with an angular velocity equal to the spin at the point. The time-history of the solution is generated by using a linear incremental procedure with residual force correction, along with an automatic time step control algorithm which chooses time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution.
ML Renauld; H Lien
2004-12-13
The evolution of global and local stress/strain conditions in test fasteners under test conditions is investigated using elastic-plastic, time-dependent finite element analyses (FEA). For elastic-plastic response, tensile data from multiple specimens, material heats and test temperatures are integrated into a single, normalized flow curve from which temperature dependency is extracted. A primary creep model is calibrated with specimen- and fastener-based thermal relaxation data generated under a range of times, temperatures, stress levels and environments. These material inputs are used in analytical simulations of experimental test conditions for several types of fasteners. These fastener models are constructed with automated routines and contact conditions prescribed at all potentially mating surfaces. Thermal or mechanical room temperature pre-loading, as appropriate for a given fastener, is followed by a temperature ramp and a dwell time at constant temperature. While the amount of thermal stress relaxation is limited for the conditions modeled, local stress states are highly dependent upon geometry (thread root radius, for example), pre-loading history and thermal expansion differences between the test fastener and test fixture. Benefits of this FE approach over an elastic methodology for stress calculation will be illustrated with correlations of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) initiation time and crack orientations in stress concentrations.
Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.
1999-02-01
This paper provides a comparison between finite element analysis results and test data from the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) burst disk program. Testing sponsored by the PVRC over 20 years ago was done by pressurizing circular flat disks made from three different materials until failure by bursting. The purpose of this re-analysis is to investigate the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the primary stress limits of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1998) and to qualify the use of elastic-plastic (EP-FEA) for limit load calculations. The three materials tested represent the range of strength and ductility found in modern pressure vessel construction and include a low strength high ductility material, a medium strength medium ductility material, and a high strength low ductility low alloy material. Results of elastic and EP-FEA are compared to test data. Stresses from the elastic analyses are linearized for comparison of Code primary stress limits to test results. Elastic-plastic analyses are done using both best-estimate and elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) stress-strain curves. Both large strain-large displacement (LSLD) and small strain-small displacement (SSSD) assumptions are used with the EP-FEA. Analysis results are compared to test results to evaluate the various analysis methods, models, and assumptions as applied to the bursting of thin disks.
Nguyen, Ba N.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay H; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a model to predict the elastic-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using an anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed for LFTs. An incremental procedure using Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka assumption is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall strain increment for an aligned-fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the latter is then obtained from the solution for the aligned-fiber composite by averaging over all fiber orientations. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The model is validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hongwu, Zhang; Xinwei, Zhang
2002-12-01
The objective of the paper is to develop a new algorithm for numerical solution of dynamic elastic-plastic strain hardening/softening problems. The gradient dependent model is adopted in the numerical model to overcome the result mesh-sensitivity problem in the dynamic strain softening or strain localization analysis. The equations for the dynamic elastic-plastic problems are derived in terms of the parametric variational principle, which is valid for associated, non-associated and strain softening plastic constitutive models in the finite element analysis. The precise integration method, which has been widely used for discretization in time domain of the linear problems, is introduced for the solution of dynamic nonlinear equations. The new algorithm proposed is based on the combination of the parametric quadratic programming method and the precise integration method and has all the advantages in both of the algorithms. Results of numerical examples demonstrate not only the validity, but also the advantages of the algorithm proposed for the numerical solution of nonlinear dynamic problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ino, Takuichiro; Hasib, M. D. Abdul; Takase, Toru; Saimoto, Akihide
2015-03-01
An embedded force doublet (EFD) model is proposed to express the presence of permanent strain in body force method (BFM). BFM is known as a boundary type method for elastic stress analysis based on the principle of superposition. In EFD model, the permanent strain is replaced by distributed force doublets. In an actual elastic-plastic analysis, the plastic region whose shape is not clear a priori, have to be discretized into elements where the magnitude of embedded force doublets is unknown to be determined numerically. In general, the determination process of magnitude of EFD is considerably difficult due to nonlinear nature of yield criterion and plastic constitutive relations. In this study, by introducing the automated Delaunay tessellation scheme for discretizing the prospective plastic region, appreciable reduction in input data was realized. Adding to this, in order to improve the computational efficiency, influence coefficients used for determining the magnitude of EFD are stored in a database. The effectiveness of these two inventions was examined by computing the elastic-plastic problem of an infinite medium with circular hole subjected to uniform internal pressure. The numerical solution was compared with Nadai’s closed form solution and found a good agreement.
Nano-scale elastic-plastic properties and indentation-induced deformation of single crystal 4H-SiC.
Nawaz, A; Mao, W G; Lu, C; Shen, Y G
2017-02-01
The nanoscale elastic-plastic response of single crystal 4H-SiC has been investigated by nanoindentationwith a Berkovich tip. The hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) determined in the load-independent region were 36±2GPa and 413±8GPa, respectively. The indentation size effect (ISE) of hardness within an indentation depth of 60nm was systematically analyzed by the Nix-Gao model. Pop-in events occurring at a depth of ~23nm with indentation loads of 0.60-0.65mN were confirmed to indicate the elastic-plastic transition of the crystal, on the basis of the Hertzian contact theory and Johnson's cavity model. Theoritically calculated maximum tensile strength (13.5GPa) and cleavage strength (33GPa) also affirms the deformation due to the first pop-in rather than tensile stresses. Further analyses of deformation behavior across the indent was done in 4H-SiC by a combined technique of focused ion beam and transmission electron microscope, revealing that slippage occurred in the (0001) plane after indentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Means of manufacturing annular arrays
Day, R.A.
1985-10-10
A method is described for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90/sup 0/. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.
Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for elastic-plastic solids in converging geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López Ortega, A.; Lombardini, M.; Barton, P. T.; Pullin, D. I.; Meiron, D. I.
2015-03-01
We present a detailed study of the interface instability that develops at the boundary between a shell of elastic-plastic material and a cylindrical core of confined gas during the inbound implosive motion generated by a shock-wave. The main instability in this configuration is the so-called Richtmyer-Meshkov instability that arises when the shock wave crosses the material interface. Secondary instabilities, such as Rayleigh-Taylor, due to the acceleration of the interface, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, due to slip between solid and fluid, arise as the motion progresses. The reflection of the shock wave at the axis and its second interaction with the material interface as the shock moves outbound, commonly known as re-shock, results in a second Richtmyer-Meshkov instability that potentially increases the growth rate of interface perturbations, resulting in the formation of a mixing zone typical of fluid-fluid configurations and the loss of the initial perturbation length scales. The study of this problem is of interest for achieving stable inertial confinement fusion reactions but its complexity and the material conditions produced by the implosion close to the axis prove to be challenging for both experimental and numerical approaches. In this paper, we attempt to circumvent some of the difficulties associated with a classical numerical treatment of this problem, such as element inversion in Lagrangian methods or failure to maintain the relationship between the determinant of the deformation tensor and the density in Eulerian approaches, and to provide a description of the different events that occur during the motion of the interface. For this purpose, a multi-material numerical solver for evolving in time the equations of motion for solid and fluid media in an Eulerian formalism has been implemented in a Cartesian grid. Equations of state are derived using thermodynamically consistent hyperelastic relations between internal energy and stresses. The resolution required
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishi, H.
2004-08-01
Since the first wall and divertor components of fusion power plants are subjected to severe stresses caused by thermal expansion and electromagnetic forces, it is important to evaluate the fatigue strength of joints. In this study, elastic-plastic finite element analysis was performed for low cycle fatigue behavior of stainless steel/alumina dispersion-strengthened copper (DS Cu) joint in order to investigate the fatigue life and the fracture behavior of the joint. The results showed that a strain concentration occurred at the interface during low cycle fatigue, but as the strain range increased the strain concentration shifted away from the interface and into the DS Cu. The fatigue life and fracture location were evaluated taking into account of the strain concentration. Predictions of the fatigue life and fracture location were consistent with those measured by the low cycle fatigue test.
Bell, R.L.
1988-02-01
This report was prepared as a user manual for implementing the vectorized Elastic/Plastic HULL (EPHULL) Composite HULL code and SAIL code on the AFWL CRAY computer. Major programs required to operate the Composite HULL code and supporting programs and files on the AFWL CRAY are described. The Composite HULL code developed through this work is usable over the range of problems formerly accommodated by either Vector HULL or EPHULL, and is simpler and less time-consuming for new users to learn. The Cylinder In Situ Test (CIST) Equation of State (EOS) in this manual was rewritten from the California Research Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (CRALE) code for use with a variety of soils.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayasekara, Vishara; Min, Kyung Ho; Noh, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Min Tae; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Ho Yong; Hwang, Beong Bok
2010-04-01
This article describes the joining of thin metal sheets by a single stroke clinching process. Elastic-plastic and rigid-plastic finite element analysis were applied by employing Coulomb friction and constant shear friction in order to investigate the behavior of the clinch joint formation process. Four process variables, such as die diameter, die depth, groove width, and groove corner radius were selected to investigate the parametric effect on the clinch joint. The strength of clinch joints were evaluated by examining the separation strengths, such as peel strength and tensile shear strength, respectively. A failure diagram was constructed that summarizes the analysis results. The simulation results showed that die diameter and depth were the most decisive parameters for controlling the quality of the clinch joint, while the bottom's thickness was the most important evaluation parameter to determine the separation strengths.
Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analysis of shallow cracks in single-edge-crack-tension specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Newman, James C., Jr.
1990-01-01
Three dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite element results are presented for single-edge crack-tension specimens with several shallow crack-length-to-width ratios (0.05 less than or equal to a/W less than or equal to 0.5). Results showed the need to model the initial yield plateau in the stress-strain behavior to accurately model deformation of the A36 steel specimens. The crack-tip-opening-displacement was found to be linearly proportional to the crack-mouth-opening displacement. A new deformation dependent plastic-eta factor equation is presented for calculating the J-integral from test load-displacement records. This equation was shown to be accurate for all crack lengths considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.
2012-01-01
Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Marcos Venicius; Darwish, Fathi Aref; Campelo, Eduardo
2013-08-01
The relationship between J-integral ( J) and crack tip opening displacement (δ), considered fundamental for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be established based on prior knowledge of the constraint factor m, which depends on the work hardening exponent and the material's yield strain. Both J and δ were simultaneously determined at fracture initiation and at different points along the resistance curves for a number of structural steels. The corresponding m values were calculated and then compared with the predictions made by different models. The results indicate that the experimentally determined m values are in fair agreement with the predictions made by ASTM over the whole range of flow parameters considered in this study. The Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren singularity-based predictions result in overestimating m for steels considered to be of low strength and high strain hardening exponent. Predictions made by other models are predominantly higher in comparison with their experimental counterparts.
Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analysis of shallow cracks in single-edge-crack-tension specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Newman, James C., Jr.
1990-01-01
Three-dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite-element results are presented for single-edge crack-tension specimens with several shallow crack-length-to-width ratios (0.05 less than or equal to a/W less than or equal to 0.5). Results showed the need to model the initial yield plateau in the stress-strain behavior to accurately model deformation of the A36 steel specimens. The crack-tip-opening-displacement was found to be linearly proportional to the crack-mouth-opening displacement. A new deformation dependent plastic-eta factor equation is presented for calculating the J-integral from test load-displacement records. This equation was shown to be accurate for all crack lengths considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Z.; Komvopoulos, K.
2014-10-01
Oscillatory sliding contact between a rigid rough surface and an elastic-plastic half-space is examined in the context of numerical simulations. Stick-slip at asperity contacts is included in the analysis in the form of a modified Mindlin theory. Two friction force components are considered - adhesion (depending on the real area of contact, shear strength and interfacial adhesive strength) and plowing (accounting for the deformation resistance of the plastically deformed half-space). Multi-scale surface roughness is described by fractal geometry, whereas the interfacial adhesive strength is represented by a floating parameter that varies between zero (adhesionless surfaces) and one (perfectly adhered surfaces). The effects of surface roughness, apparent contact pressure, oscillation amplitude, elastic-plastic properties of the half-space and interfacial adhesion on contact deformation are interpreted in the light of numerical results of the energy dissipation, maximum tangential (friction) force and slip index. A non-monotonic trend of the energy dissipation and maximum tangential force is observed with increasing surface roughness, which is explained in terms of the evolution of the elastic and plastic fractions of truncated asperity contact areas. The decrease of energy dissipation with increasing apparent contact pressure is attributed to the increase of the elastic contact area fraction and the decrease of the slip index. For a half-space with fixed yield strength, a lower elastic modulus produces a higher tangential force, whereas a higher elastic modulus yields a higher slip index. These two competing effects lead to a non-monotonic dependence of the energy dissipation on the elastic modulus-to-yield strength ratio of the half-space. The effect of interfacial adhesion on the oscillatory contact behaviour is more pronounced for smoother surfaces because the majority of asperity contacts deform elastically and adhesion is the dominant friction mechanism. For
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laasonen, Raimo J.
How self-esteem is related to social environment and the elastic-plastic processing of mindies was studied in students aged 13 to 16 years. A "mindy" is a unit process of the mind constructed through using a mental shape. Subjects were 12 students aged 13, 31 students aged 14, 31 aged 15, and 6 aged 16 at a secondary comprehensive school…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brujan, E.-A.
2005-01-01
The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.
Calculation of elastic-plastic wave propagation on the connection machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Mark A.; Kimsey, Kent D.
1992-06-01
This report describes the parallel algorithms and data structures for implementing a 2-D multimaterial kernel of the wave-propagation code, HULL, on a Connection Machine. Computational performance is illustrated for a rod-plate impact problem with material strength described through an elastic-perfectly plastic formulation. The hydrodynamic behavior of materials is modeled via the gamma law and Mie-Gruneisen equations of state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadovskaya, Oxana; Sadovskii, Vladimir
2017-04-01
Under modeling the wave propagation processes in geomaterials (granular and porous media, soils and rocks) it is necessary to take into account the structural inhomogeneity of these materials. Parallel program systems for numerical solution of 2D and 3D problems of the dynamics of deformable media with constitutive relationships of rather general form on the basis of universal mathematical model describing small strains of elastic, elastic-plastic, granular and porous materials are worked out. In the case of an elastic material, the model is reduced to the system of equations, hyperbolic by Friedrichs, written in terms of velocities and stresses in a symmetric form. In the case of an elastic-plastic material, the model is a special formulation of the Prandtl-Reuss theory in the form of variational inequality with one-sided constraints on the stress tensor. Generalization of the model to describe granularity and the collapse of pores is obtained by means of the rheological approach, taking into account different resistance of materials to tension and compression. Rotational motion of particles in the material microstructure is considered within the framework of a mathematical model of the Cosserat continuum. Computational domain may have a blocky structure, composed of an arbitrary number of layers, strips in a layer and blocks in a strip from different materials with self-consistent curvilinear interfaces. At the external boundaries of computational domain the main types of dissipative boundary conditions in terms of velocities, stresses or mixed boundary conditions can be given. Shock-capturing algorithm is proposed for implementation of the model on supercomputers with cluster architecture. It is based on the two-cyclic splitting method with respect to spatial variables and the special procedures of the stresses correction to take into account plasticity, granularity or porosity of a material. An explicit monotone ENO-scheme is applied for solving one
Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Critical Flaw Size in ARES I-X Flange-to-Skin Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chell, G. Graham; Hudak, Stephen J., Jr.
2008-01-01
NASA's Ares 1 Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is being fabricated from welded A516 steel. In order to insure the structural integrity of these welds it is of interest to calculate the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) to establish rational inspection requirements. The CIFS is in turn dependent on the critical final flaw size (CFS), as well as fatigue flaw growth resulting from transportation, handling and service-induced loading. These calculations were made using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), which are thought to be conservative because they are based on a lower bound, so called elastic, fracture toughness determined from tests that displayed significant plasticity. Nevertheless, there was still concern that the yield magnitude stresses generated in the flange-to-skin weld by the combination of axial stresses due to axial forces, fit-up stresses, and weld residual stresses, could give rise to significant flaw-tip plasticity, which might render the LEFM results to be non-conservative. The objective of the present study was to employ Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) to determine CFS values, and then compare these values to CFS values evaluated using LEFM. CFS values were calculated for twelve cases involving surface and embedded flaws, EPFM analyses with and without plastic shakedown of the stresses, LEFM analyses, and various welding residual stress distributions. For the cases examined, the computed CFS values based on elastic analyses were the smallest in all instances where the failures were predicted to be controlled by the fracture toughness. However, in certain cases, the CFS values predicted by the elastic-plastic analyses were smaller than those predicted by the elastic analyses; in these cases the failure criteria were determined by a breakdown in stress intensity factor validity limits for deep flaws (a greater than 0.90t), rather than by the fracture toughness. Plastic relaxation of stresses accompanying shakedown always increases the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharobeam, Monir H.
1994-01-01
Load separation is the representation of the load in the test records of geometries containing cracks as a multiplication of two separate functions: a crack geometry function and a material deformation function. Load separation is demonstrated in the test records of several two-dimensional geometries such as compact tension geometry, single edge notched bend geometry, and center cracked tension geometry and three-dimensional geometries such as semi-elliptical surface crack. The role of load separation in the evaluation of the fracture parameter J-integral and the associated factor eta for two-dimensional geometries is discussed. The paper also discusses the theoretical basis and the procedure for using load separation as a simplified yet accurate approach for plastic J evaluation in semi-elliptical surface crack which is a three-dimensional geometry. The experimental evaluation of J, and particularly J(sub pl), for three-dimensional geometries is very challenging. A few approaches have been developed in this regard and they are either complex or very approximate. The paper also presents the load separation as a mean to identify the blunting and crack growth regions in the experimental test records of precracked specimens. Finally, load separation as a methodology in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ford, Hugh; Turner, C. E.; Fenner, R. T.; Curr, R. M.; Ivankovic, A.
1995-01-01
The objects of the first, exploratory, stage of the project were listed as: (1) to make a detailed and critical review of the Boundary Element method as already published and with regard to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, to assess its potential for handling present concepts in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. To this was subsequently added the Finite Volume method and certain aspects of the Finite Element method for comparative purposes; (2) to assess the further steps needed to apply the methods so far developed to the general field, covering a practical range of geometries, work hardening materials, and composites: to consider their application under higher temperature conditions; (3) to re-assess the present stage of development of the energy dissipation rate, crack tip opening angle and J-integral models in relation to the possibilities of producing a unified technology with the previous two items; and (4) to report on the feasibility and promise of this combined approach and, if appropriate, make recommendations for the second stage aimed at developing a generalized crack growth technology for its application to real-life problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Chu; Hu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Yu
2016-12-01
To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the `Tsai-Wu' yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of iceberg. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanciu, M. D.; Harapu, A.; Teodorescu Drăghicescu, H.; Curtu, I.; Savin, A.
2016-08-01
Composite structures are used mainly two types of reinforcement materials: woven glass fabric and the chopped strand mat, each contributing either to increase the resistance of the composite whole or in isotropic distribution of stresses. This paper presents a comparison of the visco-elastic characteristics of composites reinforced with glass fabric and the chopped strand mat and the breaking mode of the two types of the composite. The first type of samples contain three layers of chopped strand mat known as MAT with density of 450g/m2 and 225g/m2) and the second type is composed of four layers of woven glass fabric type RT500 (density of 500g/m2). Both specimens were cut in accordance with EN ISO 527-2 SR. Characteristic curve of the two types of specimens highlights visco-elastic-plastic behavior which largely depends on the type of reinforcement used as the matrix resin is the same in both cases (orthophthalic polyester resin). Breaking mode of those types of specimens were observed and analyzed by electronic microscope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, R. W.; Witmer, E. A.
1972-01-01
Assumed-displacement versions of the finite-element method are developed to predict large-deformation elastic-plastic transient deformations of structures. Both the conventional and a new improved finite-element variational formulation are derived. These formulations are then developed in detail for straight-beam and curved-beam elements undergoing (1) Bernoulli-Euler-Kirchhoff or (2) Timoshenko deformation behavior, in one plane. For each of these categories, several types of assumed-displacement finite elements are developed, and transient response predictions are compared with available exact solutions for small-deflection, linear-elastic transient responses. The present finite-element predictions for large-deflection elastic-plastic transient responses are evaluated via several beam and ring examples for which experimental measurements of transient strains and large transient deformations and independent finite-difference predictions are available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savruk, Mikhailo P.; Danilovich, A. M.
1992-06-01
The elastic-plastic equilibrium of a thin semiinfinite plate with a rectilinear crack of arbitrary orientation is analyzed assuming that local strains are localized along a narrow band originating at the crack tip. The elastic-plastic problem is reduced to that of solving a plane elasticity problem with a broken-line edge crack with loaded faces. The problem is solved by the singular integral equation method. Numerical results are obtained for the cases where the crack faces are loaded by a tensile force at infinity or by constant pressure. The effect of the free edge of the plate on the magnitude and orientation of the plasticity band is estimated.
Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack
Wilson, Mahlon S.
1996-01-01
A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanfeliz, Jose G.
1993-01-01
Micromechanical modeling via elastic-plastic finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects that the residual stresses and the degree of matrix work hardening (i.e., cold-worked, annealed) have upon the behavior of a 9 vol percent, unidirectional W/Cu composite, undergoing tensile loading. The inclusion of the residual stress-containing state as well as the simulated matrix material conditions proved to be significant since the Cu matrix material exhibited plastic deformation, which affected the subsequent tensile response of the composite system. The stresses generated during cooldown to room temperature from the manufacturing temperature were more of a factor on the annealed-matrix composite, since they induced the softened matrix to plastically flow. This event limited the total load-carrying capacity of this matrix-dominated, ductile-ductile type material system. Plastic deformation of the hardened-matrix composite during the thermal cooldown stage was not considerable, therefore, the composite was able to sustain a higher stress before showing any appreciable matrix plasticity. The predicted room temperature, stress-strain response, and deformation stages under both material conditions represented upper and lower bounds characteristic of the composite's tensile behavior. The initial deformation stage for the hardened material condition showed negligible matrix plastic deformation while for the annealed state, its initial deformation stage showed extensive matrix plasticity. Both material conditions exhibited a final deformation stage where the fiber and matrix were straining plastically. The predicted stress-strain results were compared to the experimental, room temperature, tensile stress-strain curve generated from this particular composite system. The analyses indicated that the actual thermal-mechanical state of the composite's Cu matrix, represented by the experimental data, followed the annealed material condition.
Eosinophilic annular erythema.
Sempau, Leticia; Larralde, Margarita; Luna, Paula Carolina; Casas, Jose; Staiger, Hernan
2012-03-15
Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare benign recurrent disease, originally described in children, characterized by the recurrent appearance of persistent non-pruritic, urticarial annular lesions. Histologically a perivascular infiltrate composed of lymphocytes and abundant eosinophils in the dermis is exhibited. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-year history of recurrent flares of erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. The lesions resolved spontaneously after 3-5 weeks with no accompanying signs. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis.
Mechanically expandable annular seal
Gilmore, R.F.
1983-07-19
A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.
Mechanically expandable annular seal
Gilmore, Richard F.
1983-01-01
A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.
Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...
Annular nozzle engine technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, AL
1992-01-01
The topics covered include: (1) driver rocket subsystem; (2) annular nozzle engine technology; (3) expansion-deflection nozzle; (4) aerospike-nozzled engine background; (5) aerospike testing; (6) linear aerospike; and (7) the combined cycle engine.
Jindal, Gunjan; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Singal, Samita
2016-01-01
Annular pancreas is a developmental anomaly that can be associated with other conditions such as Down syndrome, duodenal atresia, and Hirschsprung disease. A band of pancreatic tissue, in continuity with the pancreatic head, completely or incompletely encircles the descending duodenum, sometimes assuming a “crocodile jaw” configuration. We present the case of an adult who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting and was found to have annular pancreas. PMID:27695176
Annular array and method of manufacturing same
Day, Robert A.
1989-01-01
A method for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90.degree.. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings, hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.
Hutula, D.N.; Wiancko, B.E.
1980-03-01
ACCEPT is a three-dimensional finite element computer program for analysis of large-deformation elastic-plastic-creep response of Zircaloy tubes subjected to temperature, surface pressures, and axial force. A twenty-mode, tri-quadratic, isoparametric element is used along with a Zircaloy materials model. A linear time-incremental procedure with residual force correction is used to solve for the time-dependent response. The program features an algorithm which automatically chooses the time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution. A contact-separation capability allows modeling of interaction of reactor fuel rod cladding with fuel pellets or external supports.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, R. W.; Witmer, E. A.
1972-01-01
A user-oriented FORTRAN 4 computer program, called JET 3, is presented. The JET 3 program, which employs the spatial finite-element and timewise finite-difference method, can be used to predict the large two-dimensional elastic-plastic transient Kirchhoff-type deformations of a complete or partial structural ring, with various support conditions and restraints, subjected to a variety of initial velocity distributions and externally-applied transient forcing functions. The geometric shapes of the structural ring can be circular or arbitrarily curved and with variable thickness. Strain-hardening and strain-rate effects of the material are taken into account.
Na, Shuai; Wong, Lawrence L P; Chen, Albert I H; Li, Zhenhao; Macecek, Mirek; Yeow, John T W
2017-04-01
Air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) based on annular cell geometry have recently been reported. Finite element analysis and experimental studies have demonstrated their significant improvement in transmit efficiency compared with the conventional circular-cell CMUTs. Extending the previous work, this paper proposed a lumped element model of annular-cell CMUTs. Explicit expressions of the resonance frequency, modal vector, and static displacement of a clamped annular plate under uniform pressure were first derived based on the plate theory and curve fitting method. The lumped model of an annular CMUT cell was then developed by adopting the average displacement as the spatial variable. Using the proposed model, the ratio of average-to-maximum displacement was derived to be 8/15. Experimental and simulation studies on a fabricated annular CMUT cell verified the effectiveness of the lumped model. The proposed model provides an effective and efficient way to analyze and design air-coupled annular-cell CMUTs.
Simulation of Impact on a Ductile Polymer Plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cremona, Rebecca L.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.
2005-01-01
Explicit finite element calculations were used to visualize the deformation and temperature rise in an elastic-plastic plate impacted by a rigid projectile. Results were compared to results of experiments involving ballistic penetration of a "self-healing" thermoplastic. The calculated temperature rise agreed well with the experimental observation, but the total energy absorbed in the penetration event was underestimated in the calculation, which neglected friction.
Surface topography formation in a region of plate collision: Mathematical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobeinikov, S. N.; Reverdatto, V. V.; Polyanskii, O. P.; Sverdlova, V. G.; Babichev, A. V.
