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Sample records for elastomeric impression materials

  1. [Elastomeric impression materials].

    PubMed

    Levartovsky, S; Folkman, M; Alter, E; Pilo, R

    2011-04-01

    Elastomeric impression materials are in common use. The impression taken should be highly precise, thus, requiring specific care when manipulatingthese materials. There are 4 groups of elastomers; polysulfide, condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether; each differ in their setting mechanism and their physical and chemical properties. This review elaborates the major properties of elastomers and its implications on their use. The impression material is inserted into the patient's mouth in a viscous state and transforms into viscoelastic state, upon withdrawal, influencing the residual deformation. The requirements are minimal residual deformation or maximal elastic recovery. As the mouth is a wet environment a major consideration is hydrophilicity. The wettability which is estimated by measuring either the contact angle of a droplet of water and the substrate post setting or the contact angle of a droplet of impression material and the wet tooth pre setting, determines the interaction of the material with both mouth fluids and gypsum. As the primary end target is to obtain a model depicting accurately the oral details, an attention to the impressions' compatibility with gypsum should also be given. Many studies were conducted to get a thorough understanding of the hydrophilic properties of each material, and the mechanism utilized, such as surfactants in hydrophilic PVS. Polyether is the only material that is truly hydrophilic; it exhibits the lowest contact angle, during and after setting. Recent studies show that during setting the Polyether hydrophilicity is increased compared to the condition after setting. Dimensional stability, a crucial property of the impression, is affected by the physical and chemical attributes of the material, such as its tear strength. Polysulfide has the highest tear strength. Tear Strength is affected by two major parameters, viscosity, a built-in property, and how fast the impression is pulled out of the mouth, the

  2. Comparison of elastomeric impression materials' thixotropic behavior.

    PubMed

    Tolidis, K; Tortopidist, D; Gerasimou, P; Theocharidou, A; Boutsiouki, C

    2013-06-01

    The improved flow characteristics of new elastomeric impression materials are significant factors in the selection ofsuitableproductsfor clinical applications. The aim of this study was to assess the thixotropic behavior and compare the flow characteristics of seven different elastomeric impression materials using a shark fin test. One polyvinylsiloxane showed the highest shark fin height values, while the newly formed vinylsiloxanether material exhibited no significant differences when compared with two polyvinylsiloxanes. One of the five polyvinylosiloxanes presented significantly lower shark fin values than all other materials. It was concluded that flow characteristics for most of the tested materials are acceptable.

  3. Contact angle of unset elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Menees, Timothy S; Radhakrishnan, Rashmi; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2015-10-01

    Some elastomeric impression materials are hydrophobic, and it is often necessary to take definitive impressions of teeth coated with some saliva. New hydrophilic materials have been developed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare contact angles of water and saliva on 7 unset elastomeric impression materials at 5 time points from the start of mixing. Two traditional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) (Aquasil, Take 1), 2 modified PVS (Imprint 4, Panasil), a polyether (Impregum), and 2 hybrid (Identium, EXA'lence) materials were compared. Each material was flattened to 2 mm and a 5 μL drop of distilled water or saliva was dropped on the surface at 25 seconds (t0) after the start of mix. Contact angle measurements were made with a digital microscope at initial contact (t0), t1=2 seconds, t2=5 seconds, t3=50% working time, and t4=95% working time. Data were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model analysis, and individual 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests (α=.05). For water, materials grouped into 3 categories at all time-points: the modified PVS and one hybrid material (Identium) produced the lowest contact angles, the polyether material was intermediate, and the traditional PVS materials and the other hybrid (EXA'lence) produced the highest contact angles. For saliva, Identium, Impregum, and Imprint 4 were in the group with the lowest contact angle at most time points. Modified PVS materials and one of the hybrid materials are more hydrophilic than traditional PVS materials when measured with water. Saliva behaves differently than water in contact angle measurement on unset impression material and produces a lower contact angle on polyether based materials. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of dimensional stability of autoclavable elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Surendra, G P; Anjum, Ayesha; Satish Babu, C L; Shetty, Shilpa