2012-07-01
The collision of earth's crustal plates is modeled mathematically based on a numerical solution of the equations of deformable solid mechanics using a finite element method with the MSC software. The interaction of the plates with each other and with the mantle is described by the solution of the contact problem with an unknown contact boundary between the solids considered. The mantle material is assumed to be ideal elastic-plastic with the Huber-Mises yield surface, and the properties of the plate material are described using an elastic-plastic model with the Drucker-Prager parabolic yield function which takes into account fracture in the tensile stress region. The results of the mathematical modeling show that the surface profiles of the plates in the region of their collision are consistent, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to the surface topography observed in nature under similar conditions.
Transient Thermal Behavior of Annular Thermoelectric Cooling System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manikandan, S.; Kaushik, S. C.
2017-05-01
The transient thermal behavior of an exoreversible thermodynamic model of an annular thermoelectric cooler has been studied by one-dimensional unsteady-state heat transfer analysis. Unlike the flat plate geometry of thermoelectric coolers, which have equal heat transfer area at their hot and cold sides, an annular thermoelectric cooler has a higher heat transfer area at its hot side than its cold side. The temperature variations with time at the hot and cold sides of an annular thermoelectric cooler have been predicted for different cooling loads, current flow, variable thermocouple length and with different heat transfer coefficients at its hot side. Finally, the transient thermal behavior of an annular thermoelectric cooler has been compared with a flat plate thermoelectric cooler. It was found that, for typical operating conditions with zero cooling load, the annular thermoelectric cooler can maintain a 2.3-K lower temperature than the flat thermoelectric cooler. It was also found that when the cooling load is 0.055 W/cm2 with the hot side heat transfer coefficient of 0.010 W/cm2 K, the coefficient of performance of the annular thermoelectric cooler is 2.32% higher than the flat thermoelectric cooler.
Smith, J.D.; Szymczak, E.J.
1988-08-30
An annular seal is described for sealing across the annular space between a wellhead housing and a hanger positioned within the housing comprising: an annular seal ring having a central ring with upper inner and outer rims and lower inner and outer rims, the upper inner and outer rims being spaced apart and the lower inner and outer rims being spaced apart, an upper wedge ring having a portion thereof projecting into the space between the upper rims and being wider than such space so that when moved fully into the space between the rims it wedges the rims outwardly for sealing engagement with inner and outer surfaces, a lower wedge ring having a portion thereof projecting into the space between the lower rims and being wider than such space so that when moved fully into the space between the rims it wedges the rims outwardly for sealing engagement with inner and outer surfaces, the free outer diameter of the sealing portions of the outer rims having a diameter less than the outer diameter of the lower wedge rings, means coacting with the seal ring and the wedge rings to retain the rings in assembled position, an actuating ring interengaged with the upper wedge ring and movable to provide a relative movement between the wedge rings and the seal ring and also to provide movement of the wedge rings and the seal ring into their ultimate sealing positions, and means for releasably securing the annular seal to the hanger until the rims are in their sealing position and then to release to allow movement of the annular seal on the hanger to position the rims against their respective sealing surfaces on the hanger and the wellhead housing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Furen
1991-07-01
In this paper, forces and deformations of the aircraft hull plate in the symmetry plate bender with three rolls are systematically analyzed and investigated by means of elasticity-plasticity theory, and a group of theoretical calculation formulas is put forward by which the feeding value and the exerting force of the center roll may be determined according to the thickness of the hull plate, the elasticity modulus and yield point of the hull plate material, and the curvature which the aircraft hull plate should have after forming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agnelli, Silvia; Baldi, Francesco; Riccò, Theonis
2012-07-01
This work is aimed at analyzing the effects of temperature and loading rate on the plastic deformation behavior of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin during a fracture process. According to the load separation criterion, the plastic deformation behavior during the fracture process of an elastic-plastic material is described by a plastic deformation function. For the ABS here examined, the material plastic deformation function was constructed at different temperatures and loading rates, by single edge notched in bending (SEB) tests on blunt notched specimens. Both low and moderately high (impact) loading rates were explored. For the various conditions of temperature and loading rate the material yield stress was also measured by uniaxial tensile tests. The relationships between material deformation function and yield stress were researched and discussed.
Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai
2015-03-01
The use of SiC and SiC-composites in fission or fusion environments requires joining methods for assembling systems. The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes. These torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are within a certain range compared to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed that indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model was extended to treat elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy joints tested as validation of the specimen design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deng, Xiaomin; Newman, James C., Jr.
1997-01-01
ZIP2DL is a two-dimensional, elastic-plastic finte element program for stress analysis and crack growth simulations, developed for the NASA Langley Research Center. It has many of the salient features of the ZIP2D program. For example, ZIP2DL contains five material models (linearly elastic, elastic-perfectly plastic, power-law hardening, linear hardening, and multi-linear hardening models), and it can simulate mixed-mode crack growth for prescribed crack growth paths under plane stress, plane strain and mixed state of stress conditions. Further, as an extension of ZIP2D, it also includes a number of new capabilities. The large-deformation kinematics in ZIP2DL will allow it to handle elastic problems with large strains and large rotations, and elastic-plastic problems with small strains and large rotations. Loading conditions in terms of surface traction, concentrated load, and nodal displacement can be applied with a default linear time dependence or they can be programmed according to a user-defined time dependence through a user subroutine. The restart capability of ZIP2DL will make it possible to stop the execution of the program at any time, analyze the results and/or modify execution options and resume and continue the execution of the program. This report includes three sectons: a theoretical manual section, a user manual section, and an example manual secton. In the theoretical secton, the mathematics behind the various aspects of the program are concisely outlined. In the user manual section, a line-by-line explanation of the input data is given. In the example manual secton, three types of examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and illustrate the use of this program.
Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack
Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.
1997-01-01
A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.
[Disseminated granuloma annulare].
Kansky, A
1975-09-01
A case of generalized granuloma annulare in a 55 year old man is reported. The disease appeared five years before the first admission to the hospital. A large number of bluish-red or skin-colour papules were scattered mainly around the earlobes, buttocks and on the extremities. Some of the lesions were lined up in rings or plaques. Small depigmented and brownish scars were present. Two biopsies revealed characteristic foci of complete collagen degeneration accompanied by a palisading infiltrate in the upper dermis. Treatment with tuberculostatics and antimalarics was without improvement. The lesions cleared after a course of prednison, but reappeared when the drug was discontinued.
Kang, Yungmo
2005-10-04
An annular heat recuperator is formed with alternating hot and cold cells to separate counter-flowing hot and cold fluid streams. Each cold cell has a fluid inlet formed in the inner diameter of the recuperator near one axial end, and a fluid outlet formed in the outer diameter of the recuperator near the other axial end to evenly distribute fluid mass flow throughout the cell. Cold cells may be joined with the outlet of one cell fluidly connected to the inlet of an adjacent downstream cell to form multi-stage cells.
Granuloma annulare - close-up (image)
Granuloma annulare is usually a self-limiting disorder characterized by raised lesions arranged in an annular shape. ... This picture shows a close-up of a granuloma annulare that is subcutaneous (deeper). It demonstrates the ...
Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.
2014-01-01
Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658
Multiple annular linear diffractive axicons.
Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet
2011-04-01
We propose a chromatic analysis of multiple annular linear diffractive axicons. Large aperture axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams, with an extended depth of focus, when illuminated by a white light source, due to chromatic foci superimposition. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, and because chromatic aberrations result in focal segment axial shifts, polychromatic imaging properties are partially lost. We investigate here various design parameters that can be used to achieve color splitting, filtering, and combining using these properties. In order to improve the low-power efficiency of a single annular axicon, we suggest a spatial multiplexing of concentric annular axicons with different sizes and periods we call multiple annular aperture diffractive axicons (MALDAs). These are chosen to maintain focal depths while enabling color imaging with sufficient diffraction efficiency. Illustrations are given for binary phase diffractive axicons, considering technical aspects such as grating design wavelength and phase dependence due to the grating thickness.
Axisymmetric annular curtain stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian
2012-06-01
A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect.
A numerical and analytical investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a solid tungsten plate
Robinson, A.C.; Swegle, J.W.
1987-07-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability response of an elastic-plastic tungsten plate is investigated by numerical experiments and an approximate modal analysis. The so-called ''minimum amplitude'' instability criteria derived from plasticity analyses is shown to be incomplete as a general indicator of instability or stability at very large driving pressures. Model equations are derived which are able to reproduce the basic qualitative features of the observed instability response given by the numerical calculations. 11 refs., 29 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ungár, Tamás; Harjo, Stefanus; Kawasaki, Takuro; Tomota, Yo; Ribárik, Gábor; Shi, Zengmin
2017-01-01
Based on high-resolution neutron diffraction experiments, we will show that in lath martensite steels, the initially homogeneous dislocation structure, i.e., homogeneous on the length scale of grain size, is disrupted by plastic deformation, which, in turn, produces a composite on the length scale of martensite lath packets. The diffraction patterns of plastically strained martensitic steel reveal characteristically asymmetric peak profiles in the same way as has been observed in materials with heterogeneous dislocation structures. The quasi homogeneous lath structure, formed by quenching, is disrupted by plastic deformation producing a composite structure. Lath packets oriented favorably or unfavorably for dislocation glide become soft or hard. Two lath packet types develop by work softening or work hardening in which the dislocation densities become smaller or larger compared to the initial average dislocation density. The decomposition into soft and hard lath packets is accompanied by load redistribution and the formation of long-range internal stresses between the two lath packet types. The composite behavior of plastically deformed lath martensite opens a new way to understand the elastic-plastic response in this class of materials.
Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, Monica; Katoh, Yutai
2015-06-30
The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes since SiC and SiC-composites used in fission or fusion environments require joining methods for assembling systems. Torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are comparable to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for many joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed to treat elastic joints such as SiC/Ti3SiC2+SiC and elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy. The model uses constitutive shear data and is validated using epoxy joint data. The elastic model indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. Lower modulus epoxy joints always fail in plane and provide good model validation.
Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, David Alan
1988-01-01
The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.
Laser-produced annular plasmas
Veloso, F.; Chuaqui, H.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Favre, M.; Mitchell, I. H.; Wyndham, E.
2006-06-15
A new technique is presented for the formation of annular plasmas on a metal surface with a high-power laser using a combination of axicon and converging lenses. The annular plasma formed on a titanium target in a chamber of hydrogen gas was investigated using schlieren imaging and Mach Zehnder interferometry. Expansion of the plasma was shown to be anisotropic with velocities of {approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} m/s. Electron densities of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} were measured with radial profiles that confirm the presence of a hollow structure. The interferometric observations also show the presence of an inward shock wave traveling to the center of the annular plasma, which compresses the background neutrals, reaching a density around 18 times initial gas density, at 95 ns after the initial annular plasma is produced.
The Langley Annular Transonic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habel, Louis W; Henderson, James H; Miller, Mason F
1952-01-01
Report describes the development of the Langley annular transonic tunnel, a facility in which test Mach numbers from 0.6 to slightly over 1.0 are achieved by rotating the test model in an annular passage between two concentric cylinders. Data obtained for two-dimensional airfoil models in the Langley annular transonic tunnel at subsonic and sonic speeds are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental data from other sources and with theory when comparisons are made for nonlifting conditions or for equal normal-force coefficients rather than for equal angles of attack. The trends of pressure distributions obtained from measurements in the Langley annular transonic tunnel are consistent with distributions calculated for Prandtl-Meyer flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maire, Pierre-Henri; Abgrall, Rémi; Breil, Jérôme; Loubère, Raphaël; Rebourcet, Bernard
2013-02-01
In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic-plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okura, Ichiro; Ogasahara, Koji
The ultimate strength of aluminum alloy plates in in-plane bending is investigated considering joining locations and plate width by the elastic-plastic large deflection analysis with FEM. The aluminum alloys taken into account are heat-treated A6061-T6 and A6005C-T5 and non-heat-treated A5083-O. The softening of material and the residual stresses caused by the friction stir welding (FSW) and the MIG welding are introduced in the analysis. It is shown that the joining locations and the width of plate have a great influence on the ultimate strength. The formula which gives the curves for the ultimate strength of plates in in-plane bending considering joining locations and plate width are proposed, based on the results of the FEM analysis.
Annular beam shaping and optical trepanning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Danyong
surfaces of the annulus, respectively, and full Gaussian with maximum intensity within the annulus. Two refractive arrangements have been presented in this study. Geometric optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays. However, it is a simplification of optics, and fails to account for many important optical effects such as diffraction and polarization. The diffractive behaviors of this optical trepanning system are stimulated and analyzed based on the Fresnel diffraction integral. Diffraction patterns of the resulting optical system are measured using a laser beam analyzer and compared with the theoretical results. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the effects of experimental parameters are discussed. We have designed the annular beam shaping optical elements and the gas delivery system to construct an optical trepanning system. Laser drilling experiments are performed on the Stainless Steel-316 (SS 316) plate and the Inconel 718 (IN 718) plate. The geometry of the trepanning holes with different sizes is presented in this study.
Epidermal activity in annular dermatophytosis.
Berk, S H; Penneys, N S; Weinstein, G D
1976-04-01
In five patients with annular tinea corporis, the tritated thymidine labeling indexes were determined in the rim, center, and intermediate areas of the lesion and compared with normal skin. Labeling indexes at the rim were much higher than those of normal skin (mean, 4.2 times). Labeling indexes elsewhere in the lesion were not significantly different from those of normal skin. Histologic examination showed epidermal thickening in all areas of the lesion as compared with normal skin. This study suggests that there is an increased epidermal turnover at the rim of annular dermatophytosis that may be important in the pathophysiology and morphogenesis of such lesions.
Annular Eclipse as Seen by Hinode
This timelapse shows an annular eclipse as seen by JAXA's Hinode satellite on Jan. 4, 2011. An annular eclipse occurs when the moon, slightly more distant from Earth than on average, moves directly...
Development of annular targets for {sup 99}MO production.
Conner, C.; Lewandowski, E. F.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Liberatore, M. W.; Walker, D. E.; Wiencek, T. C.; McGann, D. J.; Hofman, G. L.; Vandegrift, G. F.
1999-09-30
The new annular target performed well during irradiation. The target is inexpensive and provides good heat transfer during irradiation. Based on these and previous tests, we conclude that targets with zirconium tubes and either nickel-plated or zinc-plated foils work well. We proved that we could use aluminum target tubes, which are much cheaper and easier to work with than the zirconium tubes. In aluminum target tubes nickel-plated fission-recoil barriers work well and prevent bonding of the foil to the new target tubes during irradiation. Also, zinc-plated and aluminum-foil barriers appear promising in anodized aluminum tubes. Additional tests are anticipated to address such issues as fission-recoil barrier thickness and uranium foil composition. Overall, however, the target was successful and will provide an inexpensive, efficient way to irradiate LEU metal foil for the production of {sup 99}Mo.
Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana
2016-07-01
In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.
Annular arc accelerator shock tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leibowitz, L. P. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
An annular arc accelerator shock tube employs a cold gas driver to flow a stream of gas from an expansion section through a high voltage electrode section to a test section, thus driving a shock wave in front of it. A glow discharge detects the shock wave and actuates a trigger generator which in turn fires spark-gap switches to discharge a bank of capacitors across a centered cathode and an annular anode in tandem electrode sections. The initial shock wave passes through the anode section from the cathode section thereby depositing energy into the flow gas without the necessity of any diaphragm opening in the gas flow from the expansion section through the electrode sections.
Annular Solar Eclipse of 10 May 1994
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay
1993-01-01
An annular eclipse of the Sun will be widely visible from the Western Hemisphere on 10 May 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Mexico, the United States of America, maritime Canada, the North Atlantic, the Azores and Morocco. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the annular path, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of annular and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.
Na, Shuai; Chen, Albert I H; Wong, Lawrence L P; Li, Zhenhao; Macecek, Mirek; Yeow, John T W
2016-09-01
A novel design of an air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) with annular cell geometry (annular CMUT) is proposed. Finite element analysis shows that an annular cell has a ratio of average-to-maximum displacement (RAMD) of 0.52-0.58 which is 58-76% higher than that of a conventional circular cell. The increased RAMD leads to a larger volume displacement which results in a 48.4% improved transmit sensitivity and 127.3% improved power intensity. Single-cell annular CMUTs were fabricated with 20-μm silicon plates on 13.7-μm deep and 1.35-mm wide annular cavities using the wafer bonding technique. The measured RAMD of the fabricated CMUTs is 0.54. The resonance frequency was measured to be 94.5kHz at 170-V DC bias. The transmit sensitivity was measured to be 33.83Pa/V and 25.85Pa/V when the CMUT was excited by a continuous wave and a 20-cycle burst, respectively. The receive sensitivity at 170-V DC bias was measured to be 7.7mV/Pa for a 20-cycle burst, and 15.0mV/Pa for a continuous incident wave. The proposed annular CMUT design demonstrates a significant improvement in transmit efficiency, which is an important parameter for air-coupled ultrasonic transducers.
Entrainment measurements in annular flow
Assad, A.; Jan, C.; Bertodano, M. de; Beus, S.G.
1997-07-01
Air/water and vapor/freon were utilized to scale and simulate annular two-phase flow for high pressure steam/water conditions. A unique vapor/liquid Freon loop was built to obtain the high pressure data. The results were compared with two correlations available in the open literature. The Ishii and Mishima dimensionless group was able to scale the data remarkably well even for vapor/liquid Freon. However, the correlation needs to be adjusted for high Weber numbers of the gas phase.
Annular hymenotomy for imperforate hymen.
Cetin, Cihan; Soysal, Cenk; Khatib, Ghanim; Urunsak, Ibrahim Ferhat; Cetin, Turan
2016-08-01
Imperforate hymen is the most common obstructive anomaly of the female genital tract. Conventional surgical treatment for this condition is the cruciate incision made on the hymen. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel technique that preserves virginity after hymenotomy using electrocautery. Patients diagnosed with imperforate hymen and treated with annular hymenotomy between 2009 and 2013 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Annular incision was done using electrocautery on the hymen whilst sparing the intact hymenal tissue circumferentially at least 5 mm from the base. Fifteen patients were included in the study. Mean age of patients was 14.2 ± 2.2 years. The median operation time was 5 min (3-9 min). No complications occurred. During the follow-up examinations, none of the patients had hymenal closure and all had regular menstrual bleeding. This novel technique showed complete success without any observed complication. This technique might be a good alternative for patients seeking to preserve virginity after surgery. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Granuloma annulare mimicking dorsal knuckle pads.
Myeroff, Chad M; Stern, Peter J
2011-06-01
A 37-year-old man underwent excision of what was presumed to be knuckle pads associated with Dupuytren disease. The histology revealed granuloma annulare, which is typically treated nonsurgically. This report includes a discussion of granuloma annulare and its differentiation from knuckle pads. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Annular Laser Beam Cladding Process Feasibility Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, Alexander; Jeromen, Andrej; Levy, Gideon; Fujishima, Makoto; Govekar, Edvard
In the paper a novel annular - ring shaped - laser beam cladding head and related cladding process are presented. In the cladding head a laser beam is shaped into an annular ring and guided coaxially with the powder tube disposing the powder jet in the centre of the focused annular laser beam ring. An experimental process feasibility analysis was performed using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser system with a maximal average power 250 W. Beside the known influencing parameters of laser cladding process including the powder mass flow, workpiece feeding velocity, and laser beam intensity, the important parameters related to the annular laser beam caustics were defined. The process feasibility and influence of the process parameters on powder catchment efficiency was analysed based on the cladding experiments of SS 316L powder on SS 304 workpiece material. The potential benefits related to the annular laser beam melt pool geometry and related powder catchment efficiency are discussed.
Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuo, B. C.
1979-01-01
The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) is a payload auxiliary pointing device of the Space Shuttle. The ASPS is comprised of two major subassemblies, a vernier and a coarse pointing subsystem. The experiment is attached to a mounting plate/rim combination which is suspended on magnetic bearing/actuators (MBA) strategically located about the rim. Fine pointing is achieved by gimballing the plate/rim within the MBA gaps. Control about the experiment line-of-sight is obtained through the use of a non-contacting rim drive and positioning torquer. All sensors used to close the servo loops on the vernier system are noncontacting elements. Therefore, the experiment is a free-flyer constrained only by the magnetic forces generated by the control loops.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. W.; Joshi, S. M.
1975-01-01
An annular suspension and pointing system consisting of pointing assemblies for coarse and vernier pointing is described. The first assembly is attached to a carrier spacecraft (e.g., the space shuttle) and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide 'coarse' pointing. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic actuators of suspension and fine pointing, roll motor segments, and an instrument or experiment mounting plate around which is attached a continuous annular rim similar to that used in the annular momentum control device. The rim provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments for any instrument roll position. The results of a study to determine the pointing accuracy of the system in the presence of crew motion disturbances are presented. Typical 3 sigma worst-case errors are found to be of the order of 0.001 arc-second.
Elastic Properties of the Annular Ligament of the Human Stapes--AFM Measurement.
Kwacz, Monika; Rymuza, Zygmunt; Michałowski, Marcin; Wysocki, Jarosław
2015-08-01
Elastic properties of the human stapes annular ligament were determined in the physiological range of the ligament deflection using atomic force microscopy and temporal bone specimens. The annular ligament stiffness was determined based on the experimental load-deflection curves. The elastic modulus (Young's modulus) for a simplified geometry was calculated using the Kirchhoff-Love theory for thin plates. The results obtained in this study showed that the annular ligament is a linear elastic material up to deflections of about 100 nm, with a stiffness of about 120 N/m and a calculated elastic modulus of about 1.1 MPa. These parameters can be used in numerical and physical models of the middle and/or inner ear.
Annular solar receiver thermal characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratzel, A. C.; Sisson, C. E.
1980-10-01
Results from thermal studies performed for an annular solar receiver assembly to be used with the 2 m, 90 deg parabolic collector trough are presented. The receiver configuration modeled consists of a 2.54 cm o.d. steel tube with a black chrome selective surface and an enclosing concentric Pyrex glass envelope. Previous thermal work conducted on the parabolic cylindrical collector design established the geometry and solar noon absorbed flux distribution used. One and two dimensional thermal models were developed to provide receiver assembly temperatures, heat losses, and working fluid energy extraction data with the Therminol-66 (T-66) bulk temperature maintained at 315 C. Parameters varied in the work include wind velocity, ambient air temperature, annulus gas pressure, and T-66 flow condition (Reynolds number). Heat loss and energy extraction results are tabulated and temperature distributions from two dimensional thermal modeling are graphically presented.
Sealing arrangement with annular flexible disc
Pennell, William E.; Honigsberg, Charles A.
1983-01-01
Fluid sealing arrangements including an annular shaped flexible disc having enlarged edges disposed within channel-shaped annular receptacles which are spaced from one another. The receptacles form an annular region for contacting and containing the enlarged edges of the disc, and the disc is preloaded to a conical configuration. The disc is flexibly and movably supported within the receptacles so that unevenly distributed relative motion between the components containing the receptacles is accommodated without loss of sealing contact between the edges of the disc and the walls of the receptacles.
Higher modes in the coupling cells of coaxial and annular-ring coupled linac structures
Hoffswell, R.A.; Laszewski, R.M.
1983-08-01
Dipole- and quadrupole-like modes in the coupling cells of coaxial and annular-ring coupled structures have been examined up to a frequency of 4 GHz. The quadrupole mode frequencies appear to lie high enough above the frequency of the accelerating mode to make coupling between the two unlikely. In the annular-ring case, however, a dipole mode was found very near the accelerating mode frequency. Evidence is presented which suggests that some power may couple between these two modes in a real cavity.
Wardle, Kent E.
2017-06-06
The present invention provides an annular centrifugal contactor, having a housing adapted to receive a plurality of flowing liquids; a rotor on the interior of the housing; an annular mixing zone, wherein the annular mixing zone has a plurality of fluid retention reservoirs with ingress apertures near the bottom of the annular mixing zone and egress apertures located above the ingress apertures of the annular mixing zone; and an adjustable vane plate stem, wherein the stem can be raised to restrict the flow of a liquid into the rotor or lowered to increase the flow of the liquid into the rotor.
Method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography
Scott, Charles D.
1987-01-01
Separation of complex mixtures and solutions can be carried out using a method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography. Solutes are diverted radially by an imposed electrical field as they move downward in a rotating chromatographic column.
Multiple Granuloma Annulare in a 2-year-old Child
Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra
2015-01-01
Granuloma annulare is a benign, self-limiting, inflammatory and granulomatous disease of unknown etiology occurring in both adults and children. An 18-month-old male child had multiple progressive annular plaques over the lower extremities. Clinical and histopathological features were consistent with granuloma annulare. Localized granuloma annulare is the most common form in children. We report a young child with multiple, progressive granuloma annulare over the lower extremities. PMID:26677301
Annular gel reactor for chemical pattern formation
Nosticzius, Zoltan; Horsthemke, Werner; McCormick, William D.; Swinney, Harry L.; Tam, Wing Y.
1990-01-01
The present invention is directed to an annular gel reactor suitable for the production and observation of spatiotemporal patterns created during a chemical reaction. The apparatus comprises a vessel having at least a first and second chamber separated one from the other by an annular polymer gel layer (or other fine porous medium) which is inert to the materials to be reacted but capable of allowing diffusion of the chemicals into it.
Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.
1994-01-01
Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.
Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.
1994-01-01
Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.
Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils.
Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo
2012-07-01
Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.
Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils
Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo
2012-01-01
Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435
A 50 cm diameter annular ion engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.
1989-01-01
An ion engine design is presented which uses an annular geometry as a means of achieving large engine diameters and hence, high thrust levels. Preliminary results are discussed for discharge-only operation of a 50-cm-diameter annular ion engine. Measured operating parameters presented include discharge current and voltage characteristics, discharge chamber ion current distribution, engine body temperatures, plasma flatness parameter effects and total integrated grid ion current.
Packing loops into annular cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobral, T. A.; Gomes, M. A. F.
2017-02-01
The continuous packing of a flexible rod in two-dimensional cavities yields a countable set of interacting domains that resembles nonequilibrium cellular systems and belongs to a new class of lightweight material. However, the link between the length of the rod and the number of domains requires investigation, especially in the case of non-simply connected cavities, where the number of avoided regions emulates an effective topological temperature. In the present article we report the results of an experiment of injection of a single flexible rod into annular cavities in order to find the total length needed to insert a given number of loops (domains of one vertex). Using an exponential model to describe the experimental data we quite minutely analyze the initial conditions, the intermediary behavior, and the tight packing limit. This method allows the observation of a new fluctuation phenomenon associated with instabilities in the dynamic evolution of the packing process. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the global pattern enters the discussion under a novel point of view. A comparison with the classical problems of the random close packing of disks and jammed disk packings is made.
Stability of forced-convection subcooled boiling in steady-state and transient annular flow
Gehrke, V.; Bankoff, S.G.
1993-06-01
A semi-analytical model developed by Lee and Bankoff for OFI in round tubes is extended to annular or parallel-plate flows with unequal heat fluxes, and shown to compare well with data by Dougherty, et al. and by Whittle and Forgan. The model is a better fit in the high Peclet number range than the Saha-Zuber model, and is simple to use.
Aerodynamic performance of an annular classical airfoil cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergsten, D. E.; Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.
1983-01-01
Results are presented for a series of experiments that were performed in a large-scale subsonic annular cascade facility that was specifically designed to provide three-dimensional aerodynamic data for the verification of numerical-calculation codes. In particular, the detailed three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical flat-plate airfoil cascade is determined for angles of incidence of 0, 5, and 10 deg. The resulting data are analyzed and are correlated with predictions obtained from NASA's MERIDL and TSONIC numerical programs. It is found that: (1) at 0 and 5 deg, the airfoil surface data show a good correlation with the predictions; (2) at 10 deg, the data are in fair agreement with the numerical predictions; and (3) the two-dimensional Gaussian similarity relationship is appropriate for the wake velocity profiles in the mid-span region of the airfoil.
Stability of Mars' annular polar vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Scott, R.
2016-12-01
In common with the Earth and several other planetary bodies, the martian atmosphere exhibits regions of high potential vorticity (PV) near the winter pole, known as polar vortices. On Earth, PV increases monotonically from the equator to pole, however, on Mars there is a local minimum at the pole, with an annulus of high PV encircling it. Recently produced reanalyses of the martian atmospheric circulation have confirmed that this annular vortex is a persistent feature, forming in autumn and lasting until spring. This finding is surprising since an isolated band of PV is barotropically unstable, a result going back to Rayleigh. Here we investigate the stability of an annular vortex using numerical integrations of the rotating shallow water equations. We show that the mode of instability and its growth rate strongly depends upon the latitude and width of the annulus. By introducing thermal relaxation with a time scale similar to that of the instability we are able to simulate a persistent annular vortex with similar characteristics as that observed in the martian atmosphere. This time scale, typically 1-2 sols, is similar to thermal relaxation timescales which have been estimated for the martian atmosphere. We also demonstrate that the persistence of an annular vortex is robust to topographic forcing, as long as it is below a certain amplitude. We hence propose that the persistence of this barotropically unstable annular vortex is permitted due to the combination of short radiative relaxation time scales and relatively weak topographic forcing in the martian polar atmosphere.
What causes Mars' annular polar vortices?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.
2017-01-01
A distinctive feature of the Martian atmosphere is that the winter polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity (PV) with a local minimum near the pole. These annuli are seen in observations, reanalyses, and free-running general circulation model simulations of Mars, but are not generally a feature of Earth's polar vortices, where there is a monotonic increase in magnitude of PV with latitude. The creation and maintenance of the annular polar vortices on Mars are not well understood. Here we use simulations with a Martian general circulation model to the show that annular vortices are related to another distinctive, and possibly unique in the solar system, feature of the Martian atmosphere: the condensation of the predominant atmospheric gas species (CO2) in polar winter regions. The latent heat associated with CO2 condensation leads to destruction of PV in the polar lower atmosphere, inducing the formation of an annular PV structure.
Subaperture stitching tolerancing for annular ring geometry.
Smith, Greg A; Burge, James H
2015-09-20
Subaperture stitching is an economical way to extend small-region, high-resolution interferometric metrology to cover large-aperture optics. Starting from system geometry and measurement noise knowledge, this work derives an analytical expression for how noise in an annular ring of subapertures leads to large-scale errors in the computed stitched surface. These errors scale as sin(πp/M)(-2) where p is the number of sine periods around the annular full-aperture and M is the number of subaperture measurements. Understanding how low-spatial-frequency surface errors arise from subaperture noise is necessary for tolerancing systems which use subaperture stitching.
METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION
Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.
1963-02-26
This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, R. W. H.; Stagliano, T. R.; Witmer, E. A.; Spilker, R. L.
1978-01-01
These structural ring deflections lie essentially in one plane and, hence, are called two-dimensional (2-d). The structural rings may be complete or partial; the former may be regarded as representing a fragment containment ring while the latter may be viewed as a 2-d fragment-deflector structure. These two types of rings may be either free or supported in various ways (pinned-fixed, locally clamped, elastic-foundation supported, mounting-bracket supported, etc.). The initial geometry of each ring may be circular or arbitrarily curved; uniform-thickness or variable-thickness rings may be analyzed. Strain-hardening and strain-rate effects of initially-isotropic material are taken into account. An approximate analysis utilizing kinetic energy and momentum conservation relations is used to predict the after-impact velocities of each fragment and of the impact-affected region of the ring; this procedure is termed the collision-imparted velocity method (CIVM) and is used in the CIVM-JET 5 B program. This imparted-velocity information is used in conjunction with a finite-element structural response computation code to predict the transient, large-deflection, elastic-plastic responses of the ring. Similarly, the equations of motion of each fragment are solved in small steps in time. Provisions are made in the CIVM-JET 5B code to analyze structural ring response to impact attack by from 1 to 3 fragments, each with its own size, mass, translational velocity components, and rotational velocity. The effects of friction between each fragment and the impacted ring are included.
Turbulent domain stabilization in annular flows
Hayot, F.; Pomeau, Y. Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris )
1994-09-01
We point out a mechanism for stabilizing expanding turbulent domains in annular flows. This nonlocal mechanism is explained within the context of a Ginzburg-Landau equation for a real amplitude. The expression for the nonlocal term can be derived by analogy with existing calculations in Taylor-Couette flow for Taylor vortices. Numerical results are compared with experiment.
Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity.
Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema
2014-01-01
Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck.
Annular beam with segmented phase gradients
Cheng, Shubo; Wu, Liang; Tao, Shaohua
2016-08-15
An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.
Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity
Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema
2014-01-01
Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck. PMID:26396452
Experimental equipment for measuring physical properties of the annular hydrostatic thrust bearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozdera, Michal; Drábková, Sylva; Bojko, Marian
2014-03-01
The hydraulic circuit, through which the mineral oil is brought, is an important part of hydrostatic bearings. The annular hydrostatic thrust bearing consists of two sliding plates divided by a layer of mineral oil. In the lower plate, there are oil grooves which distribute the liquid between the sliding areas. The hydraulic circuit is made of two basic parts: the energy source and the controlling part. The hydraulic pump, which brings the liquid into the sliding bearing, is the source of the pressure energy. The sliding bearing is weighted down by axial force, which can be changed during the process. That's why in front of the particular oil grooves control components adjusting pressure and flow size are located. This paper deals with a project of a hydraulic circuit for regulation of fluid layer in the annular hydrostatic thrust bearing and the testing equipment for measuring its physical properties. It will include the issue of measuring loading capacity and height of the fluid layer in the annular hydrostatic thrust bearing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, A. J.
1975-01-01
The effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser having a perforated plate flow resistance device in the exit passage was evaluated. Testing was conducted with air at near ambient pressure and temperature at inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.27 with suction rates up to 13.5 percent. Results show that pressure recovery downstream of the perforated plate was improved significantly by suction. Optimum performance was obtained with the flow resistance plate located at one inlet passage height downstream of the dump plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Mayuri Suresh
Plates or members containing plate elements have been used in the offshore, aerospace and construction industry. Cutouts are often located to lighten the weight of the structure, but these cutouts reduce the ultimate strength of the plate. A number of studies have taken place for determining the buckling strength of a perforated plated but few discuss the effect of material strain hardening on the buckling strength of a perforated plate. Buckling strength is often considered as an important criterial to determine the serviceable limit of the perforated plate in the offshore structure. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of material strain hardening on the strength characteristic of a perforated plate under uniaxial loading. This load at some point could lead to a possibility of instability. A square plate with perforation is considered here. The plate is considered to be simply supported at all four edges and has been kept straight. The perforation is located at the center of the plate. A number of ANSYS static nonlinear analysis are undertaken with different strain hardening material properties for AL7075. The Ramberg-Osgood method is used to determine the stress-strain curve for different strain hardening values. The plate thickness and the cutout size of the perforation are varied to determine the effect on the strength. The study covers the behavior of the system in the elastic buckling and the elastic-plastic region.
Management of Periocular Granuloma Annulare Using Topical Dapsone
Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David
2015-01-01
Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient’s lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare. PMID:26203321
Elastic-Plastic Fracture Toughness Testing Methods.
1983-12-01
regression f it to the data must be loe than flow stress (d/da < Fs). 25 IV. RESULTS A. TEST RESULTS Specimen HY80 -5B, prepared from the bass metal of the...Notch Crack Test Figure 8. Tracing of HY80 -SB Fracture Surface 37 APPENDIX A TESTING METHODS A. INTRODUCTION The steps required to perform a J-integral...specimen HY80 -5B load limits: upper limit --- small positive load for example 40 lbs (should never be positive) +40 lbs * 10 v / 4000 lbs a +0.1 v
Elastic-Plastic Properties: Simulation and Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiedler, Thomas; Öchsner, Andreas
This chapter addresses the elasto-plastic properties of novel metallic hollow sphere structures (MHSS). Numerical finite element analyses and experimental tests are conducted. The influence of the morphology, topology, joining technology and material composition on their mechanical properties is numerically investigated. Uni-axial compressive tests with adhesively bonded MHSS are performed in order to confirm the numerical findings. Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the initial plastic yield stress are determined. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy of simple cubic MHSS is investigated.
Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Loss, F. J. (Editor)
1985-01-01
Among the topics discussed are: fracture analysis methods evaluation; instability prediction using the K sub R-curve approach; and the deformation failure assessment diagram. Consideration is also given to: instability prediction based on the modified J, J sub M-resistance curve approach; and stable crack growth and instability prediction on the V by means of the V sub R-curve method.
Dynamics of annular two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawant, Pravin Hanamantrao
A basic understanding of various hydrodynamic phenomena in annular two-phase is essential to develop mechanistic model for the prediction dryout. The major objective of this investigation was to perform experimental and theoretical analysis of the important hydrodynamic phenomena such as droplet entrainment, droplet deposition, and liquid film interfacial waves in vertical annular two-phase flow. Towards this end, adiabatic air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow experiments have been conducted in 1 cm diameter test sections at pressures up to 6 and 8.5 bar, respectively. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water conditions representative of dryout in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). A liquid film extraction method was applied for the measurement of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate, and droplet deposition rate. Instantaneous liquid film thickness was measured in the air-water experiments using ring shaped conductance probes and properties of interfacial waves were estimated from the statistical analysis of the film thickness measurement. Detailed analysis of the experimental data revealed several inadequacies of the existing annular flow correlations available for the predictions of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate, and droplet deposition rate including their inability to predict the limiting conditions observed under high gas phase velocity. Based on the detailed analysis of the air-water data, a new, non-dimensional and explicit correlation was developed for the prediction of entrainment fraction. The new correlation accounted for the existence of an upper limit on entrainment fraction as well as for the existence of critical liquid and gas velocities below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, an improved correlation was proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction. The newly developed entrainment fraction correlation
Continuous separation of proteins by annular chromatography
Bloomingburg, G.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Carta, G. ); Byers, C.H. )
1991-05-01
In this paper, the separation of protein mixtures by continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is studied in a preparative-scale apparatus. S-Sepharose, a strong-acid porous cation-exchange resin is used as the separation medium, and mixtures of albumin, hemoglobin and cytochrome c are used as model separation system. Equilibrium and mass-transfer parameters are developed for this system on the basis of fixed-bed chromatograph experiments. A mathematical model is then successfully used in conjunction with these parameters to simulate the performance of the CAC separations. The continuous separation performance of the annular apparatus is found to be essentially the same as the batchwise performance of an equivalent conventional chromatograph, making the unit attractive for preparative and process-scale applications where continuous throughput is desirable.
LDV Measurements in an Annular Combustor Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barron, Dean A.
1996-01-01
This thesis covers the design and setup of a laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system used to take velocity measurements in an annular combustor model. The annular combustor model is of contemporary design using 60 degree flat vane swirlers, producing a strong recirculation zone. Detailed measurements are taken of the swirler inlet air flow and of the downstream enclosed swirling flow. The laser system used is a two color, two component system set up in forward scatter. Detailed are some of the special considerations needed for LDV use in the confined turbulent flow of the combustor model. LDV measurements in a single swirler rig indicated that the flow changes radically in the first duct height. After this, a flow profile is set up and remains constant in shape. The magnitude of the velocities gradually decays due to viscous damping.
Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.
1969-01-01
The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.
Acoustic streaming measurements in annular thermoacoustic engines.
Joba, Stéphane; Gusev, Vitalyi; Lotton, Pierrick; Bruneau, Michel
2003-04-01
Experiments with an annular thermoacoustic engine employing quasiadiabatic interaction between traveling acoustic waves and an inhomogeneously heated porous material indicate the presence of a closed-loop mass flux. A qualitative modeling of the enthalpy flux in the thermoacoustic core provides an opportunity to estimate the thermal convection associated with this mass flux, by using temperature measurement at different positions in the system. The estimated acoustically induced mass flux is in accordance with recent theoretical results.
Annular flow film characteristics in variable gravity.
MacGillivray, Ryan M; Gabriel, Kamiel S
2002-10-01
Annular flow is a frequently occurring flow regime in many industrial applications. The need for a better understanding of this flow regime is driven by the desire to improve the design of many terrestrial and space systems. Annular two-phase flow occurs in the mining and transportation of oil and natural gas, petrochemical processes, and boilers and condensers in heating and refrigeration systems. The flow regime is also anticipated during the refueling of space vehicles, and thermal management systems for space use. Annular flow is mainly inertia driven with little effect of buoyancy. However, the study of this flow regime is still desirable in a microgravity environment. The influence of gravity can create an unstable, chaotic film. The absence of gravity, therefore, allows for a more stable and axisymmetric film. Such conditions allow for the film characteristics to be easily studied at low gas flow rates. Previous studies conducted by the Microgravity Research Group dealt with varying the gas or liquid mass fluxes at a reduced gravitational acceleration.(1,2) The study described here continues this work by examining the effect of changing the gravitational acceleration (hypergravity) on the film characteristics. In particular, the film thickness and the associated pressure drops are examined. The film thickness was measured using a pair of two-wire conductance probes. Experimental data was collected over a range of annular flow set points by changing the liquid and gas mass flow rates, the liquid-to-gas density ratio and the gravitational acceleration. The liquid-to-gas density ratio was varied by collecting data with helium-water and air-water at the same flow rates. The gravitational effect was examined by collecting data during the microgravity and pull-up (hypergravity) portions of the parabolic flights.
The Annular Suspension and Pointing System /ASPS/
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. W.; Woolley, C. T.
1978-01-01
The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) may be attached to a carrier vehicle for orientation, mechanical isolation, and fine pointing purposes applicable to space experiments. It has subassemblies for both coarse and vernier pointing. A fourteen-degree-of-freedom simulation of the ASPS mounted on a Space Shuttle has yielded initial performance data. The simulation describes: the magnetic actuators, payload sensors, coarse gimbal assemblies, control algorithms, rigid body dynamic models of the payload and Shuttle, and a control system firing model.
Endoscopic measurements using a panoramic annular lens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.
1992-01-01
The objective of this project was to design, build, demonstrate, and deliver a prototype system for making measurements within cavities. The system was to utilize structured lighting as the means for making measurements and was to rely on a stationary probe, equipped with a unique panoramic annular lens, to capture a cylindrical view of the illuminated cavity. Panoramic images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desk top computer, were to be linearized and analyzed by mouse-driven interactive software.
Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2003
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay
2002-01-01
On Saturday, 2003 May 31, an annular eclipse of the Sun will be visible from a broad corridor that traverses the North Atlantic. The path of the Moon's antumbral shadow begins in northern Scotland, crosses Iceland and central Greenland, and ends at sunrise in Baffin Bay (Canada). A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes most of Europe, the Middle East, central and northern Asia, and northwestern North America. The trajectory of the Moon's shadow is quite unusual during this event. The shadow axis passes to the far north where it barely grazes Earth's surface. In fact, the northern edge of the antumbra actually misses Earth so that one path limit is defined by the day/night terminator rather than by the shadow's upper edge. As a result, the track of annularity has a peculiar "D" shape that is nearly 1200 kilometers wide. Since the eclipse occurs just three weeks prior to the northern summer solstice, Earth's northern axis is pointed sunwards by 22.8 deg. As seen from the Sun, the antumbral shadow actually passes between the North Pole and the terminator. As a consequence of this extraordinary geometry, the path of annularity runs from east to west rather than the more typical west to east. The event transpires near the Moon's ascending node in Taurus five degrees north of Aldebaran. Since apogee occurs three days earlier (May 28 at 13 UT), the Moon's apparent diameter (29.6 arc-minutes) is still too small to completely cover the Sun (31.6 arc-minutes) resulting in an annular eclipse.
Annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum: a case report.
Mandel, Victor Desmond; Ferrari, Barbara; Manfredini, Marco; Giusti, Francesca; Pellacani, Giovanni
2015-10-22
Erythema annulare centrifugum is a rare cutaneous disease characterized by erythematous and violaceous annular plaques that usually involved the thighs and the legs. The eruption may be associated with an underlying disease and its accompanying characteristic symptoms. For these reasons, a full physical examination should be conducted to exclude underlying disorders. Annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum is a rare and peculiar variant of erythema annulare centrifugum with the same clinical and histopathological characteristics. The lesions of annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum tend to regress spontaneously after a variable period of days to months with yearly recurrence for many years. We present the case of a 46-year-old caucasian woman affected by annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum, which is a peculiar form of superficial erythema annulare centrifugum. The lesions have the same clinical and histopathological characteristics of the classical superficial form of erythema annulare centrifugum and tend to regress spontaneously after a variable period of days to months. In our case, no precipitating factors were identified and no underlying diseases were found. Every year for the last 12 years the lesions started to appear in the summer months and regressed spontaneously in autumn. Cases of annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum are rarely reported in the literature and generally no causative agent can be detected. The main feature of annually recurring erythema annulare centrifugum is the constant annual and seasonal recurrence of the lesions for many years.
Gordon, R.G. )
1991-01-01
The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.
Annular-slot arrays as far-infrared bandpass filters.
Krug, P A; Dawes, D H; McPhedran, R C; Wright, W; Macfarlane, J C; Whitbourn, L B
1989-09-01
Arrays of both annular and square annular slots in a conducting sheet on a dielectric substrate have been fabricated photolithographically. The structures are shown to behave as bandpass filters in the far infrared, with a resonant wavelength slightly larger than the average circumference or perimeter of the slot. The measured far-infrared transmittance of the annular array is approximately 76% of that predicted by theory, while its resonant frequency agrees with theory to within 5%.
Functional specifications of the annular suspension pointing system, appendix A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, B.
1980-01-01
The Annular Suspension Pointing System is described. The Design Realization, Evaluation and Modelling (DREAM) system, and its design description technique, the DREAM Design Notation (DDN) is employed.
Arcuate, annular, and polycyclic inflammatory and infectious lesions.
Sharma, Amit; Lambert, Phelps J; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark
2011-01-01
Common shapes encountered in dermatologic diseases include linear, nummular, annular, polycyclic, and arciform. The last three have a relatively restricted differential, which must be entirely explored. It is not uncommon for a single disease to present in annular, arciform or polycyclic configurations; moreover, the lesions may evolve from being arciform to annular and then become polycyclic. Regardless, recognizing the arrangement of the defect will undoubtedly help in making a diagnosis and guiding subsequent management. We explore diseases that often present in annular, arciform, and/or polycyclic forms.
Casimir effect for a semitransparent wedge and an annular piston
Milton, Kimball A.; Wagner, Jef; Kirsten, Klaus
2009-12-15
We consider the Casimir energy due to a massless scalar field in a geometry of an infinite wedge closed by a Dirichlet circular cylinder, where the wedge is formed by {delta}-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. A finite expression for the Casimir energy corresponding to the arc and the presence of both semitransparent potentials is obtained, from which the torque on the sidewalls can be derived. The most interesting part of the calculation is the nontrivial nature of the angular mode functions. Numerical results are obtained which are closely analogous to those recently found for a magnetodielectric wedge, with the same speed of light on both sides of the wedge boundaries. Alternative methods are developed for annular regions with radial semitransparent potentials, based on reduced Green's functions for the angular dependence, which allows calculations using the multiple-scattering formalism. Numerical results corresponding to the torque on the radial plates are likewise computed, which generalize those for the wedge geometry. Generally useful formulas for calculating Casimir energies in separable geometries are derived.
Design and fabrication of a 40-MHz annular array transducer
Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Turnbull, Daniel H.
2006-01-01
This paper investigates the feasibility of fabricating a 5-ring, focused annular array transducer operating at 40 MHz. The active piezoelectric material of the transducer was a 9-μm thick polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. One side of the PVDF was metallized with gold and forms the ground plane of the transducer. The array pattern of the transducer and electrical traces to each annulus were formed on a copper-clad polyimide film. The PVDF and polyimide were bonded with a thin layer of epoxy, pressed into a spherically curved shape, and then back filled with epoxy. A 5-ring transducer with equal area elements and 100 μm kerfs between annuli was fabricated and tested. The transducer had a total aperture of 6 mm and a geometric focus of 12 mm. The pulse/echo response from a quartz plate located at the geometric focus, two-way insertion loss (IL), complex impedance, electrical cross-talk, and lateral beamwidth were all measured for each annulus. The complex impedance data from each element were used to perform electrical matching and the measurements were repeated. After impedance matching, fc ≈ 36 MHz and BWs ranged from 31 to 39%. The ILs for the matched annuli ranged from −28 to −38 dB. PMID:16060516
Annular lipoatrophic panniculitis of the ankles.
Corredera, Cristina; Iglesias, Maribel; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Colmenero, Isabel; Dilme, Elisabet; Torrelo, Antonio
2011-01-01
We report a girl with lipophagic lobular panniculitis of unknown origin located on her ankles leading to circumferential fat atrophy of the ankles, a condition usually referred to as "annular lipoatrophy of the ankles." According to our patient's features and five additional cases reported so far, we conclude that this condition is actually an end-stage manifestation of an idiopathic lobular panniculitis of children localized to the lower part of the lower limbs. An association with some autoimmune manifestations is highlighted. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.
1972-01-01
An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.
Wave turbulence in annular wave tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore
2014-05-01
We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.
Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.
1972-01-01
An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.
Annular Lupus Vulgaris Mimicking Tinea Cruris
Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun
2010-01-01
Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress. PMID:20548922
Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma
Brönnimann, Enrico; Potthast, Silke; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg
2010-01-01
Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancreatectomy revealed a duodenal adenocarcinoma, surrounded by an incomplete AP. Thus, co-existent malignancy with AP can be present without obstructive jaundice and without being visible through preoperative diagnostics. PMID:20593508
Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application
Freier, D.A.
1988-10-04
TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.
The Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J.
1975-01-01
An annular momentum control device consisting principally of a spinning rim, a set of noncontacting magnetic bearings for supporting the rim, a noncontacting electric motor for driving the rim, and, for some applications, one or more gimbals is described. The device is intended for applications where requirements for control torque and momentum storage exist. Hardware requirements and potential unit configurations are discussed. Theoretical considerations for the passive use of the device are discussed. Potential applications of the device in other than passive configurations for the attitude control, stabilization, and maneuvering of spacecraft are reported.
Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings
2006-11-01
minimal effect on the entrance pressure into the seal. Pressures vs shaft speed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM...speed 3600 rpm water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm L/D=0.50 Pressures vs shaft speed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor...surface speed. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings 11 - 12 RTO-EN-AVT-143 Leakage vs shaft speed 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 1000 2000
Seeing double: annular diaper rash in twins.
Sommer, Lacy L; Manders, Steven M
2015-01-01
We report a case of dichorionic, diamniotic twins who developed similar erythematous, annular, erosive plaques in the inguinal folds in the first few weeks of life that were refractory to topical antifungals and oral antibiotics. The twins were found to have high transaminase levels, antinuclear antibody positivity, and anti-SSS/Ro) and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies. The rash resolved without scarring by 7 months of age with the use of low-potency topical corticosteroids. We suggest that physicians consider neonatal lupus erythematosus in neonates with atypical eruptions occurring in sun-protected skin.
Displacement separations by continuous annular chromatography
DeCarli, J.P. II; Carta, G. ); Byers, C.H. . Chemical Technology Div.)
1988-01-01
Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) has been introduced as an effective means of carrying out chromatographic separations in a truly continuous manner. Process applications have been demonstrated. In this work the authors demonstrate how CAC can be operated for displacement development separations. In this mode of operation of the apparatus separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures can be obtained simultaneously and continuously. Experimental results and model simulations for this novel separation device are presented along with a comparison of different modes of operation and a discussion of industrial applications.
Endoscopic inspection using a panoramic annular lens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.
1991-01-01
The objective of this one year study was to design, build, and demonstrate a prototype system for cavity inspection. A cylindrical view of the cavity interior was captured in real time through a compound lens system consisting of a unique panoramic annular lens and a collector lens. Images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desktop computer, were manipulated using image processing software to aid in visual inspection and qualitative analysis. A detailed description of the lens and its applications is given.
Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin
2016-05-01
Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.
Vibration and buckling of laminated plates with a cutout in hygrothermal environment
Ram, K.S.S.; Sinha, P.K. )
1992-09-01
A closed-form solution is offered for thermal buckling analysis of an annular isotropic plate with a circular hole, and finite element analysis is employed to analyze composite plates with a circular cutout. Numerical results are presented for antisymmetric angle-ply laminates. 8 refs.
Gorman, Jhana; Hales, Jason Dean; Corona, Edmundo
2010-05-01
This report considers the calculation of the quasi-static nonlinear response of rectangular flat plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section subjected to compressive loads using quadrilateralshell finite element models. The principal objective is to assess the effect that the shell drilling stiffness parameter has on the calculated results. The calculated collapse load of elastic-plastic tubes of rectangular cross-section is of particular interest here. The drilling stiffness factor specifies the amount of artificial stiffness that is given to the shell element drilling Degree of freedom (rotation normal to the plane of the element). The element formulation has no stiffness for this degree of freedom, and this can lead to numerical difficulties. The results indicate that in the problems considered it is necessary to add a small amount of drilling tiffness to obtain converged results when using both implicit quasi-statics or explicit dynamics methods. The report concludes with a parametric study of the imperfection sensitivity of the calculated responses of the elastic-plastic tubes with rectangular cross-section.
Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.
Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.
Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.
2008-01-01
While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.