    2011-03-01

    Impressions are important sources of cross contamination between patients and dental laboratories. As a part of infection control impressions contaminated with variety of micro-organisms via blood and oral secretions should be cleaned and disinfected or sterilized before being handled in dental laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression material (polyvinyl siloxane-Affinis). In this in vitro study standardized stainless steel die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis) light body and putty viscosity elastomeric impression materials were used. A total of 40 impressions of the stainless steel die were made and numeric coding system was used to identify the samples. Measurements were made using a measuring microscope. Distance between the cross lines CD and C'D' reproduced in the impression were measured before autoclaving, immediately after autoclaving and 24 hours after autoclaving and dimensional change was calculated. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean difference in dimensional change between the three groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). However the results revealed that there was higher mean dimensional change immediately after autoclaving when compared to the other 2 time intervals. It is desirable to delay the casting of an autoclavable elastomeric impression material by about 24 hours. Though disinfection of impression is routinely followed autoclaving of impression is an effective method of sterilization.

  5. Hydrophilicity of unset and set elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Frank; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the initial hydrophilicity of unset and set elastomeric impression materials. Initial water contact angles were studied on thin unset and set films of one polyether and six polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials using high-resolution drop shape analysis at drop ages of 1 and 3 seconds. All unset PVS materials were very hydrophobic initially but showed different kinetics of hydrophilization. In contrast, the unset polyether was more hydrophilic initially but lacked distinct hydrophilization. All impression materials showed statistically significant contact angle differences between unset and set surfaces (P < .05). Dependent on the drop age, two PVS materials reached or exceeded the hydrophilicity of the polyether (P < .05). It can be concluded that studies on the wetting behavior of elastomeric impression materials should consider both the experimental drop age and set and unset material surfaces.

  6. Wettability of elastomeric impression materials and voids in gypsum casts.

    PubMed

    Cullen, D R; Mikesell, J W; Sandrik, J L

    1991-08-01

    Numerous factors are involved in making an accurate void-free dental artificial stone cast or die. The relationship of the wettability of an elastomeric impression material and its interaction with the gypsum slurry is an important factor. This study examined the relative "pourability" of several impression materials by counting the number of resultant voids in artificial stone casts containing 48 point angles. Those elastomers that exhibited the lowest contact angle with water produced artificial stone casts with the fewest voids. Surfactants applied to the impression material significantly reduced the number of voids in artificial stone casts, as did modified elastomers designated by the manufacturer as hydrophilic.

  7. Ultrasonic monitoring of the setting of silicone elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Chie; Murayama, Ryosuke; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Imai, Arisa; Suda, Shunichi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-31

    This study used an ultrasonic measurement device to monitor the setting behavior of silicone elastomeric impression materials, and the influence of temperature on setting behavior was determined. The ultrasonic device consisted of a pulser-receiver, transducers, and an oscilloscope. The two-way transit time through the mixing material was divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path; then it was multiplied by the sonic velocity. Analysis of variance and the Tukey honest significant difference test were used. In the early stages of the setting process, most of the ultrasonic energy was absorbed by the elastomers and the second echoes were relatively weak. As the elastomers hardened, the sonic velocities increased until they plateaued. The changes in sonic velocities varied among the elastomers tested, and were affected by temperature conditions. The ultrasonic method used in this study has considerable potential for determining the setting processes of elastomeric impression materials.

  8. Accuracy of newly formulated fast-setting elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur P K; Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2005-06-01

    Elastomeric impression materials have been reformulated to achieve a faster set. The accuracy of fast-setting elastomeric impression materials should be confirmed, particularly with respect to disinfection. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of 2 types of fast-setting impression materials when disinfected with acid glutaraldehyde. Impressions of the mandibular arch of a modified dentoform master model were made, from which gypsum working casts and dies were formed. Measurements of the master model and working casts included anteroposterior (AP) and cross-arch (CA) dimensions. A stainless steel circular crown preparation incorporated within the master model was measured in buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), and occlusogingival (OG) dimensions and compared to measurements from recovered gypsum dies. The impression materials examined were a fast-set vinyl polysiloxane (VPS-FS, Aquasil Ultra Fast Set), a fast-set polyether (PE-FS, Impregum Penta Soft Quick Step), and a regular-setting polyether as a control (PE, Impregum Penta). Disinfection involved immersion in 3.5% acid glutaraldehyde (Banicide Advanced) for 20 minutes, and nondisinfected impressions served as a control. Linear measurements were made with a measuring microscope. Statistical analysis utilized a 2-way and single-factor analysis of variance with pair-wise comparison of mean values when appropriate. Hypothesis testing was conducted at alpha = .05 No differences were shown between the disinfected and nondisinfected conditions for all locations. However, there were statistical differences among the 3 materials for AP, CA, MD, and OG dimensions. AP and CA dimensions of all working casts were larger than the master model. Impressions produced oval-shaped working dies for all impression materials. PE and PE-FS working dies were larger in all dimensions compared to the stainless steel preparation, whereas VPS-FS-generated working dies were reduced in OG and MD dimensions. Differences