Multicomponent separations using a continuous annular chromatograph
Begovich, J.M.
1982-12-01
Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. By continuously introducing the feed material to be separated at a stationary point at the top of the bed and eluent everywhere else around the annulus, elution chromatography occurs. The rotation rate of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence, the separation process is truly continuous. The continuous separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt from an ammoniacal leach liquor has been used to evaluate the behavior and capabilities of a variety of continuous annular chromatographs (CACs). The experimental units ranged in diameter from 89 to 445 mm and in annulus width from 6 to 51 mm. The effects of feed rate, feed concentration, rotation rate, eluent and eluent velocity, and column size were experimentally determined and modeled to show how they affect the performance of a CAC system. Use of the described models should allow confident design of new CAC units for performing continuous separations on a preparative scale. With its capability for continuously separating many components using one or a number of eluents, the CAC should make chromatography a competitive process in many industrial applications. 21 tables, 105 figures.
Signatures of an annular Fermi sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jo, Insun; Liu, Yang; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.; Winkler, R.
2017-01-01
The concept of a Fermi surface, the constant-energy surface containing all the occupied electron states in momentum, or wave-vector (k ) , space plays a key role in determining electronic properties of conductors. In two-dimensional (2D) carrier systems, the Fermi surface becomes a contour which, in the simplest case, encircles the occupied states. In this case, the area enclosed by the contour, which we refer to as the Fermi sea (FS), is a simple disk. Here we report the observation of an FS with a new topology, namely, an FS in the shape of an annulus. Such an FS is expected in a variety of 2D systems where the energy band dispersion supports a ring of extrema at finite k , but its experimental observation has been elusive. Our study provides (1) theoretical evidence for the presence of an annular FS in 2D hole systems confined to wide GaAs quantum wells and (2) experimental signatures of the onset of its occupation as an abrupt rise in the sample resistance, accompanied by a sudden appearance of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at an unexpectedly high frequency whose value does not simply correspond to the (negligible) density of holes contained within the annular FS.
Plate impact simulations of polymeric composites using an anisotropic material model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajendran, A. M.; Grove, D. J.
1997-07-01
Recently, an elastic-plastic anisotropic model based on the Tsai-Hill failure surface has been implemented in the 1995 version of the EPIC code. In the model, a strain rate dependent behavior has been assumed in the thickness direction. We simulated several plate impact experiments and analyzed the shock wave propagation in S-2 glass fiber/polyester matrix composite targets under one dimensional strain loading conditions. The modified Mie-Gruneisen equation of state includes the deviatoric part of the normal strain components. Since the deviatoric strains are calculated using a strain rate dependent strength model, this indirectly introduces a weak strain rate dependency in the bulk behavior of the composite. We also investigated the effect of strain rate dependency on the attenuation of the shock wave under one dimensional strain.
Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore
Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.
2010-06-29
A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.
Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore
Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.
2011-01-18
A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.
Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore
Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.
2011-06-21
A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.
Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore
Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.
2011-05-31
A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.
Localized interstitial granuloma annulare induced by subcutaneous injections for desensitization.
Spring, Philipp; Vernez, Maxime; Maniu, Christa-Maria; Hohl, Daniel
2013-06-15
We describe a patient with interstitial granuloma annulare associated with subcutaneous injection therapy (SIT) for desensitization to a type I allergy. Asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous annular patches were located at the injection sites on both her arms. Medical history revealed perennial rhinoconjonctivitis treated with SIT (Phostal Stallergen® cat 100% and D. pteronyssinus/D.farinae 50%:50%).
Design of a personal annular denuder sampler to measure atmospheric aerosols and gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koutrakis, P.; Fasano, A. M.; Slater, J. L.; Spengler, J. D.; McCarthy, J. F.; Leaderer, B. P.
A personal sampling device has been designed to measure atmospheric gases and particles. This sampling system includes a glass impactor, an annular denuder and a filter pack. The glass impactor consists of an entrance section containing the inlet tube, the acceleration jet, and the impaction plate which is mounted at the entrance to the annular denuder. The impaction plate is a removable porous glass disk which can be impregnated with mineral oil to avoid bounce-off of the collected particles during sampling. The impactor has been designed to have a 50% aerodynamic particle cut-off point of 2.5μm, at flow rates of 4 and 2 ℓ min -1. For each flow, a different inlet has been designed with acceleration jet diameter of 0.250 and 0.190 mm, respectively. The annular denuder can be coated with citric acid to collect NH 3 and nicotine vapors. Also collection of SO 2, HNO 3 and HNO 2 is possible by coating the denuder with sodium carbonate. The last component of the designed personal sampler is a filter pack containing a 37-mm Teflon filter which is used to measure fine particle mass, aerosol strong acidity, sulfates and nitrates. The Teflon filter can be followed by a citric acid coated glass fiber filter used to collect nicotine which originates from the volatilization of the particle-phase nicotine collected on the Teflon filter. The ability of the personal sampler to collect fine particles was examined by conducting indoor aerosol sampling experiments. Also, ammonia collection efficiency tests were performed to characterize the personal denuder. The findings of these experiments showed that the designed personal sampler can be adequate for measuring human exposures to acid aerosols. In addition, the performance evaluation of the sampler to collect environmental tobacco smoke was investigated by conducting chamber tests.
Vaginal delivery through annular placenta – case report
Živković, Nikica; Krezo, Stipe; Matijević, Ratko; Živković, Krešimir
2013-01-01
Annular placenta is an extremely rare morphological type of human placenta. It is commonly related to placental vessel abnormalities frequently causing antenatal and postnatal hemorrhage and operative delivery. Gravida 4 para 1 had an uneventful course of pregnancy and normal vaginal delivery followed by moderate postpartum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was found to be local in origin but the placenta was annular in shape and the newborn was delivered through one of the openings. Annular placenta was not recognized before delivery. Its implantation site was in the lower uterine segment but high enough to allow the passage of the fetus through its annular defect and vaginal birth. To our knowledge, this is a first report of annular placenta ending in normal vaginal delivery. PMID:23630149
Vortex beam based more stable annular laser guide star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ruiyao; Cui, Wenda; Li, Lei; Sun, Quan; He, Yulong; Wang, Hongyan; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun
2016-11-01
We present an annular laser guide star (LGS) concept for large ground-based telescopes in this paper. The more stable annular LGS is generated by turbulence-resisted vortex beam. In the uplink, a vortex beam tends to wander more slightly than a Gaussian beam does in atmospheric turbulence. This may enable an annular LGS to wander more slightly than a traditional Gaussian beam generated LGS does, which would ease the burden of uplink tip-tilt mirror and benefit a dynamical closed-loop adaptive optics system. We conducted numerical simulation to validate the feasibility of this concept. And we have gotten 31% reduced variance of spot wandering of annular LGS. Besides, we set up a spatial light modulator based laser guide star simulator for beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere to experimentally test the annular LGS concept. Preliminary experimental results are given. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time this concept is formulated.
Research of annular polishing asymmetric ZnS plane window
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Weijin; Tong, Yi; Jin, Yuzhu; Lin, Nana
2016-10-01
Due the annular polishing technology for planar optical components do not have the sharp selectivity, annular polishing technology is a very import process to fabricate irregular planar elements which with high precision surface shape and low surface roughness. According to the characteristics of annular polishing, the zns asymmetric plane window annular polishing process and key technical parameters control was researched. In this paper, one pair of asymmetric planar ZnS window parts were machined which diagonal length is 147mm, through technology experiments, obtained process test samples. The surface figures of the plane zns window are measured by a Zygo interferometer and the reflect wavefront P-V value is better than 1.5λ, the reflect wavefront local error rms value is better than 0.05λ (λ=632.8nm). Experiments results demonstrate the effectiveness of annular processing technology was used to manufacture zinc sulfide asymmetric shape plane window.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhonghui; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Fuyang; Lou, Yimin; Cao, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng
2014-04-01
We propose and present a quarter-wave plate using metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with sub-wavelength rectangular annular arrays (RAA) patterned in the upper Au film. It is found that by manipulating asymmetric width of the annular gaps along two orthogonal directions, the reflected amplitude and phase of the two orthogonal components can be well controlled via the RAA metasurface tuned by the MIM cavity effect, in which the localized surface plasmon resonance dip can be flattened with the cavity length. A quarter-wave plate has been realized through an optimized design at 1.55 μm, in which the phase difference variation of less than 2% of the π/2 between the two orthogonal components can be obtained in an ultra-wide wavelength range of about 130 nm, and the reflectivity is up to ˜90% within the whole working wavelength band. It provides a great potential for applications in advanced nanophotonic devices and integrated photonic systems.
Annular Lesions and Catenary Forms in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.
Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Mrejen, Sarah; Inoue, Maiko; Freund, K Bailey; Klancnik, James M; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A
2016-06-01
To describe a series of patients exhibiting annular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) lesions in the context of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Retrospective comparative case series. Consecutive patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were identified from the clinical practices of 3 retina specialists. A subset of patients exhibiting annular RPE lesions on fundus autofluorescence was included for chart review and examination of multimodal imaging (study group). Patients with alternative etiologies for neurosensory detachment or pigment epitheliopathy were excluded. A second consecutive cohort of patients, with acute central serous chorioretinopathy, was also examined for the presence of annular lesions (comparative group). Sixty-seven patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were identified. Fourteen eyes of 12 patients exhibited annular lesions (study eyes). Mean visual acuity of study eyes was 20/27 (logMAR 0.13, SD 0.11). Annular lesions were composed of hyperautofluorescent stellate lesions arranged in an open or closed ring with intervening foci of punctate hypoautofluorescence. Optical coherence tomography showed RPE hyperplasia at the perimeters of annular lesions with loss of ellipsoid reflectivity and preserved RPE at the lesion center. Annular lesions were confined to the posterior poles and appeared to have developed at the margins of chronic neurosensory detachment. Forty-three eyes of 30 patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy comprised the comparative group and none of these eyes exhibited annular lesions. Annular lesions occur in up to a fifth of patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy but carry a relatively good visual prognosis. Curvilinear RPE figures and demarcation lines are seen in various retinal conditions but the characteristics of annular lesions described here suggest that they are specific to chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All
Sammoura, Firas; Smyth, Katherine; Kim, Sang-Gook
2013-09-01
An electric circuit model for a clamped circular bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) was developed for the first time. The pMUT consisted of two piezoelectric layers sandwiched between three thin electrodes. The top and bottom electrodes were separated into central and annular electrodes by a small gap. While the middle electrode was grounded, the central and annular electrodes were biased with two independent voltage sources. The strain mismatch between the piezoelectric layers caused the plate to vibrate and transmit a pressure wave, whereas the received echo generated electric charges resulting from plate deformation. The clamped pMUT plate was separated into a circular and an annular plate, and the respective electromechanical transformation matrices were derived. The force and velocity vectors were properly selected using Hamilton's principle and the necessary boundary conditions were invoked. The electromechanical transformation matrix for the clamped circular pMUT was deduced using simple matrix manipulation techniques. The pMUT performance under three biasing schemes was elaborated: 1) central electrode only, 2) central and annular electrodes with voltages of the same magnitude and polarity, and 3) central and annular electrodes with voltages of the same magnitude and opposite polarity. The circuit parameters of the pMUT were extracted for each biasing scheme, including the transformer ratio, the clamped electric impedance, and the open-circuit mechanical impedance. Each pMUT scheme was characterized under different acoustic loadings using the theoretically developed model, which was verified with finite element modeling (FEM) simulation. The electrode size was optimized to maximize the electromechanical transformer ratio. As such, the developed model could provide more insight into the design, optimization, and characterization of pMUTs and allow for performance comparison with their cMUT counterparts.
Annular nanoantenna on fibre micro-axicon.
Grosjean, T; Fahys, A; Suarez, M; Charraut, D; Salut, R; Courjon, D
2008-02-01
In this paper, we propose to extend the concept of loop antenna to the optical domain. The aim is to develop a new generation of optical nanocollectors that are sensitive to specific electric or magnetic vectorial field components. For validating our approach, a preliminary one-micron-diameter gold nanoring is micromachined on the apex of a cone lens obtained from a tapered optical fibre. It is shown that such a nano-object behaves as a nano-antenna able to detect the longitudinal electric field from a Bessel beam in radial polarization and the longitudinal magnetic component from a Bessel beam in azimuthal polarization. In the latter case, the annular nano-antenna exhibits the properties of an optical inductance.
Annular Ion Engine Concept and Development Status
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Michael J.
2016-01-01
The Annular Ion Engine (AIE) concept represents an evolutionary development in gridded ion thruster technology with the potential for delivering revolutionary capabilities. It has this potential because the AIE concept: (a) enables scaling of ion thruster technology to high power at specific impulse (Isp) values of interest for near-term mission applications, 5000 sec; and (b) it enables an increase in both thrust density and thrust-to-power (FP) ratio exceeding conventional ion thrusters and other electric propulsion (EP) technology options, thereby yielding the highest performance over a broad range in Isp. The AIE concept represents a natural progression of gridded ion thruster technology beyond the capabilities embodied by NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) [1]. The AIE would be appropriate for: (a) applications which require power levels exceeding NEXTs capabilities (up to about 14 kW [2]), with scalability potentially to 100s of kW; and/or (b) applications which require FP conditions exceeding NEXTs capabilities.
The Liquid Annular Reactor System (LARS) propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, James; Ludewig, Hans; Horn, Frederick; Lenard, Roger
1990-01-01
A concept for very high specific impulse (greater than 2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed the liquid annular reactor system (LARS), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (approximately 6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate (approximately 10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100 percent dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use seven rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated, and have critical radii of approximately 100 cm (core L/D approximately equal to 1.5).
Separation of sugars by continuous annular chromatography
Howard, A.J.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.
1987-08-01
Continuous chromatographic separations of aqueous fructose-glucose-sucrose solutions have been investigated in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) using calcium-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin. Comparative studies have also been conducted using a conventional fixed-bed column packed with the same resin. Complete resolution of fructose-glucose mixtures could be obtained both in a 60-cm-long CAC and in a conventional column of the same length with a sugar feed concentration of up to 200 g/L. Partial resolution of sucrose in three component mixtures was also obtained, and the three sugars were completely separated from added higher-molecular-weight saccharides. Results have been analyzed in terms of approximate linear chromatographic theories and orthogonal collocation of exact mass transfer model equations for fixed and rotating beds. A systematic, comparative evaluation of factors affecting process performance and design procedures is presented.
Separator sub with annular flow passage
Hayatdavoudi, A.; Adams, L. M.
1984-12-18
Apparatus and methods are disclosed for drilling a well. A separator sub includes a cyclone separator which separates a stream of drilling mud into a less dense first portion and more dense second portion. The stream of drilling mud flows downward in an annular stream around the cyclone separator and then flows into a lower end of the cyclone separator. The less dense first portion of the stream of drilling mud is directed from the cyclone separator downward to a drill bit so that the drilling mud adjacent the drill bit has a density less than an initial density of the stream of drilling mud. The more dense second portion of the stream of drilling mud is directed upward from the cyclone separator and is ejected into a well annulus with an upward component of velocity and thereby reduces a hydrostatic drilling mud pressure adjacent the drill bit.
Dense annular flows of granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ryck, Alain; Louisnard, Olivier
2013-06-01
Dense granular flows constitute an important topic for geophysics and process engineering. To describe them, a rheology based on the coaxiality between the stress and strain tensors with a Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion has been proposed. We propose here an analytic study of flows in an annular cell, with this rheology. This geometry is relevant for a series of powder rheometers or mixing devices, but the discussion is focused on the split-bottom geometry, for which the internal flow has been investigated by NMR technique. In this case, the full resolution of the velocity and stress fields allow to localize the shear deformations. The theoretical results obtained for the latter are compared with the torque measurements by Dijksman et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 82 (2010) 060301].
Simulation of cryogenic turbopump annular seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palazzolo, Alan B.
1992-01-01
The goal of the current work is to develop software that can accurately predict the dynamic coefficients, forces, leakage and horsepower loss for annular seals which have a potential for affecting the rotordynamic behavior of the pumps. The fruit of last year's research was the computer code SEALPAL which included capabilities for linear tapered geometry, Moody friction factor and inlet pre-swirl. This code produced results which in most cases compared very well with check cases presented in the literature. TAMUSEAL Icode, which was written to improve SEALPAL by correcting a bug and by adding more accurate integration algorithms and additional capabilities, was then used to predict dynamic coefficients and leakage for the NASA/Pratt and Whitney Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) LOX Pump's seal.
Trauma-related papular granuloma annular.
Hu, Stephanie W; Kaplan, Jennifer; Patel, Rishi R; Kamino, Hideko
2013-12-16
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, granulomatous disease with several clinical manifestations, which include localized, generalized, perforating, subcutaneous, patch, papular, and linear forms. We report a case of papular GA of the dorsal aspects of the hands that arose after repeated, direct trauma to the site of subsequent involvement. Although multiple etiologies for GA have been proposed, which include ultraviolet light, arthropod bites, trauma, tuberculin skin tests, viral infections, and PUVA photochemotherapy, the underlying pathogenesis of the disorder remains unclear. However, owing to the key histopathologic findings of focal collagen and elastic fiber degeneration and mucin deosition in GA, it is not surprising that cutaneous trauma may have played a role in connective tissue injury, subsequent degeneration, and the production of a granulomatous response with increased mucin deposition.
Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Steven J.
2011-01-01
The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).
Non-elastic Plate Weakening at Tonga, Costa Rica and Japanese Subduction Zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2010-12-01
Traditionally studies of plate bending in subduction zones have utilized elastic, viscous or elastic-plastic rheologies to model the deformation of subducting plates, yet they are based on averaged plate properties and do not take into account variations in plate strength. Direct measurements of plate strength at subduction zones could permit more detailed models of how plates deform during subduction and may allow differentiation between the elastic and viscous or plastic rheologies. Additionally, weakening of the subducting plate is important for understanding the degree of coupling of the surface plate to the negative buoyancy of descending slabs. To obtain quantitative measurements of changes in plate strength along profiles parallel to the trench, we use analysis of the gravity-topography admittance in three subduction zones: Tonga, Costa Rica and Japan. We show that the plate flexural rigidity decreases near and inside the trench of the Tonga and Japan subduction zones, in agreement with previous results for the Kermadec subduction zone (1). Near the trench the flexural rigidity values are consistently smaller than those predicted by an elastic rheology and the plate age (2). This degree of weakening, by up to 3 orders magnitude, suggests that the plate does not act elastically as it is subducted, possibly due to lithospheric-scale weakening by extensional faulting and plastic yielding at depth. In contrast lithospheric-scale weakening in the Costa Rica subduction zone is less clear. This may be due to the younger age of the subducting plate and the small age difference between the seamounts and surrounding plate, which limits the sensitivity of the gravity field to changes in the non-isostatic support of topographic feature. These results suggest that this technique is only applicable to older plates with large seamounts that are appreciably younger than the subducting plate. Comparison of the flexural rigidity results to the tectonic characteristics of all
Actinic Granuloma Annulare With Scarring and Open Comedones.
Gavioli, Cfb; Valente, Nys; Sangueza, M; Nico, M M
2017-02-14
Actinic granuloma and annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma are variants of granuloma annulare affecting, respectively, sun-exposed and sun-covered skin sites on where, besides classical findings, abundant elastophagocytosis is observed. Here, we report a case of exuberant actinic granuloma annulare that, in addition to extensive scarring, showed multiple overlying open comedones. Markedly dilated follicular infundibula filled with compact masses of laminated keratinous material were observed in proximity to dermal inflammation composed of many histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells in close association with degenerated elastic fibers and abundant elastophagocytosis.
Annular Plasmas for Intense X-Radiation Sources: Assessment Report,
1983-03-14
AD-Al29 382 ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION4 SOURCES: f ASSESSMENT REPORT(U) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) D MOSHER 14 MAR 83...STANDARDS 1963-A CNR LON inPO.T R-4-83 OFFICEIF NAVAL ___ ___ ___ ___ ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION SOURCES: ASSESSMENT REPORT D. MOSHER 14 MARCH...REPORT B PFmoo COVERED Annular Plasmas for Intense X-radiation Sources: Assessment Asses’sment Report I. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR(*) S
Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas
Zhang, Yunchao Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod
2015-07-15
Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.
Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit
Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.
1988-01-01
A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.
Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod
2015-07-01
Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.
Performance analysis and optimization of eccentric annular disk fins
Kundu, B.; Das, P.K.
1999-02-01
In the first part of the paper, a semi-analytical method has been described for solving the two-dimensional heat conduction equation in an eccentric annular disk fin circumscribing a circular tube, subjected to convective cooling. Analysis has been done considering both convective and insulated conditions at the fin tip. The effects of surface and tip heat transfer coefficients and eccentricity on the performance of the fin have been studied. Comparative studies have also been made between the performance of concentric and eccentric fins with same radius ratio. Next, the optimum dimensions for eccentric annular fins have been determined using Lagrange multiplier technique. In the scheme, either the fin volume or the heat transfer duty can be taken as the constraint. Finally, it has been shown that when space restriction is imposed on one side of the tube, eccentric annular fins can be designed to have lesser volumes compared to concentric annular fins above a certain heat transfer duty.
The effect of pulmonary hypertension on ovine tricuspid annular dynamics.
Malinowski, Marcin; Wilton, Penny; Khaghani, Asghar; Langholz, David; Hooker, Victoria; Eberhart, Lenora; Hooker, Robert L; Timek, Tomasz A
2016-01-01
Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with tricuspid annular dilatation, but the effect of acute increase of pulmonary pressure on three-dimensional (3D) tricuspid annular dynamics and shape is unknown. Better understanding of tricuspid annular dynamics may lead to improved and more durable surgical reparative techniques. In nine open-chest anaesthetized sheep nine sonomicrometry crystals were implanted on the right ventricle while on cardiopulmonary bypass. Additional nine crystals were implanted around the tricuspid annulus (TA) with one crystal at each commissure defining three separate annular regions: anterior, posterior and septal. Two additional equidistant crystals were implanted between each commissure, creating three segments for every region. Pressure transducers were placed in the left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and right atrium. PHT was induced by acute pulmonary artery constriction with a pneumatic occluder. Sonomicrometry and echocardiographic data were collected before and after induction of PHT. TA area, regional and total perimeter, and 3D annular geometry were calculated from 3D crystal coordinates. Regional annular contraction was defined as the percentage difference between maximal and minimal region length during the cardiac cycle. PHT increased RV pressure from 31 ± 9 mmHg to 46 ± 13 mmHg (P = 0.001) and decreased left ventricular (LV) pressure from 111 ± 24 mmHg to 78 ± 36 mmHg (P = 0.018). There was no significant tricuspid regurgitation observed with PHT. During PHT, the TA area increased by 12 ± 13% from 641 ± 139 mm(2) to 721 ± 177 mm(2) (P = 0.037). The total perimeter increased from 103 ± 11 mm to 109 ± 13 mm (P = 0.02). All annular regions dilated significantly with PHT with 8 ± 10, 5 ± 5 and 5 ± 5% increase in anterior, posterior and septal annular length, respectively (P < 0.05). PHT reduced regional annular contraction in the anterior region only (17 ± 7 vs 14 ± 8%; P = 0.02). The TA had a complex 3
Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: A report of 10 cases
Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Patil, Chetan; Balki, Anil
2015-01-01
Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma initially described by O’Brien in 1975 is a disorder of uncertain etiopathogenesis presenting with annular erythematous plaques predominantly on the sun-exposed areas. Hisptopathologically, it is characterized by elastin degenration, multinucleate giant cells, and elastophagocytosis. The authors came across 10 such cases, which were managed with hydroxychloroquine resulting in complete resolution in 4–6 months. PMID:26904442
Annular Arrays Of Solar Cells For Spinning Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spilker, Thomas R.
1995-01-01
Report proposes annular arrays of solar photovoltaic cells installed on spin-stabilized spacecraft. Annular array faces Sun. Typical array consists of two stacked annuli of solar cells: one annulus fixed about spin axis, while other divided into deployable sectors mounted on dual swing arms and stowed by folding them atop fixed annulus. Once released, deployable sectors swing outward under spring or centrifugal force and expose fixed array so it generates additional power.
Experimental Results for an Annular Aerospike with Differential Throttling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.
2005-01-01
A) MSFC funded an internal study on Altitude Compensating Nozzles: 1) Develop an ACN design and performance prediction tool. 2) Design, build and test cold flow ACN nozzles. 3) An annular aerospike nozzle was designed and tested. 4) Incorporated differential throttling to assess Thrust Vector Control. B) Objective of the test hardware: 1) Provide design tool verification. 2) Provide benchmark data for CFD calculations. 3) Experimentally measure side force, or TVC, for a differentially throttled annular aerospike.
Description of a laboratory model Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groom, N. J.
1984-01-01
The basic concept of the Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) is that of a rotating annular rim suspended by noncontacting magnetic bearings and driven by a noncontacting electromagnetic spin motor. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the design requirements for AMCD's in general and describe how these requirements were met in the implementation of laboratory test model AMCD. An AMCD background summary is presented.
Evaluation of a laboratory test model annular momentum control device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groom, N. J.; Terray, D. E.
1978-01-01
A 4068 Nm Sec laboratory test model annular momentum control device (AMCD) was described and static and dynamic test results were presented. An AMCD is a spinning annular rim suspended by noncontacting magnetic bearings and powered by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic motor. Test results include spin motor torque characteristics and spin motor and magnetic bearing drag losses. Limitations of some of the design approaches taken was also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrow, T. A.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Olive, J. A. L.
2015-12-01
Observations along oceanic fracture zones suggest that some mid-ocean ridge transform faults (TFs) previously split into multiple strike-slip segments separated by short (<~50 km) intra-transform spreading centers and then reunited to a single TF trace. This history of segmentation appears to correspond with changes in plate motion direction. Despite the clear evidence of TF segmentation, the processes governing its development and evolution are not well characterized. Here we use a 3-D, finite-difference / marker-in-cell technique to model the evolution of localized strain at a TF subjected to a sudden change in plate motion direction. We simulate the oceanic lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere at a ridge-transform-ridge setting using a visco-elastic-plastic rheology with a history-dependent plastic weakening law and a temperature- and stress-dependent mantle viscosity. To simulate the development of topography, a low density, low viscosity 'sticky air' layer is present above the oceanic lithosphere. The initial thermal gradient follows a half-space cooling solution with an offset across the TF. We impose an enhanced thermal diffusivity in the uppermost 6 km of lithosphere to simulate the effects of hydrothermal circulation. An initial weak seed in the lithosphere helps localize shear deformation between the two offset ridge axes to form a TF. For each model case, the simulation is run initially with TF-parallel plate motion until the thermal structure reaches a steady state. The direction of plate motion is then rotated either instantaneously or over a specified time period, placing the TF in a state of trans-tension. Model runs continue until the system reaches a new steady state. Parameters varied here include: initial TF length, spreading rate, and the rotation rate and magnitude of spreading obliquity. We compare our model predictions to structural observations at existing TFs and records of TF segmentation preserved in oceanic fracture zones.
Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard
2016-03-21
Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices.
Annular stator structure for a rotary machine
Chaplin, G.F.; Lucas, A.W. Jr.
1988-02-02
In an axial flow turbofan gas turbine engine of the type having an axis Ar and being dividable into four quadrants about the axis Ar, an engine casing extending circumferentially about the axis Ar, a fan casing spaced radially outwardly from the engine casing leaving an annular flow path for working medium gases extending circumferentially therebetween, and struts extending from the engine casing to the fan casing across the working medium flow path, each strut being attached to the fan casing at one end and to the engine casing at the other end, the improvement is described which comprises: an array of guide vanes extending radially across the working medium flow path and disposed about the axis Ar such that each quadrant has at least one of the guide vanes disposed in the quadrant, each of the guide vanes being attached to the engine casing and being attached to the fan casing, each of the guide vanes having a free length and having an installed length at installation and under non-operative conditions which is greater than the free length such that under normal operative conditions the guide vanes are placed in tension, the engine casing is placed in tension, and the fan casing is placed in compression.
Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John
2017-04-01
A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.
An annular superposition integral for axisymmetric radiators
Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.
2007-01-01
A fast integral expression for computing the nearfield pressure is derived for axisymmetric radiators. This method replaces the sum of contributions from concentric annuli with an exact double integral that converges much faster than methods that evaluate the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral or the generalized King integral. Expressions are derived for plane circular pistons using both continuous wave and pulsed excitations. Several commonly used apodization schemes for the surface velocity distribution are considered, including polynomial functions and a “smooth piston” function. The effect of different apodization functions on the spectral content of the wave field is explored. Quantitative error and time comparisons between the new method, the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral, and the generalized King integral are discussed. At all error levels considered, the annular superposition method achieves a speed-up of at least a factor of 4 relative to the point-source method and a factor of 3 relative to the generalized King integral without increasing the computational complexity. PMID:17348500
Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Yuhji
2016-04-01
Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.
Modeling of Kipp-Grady plate impact experiments on ceramics using the Rajendran-Grove ceramic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grove, D. J.; Rajendran, A. M.
1994-07-01
The recently reported Rajendran-Grove ceramic model decomposes the total strain into elastic, plastic, and microcracking components. The constitutive equations model the effects of damage through degradation of the ceramic's strength and elastic constants under both tensile and compressive loadings. Damage, defined in terms of a crack density parameter, is assumed to evolve in the form of randomly distributed penny shaped microcracks. A dynamic crack propagation equation, based on a strain energy release rate, defines the damage evolution rate. The model has been implemented in the 1991 version of the EPIC Research code (EPIC91R). Six ceramic plate impact tests, performed by Kipp and Grady, were simulated. Model parameters were determined for three ceramic materials by matching the experimentally measured velocity profiles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babecki, A. J. (Inventor); Haehner, C. L.
1973-01-01
A process for metal plating which comprises spraying a mixture of metallic powder and small peening particles at high velocity against a surface is described. The velocity must be sufficient to impact and bond metallic powder onto the surface. In the case of metal surfaces, the process has as one of its advantages providing mechanical working (hardening) of the surface simultaneously with the metal plating.
X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams.
Dicken, A J; Evans, J P O; Rogers, K D; Stone, N; Greenwood, C; Godber, S X; Prokopiou, D; Clement, J G; Lyburn, I D; Martin, R M; Zioupos, P
2015-08-07
There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as 'bone quality' need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction.In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of 'bone quality'. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined.
X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dicken, A. J.; Evans, J. P. O.; Rogers, K. D.; Stone, N.; Greenwood, C.; Godber, S. X.; Prokopiou, D.; Clement, J. G.; Lyburn, I. D.; Martin, R. M.; Zioupos, P.
2015-08-01
There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as ‘bone quality’ need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction. In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of ‘bone quality’. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined.
Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate
Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.
1985-08-01
PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.
Critical heat flux estimation for annular channel geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagh, Richard T.
Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is an important safety parameter for the design of nuclear reactors. The most commonly used predictive tool for determination of CHF is a look-up table developed using tube data with an average hydraulic test diameter of 8 mm. There exist in the world today nuclear reactors whose geometry is annular, not tubular, and whose hydraulic diameter is significantly smaller than 8 mm. In addition, any sub-channel thermal hydraulic model of fuel assemblies is annular and not tubular. Comparisons were made between this predictive tool and annular correlations developed from test data. These comparisons showed the look-up table over-predicts the CHF values for annular channels, thus questioning its ability to perform correct safety evaluations. Since no better tool exists to predict CHF for annular geometry, an effort was undertaken to produce one. A database of open literature annular CHF values was created as a basis for this new tool. By compiling information from eighteen sources and requiring that the data be inner wall, unilaterally, uniformly heated with no spacers or heat transfer enhancement devices, a database of 1630 experimental values was produced. After a review of the data in the database, a new look-up table was created. A look-up table provides localized control of the prediction to overcome sparseness of data. Using Shepard's Method as the extrapolation technique, a regular mesh look-up table was produced using four main variables: pressure, quality, mass flux, and hydraulic diameter. The root mean square error of this look-up table was found to be 0.8267. However, by fixing the hydraulic diameter locations to the database values, the root mean square error was further reduced to 0.2816. This look-up table can now predict CHF values for annular channels over a wide range of fluid conditions.
On the mixing enhancement in annular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, H. V.; Floryan, J. M.
2017-02-01
The potential for mixing enhancement associated with the use of axisymmetric ribs in annular flows has been analyzed. The enhancement relies on the use of streamwise vortices produced by the centrifugal instability. Conditions leading to the formation of such vortices have been established for a wide range of geometric parameters of interest using linear stability theory. It has been demonstrated that vortices can be formed only in the presence of ribs with O(1) wavelengths. Slopes of the bounding walls in the case of the long wavelength ribs are too small to create centrifugal forces sufficient for flow destabilization. In the case of short wavelength ribs, the slopes become excessively large, resulting in the stream moving away from the wall and becoming rectilinear and, thus, reducing the magnitude of the centrifugal force field. It has been shown that decreasing the annulus' radius reduces the critical Reynolds number when ribs are placed at the inner cylinder but increases when the ribs are placed at the outer cylinder. The onset of the shear-driven instability has been investigated as the resulting travelling waves may interfere with the formation of vortices. It has been shown that the axisymmetric waves play the critical role for annuli with large radii while the spiral waves play the critical role for annuli with small radii. The ribs always reduce the critical Reynolds number for the travelling waves when compared with the onset conditions for smooth annuli. The conduit geometries giving preference to the formation of vortices while avoiding creation of the travelling waves have been identified. It is demonstrated that predictions of flow characteristics determined through the analysis of sinusoidal ribs provide a good approximation of the flow response to ribs of arbitrary shape.
The modeling and design of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System /ASPS/. [for Space Shuttle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuo, B. C.; Lin, W. C. W.
1979-01-01
The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) is a payload auxiliary pointing device of the Space Shuttle. The ASPS is comprised of two major subassemblies, a vernier and a coarse pointing subsystem. The three functions provided by the ASPS are related to the pointing of the payload, centering the payload in the magnetic actuator assembly, and tracking the payload mounting plate and shuttle motions by the coarse gimbals. The equations of motion of a simplified planar model of the ASPS are derived. Attention is given to a state diagram of the dynamics of the ASPS with position-plus-rate controller, the nonlinear spring characteristic for the wire-cable torque of the ASPS, the design of the analog ASPS through decoupling and pole placement, and the time response of different components of the continuous control system.
Stratospheric Annular Modes Induced By Stationary Wave Forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Körnich, H.; Schmitz, G.
The variability of the winter stratosphere shows distinguishable features in the north- ern and southern hemisphere. Since these differences are based on the different plan- etary waves of the underlying atmosphere, we explore the mechanism how stationary wave forcing in the troposphere can induce a stratospheric Annular Mode using a simple GCM. The model KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic Circulation Model) extends from the ground up to 60 km height and produces a reasonable winter climate. It takes into account the different large-scale wave forcings in the troposphere as prescribed pro- cesses. This allows us to examine the stratospheric Annular-Mode generation depend- ing on different wave forcings under perpetual January conditions. Principal com- ponent analysis is applied to identify the variability patterns of the geopotential and of the zonally averaged zonal wind. By this way, it is shown that the amplitude and composition of the orographic and thermal eddy forcing determines the stratospheric Annular Mode and the related downward propagation in the temperature field. Further model simplifications are introduced in order to understand the mechanism of the stratospheric AM-generation. Using a linear model version we illuminate the influence of the different wave forcing processes on the Annular Modes. Addition- ally, a constant-troposphere model is used to clarify the importance of transient and stationary waves. Finally, the Annular Mode is interpreted in terms of the dynamical coupling of the troposphere and stratosphere.
Non-axisymmetric annular curtain stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian
2013-08-01
A stability analysis of non-axisymmetric annular curtain is carried out for an axially moving viscous jet subject in surrounding viscous gas media. The effect of inertia, surface tension, gas-to-liquid density ratio, inner-to-outer radius ratio, and gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet is studied. In general, the axisymmetric disturbance is found to be the dominant mode. However, for small wavenumber, the non-axisymmetric mode is the most unstable mode and the one likely observed in reality. Inertia and the viscosity ratio for non-axisymmetric disturbances show a similar stability influence as observed for axisymmetric disturbances. The maximum growth rate in non-axisymmetric flow, interestingly, appears at very small wavenumber for all inertia levels. The dominant wavenumber increases (decreases) with inertia for non-axisymmetric (axisymmetric) flow. Gas-to-liquid density ratio, curvature effect, and surface tension, however, exhibit an opposite influence on growth rate compared to axisymmetric disturbances. Surface tension tends to stabilize the flow with reductions of the unstable wavenumber range and the maximum growth rate as well as the dominant wavenumber. The dominant wavenumber remains independent of viscosity ratio indicating the viscosity ratio increases the breakup length of the sheet with very little influence on the size of the drops. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by curvature in axisymmetric flow, whereas all the stability parameters control the range of unstable wavenumbers in non-axisymmetric flow. Inertia and gas density increase the unstable wavenumber range, whereas the radius ratio, surface tension, and the viscosity ratio decrease the unstable wavenumber range. Neutral curves are plotted to separate the stable and unstable domains. Critical radius ratio decreases linearly and nonlinearly with the wavenumber for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances, respectively. At smaller Weber numbers, a
Design of wavefront coding optical system with annular aperture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weimin
2016-10-01
Wavefront coding can extend the depth of field of traditional optical system by inserting a phase mask into the pupil plane. In this paper, the point spread function (PSF) of wavefront coding system with annular aperture are analyzed. Stationary phase method and fast Fourier transform (FFT) method are used to compute the diffraction integral respectively. The OTF invariance is analyzed for the annular aperture with cubic phase mask under different obscuration ratio. With these analysis results, a wavefront coding system using Maksutov-Cassegrain configuration is designed finally. It is an F/8.21 catadioptric system with annular aperture, and its focal length is 821mm. The strength of the cubic phase mask is optimized with user-defined operand in Zemax. The Wiener filtering algorithm is used to restore the images and the numerical simulation proves the validity of the design.
Annular lupus vulgaris: an unusual case undiagnosed for five years.
Gönül, Müzeyyen; Kiliç, Arzu; Külcü Cakmak, Seray; Gül, Ulker; Koçak, Oğuzhan; Demiriz, Murat
2007-01-01
Tuberculosis is still a serious problem in both developing and developed countries. It is often confused with various cutaneous disorders both clinically and histopathologically.A 46-year-old woman attended our clinic with progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on her right upper extremity for 5 years. She had received many different therapies for these lesions at other institutions previously but these medications were not effective and the lesions deteriorated. On dermatological examination, well-demarcated, irregular bordered, violaceous colored, elevated and crusted annular lesions on her right hand dorsum and forearm were observed. She was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. Antituberculosis therapy was administered and regression of the lesions started in the second week of medication.We report a case of long-standing, undiagnosed and uncommon, annular form of lupus vulgaris. We want to stress that clinical and histopathological findings are still important for the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis.
Portal Annular Pancreas: A Rare and Overlooked Anomaly
Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Ahmed, Arshad
2017-01-01
Summary Background Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic developmental anomaly which is often overlooked at imaging, and often diagnosed retrospectively when it is detected incidentally at the time of surgery. Although the anomaly itself is asymptomatic, it becomes important in cases where pancreatic resection/anastomosis is planned, because of varying ductal anatomy, risk of ductal injury and increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula formation. Case Report We present imaging findings in a case of portal annular pancreas in a 45-year-old male patient. Conclusions Portal annular pancreas is a rare and often neglected pancreatic anomaly due to a lack of awareness of this entity. With the advent of MDCT and MRI, accurate preoperative diagnosis of this condition is possible. PMID:28203311
Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tschunko, H. F. A.
1978-01-01
Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.
Ezato, K.; Dairaku, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Ibbott, C.; Tivey, R.
2004-12-15
Thermal-hydraulic tests for pressurized water in an annular tube with a twist fin have been performed to examine its applicability to high-heat-flux components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor. The annular swirl tube consists of two concentric tubes: an outer smooth tube and an inner tube with an external twist fin to enhance heat transfer of the cooling water in the annulus section between the outer and the inner tubes. Critical heat flux (CHF) tests under one-sided-heating conditions show that the annular swirl tube has as high removal limitation as the conventional swirl tube, the dimensions of which are similar to those of the outer tube of the annular swirl tube. A minimum axial velocity of 7.1 m/s is required for 28 MW/m{sup 2}, the ITER design value. Pressure drops in the annulus section and the end return have been measured. The applicability of the existing correlations for heat transfer and CHF to the annular swirl tube has also been examined.
Gas turbine annular combustor with radial dilution air injection
Shekelton, J.R.; Johnson, D.C.
1991-10-22
This patent describes a radial flow gas turbine. It comprises: a rotor including turbine blades and a nozzle adjacent the turbine blades, the nozzle being adapted to direct hot gases at the turbine blades to cause rotation of the rotor; an annular combustor about the rotor and having a combustor outlet leading to the nozzle, the annular combustor having spaced inner and outer walls connected by a generally radially extending wall, the annular combustor including a combustion annulus defined by the inner, outer and radially extending walls upstream of the outlet; a dilution air annulus disposed downstream of the combustion annulus and immediately radially outwardly of the nozzle axially adjacent to and immediately downstream of the combustor outlet of the annular combustion; and a housing substantially surrounding the annular combustor in spaced relation to the inner, outer and radially extending walls thereof, the housing and walls together defining at least a portion of a dilution air flow path having a compressed air inlet in communication with a compressor for supplying dilution air at one end thereof, a turbine nozzle shroud and the inner wall defining the remainder of the dilution air flow path, the compressed air outlet injecting dilution air directly across the combustor outlet toward the compressed air inlet, the illusion air being injected into the hot gases at generally a right angle thereto assist hot gases approach the combustor outlet, the compressed air outlet being in communication with the dilution air annulus directly through the combustor outlet of the annular combustor downstream of the combustion annulus.
Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.
2016-01-01
Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492
Analysis of annular microstrip antennas for hyperthermic applicators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alanen, E.
1988-01-01
An annular microstrip antenna in contact with the skin is analyzed by using the exact image principle. The antenna is designed primarily for measurements of temperature profiles in the breast and hence to detect cancer. The current distribution on the strip is solved from the electric field integral equation. The Galerkin's method is applied with continuous trigonometrical basis functions and the consequent nearfield distributions for different antennas are plotted. The dependence of the focus size on the radius of the antenna is calculated. Also, it is shown that the focus can be reduced by using two annular rings together.
Topological suppression of optical tunneling in a twisted annular fiber
Ornigotti, M.; Valle, G. Della; Gatti, D.; Longhi, S.
2007-08-15
A classical wave-optics analog of topological (Aharonov-Bohm) suppression of tunneling in a double-well potential on a ring threaded by a magnetic flux is proposed. The optical system consists of a uniformly twisted optical fiber with a structured annular core, in which the fiber twist mimics the role of the magnetic flux in the corresponding quantum-mechanical problem. Light waves trapped in the annular core of the fiber experience an additional topological (Aharonov-Bohm) phase, which may lead to the destruction of optical tunneling at certain values of the twist rate.
Optimum profiles for asymmetrical longitudinal fins in annular ducts
Fabbri, G.
2000-04-01
In the present work the geometry of annular ducts with asymmetrical longitudinal fins is optimized in order to enhance the heat transfer under laminar coolant flow conditions. The heat transferred is also maximized for a given amount of material or hydraulic resistance. Polynomial profiles are assigned to the two lateral fin surfaces. Velocity and temperature distributions on the annular duct cross section are determined with the help of a finite-element model. A global heat transfer coefficient and an equivalent Nusselt number are then calculated. Lastly, optimum asymmetrical fins obtained by means of a genetic algorithm are shown for different situations and their performance is compared with those of optimum symmetrical fins.
Predictions for the annular solar eclipse of 1984
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Espenak, F.
1984-01-01
Predictions for the path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 May 1984 are presented. Local circumstances for cities in and along the path are discussed as well as the Saros history of this eclipse. The author investigates the possibility of observing the solar corona during maximum eclipse but concludes that the prospects are remote. Finally, the appearance of the eclipse during annularity, and beading phenomena, are discussed, with the help of a lunar-limb analysis and observations made at previous eclipses of this Saros series.
Flutter Analysis of Annular Cascades in Counter Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishino, Ryohei; Namba, Masanobu
The paper studies the effect of neighboring blade rows on flutter characteristics of cascading blades. For this purpose the computation program to calculate the unsteady blade loading based on the unsteady lifting surface theory for contra-rotating annular cascades was formulated and coded. Then a computation program to solve the coupled bending-torsion flutter equation for the contra-rotating annular cascades was also developed. Some results of the flutter analysis are presented. The presence of the neighboring blade row gives rise to significant change in the critical flutter condition when the main acoustic duct mode is of cut-on state.
Polarization-independent waveguiding with annular photonic crystals.
Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent
2009-09-28
A linear waveguide in an annular photonic crystal composed of a square array of annular dielectric rods in air is demonstrated to guide transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes simultaneously. Overlapping of the guided bands in the full band gap of the photonic crystal is shown to be achieved through an appropriate set of geometric parameters. Results of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations to demonstrate polarization-independent waveguiding with low loss and wavelength-order confinement are presented. Transmission through a 90 degrees bend is also demonstrated.
Multi-functional annular fairing for coupling launch abort motor to space vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Buning, Pieter G. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Engelund, Walter C. (Inventor); Schuster, David M. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
An annular fairing having aerodynamic, thermal, structural and acoustic attributes couples a launch abort motor to a space vehicle having a payload of concern mounted on top of a rocket propulsion system. A first end of the annular fairing is fixedly attached to the launch abort motor while a second end of the annular fairing is attached in a releasable fashion to an aft region of the payload. The annular fairing increases in diameter between its first and second ends.
Ultrasonic guided waves in eccentric annular pipes
Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu
2014-02-18
This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly inspect tubes and pipes for possible eccentricity. While guided waves are well established in the long range inspection of structures such as pipes and plates, studies for more complex cross sections are limited and analytical solutions are often difficult to obtain. Recent developments have made the Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method widely accessible for researchers to study guided wave properties in complex structures. Here the SAFE method is used to study the effect of eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of lower order guided wave modes in thin pipes of diameters typically of interest to the industry. Results are validated using experiments. The paper demonstrates that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can strongly affect guided wave mode structures and velocities and hence shows potential for pipe eccentricity inspection.
Design and simulation of double annular illumination mode for microlithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Qiang; Zhu, Jing; Yang, Baoxi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Huang, Huijie
2013-08-01
Methods of generating various illumination patterns remain as an attractive and important micro-optics research area for the development of resolution enhancement in advanced lithography system. In the current illumination system of lithography machine, off-axis illumination is widely used as an effective approach to enhance the resolution and increase the depth of focus (DOF). This paper proposes a novel illumination mode generation unit, which transform conventional mode to double annular shaped radial polarized (DARP) mode for improving the resolution of micro-lithography. Through LightToolsTM software simulation, double annular shaped mode is obtained from the proposed generation unit. The mathematical expressions of the radius variation of inner and outer rings are deduced. The impacts of conventional and dual concentric annular illumination pattern on critical dimension uniformity were simulated on an isolated line, square hole and corner. Lithography performance was compared between DARP illumination mode and corresponding single annular modes under critical dimension of 45nm. As a result, DARP illumination mode can improve the uniformity of aerial image at 45nm node through pitch varied in 300-500 nm to a certain extent.
Measurement of annular air-gap using active infrared thermography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Shunmugasundaram, R.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.
2013-11-01
The paper discusses an infrared thermography (IRT) based procedure for quantification of annular air-gap in cylindrical geometries. Different annular air-gaps are simulated using aluminum hollow cylinders and solid stainless steel inserts of varying diameters. The specimens are externally heated using a hot air-gun and the temperature of the specimens are monitored during cooling using an infrared camera. The temperature decay during the cooling cycle follows an exponential profile in all the cases where the decay constant is air-gap dependent. The rate of temperature decay is fastest for the empty cases (without inserts) and lower for smaller air-gaps. The system is analyzed using a lumped system model by measuring the temperature over a time scale significantly higher than the transition time of the lumped system. It is observed that the Biot number of the system is less than unity, allowing analysis of the system in terms of a single time constant, neglecting internal temperature transients. It is observed that the time constant of temperature decay increases with decreasing annular air-gap. An empirical relation between the inverse of time constant of temperature decay and annular air-gaps is established. Using this calibration curve, unknown air-gaps up to 20 μm could be measured with good accuracy. Applications of this newly developed technique include detection of misalignment of concentric machineries and determination of fuel-to-clad gap of nuclear reactor fuels.
Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
The annular suspension and pointing system (ASPS) a payload auxiliary pointing device of the space shuttle is briefly described along with the function of the digital controller. The equations of motion of a simplified plan planar model of the ASPS are derived. Results of computer simulations are discussed.
RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN STIRRED ANNULAR PHOTOREACTORS
When gases flow through an annular photoreactor at constant rate, some of the gas spends more or less than the average residence time in the reactor. This spread of residence time can have an important effect on the performance of the reactor. this study tested how the residence...
An experimental investigation of straight and curved annular wall jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodman, L. C.; Wood, N. J.; Roberts, L.
1987-01-01
Accurate turbulence measurements taken in wall jet flows are difficult to obtain, due to high intensity turbulence and problems in achieving two-dimensionality. The problem is compounded when streamwise curvature of the flow is introduced, since the jet entrainment and turbulence levels are greatly increased over the equivalent planar values. In this experiment, two-dimensional straight and curved incompressible wall jet flows are simulated by having a jet blow axially over a cylinder. Hot wire measurements and some Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are presented for straight and curved wall jet flows. The results for the straight wall showed good agreement between the annular flow data and the rectangular data taken by previous researchers. For the jets with streamwise curvature, there was agreement between the annular and corresponding rectangular jets for the flow region closest to the slot exit. An integral analysis was used as a simple technique to interpret the experimental results. Integral momentum calculations were performed for both straight and curved annular and two dimensional wall jets. The results of the calculation were used to identify transverse curvature parameters and to predict the values of those parameters which would delineate the region where the annular flow can satisfactorily simulate two dimensional flow.
Annular injuries following the insertion of heart valve prostheses 1
Bowes, Vernon F.; Datta, Bhoopendra N.; Silver, Malcolm D.; Minielly, John A.
1974-01-01
Bowes, V. F., Datta, B. N., Silver, M. D. and Minielly, J. A. (1974).Thorax, 29, 530-533. Annular injuries following the insertion of heart valve prostheses. The clinical presentation and morphological findings in eight cases of annular injury associated with the insertion of prosthetic heart valves are discussed. The lesions presented as a separation of the left atrium and ventricle at the mitral annulus (one patient), a sinus or false aneurysm in the left posterior atrioventricular groove (two patients), or as a separation of the aortic root from the base of the heart (five patients). The pathogenesis of the lesions is similar. Annular tissue was weakened either by the removal of excess tissue or by an abnormal stress placed on normal tissue or by a slight stress placed on tissue altered by disease, and, as a result, it separated or tore. The resultant haemorrhage either caused the patient's death or, with time, produced the other morphological findings. Factors predisposing patients to the injuries are discussed and a differential diagnosis of annular pseudoaneurysms is provided. Images PMID:4279466
Subsonic annular wing theory with application to flow about nacelles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mann, M. J.
1974-01-01
A method has recently been developed for calculating the flow over a subsonic nacelle at zero angle of attack. The method makes use of annular wing theory and boundary-layer theory and has shown good agreement with both experimental data and more complex theoretical solutions. The method permits variation of the mass flow by changing the size of a center body.
Does ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules produce progesterone?
Dolan, J; Al-Timimi, A H; Richards, S M; Jeffs, J B; Mason, G C; Smith, D B; Hasleton, P S
1986-01-01
Probable progesterone production was identified by an immunoperoxidase assay in a case of an ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules. The tumour was associated with a serous cystadenofibroma in the opposite ovary and with adenoma malignum (adenocarcinoma) of the cervix. Images PMID:3512608
Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1989-01-01
Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.
[Erythema annulare centrifugum-like psoriasis cum pustulatione].
Albert, A; Hein, R; Ring, J; Jakob, T
2007-09-01
Erythema annulare centrifugum-type psoriasis with pustules represents a subtype of psoriasis pustulosa generalisata von Zumbusch. It presents with a typical morphology characterized by a lack of classical erythematosquamous skin lesions during its acute eruption phase. Diagnosis is usually established on the basis of clinical presentation and dermatopathology, which often shows a substrate typical for psoriasis, sometimes with spongiform pustules.
Dynamic-Receive Focusing with High-Frequency Annular Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketterling, J. A.; Mamou, J.; Silverman, R. H.
High-frequency ultrasound is commonly employed for ophthalmic and small-animal imaging because of the fine-resolution images it affords. Annular arrays allow improved depth of field and lateral resolution versus commonly used single-element, focused transducers. The best image quality from an annular array is achieved by using synthetic transmit-to-receive focusing while utilizing data from all transmit-to-receive element combinations. However, annular arrays must be laterally scanned to form an image and this requires one pass for each of the array elements when implementing full synthetic transmit-to-receive focusing. A dynamic-receive focusing approach permits a single pass, although at a sacrifice of depth of field and lateral resolution. A five-element, 20-MHz annular array is examined to determine the acoustic beam properties for synthetic and dynamic-receive focusing. A spatial impulse response model is used to simulate the acoustic beam properties for each focusing case and then data acquired from a human eye-bank eye are processed to demonstrate the effect of each approach on image quality.
Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct
Craig, Edwin R.; Semken, Robert S.
1979-01-01
Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement.
Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1989-01-01
Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.
RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN STIRRED ANNULAR PHOTOREACTORS
When gases flow through an annular photoreactor at constant rate, some of the gas spends more or less than the average residence time in the reactor. This spread of residence time can have an important effect on the performance of the reactor. this study tested how the residence...
Thermal hydraulic analysis of annular fuel-based assemblies
Kyu Hyun Han; Soon Heung Chang
2004-07-01
Thermal hydraulic characteristics of thorium-based fuel assemblies loaded with annular seed pins have been analyzed using AMAP combined with MATRA, and compared with those of the existing thorium-based assemblies. MATRA and AMAP showed good agreements for the pressure drops at the internal subchannels. The pressure drop generally increased in the cases of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins due to the larger wetted perimeter, but an exception existed. In the inner subchannels of the seed pins, mass fluxes were high due to the grid form losses in the outer subchannels. About 43% of the heat generated from the seed pin flowed into the inner subchannel and the rest into the outer subchannel, which implies the inner to outer wall heat flux ratio was approximately 1.2. The maximum temperatures of the annular seed pins were slightly above 500 deg. C. The MDNBRs of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins were higher than those of the existing assemblies. Due to the fact that inter-channel mixing cannot occur in the inner subchannels, temperatures and enthalpies were higher in the inner subchannels. (authors)
Global regularity for MHD Sisko fluid in annular pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, S.; Hayat, T.; Ahmad, B.
2016-08-01
The flow of Sisko fluid in an annular pipe is considered. The governing nonlinear equation of an incompressible Sisko fluid is modelled. The purpose of present paper is to obtain the global classical solutions for unsteady flow of magnetohydrodynamic Sisko fluid in terms of the bounded mean oscillations norm. Uniqueness of solution is also verified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlowicz, Michael
Using a Cray T3D supercomputer and a simple assumption about the physical character of Earth's mantle, a pair of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley have built a computer model that may help explain why the planet's tectonic plates look the way they do.In creating a three-dimensional numerical simulation of convection in the Earth's interior, UC researchers Hans-Peter Bunge and Mark Richards simplified their model to account for just one major physical effect: that the viscosity of the mantle increases with depth. Reviewing some recent—but not yet widely accepted—seismic data, Bunge and Richards assumed for the sake of the model that the viscosity of the mantle increases by a factor of 30 from the lithosphere to the core-mantle boundary. Relying on that assumption, the pair ran the model for nearly three weeks on a supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory and found that the simulation produced an effect similar to what we see on the surface of Earth. The model produced a surface paralleling the actual width of plates and the geometry of the plate boundaries.
Vibrational mode and sound radiation of electrostatic speakers using circular and annular diaphragms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Hsi; Chiang, Hsin-Yuan
2016-06-01
This study modeled two diaphragms comprising a pair of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent plates sandwiching a vibrating diaphragm to create circular (30 mm radius) and annular (30 mm outer and 3 mm inner radius) push-pull electrostatic speakers. We then measured the displacement amplitudes and mode shapes produced by the devices. Vibration characteristics were used to predict sound pressure levels (SPLs) using the lumped parameter method (LPM) and distributed parameter method (DPM). The two measurement results obtained using a laser system were compared to the SPLs obtained using traditional acoustic measurement (AM) from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in order to verify our predictions. When using LPM and DPM, the SPL prediction results in the first three symmetric modes were in good agreement with the AM results. Under the assumption of linear operations, the DPM and amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) techniques proved effective in determining the visualization of mode shape (0,1)-(0,3). The use of ITO plates is a practical technique for the prediction of SPL, as well as measurement of mode shapes. The four evaluation methods, i.e. LPM, DPM, ESPI and AM, present a high degree of consistency with regard to vibrational mode and sound radiation characteristics.
A new fluid-solid interface algorithm for simulating fluid structure problems in FGM plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eghtesad, A.; Shafiei, A. R.; Mahzoon, M.
2012-04-01
The capability to track material interfaces, especially in fluid structure problems, is among the advantages of meshless methods. In the present paper, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to investigate elastic-plastic deformation of AL and ceramic-metal FGM (Functionally Graded Materials) plates under the impact of water in a fluid-solid interface. Instead of using an accidental repulsive force which is not stable at higher pressures, a new scheme is proposed to improve the interface contact behavior between fluid and solid structure. This treatment not only prevents the interpenetration of fluid and solid particles significantly, but also maintains the gap distance between fluid and solid boundary particles in a reasonable range. A new scheme called corrected smooth particle method (CSPM) is applied to both fluid and solid particles to improve the free surface behavior. In order to have a more realistic free surface behavior in fluid, a technique is used to detect the free surface boundary particles during the solution process. The results indicate that using the proposed interface algorithm together with CSPM correction, one can predict the dynamic behavior of FGM plates under the impact of fluid very promisingly.
Buckling of Delaminated Long Panels Under Pressure and of Radially-Loaded Stiffened Annular Plates.
1985-10-01
Sheinman [7-10]. The governing equations for the nonlinear analysis of imperfect, stiffened, laminated, circular, cylindrical thin shells, subjected to...No. 4, 1985, pp. 529-544. 7. Simi tses, G. J.I Sheinman , I., and Shaw, D., "Stability of Laminated ComposJte Shells Subjected to Uniform Axial... Sheinman , I., "Imperfect, Laminated, Cyl ndri cal Shells in Torsion and Axial Compression", Acta -,Ftronautica, v. 10, No. 5-6, 1983, pp. 395-400
Seal plate with concentrate annular segments for a gas turbine engine
Harris, D.P.; Light, S.H.
1991-12-24
This patent describes a gas turbine engine. It comprises a radial outflow, rotary compressor; a radial inflow turbine wheel; means coupling the compressor and the turbine wheel in slightly spaced back to back relating so that the turbine wheel may drive the compressor; a housing surrounding the compressor and the turbine wheel; and a stationary seal mounted on the housing and extending into the space between the compressor and the turbine wheel, the seal including a main sealing and support section adjacent the compressor and a multiple piece diaphragm mounted to the main section, but generally spaced therefrom, the pieces of the diaphragm being movable with respect to each other and with respect to the main section, and including a radially inner ring and a radially outer ring, one of the rings including a lip which overlaps an edge of the other of the rings, the lip and the edge being in sliding, sealing engagement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Zheng; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart P.; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff
2014-03-01
Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using diffractive multiple annular beam patterns is demonstrated in this paper. The annular beam was generated by diffractive axicon computer generated holograms (CGHs) using a spatial light modulator. The diameter of the annular beam can be easily adjusted by varying the radius of the smallest ring in the axicon. Multiple annular beams with arbitrary arrangement and multiple annular beam arrays were generated by superimposing an axicon CGH onto a grating and lenses algorithm calculated multi-beam CGH and a binary Dammann grating CGH, respectively. Microholes were drilled through a 0.03 mm thick stainless steel foil using the multiple annular beams. By avoiding huge laser output attenuation and mechanical annular scanning, the processing is ˜200 times faster than the normal single beam processing.
Analysis of Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Nested Annular Tank Array
John D. Bess; James D. Cleaver
2009-06-01
Two series of experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory during the 1980s using highly enriched (93%) uranyl nitrate solution in annular tanks. [1, 2] Tanks were of typical sizes found in nuclear production plants. Experiments looked at tanks of varying radii in a co-located set of nested tanks, a 1 by 2 array, and a 1 by 3 array. The co-located set of tanks had been analyzed previously [3] as a benchmark for inclusion within the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. [4] The current study represents the benchmark analysis of the 1 by 3 array of a series of nested annular tanks. Of the seventeen configurations performed in this set of experiments, twelve were evaluated and nine were judged as acceptable benchmarks.
Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system
Jacox, Michael G.; Drexler, Robert L.; Hunt, Robert N. M.; Lake, James A.
1994-01-01
A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.
Simple analysis and design of annular ring microstrip antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Khamy, S. E.; El-Awadi, R. M.; El-Sharrawy, E.-B. A.
1986-06-01
A simple analysis of thin annular-ring microstrip antennas (AR-MSA), along with a design technique that yields the optimum ring dimensions which maximizes the radiation efficiency and the bandwidth, is presented in this paper. Using the cavity model, exact closed form solutions for the radiation fields are derived. The antenna fields distribution, resonance dimensions, radiation patterns, directivity, radiation conductance, quality factor and bandwidth are investigated for the different TMnm modes. AR-MSAs operated at the high order TMn2 modes are found to have better radiation properties and broader bandwidths than the corresponding disk-MSAs. A design table for the optimum ring dimensions for different types of the dielectric substrate material is also given in the paper.
Vortex dynamics in an annular Josephson ratchet ladder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ki Ho
2016-11-01
We present numerically the motion of vortices placed in an annular Josephson ladder which has a periodic ratchet potential along the annular direction. The ratchet characteristics are provided by assigning both alternate critical currents and alternate plaquette areas. The vortices are subject to an external current applied uniformly from each superconducting grain in the inner ring to each grain in the outer ring. The current-voltage (I-V) curves show asymmetric features because of the spatially broken symmetry of the potential. When an alternating current is added to the external current, Shapiro steps appear in the I-V curves, showing asymmetric values of the step widths and on-set currents. For a certain range of the alternating currents, vortices rotate to the easy direction, even at zero driving current, that corresponds to the direction away from the steep slope and toward the gentle slope of the ratchet potential.
Higher order annular Gaussian laser beam propagation in free space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyyuboglu, Halil T.; Yenice, Yusuf E.; Baykal, Yahya K.
2006-03-01
Propagation of higher order annular Gaussian (HOAG) laser beams in free space is examined. HOAG beams are defined as the difference of two Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams; thus, they can be produced by subtracting a smaller beam from a larger beam, that are cocentered and both possess HG mode field distributions. Such beams can be considered as a generalization of the well-known annular Gaussian beams. We formulate the source and receiver plane characteristics and kurtosis parameter of HOAG beams propagating in free space and evaluate them numerically. In comparison to HG beams, HOAG beams have a broader beam size with outer lobes of kidney shape. The amount of received power within the same receiver aperture size, that is, power in bucket, is generally lower for higher order beams. The convergence of the kurtosis parameter to an asymptotic value for higher order beams takes much longer propagation distances compared to zero-order beams.
High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Michael; Thomas, Robert; Crofton, Mark; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.
2015-01-01
Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground-in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.
Axisymmetric buckling of laminated thick annular spherical cap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumir, P. C.; Dube, G. P.; Mallick, A.
2005-03-01
Axisymmetric buckling analysis is presented for moderately thick laminated shallow annular spherical cap under transverse load. Buckling under central ring load and uniformly distributed transverse load, applied statically or as a step function load is considered. The central circular opening is either free or plugged by a rigid central mass or reinforced by a rigid ring. Annular spherical caps have been analysed for clamped and simple supports with movable and immovable inplane edge conditions. The governing equations of the Marguerre-type, first order shear deformation shallow shell theory (FSDT), formulated in terms of transverse deflection w, the rotation ψ of the normal to the midsurface and the stress function Φ, are solved by the orthogonal point collocation method. Typical numerical results for static and dynamic buckling loads for FSDT are compared with the classical lamination theory and the dependence of the effect of the shear deformation on the thickness parameter for various boundary conditions is investigated.
Annular gap solitons in Kerr media with circular gratings
Scheuer, Jacob; Malomed, Boris
2007-06-15
We introduce standing-light patterns trapped in a Bragg grating written along the radial direction in a self-focusing (SF) or self-defocusing (SDF) optical medium. Unlike previously studied axisymmetric settings that deal with the axial propagation, we consider the propagation of light in the radial directions (outward and inward), which may give rise to annular gap solitons (AGSs), supported by the circular grating. An estimate for the threshold of the modulational instability of the AGS against azimuthal perturbations in the SF medium is obtained analytically, and verified by direct simulations. In the SDF model, stable annular and dipole solitons are found in a numerical form, while multipole patterns and vortex rings are unstable. Similar solitons are possible in the Bose-Einstein condensate.
Droplet deposition and momentum transfer in annular flow
Fore, L.B.; Dukler, A.E.
1995-09-01
Entrainment and deposition in gas-liquid annular upflow are known to account for as much as 20% of the pressure gradient, through droplet accelerations in the core region. Momentum is transferred from the core when droplets decelerate upon impact with the liquid film. It is usually assumed that all of this momentum is transferred to the film, essentially driving the film upward in conjunction with interfacial friction. New data, obtained for annular gas-liquid upflow in a 5.08-cm-ID tube, are used in a momentum balance analysis to determine the mechanism of momentum transfer from depositing droplets. Measurements include the liquid film thickness, wall shear stress, pressure gradient, entrained liquid fraction, droplet deposition rate, droplet centerline axial velocity, and mass-average drop size for two gas-liquid systems. This analysis supports the idea that large droplets displace the film locally and decelerate primarily at the wall, effectively transferring negligible momentum to the liquid film.
Wind Generated Rogue Waves in an Annular Wave Flume.
Toffoli, A; Proment, D; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M
2017-04-07
We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an unlimited-fetch condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.
Annular ring zoom system using two positive axicons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickey, Fred M.; Conner, Jacob D.
2011-10-01
The production of an annular ring of light with a variable diameter has applications in laser material processing and machining, particle manipulation, and corneal surgery. This can readily be accomplished using a positive and negative axicon pair. However, negative axicons are very expensive and difficult to obtain with small diameters. In this paper, we present a design of an annular ring zoom system using two positive axicons. One axicon is placed a distance before a primary lens that is greater than some prescribed minimum, and the second axicon is placed after the primary lens. The position of the second axicon determines the ring diameter. The ring diameter can be zoomed from some maximum design size to a zero diameter ring (spot). Experimental results from a developmental system will be presented.
High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.
2015-01-01
Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.
Electroosmotic flow and Joule heating in preparative continuous annular electrochromatography.
Laskowski, René; Bart, Hans-Jörg
2015-09-01
An openFOAM "computational fluid dynamic" simulation model was developed for the description of local interaction of hydrodynamics and Joule heating in annular electrochromatography. A local decline of electrical conductivity of the background eluent is caused by an electrokinetic migration of ions resulting in higher Joule heat generation. The model equations consider the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids, the energy equation for stationary temperature fields, and the mass transfer equation for the electrokinetic flow. The simulations were embedded in commercial ANSYS Fluent software and in open-source environment openFOAM. The annular gap (1 mm width) contained an inorganic C8 reverse-phase monolith as stationary phase prepared by an in situ sol-gel process. The process temperature generated by Joule heating was determined by thermal camera system. The local hydrodynamics in the prototype was detected by a gravimetric contact-free measurement method and experimental and simulated values matched quite well.
Annular fuel and air co-flow premixer
Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Melton, Patrick Benedict; York, William David
2013-10-15
Disclosed is a premixer for a combustor including an annular outer shell and an annular inner shell. The inner shell defines an inner flow channel inside of the inner shell and is located to define an outer flow channel between the outer shell and the inner shell. A fuel discharge annulus is located between the outer flow channel and the inner flow channel and is configured to inject a fuel flow into a mixing area in a direction substantially parallel to an outer airflow through the outer flow channel and an inner flow through the inner flow channel. Further disclosed are a combustor including a plurality of premixers and a method of premixing air and fuel in a combustor.
Laser Induced Retinal Damage Thresholds for Annular Retinal Beam Profiles
2004-01-01
Thompson-Gerstman granular model of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina ."°20 The study documented in this paper is a continuation of our earlier...Retinal Beam Profiles DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Laser Interaction...mrad of visual field; which correspond to outer beam diameters of roughly 70, 160, and 300 tin, respectively, on the primate retina . Annular beam
System design of the annular suspension and pointing system /ASPS/
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, D. C.; Gismondi, T. P.; Wilson, G. W.
1978-01-01
This paper presents the control system design for the Annular Suspension and Pointing System. Actuator sizing and configuration of the system are explained, and the control laws developed for linearizing and compensating the magnetic bearings, roll induction motor and gimbal torquers are given. Decoupling, feedforward and error compensation for the vernier and gimbal controllers is developed. The algorithm for computing the strapdown attitude reference is derived, and the allowable sampling rates, time delays and quantization of control signals are specified.
Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD). Volume 1: Laboratory model development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The annular momentum control device (AMCD) a thin hoop-like wheel with neither shaft nor spokes is described. The wheel floats in a magnetic field and can be rotated by a segmented motor. Potential advantages of such a wheel are low weight, configuration flexibility, a wheel that stiffens with increased speed, vibration isolation, and increased reliability. The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing is described of the laboratory model of the AMCD.
Multifocal Annular Tufted Angioma: An Uncommon Clinical Entity
Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti
2015-01-01
Tufted angioma (TA) is a localized benign hamartomatous vascular proliferation usually presenting in the childhood as an erythematous plaque. We report here a rare case of multifocal TA in an 8-year-old boy who presented which two large annular lesions as well as multiple papules and nodules on the back for the duration of 4 years. Histology showed typical well circumscribed poorly canalized vascular lobules with ‘cannon ball’ configuration. PMID:26288441
Hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iino, T.; Kaneko, H.
1980-01-01
The hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals were investigated. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. The results indicate that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal are not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor, though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity.
Piezoelectric annular array for large depth of field photoacoustic imaging
Passler, K.; Nuster, R.; Gratt, S.; Burgholzer, P.; Paltauf, G.
2011-01-01
A piezoelectric detection system consisting of an annular array is investigated for large depth of field photoacoustic imaging. In comparison to a single ring detection system, X-shaped imaging artifacts are suppressed. Sensitivity and image resolution studies are performed in simulations and in experiments and compared to a simulated spherical detector. In experiment an eight ring detection systems offers an extended depth of field over a range of 16 mm with almost constant lateral resolution. PMID:21991555
Operating Characteristics of Cylindrical and Annular Helicon Sources (Preprint)
2007-09-22
2007 IEPC), Florence Italy, 17-20 Sep 2007. IEPC-2007-71. 14. ABSTRACT The power required to create an ionized plasma is a significant energy...strengths up to 1.6 kG for both cylindrical and annular configurations. Measurements of the resultant plasma load impedance have revealed distinct...an ionized plasma is a significant energy loss mechanism in typical electric propulsion systems. The use of wave-driven helicon sources is one
The influence of annular seal clearance to the critical speed of the multistage pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J.; Shen, H. P.; Y Ye, X.; Hu, J. N.; Feng, Y. N.
2013-12-01
In the multistage pump of high head, pressure difference in two ends of annular seal clearance and rotor eccentric would produce the sealing fluid force, the effect of which can be expressed by a damping and stiffness coefficient. It has a great influence on the critical speed of the rotor system. In order to research the influence of the annular seal to the rotor system, this paper used CFD method to conduct the numerical simulation for the flow field of annular seal clearance. The radial and tangential forces were obtained to calculate the annular dynamic coefficients. Also dynamic coefficient were obtained by Matlab. The rotor system was modeled using ANSYS finite software and the critical speed with and without annular seal clearance were calculated. The result shows: annular seal's fluid field is under the comprehensive effect of pressure difference and rotor entrainment. Due to the huge pressure difference in front annular seal, fluid flows under pressure difference; the low pressure difference results in the more obvious effect on the clearance field in back annular seal. The first order critical speed increases greatly with the annular seal clearance; while the average growth rate of the second order critical speed is only 3.2%; the third and fourth critical speed decreases little. Based on the above result, the annular seal has great influence to the first order speed, while has little influence on the rest.
Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.
2009-03-01
Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.
Linearization of an annular image by using a diffractive optic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthys, Donald R.
1996-01-01
The goal for this project is to develop the algorithms for fracturing the zones defined by the mapping transformation, and to actually produce the binary optic in an appropriate setup. In 1984 a side-viewing panoramic viewing system was patented, consisting of a single piece of glass with spherical surfaces which produces a 360 degree view of the region surrounding the lens which extends about 25 degrees in front of and 20 degrees behind the lens. The system not only produces images of good quality, it is also afocal, i.e., images stay in focus for objects located right next to the lens as well as those located far from the lens. The lens produced a panoramic view in an annular shaped image, and so the lens was called a PAL (panoramic annular lens). When applying traditional measurements to PAL images, it is found advantageous to linearize the annular image. This can easily be done with a computer and such a linearized image can be produced within about 40 seconds on current microcomputers. However, this process requires a frame-grabber and a computer, and is not real-time. Therefore, it was decided to try to perform this linearization optically by using a diffractive optic.
Quantitative annular dark field electron microscopy using single electron signals.
Ishikawa, Ryo; Lupini, Andrew R; Findlay, Scott D; Pennycook, Stephen J
2014-02-01
One of the difficulties in analyzing atomic resolution electron microscope images is that the sample thickness is usually unknown or has to be fitted from parameters that are not precisely known. An accurate measure of thickness, ideally on a column-by-column basis, parameter free, and with single atom accuracy, would be of great value for many applications, such as matching to simulations. Here we propose such a quantification method for annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy by using the single electron intensity level of the detector. This method has the advantage that we can routinely quantify annular dark field images operating at both low and high beam currents, and under high dynamic range conditions, which is useful for the quantification of ultra-thin or light-element materials. To facilitate atom counting at the atomic scale we use the mean intensity in an annular dark field image averaged over a primitive cell, with no free parameters to be fitted. To illustrate the potential of our method, we demonstrate counting the number of Al (or N) atoms in a wurtzite-type aluminum nitride single crystal at each primitive cell over the range of 3-99 atoms.
Annular lesions of cutaneous sarcoidosis with granulomatous vasculitis.
Mizuno, Kana; Nguyen, Chuyen Thi Hong; Ueda-Hayakawa, Ikuko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki
2017-05-01
Sarcoidosis is known to be involved in diseases with vasculitis as sarcoid vasculitis. However, vasculitis in cutaneous sarcoidal lesions is extremely rare. Here we describe a case of sarcoidosis with multiple annular skin lesions with granulomatous vasculitis. A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with sarcoidosis by chest-abdominal computed tomographic examination and laboratory tests. The skin lesions had appeared on her lower limbs 2 years before. Physical examination showed multiple infiltrated annular eruptions on the lower extremities. A skin biopsy of an area of erythema showed multiple non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in the dermis and subcutaneous fat and granulomatous vasculitis with fibrinoid degeneration in the subcutaneous fat. There are two types of vasculitis in sarcoidosis: leukocytoclastic and granulomatous vasculitis. Ulcers and livedo were more common in granulomatous vasculitis than in leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The present case had unique annular skin lesions of sarcoidosis with granulomatous vasculitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Annular tautomerism: experimental observations and quantum mechanics calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J.; Schreyer, Adrian; Pitt, William R.
2010-06-01
The use of MP2 level quantum mechanical (QM) calculations on isolated heteroaromatic ring systems for the prediction of the tautomeric propensities of whole molecules in a crystalline environment was examined. A Polarisable Continuum Model was used in the calculations to account for environment effects on the tautomeric relative stabilities. The calculated relative energies of tautomers were compared to relative abundances within the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The work was focussed on 84 annular tautomeric forms of 34 common ring systems. Good agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental data even if the quantity of these data was limited in many cases. The QM results were compared to those produced by much faster semiempirical calculations. In a search for other sources of the useful experimental data, the relative numbers of known compounds in which prototropic positions were often substituted by heavy atoms were also analysed. A scheme which groups all annular tautomeric transformations into 10 classes was developed. The scheme was designed to encompass a comprehensive set of known and theoretically possible tautomeric ring systems generated as part of a previous study. General trends across analogous ring systems were detected as a result. The calculations and statistics collected on crystallographic data as well as the general trends observed should be useful for the better modelling of annular tautomerism in the applications such as computer-aided drug design, small molecule crystal structure prediction, the naming of compounds and the interpretation of protein—small molecule crystal structures.
Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow
Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E
1985-10-01
The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.
The annular flow electrothermal ramjet. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, B. D.
1984-01-01
The annular flow, electrothermal, plug ramjet is examined as a possible means of achieving rapid projectile acceleration to velocities for such applications as direct launch of spacebound payloads. The performance of this ramjet operating with hydrogen propellant is examined for cases where this working fluid is treated: (1) as a perfect gas, and (2) as a gas that is allowed to dissociate and ionize and then recombine with finite reaction rates in the nozzle. Performance results for these cases are compared to the performance of a conventional ramjet operating with perfect gas hydrogen propellant. The performance of the conventional ramjet is superior to that of the annular flow, electrothermal ramjet. However, it is argued that the mechanical complexities associated with conventional ramjet operation are difficult to attain, and for this reason the annular flow, electrothermal ramjet is more desirable as a launch system. Models are presented which describe both electrothermal plug ramjet and conventional ramjet operation, and it is shown that for a given flight velocity there is a rate of heat addition per unit propellant mass for which ramjet operation is optimized.
Free vortex theory for efficiency calculations from annular cascade data
Main, A.J.; Oldfield, M.L.G.; Lock, G.D.; Jones, T.V.
1997-04-01
This paper describes a new three-dimensional theory to calculate the efficiency or loss of nozzle guide vane annular cascades from experimental area traverse measurements of the compressible downstream flow. To calculate such an efficiency, it is necessary to mix out the measured flow computationally to either a uniform state or one that is a function of radius only. When this is done by conserving momentum, mass, and energy flow, there is a remaining degree of freedom in that the radial distribution of circumferential velocity can be chosen. This extra freedom does not arise in two-dimensional cascades. The new method mixes the flow out to a free (i.e., irrotational) vortex. This is preferred to existing methods in that it gives a physically realistic flow and also provides a unique, lossless, isentropic reference flow. The annular cascade efficiency is then uniquely defined as the ratio of the mixed-out experimental kinetic energy flux to the ideal isentropic kinetic energy flux at the same mean radius static pressure. The mathematical derivation of this method is presented. This new theory has been used to process data obtained from a large, transonic, annular cascade in a blowdown tunnel. A four-hole pyramid probe, mounted on a computer-controlled traverse, has been used to map the passage flowfield downstream of the nozzle guide vanes. Losses calculated by the new method are compared with those calculated from the same data using earlier analysis methods.