  9. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracies Using Two Elastomeric Impression Materials in Casting Three-dimensional Tool Marks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two types of impression materials which were frequently used for casting three-dimensional tool marks in China, namely (i) dental impression material and (ii) special elastomeric impression material for tool mark casting. The two different elastomeric impression materials were compared under equal conditions. The parameters measured were dimensional accuracies, the number of air bubbles, the ease of use, and the sharpness and quality of the individual characteristics present on casts. The results showed that dental impression material had the advantage of special elastomeric impression material in casting tool marks in crime scenes; hence, it combined ease of use, dimensional accuracy, sharpness and high quality.

  10. Recording surface detail on moist surfaces with elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Carrick, T E

    2006-03-01

    The objective was to assess the ability to accurately record detail on moist surfaces for three elastomeric impression materials derived from different polymers. One polyvinylsiloxane, one polyether and one hybrid material containing a copolymer of siloxane and polyether polymers were used. Impressions were recorded of moist gypsum casts having both a shallow (approximately 20 microm) and deep (approximately 180 microm) groove reproduced on their surface. The grooves in the casts and in the impressions were profiled using a non-contacting laser profilometer Comparisons were made between the groove depths in the casts and impressions (paired t-test). The results indicated that all of the tested materials accurately recorded dimensions in the x-y plane. However, there was evidence that the polyether and hybrid materials were more accurate than the polyvinylsiloxane in recording the true depths of the deep grooves (z plane) under moist conditions. It was concluded that the more hydrophilic nature of the polyether and hybrid materials enabled them to record more accurate impressions of moist surfaces, particularly in areas of difficult access as modelled by the deep grooves.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Francesco; Caputi, Sergio; D'Amario, Maurizio; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (n = 10), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas. PMID:26693227

  12. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison.

    PubMed

    Re, Dino; De Angelis, Francesco; Augusti, Gabriele; Augusti, Davide; Caputi, Sergio; D'Amario, Maurizio; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (n = 10), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas.

  13. Linear dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials over time.

    PubMed

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different elastomeric impression materials over time. A metal mold was designed with its custom trays, which were made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex sheets 0.125 mm thick). Three impressions were taken of it with each of the following: the polyvinylsiloxane Examix-GC-(AdEx), Aquasil-Dentsply-(AdAq) and Panasil-Kettenbach-(AdPa), and the polydimethylsiloxane Densell-Dental Medrano-(CoDe), Speedex-Coltene-(CoSp) and Lastic-Kettenbach-(CoLa). All impressions were taken with putty and light-body materials using a one-step technique. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes; 24 hours; 7 and 14 days), using an "ad-hoc" device, and analyzed using software (Image Tool) by measuring the distance between lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The initial and final values for mean and SD were: AdEx: 1.32 (0.01) and 1.31 (0.00); AdAq: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.00), AdPa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00); CoDe: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.01); CoSp: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00), CoLa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.303 (0.006). Statistical evaluation showed that both material and time have significant effects. Under the conditions in this study we conclude that time would significantly affect the lineal dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

  14. Pre- and post-set hydrophilicity of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Bakopoulou, Athina; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Garefis, Dimitris P; Garefis, Pavlos D