Development of high frequency annular array ultrasound transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottlieb, Emanuel John
The advantage of ultrasonic annular arrays over conventional single element transducers has been in the ability to transmit focus at multiple points throughout the depth of field, as well as receive dynamic focus. Today, annular, linear and multidimensional array imaging systems are not commercially available at frequencies greater than 20 MHz. The fabrication technology used to develop a high frequency (>50 MHz) annular array transducer is presented. A 9 mum P(VDF-TrFE) film was bonded to gold annuli electrodes on the top layer of a two sided polyimide flexible circuit. Each annulus was separated by a 30 mum kerf and had several electroplated micro vias that connected to electrode traces on the bottom side of the polyimide flexible circuit. The array's performance was evaluated by measuring the electrical impedance, pulse echo response and crosstalk measurement for each element in the array. In order to improve device sensitivity each element was electrically matched to an impedance magnitude of 50 O and 0° phase at resonance. The average round trip insertion loss measured for the array and compensated for diffraction effects was -33.5 dB. The measured average center frequency and bandwidth of an element was 55 MHz and 47 respectively. The measured crosstalk between adjacent elements remained below -29 dB at the center frequency in water. A vertical wire phantom was imaged using a single focus transmit beamformer and dynamic focusing receive beamformer. This image showed a significant improvement in lateral resolution over a range of 9 mm after the dynamic focusing receive algorithm was applied. These results correlated well with predictions from a Field II simulation. After beamforming the minimum lateral resolution (-6 dB) was 108 mum at the focus. Preliminary ultrasound B-mode images of the rabbit eye using this transducer were shown in conjunction with a multi-channel digital beamformer. A feasibility study of designing and fabricating tunable copolymer
An annular pancreas associated with carcinoma of the papilla of Vater: report of a case.
Yazawa, Naoki; Imaizumi, Toshihide; Furukawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Masahiro; Gunji, Hisashi; Kato, Kenichiro; Tobita, Kosuke; Nakagohri, Toshio; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Ogoshi, Kyoji
2012-05-01
An annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly that usually presents early in childhood. Malignancy in the setting of an annular pancreas is unusual. We herein report a case of annular pancreas with carcinoma of the papilla of Vater. A 59-year-old man presented with epigastric discomfort and was referred to us after gastroduodenal endoscopy showed a tumor of the papilla of Vater. Preoperative imaging showed the pancreatic parenchyma encircling the descending duodenum and a tumor at the papilla of Vater. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed for the annular pancreas and the ampullary tumor. Histological examination confirmed a complete annular pancreas and carcinoma in situ of the papilla of Vater. We also provide a review of the reported cases of an annular pancreas with periampullary neoplasms and discuss the clinical characteristics of this anomaly.
Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector
Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce
1978-01-01
A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.
Yamaguchi, Y; Sugiyama, M; Sato, Y; Mine, Y; Yamato, T; Ishida, H; Takahashi, S
2003-01-01
It has been reported that annular pancreas should be evaluated for coexisting malignant tumors. However, no cases have been reported in which magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography clearly demonstrated an annular pancreas complicated by bile duct carcinoma. We present a case that emphasizes the importance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography in directly confirming a diagnosis of annular pancreas complicated by bile duct carcinoma.
Easy Placement of Annular Sutures During Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement.
Totsugawa, Toshinori; Hiraoka, Arudo; Tamura, Kentaro; Yoshitaka, Hidenori; Sakaguchi, Taichi
Placing annular sutures at the right coronary cusp is difficult during minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. We propose the partial everting mattress method, whereby a prosthetic valve is implanted in a supra-annular position at the left coronary and noncoronary cusps, with pledgets on the left ventricular side, but in an intra-annular position at the right coronary cusp, with pledgets on the aortic side. Needles can be grasped in forehand pass at all three coronary cusps. Our method enables easy placement of annular stitches even in the small surgical field, without adversely influencing the hemodynamic performance of the prosthesis.
Annular pustular psoriasis in a 14-month-old girl: a therapeutic challenge.
Haug, Victoria; Benoit, Sandrine; Wohlleben, Michael; Hamm, Henning
2017-09-01
Annular pustular psoriasis (annular PP) is a rare but severe variant of psoriasis, which may even occur in early childhood. At this age, therapeutic options are limited and medication issues can be challenging. We report clinical features, diagnostic findings and treatment of an 11-month-old girl with annular PP. Oral acitretin therapy was initiated at 0.9 mg/kg/d and gradually tapered after complete resolution in the subsequent 10 months without relapse. Acitretin proved to be a highly effective therapeutic option in an infant with annular PP.
Davison, James E; Davies, Alison; Moss, Celia; Kirk, Jeremy M W; Taibjee, Saleem M; Agwu, J Chizo
2010-01-01
Diabetes mellitus is associated with a range of dermatologic presentations, including granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum. Granuloma annulare occurs earlier than necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum and the association with diabetes mellitus is much weaker. We describe two children with diabetes who both developed granuloma annulare and later, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum. We postulate that the early onset and transient nature of granuloma annulare, compared with the later onset and persistence of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, might account for the different apparent rates of association with diabetes mellitus.
Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case.
Kawaida, Hiromichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro
2015-08-01
The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathology showed pancreatic carcinoma occurring in the complete annular pancreas.
Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor
Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.
2015-08-11
A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.
Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor
Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.
2014-07-29
A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.
Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ka, Jong-Ok
2011-02-01
To investigate the effects of pipe materials on biofilm accumulation and water quality, an annular reactor with the sample coupons of four pipe materials (steel, copper, stainless steel, and polyvinyl chloride) was operated under hydraulic conditions similar to a real plumbing system for 15 months. The bacterial concentrations were substantially increased in the steel and copper reactors with progression of corrosion, whereas those in stainless steel (STS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) reactors were affected mainly by water temperature. The heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms was about 100 times higher on steel pipe than other pipes throughout the experiment, with the STS pipe showing the lowest bacterial number at the end of the operation. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 176 cultivated isolates revealed that 66.5% was Proteobacteria and the others included unclassified bacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli. Regardless of the pipe materials, Sphingomonas was the predominant species in all biofilms. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that steel pipe exhibited the highest bacterial diversity among the metallic pipes, and the DGGE profile of biofilm on PVC showed three additional bands not detected from the profiles of the metallic materials. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that corrosion level and biofilm accumulation were the least in the STS coupon. These results suggest that the STS pipe is the best material for plumbing systems in terms of the microbiological aspects of water quality.
A grillage model for predicting wrinkles in annular graphene under circular shearing
Zhang, Z.; Duan, W. H.; Wang, C. M.
2013-01-07
This paper is concerned with a Timoshenko grillage model for modeling the wrinkling phenomenon in annular graphene under circular shearing applied at its inner edge. By calibrating the grillage model results against the molecular mechanics (MM) results, the grillage model comprising beams of elliptical cross-section orientated along the carbon-carbon bond has section dimensions of 0.06 nm for the major axis length and 0.036 nm for the minor axis length. Moreover, the beams are connected to one another at 0.00212 nm from the geometric centric. This eccentric connection of beams allows the proposed grillage model to cater for the cross-couplings among bonds that produce the out-of-plane wrinkling pattern. The out-of-plane to in-plane bending stiffnesses' ratio is 0.36, and the cross bending stiffness provided by the ellipse eccentricity is 0.025 times that of the in-plane bending stiffness. Besides furnishing identical wave numbers as well as amplitudes and wavelengths that are in good agreement with MM results, the grillage model can capture wrinkling patterns with a boundary layer, whereas plate and membrane models could not mimic the boundary layer.
A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1985-01-01
A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.
A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1984-01-01
A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.
Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics of strength-mismatching
Parks, D.M.; Ganti, S.; McClintock, F.A.
1996-12-31
Approximate solutions to stress-fields are provided for a strength-mismatched interface crack in small-scale yielding (SSY) for non-hardening and low hardening materials. Variations of local deformation intensities, characterized by a J-type contour integral, are proposed. The softer material experiences a higher deformation intensity level, J{sub S}, while the harder material sees a much lower deformation intensity level, J{sub H}, compared to that obtained from the applied J near the respective homogeneous crack-tips. For a low hardening material, the stress fields are obtained by scaling from an elastic/perfectly-plastic problem, based on an effective mismatch, M{sub eff}, which is a function of mismatch, M, and the hardening exponent, n. Triaxial stress build-up is discussed quantitatively in terms of M. The influence of strength-mismatch on cleavage fracture is discussed using Weibull statistics.
Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Small Cracks
1982-09-01
for small cracks. The data usually involves a plot of the cyclic streys ( Aa ) required to propagate a crack versus the crack size. For large cracks...the data follows the line predicted by LEFM (Aal a - constant) while for short cracks Aa is less than predicted by LEFX. By normalizing the crack length...Prediction, ASTh STP 687, J. Bi. Chang, Ed., American Society of Tzsting and Materi- als, 1979, 16-42. 12. Newman. 3. C., Jr. and RaJu, I. S., "An Empirical
Finite Element Modeling of Elastic-Plastic Crack Growth.
1982-07-01
material structures. 4) Environmental effects should be further researched by conducting fatigue and creep crack growth tests in different...8217’ Int. 3. for Numerical Method in Eng., Vol. 8, pp. 821-845, 1974. 15. Fiher, B.C. and Sherratt, F., ’’A Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Fatigue Crack...Chang, T.B., editor, "Part-Through Crack Fatigue Life Prediction,’’ ASfl, STP 687, 1977. 22. Ahmad, 3. and Loo, F.T.C., "Finite Element Analysis of
Elastic-plastic constitutive modeling of concrete. [LMFBR
Takahashi, Y.
1983-03-01
The need to understand concrete behavior under high temperatures in the nuclear industry has become rather accute. For this purpose, a constitutive model of concrete especially developed for this severe environment is indispensable. This report reviews the presently available constitutive models of concrete at standard-temperature conditions and considers their advantages and drawbacks. A rather simple but effective approach is selected to treat concrete behavior at high temperatures. Special emphasis is devoted to the modeling of concrete up to and including failure. The derived constitutive model is checked with biaxial and triaxial benchmark experimental results. Very good agreement is obtained.
Accurate numerical solutions for elastic-plastic models. [LMFBR
Schreyer, H. L.; Kulak, R. F.; Kramer, J. M.
1980-03-01
The accuracy of two integration algorithms is studied for the common engineering condition of a von Mises, isotropic hardening model under plane stress. Errors in stress predictions for given total strain increments are expressed with contour plots of two parameters: an angle in the pi plane and the difference between the exact and computed yield-surface radii. The two methods are the tangent-predictor/radial-return approach and the elastic-predictor/radial-corrector algorithm originally developed by Mendelson. The accuracy of a combined tangent-predictor/radial-corrector algorithm is also investigated.
A simplified method for elastic-plastic-creep structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, A.
1985-01-01
A simplified inelastic analysis computer program (ANSYPM) was developed for predicting the stress-strain history at the critical location of a thermomechanically cycled structure from an elastic solution. The program uses an iterative and incremental procedure to estimate the plastic strains from the material stress-strain properties and a plasticity hardening model. Creep effects are calculated on the basis of stress relaxation at constant strain, creep at constant stress or a combination of stress relaxation and creep accumulation. The simplified method was exercised on a number of problems involving uniaxial and multiaxial loading, isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, dwell times at various points in the cycles, different materials and kinematic hardening. Good agreement was found between these analytical results and nonlinear finite element solutions for these problems. The simplified analysis program used less than 1 percent of the CPU time required for a nonlinear finite element analysis.
Accurate direct Eulerian simulation of dynamic elastic-plastic flow
Kamm, James R; Walter, John W
2009-01-01
The simulation of dynamic, large strain deformation is an important, difficult, and unsolved computational challenge. Existing Eulerian schemes for dynamic material response are plagued by unresolved issues. We present a new scheme for the first-order system of elasto-plasticity equations in the Eulerian frame. This system has an intrinsic constraint on the inverse deformation gradient. Standard Godunov schemes do not satisfy this constraint. The method of Flux Distributions (FD) was devised to discretely enforce such constraints for numerical schemes with cell-centered variables. We describe a Flux Distribution approach that enforces the inverse deformation gradient constraint. As this approach is new and novel, we do not yet have numerical results to validate our claims. This paper is the first installment of our program to develop this new method.
Elastic - Plastic Fracture Mechanics. A Critical Review. Part 1
1990-04-01
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK MICS COMMITTEE MARITIME COLLE GE Dr. William Sandberg Dr. W. R. Porter AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE WELDING RESEARCH... welded steel structures. Fundamental concepts and underlying assumptions are described. Standardized test methods and recent developments are reviewed...fracture mechanics, as applied to welded steel structures. First, the fundamental concepts and underlying assumptions of fracture mechanics are described
Mechanical sublayer model for elastic-plastic analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1987-03-01
Strain-hardening behavior for plane stress problems is modeled by a panel with n layers, the first ( n - 1) layers are elastic-perfectly-plastic under Mises-Hencky condition, each with different yield stress, and the n-th layer is elastic. Equivalent incremental stress-strain relations for the panel can be obtained. The resulting uniaxial stress-strain curve contains n segments. Those segments in the plastic range are not straight lines.
Numerical Resolution Calculation for Elastic-Plastic Impact Problems
1984-12-01
heroin should serve as a quide to proper selection of mesh size and orientation for accurate representation of physical problems. 4. UNCLASSIFIED...5 . 1 INTRODUCTION . . . 9 I1. APPROACH .... .......................... . 9 P 111. RESULTS . . . . . 14 IV. CONCLUSIONS...Aspect Ratio 1 - 1 , Case 104 . . . . . . 18 5 Computational Grid Map, 1600 Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6 Load/Displacement in Bar, Aspect Ratio 1
Thermo-mechanical coupling strategies in elastic-plastic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, M.; Lange, M. R.
2017-03-01
Modeling strategies aimed at thermo-mechanical coupled problems has been developed for a wide range of engineering applications. Staggered-type coupling procedures have been largely used in materials processing operations, especially in commercial codes, owing to their simplicity and flexibility. The present work shows that, in thermo-plastic problems, the classical implementation of the most common coupling procedure may present accuracy issues and time-stepping dependency. Numerical experiments indicate that an iterative coupling scheme constitutes a viable and simple approach to this class of problems.
Paule, A; Lauga, B; Ten-Hage, L; Morchain, J; Duran, R; Paul, E; Rols, J L
2011-11-15
In their natural environment, the structure and functioning of microbial communities from river phototrophic biofilms are driven by biotic and abiotic factors. An understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the community structure, its dynamics and the biological succession processes during phototrophic biofilm development can be gained using laboratory-scale systems operating with controlled parameters. For this purpose, we present the design and description of a new prototype of a rotating annular bioreactor (RAB) (Taylor-Couette type flow, liquid working volume of 5.04 L) specifically adapted for the cultivation and investigation of phototrophic biofilms. The innovation lies in the presence of a modular source of light inside of the system, with the biofilm colonization and development taking place on the stationary outer cylinder (onto 32 removable polyethylene plates). The biofilm cultures were investigated under controlled turbulent flowing conditions and nutrients were provided using a synthetic medium (tap water supplemented with nitrate, phosphate and silica) to favour the biofilm growth. The hydrodynamic features of the water flow were characterized using a tracer method, showing behaviour corresponding to a completely mixed reactor. Shear stress forces on the surface of plates were also quantified by computer simulations and correlated with the rotational speed of the inner cylinder. Two phototrophic biofilm development experiments were performed for periods of 6.7 and 7 weeks with different inoculation procedures and illumination intensities. For both experiments, biofilm biomasses exhibited linear growth kinetics and produced 4.2 and 2.4 mg cm(-)² of ash-free dry matter. Algal and bacterial community structures were assessed by microscopy and T-RFLP, respectively, and the two experiments were different but revealed similar temporal dynamics. Our study confirmed the performance and multipurpose nature of such an innovative photosynthetic bioreactor
Geometry optimization of linear and annular plasma synthetic jet actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neretti, G.; Seri, P.; Taglioli, M.; Shaw, A.; Iza, F.; Borghi, C. A.
2017-01-01
The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) interaction induced in atmospheric air pressure by a surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator has been experimentally investigated. Plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJAs) are DBD actuators able to induce an air stream perpendicular to the actuator surface. These devices can be used in the field of aerodynamics to prevent or induce flow separation, modify the laminar to turbulent transition inside the boundary layer, and stabilize or mix air flows. They can also be used to enhance indirect plasma treatment effects, increasing the reactive species delivery rate onto surfaces and liquids. This can play a major role in plasma processing and chemical kinetics modelling, where often only diffusive mechanisms are considered. This paper reports on the importance that different electrode geometries can have on the performance of different PSJAs. A series of DBD aerodynamic actuators designed to produce perpendicular jets has been fabricated on two-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs). Both linear and annular geometries were considered, testing different upper electrode distances in the linear case and different diameters in the annular one. An AC voltage supplied at a peak of 11.5 kV and a frequency of 5 kHz was used. Lower electrodes were connected to the ground and buried in epoxy resin to avoid undesired plasma generation on the lower actuator surface. Voltage and current measurements were carried out to evaluate the active power delivered to the discharges. Schlieren imaging allowed the induced jets to be visualized and gave an estimate of their evolution and geometry. Pitot tube measurements were performed to obtain the velocity profiles of the PSJAs and to estimate the mechanical power delivered to the fluid. The optimal values of the inter-electrode distance and diameter were found in order to maximize jet velocity, mechanical power or efficiency. Annular geometries were found to achieve the best performance.
Studies on Normal and Microgravity Annular Two Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakotaiah, V.; Jayawardena, S. S.; Nguyen, L. T.
1999-01-01
Two-phase gas-liquid flows occur in a wide variety of situations. In addition to normal gravity applications, such flows may occur in space operations such as active thermal control systems, power cycles, and storage and transfer of cryogenic fluids. Various flow patterns exhibiting characteristic spatial and temporal distribution of the two phases are observed in two-phase flows. The magnitude and orientation of gravity with respect to the flow has a strong impact on the flow patterns observed and on their boundaries. The identification of the flow pattern of a flow is somewhat subjective. The same two-phase flow (especially near a flow pattern transition boundary) may be categorized differently by different researchers. Two-phase flow patterns are somewhat simplified in microgravity, where only three flow patterns (bubble, slug and annular) have been observed. Annular flow is obtained for a wide range of gas and liquid flow rates, and it is expected to occur in many situations under microgravity conditions. Slug flow needs to be avoided, because vibrations caused by slugs result in unwanted accelerations. Therefore, it is important to be able to accurately predict the flow pattern which exists under given operating conditions. It is known that the wavy liquid film in annular flow has a profound influence on the transfer of momentum and heat between the phases. Thus, an understanding of the characteristics of the wavy film is essential for developing accurate correlations. In this work, we review our recent results on flow pattern transitions and wavy films in microgravity.
Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report
Guerrier, Gilles; Daronat, Jean-Marc; Deltour, Roger
2011-01-01
Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history and physical examination can reliably orientate necessary diagnostic testing and allow for appropriate treatment. PMID:23198178
Understanding Wave-mean Flow Feedbacks and Tropospheric Annular Variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, D. J.
2016-12-01
The structure of internal tropospheric variability is important for determining the impact of the stratosphere on the troposphere. This study aims to better understand the fundamental dynamical mechanisms that control the feedbacks between the eddies and the mean flow, which in turn select the tropospheric annular mode. Recent work using Rossby Wave Chromatography suggests that "barotropic processes", which directly impact the meridional propagation of wave activity (specifically the reflectivity of the poleward flank of the mid-latitude jet), are more important for the positive feedback between the annular mode and the eddies than "baroclinic processes", which involve changes in the generation of wave activity by baroclinic instability. In this study, experiments with a fully nonlinear quasi-geostrophic model are discussed which provide independent confirmation of the importance of barotropic versus baroclinic processes. The experiments take advantage of the steady-state balance at upper-levels between the meridional gradient in diabatic heating and the second derivative of the upper-level EP flux divergence. Simulations with standard Newtonian heating are compared to simulations with constant-in-time heating taken from the climatology of the standard run and it is found that the forced annular mode response to changes in surface friction is very similar. Moreover, as expected from the annular mode response, the eddy momentum fluxes are also very similar. This is despite the fact that the upper-level EP flux divergence is very different between the two simulations (upper-level EP flux divergence must remain constant in the constant heating simulation while in the standard simulation there is no such constraint). The upper-level balances are maintained by a large change in the baroclinic wave source (i.e. vertical EP flux), which is accompanied by little momentum flux change. Therefore the eddy momentum fluxes appear to be relatively insensitive to the wave
Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons
Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W
2006-09-01
To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 {mu}m by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system,and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.
Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation
Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.
1983-07-13
A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.
Histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome presenting with annular erythematous plaques*
Marcarini, Renata; de Araujo, Raquel Nardelli; Nóbrega, Monisa Martins; Medeiros, Karina Bittencourt; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Maceira, Juan Manuel Piñeiro
2016-01-01
Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease described in 2005 as a variant of the classical Sweet's Syndrome (SS). Histopathologically, the dermal inflammatory infiltrate is composed mainly of mononuclear cells that have a histiocytic appearance and represent immature myeloid cells. We describe a case of Histiocytoid Sweet's Syndrome in an 18-year-old man. Although this patient had clinical manifestations compatible with SS, the cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous annular plaques, which are not typical for this entity and have not been described in histiocytic form so far. The histiocytic subtype was confirmed by histopathological analysis that showed positivity for myeloperoxidase in multiple cells with histiocytic appearance. PMID:28300927
Asymmetric Separation and Perturbation Sensitivity in an Annular Diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffman, Jesse; Morris, Scott; Jemcov, Aleksander; Cameron, Joshua
2013-11-01
When an annular diffuser stalls, the separation can take many forms. Experiments show that one type of separation appears to be asymmetric and periodic. This asymmetry appears to be influenced by upstream and downstream components and inlet flow conditions. By understanding the changes effected at the exit of the diffuser by the inlet perturbations, the diffuser performance can be more accurately predicted within a system. This work aims to understand the influence of velocity perturbations at the inlet of the diffuser on the overall duct performance. This is done by application of the Euler equations and a RANS simulation for various circumferential wavenumbers.
Cylindrical plasmas generated by an annular beam of ultraviolet light
Thomas, D. M.; Allen, J. E.
2015-07-15
We investigate a cylindrical plasma system with ionization, by an annular beam of ultraviolet light, taking place only in the cylinder's outer region. In the steady state, both the outer and inner regions contain a plasma, with that in the inner region being uniform and field-free. At the interface between the two regions, there is an infinitesimal jump in ion density, the magnitude approaching zero in the quasi-neutral (λ{sub D} → 0) limit. The system offers the possibility of producing a uniform stationary plasma in the laboratory, hitherto obtained only with thermally produced alkali plasmas.
Detonation Initiation by Annular Jets and Shock Waves
2007-11-02
11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18, 19,20,21,22 to better understand the shock implosion process. The current interest in air-breathing pulse detonation engines ( PDEs ) has led...This technology has yet to be realized and, as a result, current PDEs use initiator tubes sensitized with oxygen 23 or detonate more sensitive mixtures... Detonation Initiation by Annular Jets and Shock Waves Final Report for Award ONR N00014-03 -0931 Joseph E. Shepherd Aeronautics California Institute
Novel Annular and Subvalvular Enlargement in Congenital Mitral Valve Replacement.
Carroll, Nels D; Beers, Kevin M; Maldonado, Elaine M; Calhoon, John H; Husain, S Adil
2016-09-01
Reparative procedures are not always feasible in congenitally abnormal mitral valves. Mechanical prosthesis has been accepted as the choice for valve replacement in the pediatric population. This report describes a case of congenital mitral valve disease requiring mitral valve replacement. The infant's mitral valve annulus was not amenable to placement of the smallest available mechanical prosthesis. The approach used here for annular and subvalvular enlargement facilitated implantation of a larger prosthesis for congenital mitral valve replacement. Five-year outcomes in a single patient may indicate broader applicability and avoidance of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Preparative-scale proteins seperations by continuous annular chromatography
Bloomingburg, G.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )
1989-01-01
The use of continuous annular chromatography (CAC) for the separation of protein mixtures is studied in a preparative-scale CAC unit. S-Sepharose, a strong-acid porous cation exchange resin is used as the separation medium mixtures of albumin, hemoglobin, and cytochrome-C are used as a model separation system. Equilibrium and mass transfer parameter are developed for this system on the basis of fixed-bed chromatograph experiments. A mathematical model is then successfully used in conjunction with these parameters to simulate the performance of the CAC separations. 11 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
New fluxon resonant mechanism in annular Josephson tunnel structures.
Nappi, C; Lisitskiy, M P; Rotoli, G; Cristiano, R; Barone, A
2004-10-29
A novel dynamical state has been observed in the dynamics of a perturbed sine-Gordon system. This resonant state has been experimentally observed as a singularity in the dc current-voltage characteristic of an annular Josephson tunnel junction, excited in the presence of a magnetic field. In this respect it can be assimilated to self-resonances known as Fiske steps. Differently from these, however, we demonstrate, on the basis of numerical simulations, that its detailed dynamics involves rotating fluxon pairs, a mechanism associated, so far, to self-resonances known as zero-field steps. This occurs because the size of nonlinear excitations is comparable with that of the system.
A study of unsteady flow induced by annular cascade
Takama, N.; Yoshiki, H.; Nishimura, K.; Sumiyoshi, K.
1999-07-01
The authors have experimentally studied phenomena of unsteady flow induced by annular cascade. The test apparatus consists of a swirl generator connected to a suction-type wind tunnel. The swirl generator duplicates variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV). The authors measured distributions of velocity flow by a hot wire anemometer and a three-hole Pilot tube, and pressure by semiconductor transducers. Results are: (1) the Strouhal number is independent of Reynolds number under each experimental condition; (2) the velocity wave propagates from pressure side of a vane to suction side of a neighboring vane; and (3) the setting angle of VIGV has effects on a fundamental frequency.
Structure Limits for a 30mm Annular Piston.
1988-05-01
Properties ," BRL Report #1359, Mar 1971. 4. Republic Steel Corp., "Precipitation Hardenable Stainless Steel, PH13 -8MO, 15-5 PH, PH15-7MO, 17-4 PH, 17...u * 3 *1938 - Serving the Army for Fifty Years - 1988 STRUCTURE LIMITS FOR A *30-MMA ANN.,\\ULAR PISTON CRIS WATSON DTIC MAY 1988 JUN 14 8 APPROVED...NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8 b OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATIONj (If applicable) r-c ADDRESS (City, State
Quantum efficiencies in a multi-annular photocatalytic reactor.
Imoberdorf, G E; Irazoqui, H A; Cassano, A E; Alfano, O M
2007-01-01
Radiative energy efficiencies of a multi-annular photocatalytic reactor were evaluated and analysed. The total quantum efficiency, defined as the ratio of the number of molecules of the pollutant reacted to the number of photons emitted by the lamp, is expressed as the product of three factors: (i) the reactor radiation incidence efficiency, (ii) the catalyst radiation absorption efficiency, and (iii) the overall reaction quantum efficiency. By means of a detailed mathematical model, the numerical values of each one were 83, 92, and 0-2.5%, respectively. The dependence of the overall reaction quantum efficiency upon operating variables was also studied.
Turbulent two-phase flow in annular seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beatty, P. A.; Hughes, W. F.
1986-01-01
Steady, turbulent two-phase fluid flow in a rotating annular seal with no eccentricity is analyzed. The fluid is assumed to be a homogeneous mixture of liquid and vapor in thermodynamic equilibrum. Further, the flow is assumed to be adiabatic, but the effects due to heat generation by viscous dissipation are accounted for fully. Solution of the model governing differential equations is accomplished by use of a fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme. The calculation of mass leakage rates under choked and unchoked conditions are discussed and the phenomenon of all-liquid choked flow is explained. Several numerical examples are presented supposing cyrogenic oxygen as the sealed fluid.
Generation and control of Bessel beams based on annular reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yongdong; Qu, Weijuan; Jiao, Lishi; Zhang, Yilei
2015-05-01
A straightforward but powerful method to generate Bessel beams with continuous control of spot size, intensity and non-diffraction zone length has been successfully developed and verified based on annular reflections using a digital micromirror device (DMD). Reflective circular ring patterns were loaded in a DMD placed in the focal point of a converging lens to generate Bessel beams with tremendous flexibility and control. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer method was applied to reconstruct the wavefront of the generated beam to prove the successful generation of the Bessel beam. This simple but powerful method has great potential in many applications, such as imaging and particle manipulation.
Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schultz, D. F.
1974-01-01
A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.
[Anatomoclinical study of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma].
Margerin, F; Cribier, B
2017-10-01
Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG), a rare entity first described in 1979, is very similar to O'Brien actinic granuloma (AG), first described in 1975. Since then, many cases have been published under one or other of the two names. We performed a single-centre histopathology study to identify the distinguishing features and determine whether there was any objective difference between AEGCG and AG. Cases classed as AEGCG or AG at the dermatopathology laboratory in Strasbourg were included and analysed using haematoxylin-eosin, orcein and Alcian blue staining. The diagnosis was made in the event of granuloma rich in multi-nucleated giant cells and reduction or disappearance of elastic tissue. Clinical data were collected from the analysis requests and clinical files. We identified 73 cases: 12 classed as AEGCG and 61 classed as AG. Mean age was 60.5 years with a sex ratio of 0.55. The duration of the disease ranged from 8 days to 17 years. A single lesion was seen in 52% of cases with multiple lesions in the remaining cases. Lesions measured between 0.3 and 10cm and exhibited a predilection for photo-exposed areas, chiefly on the head, neck and upper limbs. In most cases, an annular erythematous edge was seen together with a light centre, and slow centrifugal spread. The diagnosis was made by a clinician in only 5.5% of cases. These granulomas were chiefly in the superficial and mid dermis and only rarely deep, and contained numerous giant cells with a constant contingent of lymphocytes, but plasma cells were also seen in half of the cases. Orcein staining revealed marked decrease or total disappearance of elastic tissue within the granulomatous area together with elastophagocytosis in practically all images. More rarely, there was evidence of necrobiosis, palisading granuloma, vascular involvement or orcein-stained asteroid bodies. There were no notable clinical or histological differences between the cases initially classed as AEGCG or AG. AEGCG
Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W.
2006-09-01
To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 μm by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system, and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.
Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project
Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar
2008-01-31
MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research ENergy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in poer density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghuse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.
Beamforming using spatial matched filtering with annular arrays (L).
Kim, Kang-Sik; Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F
2007-04-01
A linear array beamforming method for ultrasonic B-mode imaging using spatial matched filtering (SMF) and a rectangular aperture geometry was recently proposed Kim et al., [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 852-861 (2006)]. This letter extends those results to include circularly symmetric apertures. SMF applied to annular arrays can improve the lateral resolution and echo signal-to-noise ratio as compared with conventional dynamic-receive delay-sum beamforming. At high frequencies, where delay and sum beamforming is problematic, SMF showed greatly improved target contrast over an extended field of view.
Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) magnetic rotary joint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, W. E.; Quach, W.; Thomas, W.
1993-01-01
The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) is a prototype of flight hardware for a high-accuracy space payload pointing mount. The long term project objective is to perform modifications and implement improvements to the existing ASPS in hopes of recommission. Also, new applications will be investigated for this technology. This report will focus on the first aspect of this overall goal, to establish operation of a single bearing station. Presented is an overview of the system history and bearing operation followed by the processes, results, and status of the single bearing study.
Identification of dynamic coefficients of annular turbulent seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nordmann, R.; Massmann, H.
1984-01-01
An identification procedure to determine dynamic coefficients of annular turbulent seals in turbopumps is presented. Measurements were carried out at a built test rig with two symmetrical arranged seals. A rigid rotating shaft is surrounded by an elastically supported housing, which is excited by impact forces. The relative radial motion between the rotating parts and the housing, respectively between the seal surfaces, is measured by displacement pick-ups and from the time signals complex frequency response functions can be calculated. Finally an analytical model, depending on the seal parameters, is fitted to the measured data, to find the dynamic coefficients.
Non-linear analysis of moderately thick sector plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Y.; Sharda, H. B.; Sharma, Ashish
2005-10-01
Non-linear static analysis of moderately thick sector plates under uniformly distributed loading is presented. Using the first-order shear deformation theory and Von Karman type non-linearity, the governing equations of equilibrium are developed and expressed in terms of displacement components. The Chebyshev polynomial is used for spatial discretization of the differential equations. An iterative incremental approach based on Newton-Raphson method is used for the solution. Convergence study is carried out. Effects of annularity, thickness ratio, sector angle and boundary conditions are investigated. Results are compared with those available from the literature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.
Non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry for aspheric test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lei; Liu, Dong; Shi, Tu; Yang, Yongying; Chong, Shiyao; Miao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Shen, Yibing; Bai, Jian
2015-10-01
A non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry (NASSI), combining the subaperture stitching idea and non-null test method, is proposed for steep aspheric testing. Compared with standard annular subaperture stitching interferometry (ASSI), a partial null lens (PNL) is employed as an alternative to the transmission sphere, to generate different aspherical wavefronts as the references. The coverage subaperture number would thus be reduced greatly for the better performance of aspherical wavefronts in matching the local slope of aspheric surfaces. Instead of various mathematical stitching algorithms, a simultaneous reverse optimizing reconstruction (SROR) method based on system modeling and ray tracing is proposed for full aperture figure error reconstruction. All the subaperture measurements are simulated simultaneously with a multi-configuration model in a ray-tracing program, including the interferometric system modeling and subaperture misalignments modeling. With the multi-configuration model, full aperture figure error would be extracted in form of Zernike polynomials from subapertures wavefront data by the SROR method. This method concurrently accomplishes subaperture retrace error and misalignment correction, requiring neither complex mathematical algorithms nor subaperture overlaps. A numerical simulation exhibits the comparison of the performance of the NASSI and standard ASSI, which demonstrates the high accuracy of the NASSI in testing steep aspheric. Experimental results of NASSI are shown to be in good agreement with that of Zygo® VerifireTM Asphere interferometer.
Coupled counterrotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials
Dreismann, Alexander; Cristofolini, Peter; Balili, Ryan; Christmann, Gabriel; Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natasha G.; Hatzopoulos, Zacharias; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.
2014-01-01
Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose–Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 μm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics. PMID:24889642
A compact annular ring microstrip antenna for WSN applications.
Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie
2012-01-01
A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and -2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.
Swirling Annular Flow Experiments with Application to Plasma Torches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, L. E.; Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.
2001-11-01
Swirling flows have many applications such as combustors and cyclone separators. Here, a turbulent swirling annular cold-flow experiment is conducted in order to gain insight into conditions within a plasma cutting torch. Compressed air is forced through six circumferentially-spaced holes that impart tangential velocity to the flow at the annulus inlet. The flow subsequently traverses an annulus of L/D1 =1.8 before exiting through a sonic nozzle. The annulus (created by a cylindrical cathode in the center of the actual plasma torch) is viewable through an outer plexiglass cylinder in our 11:1 scaled-up cold-flow apparatus. Surface oil-flow visualization and laser sheet imaging are employed to investigate the annular flowfield at a Reynolds number of about 1000 based on gap width D2-D1. Results of these experiments, leading to a physical model of the flowfield, are shown. These results are helpful in understanding and improving the fluid-dynamic behavior of actual plasma torches, widely used to cut sheet metal in manufacturing. Supported by Hypertherm Inc.
Oscillation Characteristics of Thermocapillary Convection in An Open Annular Pool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Li; Kang, Qi; Zhang, Di
2016-07-01
Temperature oscillation characteristics and free surface deformation are essential phenomena in fluids with free surface. We report experimental oscillatory behaviors for hydrothermal wave instability in thermocapillary-driven flow in an open annular pool of silicone oil. The annular pool is heated from the inner cylindrical wall with the radius 4mm and cooled at the outer wall with radius 20mm, and the depth of the silicone oil layer is in the range of 0.8mm-3mm.Temperature difference between the two sidewalls was increased gradually, and the flow will become unstable via a super critical temperature difference. In the present paper we used T-type thermocouple measuring the single-point temperature inside the liquid layer and captured the tiny micrometer wave signal through a high-precision laser displacement sensor. The critical temperature difference and critical Ma number of onset of oscillation have been obtained. We discussed the critical temperature difference and critical Marangoni number varies with the change of the depth of liquid layer, and the relationship between the temperature oscillation and surface oscillation has been discussed. Experimental results show that temperature oscillation and surface oscillation start almost at the same time with similar spectrum characteristic.
Linear and nonlinear stability of periodic orbits in annular billiards.
Dettmann, Carl P; Fain, Vitaly
2017-04-01
An annular billiard is a dynamical system in which a particle moves freely in a disk except for elastic collisions with the boundary and also a circular scatterer in the interior of the disk. We investigate the stability properties of some periodic orbits in annular billiards in which the scatterer is touching or close to the boundary. We analytically show that there exist linearly stable periodic orbits of an arbitrary period for scatterers with decreasing radii that are located near the boundary of the disk. As the position of the scatterer moves away from a symmetry line of a periodic orbit, the stability of periodic orbits changes from elliptic to hyperbolic, corresponding to a saddle-center bifurcation. When the scatterer is tangent to the boundary, the periodic orbit is parabolic. We prove that slightly changing the reflection angle of the orbit in the tangential situation leads to the existence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. Thus, we show that there exists a decreasing to zero sequence of open intervals of scatterer radii, along which the billiard table is not ergodic.
The Effect of Nonuniform Inlet Conditions on Annular Diffusers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla, Angelina; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John
2010-11-01
Most practical diffusers have complex 3D geometries and may have highly disturbed inlet flows. The performance of diffusers designed for optimum pressure recovery is governed by flow separation which can be very sensitive to inlet perturbations. We are examining the effect of upstream disturbances on the performance of practical annular diffusers. Experiments are conducted in an annular diffuser sector containing a single NACA 0015 airfoil shaped support strut. Three component, time averaged velocities are measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry and static pressure data are measured with conventional wall taps. We are testing four inlet conditions: a uniform velocity profile with thin boundary layers and relatively low turbulence intensity, a similar case with higher turbulence levels, a mean profile with uniform velocity except for a high velocity wall jet at the outer radius, and a nonuniform profile in which the mean velocity decreases with increasing radius. Generally, the results show that the diffuser acts to increase flow distortion. For the case with the radial velocity gradient, passing through the diffuser strongly increases the velocity gradient. The wall jet on the outer (diffusing) wall eliminates flow separation resulting in higher pressure recovery and thicker wall boundary layers on the other three walls. Interestingly, the separated wake of the support strut closes more rapidly for the case with the radial velocity gradient.
Mount assembly for porous transition panel at annular combustor outlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sweeney, Ralph B. (Inventor); Verdouw, Albert J. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
A gas turbine engine combustor assembly of annular configuration has outer and inner walls made up of a plurality of axially extending multi-layered porous metal panels joined together at butt joints therebetween and each outer and inner wall including a transition panel of porous metal defining a combustor assembly outlet supported by a combustor mount assembly including a stiffener ring having a side undercut thereon fit over a transition panel end face; and wherein an annular weld joins the ring to the end face to transmit exhaust heat from the end face to the stiffener ring for dissipation from the combustor; a combustor pilot member is located in axially spaced, surrounding relationship to the end face and connector means support the stiffener ring in free floating relationship with the pilot member to compensate for both radial and axial thermal expansion of the transition panel; and said connector means includes a radial gap for maintaining a controlled flow of coolant from outside of the transition panel into cooling relationship with the stiffener ring and said weld to further cool the end face against excessive heat build-up therein during flow of hot gas exhaust through said outlet.
Portal annular pancreas: a systematic review of a clinical challenge.
Harnoss, Jonathan M; Harnoss, Julian C; Diener, Markus K; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B; Büchler, Markus W; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H
2014-10-01
Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered.In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery).Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option.
Baroclinic annular variability of internal motions in a Patagonian fjord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Lauren; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Pérez-Santos, Iván.; Tapia, Fabian J.; Schneider, Wolfgang
2015-08-01
Time series of horizontal velocities, echo intensity, wind velocity, and atmospheric pressure were collected for ˜200 days in a Patagonian fjord to explore pycnocline motions produced by the Southern Hemisphere's baroclinic annular mode (BAM). The BAM variability occurs between 20 and 30 days and is associated with fluctuations in atmospheric kinetic energy and in turbulent fluxes of heat. Spectra of horizontal velocities and normalized echo intensity in the fjord's water showed highest energy between 25 and 30 days. This was explained by sustained westerly winds associated with extreme low-pressure systems (˜900 hPa) that had periodicity related to the BAM. Wind forcing produced >40 cm s-1 along-channel and cross-channel currents in the surface layer, which in turn created a wind-induced setup toward the head of the fjord. The setup was accompanied by a deepening of the pycnocline (from 5 to 15 m depth) with ˜25 to 30 day periodicity, as derived from the normalized echo intensity. The dominant empirical orthogonal function mode of the normalized echo intensity profiles explained 70.8% of the variance and also exhibited a ˜25-30 day periodicity. Further, a wavelet and spectral analysis of 10 years of atmospheric pressure indicated peaks between 25 and 30 days each year, indicating that the BAM consistently influences weather patterns in Chilean Patagonia. This is the first documented case of baroclinic annular variability in a specific region of the Southern Hemisphere, and of its effects on fjord systems.
Gouy phase shift for annular beam profiles in attosecond experiments.
Schlaepfer, F; Ludwig, A; Lucchini, M; Kasmi, L; Volkov, M; Gallmann, L; Keller, U
2017-02-20
Attosecond pump-probe measurements are typically performed by combining attosecond pulses with more intense femtosecond, phase-locked infrared (IR) pulses because of the low average photon flux of attosecond light sources based on high-harmonic generation (HHG). Furthermore, the strong absorption of materials at the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths of the attosecond pulses typically prevents the use of transmissive optics. As a result, pump and probe beams are typically recombined geometrically with a center-hole mirror that reflects the larger IR beam and transmits the smaller XUV, which leads to an annular beam profile of the IR. This modification of the IR beam can affect the pump-probe measurements because the propagation that follows the reflection on the center-hole mirror can strongly deviate from that of an ideal Gaussian beam. Here we present a detailed experimental study of the Gouy phase of an annular IR beam across the focus using a two-foci attosecond beamline and the RABBITT (reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions) technique. Our measurements show a Gouy phase shift of the truncated beam as large as 2π and a corresponding rate of 50 as/mm time delay change across the focus in a RABBITT measurement. These results are essential for attosecond pump-probe experiments that compare measurements of spatially separated targets.
A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications
Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie
2012-01-01
A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels. PMID:23012510
Novel applications of continuous annular chromatography: Separation of sugars
Howard, A.J.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.
1987-01-01
Continuous chromatographic separations of fructose-glucose-sucrose mixtures have been investigated experimentally in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph using Ca-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin as adsorbent. Comparative chromatographic separation studies have also been conducted for the system using a conventional fixed-bed column packed with the same resin. Complete resolution of fructose-glucose mixtures could be obtained both in a 60 cm-long continuous annular chromatograph and in a conventional column of the same length with sugars feed concentration up to 200 g/L. In the four-component mixture blue dextran (higher molecular weight saccharide), sucrose, glucose and fructose complete rsolution of all species except sucrose-glucose under the relatively mild separating conditions tested. The experimental results have been analyzed in terms of approximate linear chromatographic theories for fixed and rotating beds. Bed properties and equilibrium and mass transfer parameters used in the model were obtained through independent experiments. With these parameters a good fit to the experimental results was obtained. Differences in feed mixtures and dispersion characteristics contribute to the minor offset between fixed bed and continuous chromatograph results. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Critical Heat Flux in a Thin Annular Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habtour, Ahmed; Anderson, Elgin
2002-11-01
The improved accuracy in predicting critical heat flux (CHF) for specific reactor core geometry would allow for increased power output. The objectives of this project were to incorporate a scale model test to determine the feasibility of generating high power density in an annular fuel arrangement in a reactor. The desired power density was 100W/cm2. This would be accomplished by using resistive heating on the outer cylinder of an annular flow channel between concentric cylinders. The inner cylinder consists of a hemispherical shape in the upstream direction to condition the flow. The second objective was to study the behavior of two-phase flow through a simulated reactor core. The CHF would be measured and compared with existing correlations. Finally, the concept of a future full scale testing would be investigated. The results of this project are not only applicable to nuclear reactors, but can be used to increase the efficiency of other applications such as fuel cells, combustion engines, turbines and polymer processes.
Flow properties of particles in a model annular shear cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.
2012-05-01
In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and rheological properties of solid flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell, we performed a series of discrete particle simulations of slightly polydispersed spheres from quasi-static to intermediate flow regimes. It is shown that the average values of stress tensor components are uniformly distributed in the cell space away from the stationary walls; however, some degree of inhomogeneity in their spatial distributions does exist. A linear relationship between the (internal/external) shear and normal stresses prevails in the shear cell and the internal and external friction coefficients can compare well with each other. It is confirmed that annular shear cells are reasonably effective as a method of measuring particle flow properties. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is rigorously tested in this cell system. The results unambiguously display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime with a high correlation coefficient. However, significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime, which corresponds to very small values of inertial number.
Effects of Gravity on Bubble Formation in an Annular Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koepp, R. A.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.
2004-01-01
The effects of gravity on the bubble formation in an annular jet were studied. The experiments were conducted in the 2.2-second drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Terrestrial gravity experiments were conducted at the Fluid Dynamics Research Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma. Stainless steel tubing with inner diameters of 1/8" (gas inner annulus) and 5/16" (liquid outer annulus) served as the injector. A rectangular test section, 6" x 6" x 14" tall, made out of half-inch thick Lexan was used. Images of the annular jet were acquired using a high-speed camera. The effects of gravity and varying liquid and gas flow rates on bubble size, wavelength, and breakup length were documented. In general, the bubble diameter was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity for varying Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16 and 5 - 11) and liquid flow rates (1.5 ft/s - 3.0 ft/s). The wavelength was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity, but remained constant for varying Weber numbers. For low Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16), the breakup length in microgravity was significantly higher than in terrestrial gravity. Comparison with linear stability analysis showed estimated bubble sizes within 9% of experimental bubble sizes. Bubble size compared to other terrestrial gravity experiments with same flow conditions showed distinct differences in bubble size, which displayed the importance of injector geometry on bubble formation.
Characterization of interfacial waves in horizontal core-annular flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Sumit; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Singh, Ramesh; Tabor, Rico F.
2016-11-01
In this work, we characterize interfacial waves in horizontal core annular flow (CAF) of fuel-oil and water. Experimental studies on CAF were performed in an acrylic pipe of 15.5mm internal diameter, and the time evolution of the oil-water interface shape was recorded with a high speed camera for a range of different flow-rates of oil (Qo) and water (Qw). The power spectrum of the interface shape shows a range of notable features. First, there is negligible energy in wavenumbers larger than 2 π / a , where a is the thickness of the annulus. Second, for high Qo /Qw , there is no single dominant wavelength, as the flow in the confined annulus does not allow formation of a preferred mode. Third, for lower Qo /Qw , a dominant mode arises at a wavenumber of 2 π / a . We also observe that the power spectrum of the interface shape depends weakly on Qw, and strongly on Qo, perhaps because the net shear rate in the annulus appears to depend weakly on Qw as well. We also attempt to build a general empirical model for CAF by relating the interfacial stress (calculated via the mean pressure gradient) to the flow rate in the annulus, the annular thickness and the core velocity. Authors are thankful to Orica Mining Services (Australia) for the financial support.
Design Attributes and Scale Up Testing of Annular Centrifugal Contactors
David H. Meikrantz; Jack D. Law
2005-04-01
Annular centrifugal contactors are being used for rapid yet efficient liquid- liquid processing in numerous industrial and government applications. Commercialization of this technology began eleven years ago and now units with throughputs ranging from 0.25 to 700 liters per minute are readily available. Separation, washing, and extraction processes all benefit from the use of this relatively new commercial tool. Processing advantages of this technology include: low in-process volume per stage, rapid mixing and separation in a single unit, connection-in-series for multi-stage use, and a wide operating range of input flow rates and phase ratios without adjustment. Recent design enhancements have been added to simplify maintenance, improve inspection ability, and provide increased reliability. Cartridge-style bearing and mechanical rotary seal assemblies that can include liquid-leak sensors are employed to enhance remote operations, minimize maintenance downtime, prevent equipment damage, and extend service life. Clean-in-place capability eliminates the need for disassembly, facilitates the use of contactors for feed clarification, and can be automated for continuous operation. In nuclear fuel cycle studies, aqueous based separations are being developed that efficiently partition uranium, actinides, and fission products via liquid-liquid solvent extraction. Thus, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a significant role in the design of such new processes. Laboratory scale studies using mini-contactors have demonstrated feasibility for many such separation processes but validation at an engineering scale is needed to support actual process design.
Linear and nonlinear stability of periodic orbits in annular billiards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmann, Carl P.; Fain, Vitaly
2017-04-01
An annular billiard is a dynamical system in which a particle moves freely in a disk except for elastic collisions with the boundary and also a circular scatterer in the interior of the disk. We investigate the stability properties of some periodic orbits in annular billiards in which the scatterer is touching or close to the boundary. We analytically show that there exist linearly stable periodic orbits of an arbitrary period for scatterers with decreasing radii that are located near the boundary of the disk. As the position of the scatterer moves away from a symmetry line of a periodic orbit, the stability of periodic orbits changes from elliptic to hyperbolic, corresponding to a saddle-center bifurcation. When the scatterer is tangent to the boundary, the periodic orbit is parabolic. We prove that slightly changing the reflection angle of the orbit in the tangential situation leads to the existence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. Thus, we show that there exists a decreasing to zero sequence of open intervals of scatterer radii, along which the billiard table is not ergodic.
The Growth of Instabilities in Annular Liquid Sheets
Duke, Daniel J.; Honnery, Damon R; Soria, Julio
2015-11-01
An annular liquid sheet surrounded by parallel co-flowing gas is an effective atomiser. However, the initial instabilities which determine the primary break-up of the liquid sheet are not well understood. Lack of agreement on the influence of the boundary conditions and the non-dimension scaling of the initial instability persists between theoretical stability analyses and experiments. To address this matter, we have undertaken an experimental parametric study of an aerodynamically-driven, non-swirling annular water sheet. The effects of sheet thickness, inner and outer gas-liquid momentum ratio were investigated over an order of magnitude variation in Reynolds and Weber number. From high-speed image correlation measurements in the near-nozzle region, we propose new empirical correlations for the frequency of the instability as a function of the total gas-liquid momentum ratio, with good non-dimensional collapse. From analysis of the instability velocity probability densities, we find two persistent and distinct superimposed instabilities with different growth rates. The first is a short-lived, rapidly saturating sawtooth-like instability. The second is a slower-growing stochastic instability which persists through the break-up of the sheet. The presence of multiple instabilities whose growth rates do not strongly correlate with the shear velocities may explain some of the discrepancies between experiments and stability analyses.
Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis of Youth: A Chronic Case Managed Using Pimecrolimus.
Malachowski, Stephen J; Creasey, Mackenzie; Kinkley, Nancy; Heaphy, Michael R
2016-11-01
Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth, first described in 2003, is a rare and occasionally chronic skin disease. We report a case of annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth relapsing over the course of 5 years successfully treated and maintained with topical pimecrolimus cream.
Souza, Fernanda Homem de Mello de; Ribeiro, Camila Ferrari; Pereira, Marcela Abou Chami; Mesquita, Lismary; Fabrício, Lincoln
2011-01-01
Simultaneous occurrence of granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica is quite rare. There are seven reported cases in the literature, but only one presenting ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica. We report a 39-year-old male with histopathologically confirmed granuloma annulare and ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica, without diabetes mellitus.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groom, N. J.
1979-01-01
An analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator with permanent magnet fluxbiasing is presented. An AMCD consists of a spinning annular rim which is suspended by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic spin motor. The actuator is treated as a lumped-parameter electromechanical system in the development of the model.
Annular Flow Liquid Film Dynamics in Pipes and Bod Bundle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Peng
Average liquid film thickness is important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular two-phase flow in engineering applications. The existing models and correlations either have large relative errors or narrow application range. Because of this, a new liquid film thickness model has been developed for vertical annular flow in pipes based on three databases. The model includes the pressure, liquid and gas velocities, diameter, and viscosity effects on liquid film thickness. Analysis indicates the film thickness to be a function of Weber numbers for both liquid and gas, and the viscosity number. The model is compared with film thickness data which considers a wide range of liquid and gas superficial velocities, system pressure, fluid properties, as well as several pipe diameters. The trend in the current and available film thickness models at various system conditions are analyzed, highlighting the improvement and widening applicability of the new model. The newly proposed film thickness model results in an average relative error of 14% considering the complete database. Interfacial friction factor in annular two-phase flow is essential both for detailed modeling of two-fluid model and the calculation of pressure gradient. Most of the existing correlations on interfacial friction factor are based on Wallis 1969's correlation, which considers the interfacial friction factor as a function of film thickness. In this research, a new correlation of interfacial friction factor that is based on the wave characteristics has been proposed. The wave characteristics is considered to be a function of a group of non-dimensional numbers. Since the effects of wave characteristics for ripples waves and disturbance waves on interfacial friction factors are different, the correlation is divided into two sub-correlations based on these two wave regimes. The new correlation has been compared with a wide range of data. From the data comparison, the new correlation shows significant