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the hydrophilicity of one polyether, four poly(vinyl siloxanes), and one condensation silicone before and after setting under simulated clinical conditions, and to correlate the findings to the contact angle values of these materials. The hydrophilicity before and after setting, as well as the contact angle values of the elastomeric impression materials were evaluated. Part I: A freshly extracted tooth, which was prepared for a full coverage restoration, was kept in saliva for 15 minutes and was then rinsed for 10 seconds. Impressions were taken without any drying of the tooth. A total of ten samples were taken for each material. The specimens were evaluated at a 10x magnification for defects. Part II: After the evaluation, the impressions were poured with a type IV dental stone and were left for 1 hour before separation. The stone specimens were then evaluated at a 10x magnification for negative voids. A total of 60 specimens were tested. Part III: Sixty identical 10 x 10 x 4 mm(2) plastic molds were used for the fabrication of the impression material specimens. Contact angle measurements of each specimen were made 1 hour after separation from the plastic mold. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop (0.05 ml) of saturated calcium sulfate dehydrate onto each specimen. Digital images were taken for each specimen, and contact angle values were measured with appropriate software. Part I: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences among the materials (F = 15.526, p < 0.0005). Polyether had the fewest voids. The poly(vinyl siloxanes) did not present any significant differences among them, according to Tukey's HSD test (p < 0.05). Part II: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences among the materials (F = 46.164, p < 0.0005). Polyether (Impregum) was the material which produced stone specimens with the fewest voids. Part III: One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among the elastomeric impression materials (F = 494.918, p < 0

  15. Correlation of impression removal force with elastomeric impression material rigidity and hardness.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mary P; Alderman, Nick; Petrie, Cynthia S; Melander, Jennifer; McGuire, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Difficult impression removal has been linked to high rigidity and hardness of elastomeric impression materials. In response to this concern, manufacturers have reformulated their materials to reduce rigidity and hardness to decrease removal difficulty; however, the relationship between impression removal and rigidity or hardness has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a positive correlation between impression removal difficulty and rigidity or hardness of current elastomeric impression materials. Light- and medium-body polyether (PE), vinylpolysiloxane (VPS), and hybrid vinyl polyether siloxane (VPES) impression materials were tested (n = 5 for each material/consistency/test method). Rigidity (elastic modulus) was measured via tensile testing of dumbbell-shaped specimens (Die C, ASTM D412). Shore A hardness was measured using disc specimens according to ASTM D2240-05 test specifications. Impressions were also made of a custom stainless steel model using a custom metal tray that could be attached to a universal tester to measure associated removal force. Within each impression material consistency, one-factor ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc analyses (α = 0.05) were used to compare rigidity, hardness, and removal force of the three types of impression materials. A Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05) was used to evaluate the association between impression removal force and rigidity or hardness. With medium-body materials, VPS exhibited significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) rigidity and hardness than VPES or PE, while PE impressions required significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) removal force than VPS or VPES impressions. With light-body materials, VPS again demonstrated significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) hardness than VPES or PE, while the rigidity of the light-body materials did not significantly differ between materials (p > 0.05); however, just as with the medium-body materials, light-body PE impressions required significantly higher (p

  16. Rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials before and during setting.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Arikawa, H

    1998-11-01

    In this study, we examined the rheological properties of elastomeric impression materials, both before and during setting, to assess the clinical significance of certain key characteristics such as viscosity, pseudoplasticity, and the rate of development of elasticity. The hypothesis to be tested was that monitoring the change in tan delta is the most appropriate means of monitoring the setting characteristics of elastomers. The loss tangent (tan delta) and the dynamic viscosity (eta') for five impression materials (both unmixed pastes and mixed/setting materials) were measured by means of a controlled-stress rheometer in a cone/plate configuration. For unmixed pastes, tests were performed at various frequencies (0.1 to 10 Hz) and torques (from 1 to 50 x 10(-4) Nm), while testing on setting materials was performed at constant frequency (1 Hz) and torque (3 x 10(-3) Nm). Most base and catalyst pastes were pseudoplastic before being mixed. Immediately after being mixed, the polyether (tan delta = 9.85) and polysulfide (tan delta = 9.54) elastomers showed tan delta markedly higher than those of other mixed materials (tan delta = 4.96 to 3.01). The polyvinylsiloxane elastomers showed lower initial tan delta, which rapidly reduced even further with time. This suggests that these materials should be used as soon as possible after being mixed. The polyether elastomer had a comparatively long induction period during which the tan delta remained at a high value. These characteristics are thought to be key factors in controlling clinical efficacy and therefore support the hypothesis that monitoring tan delta is an appropriate method for evaluating the setting characteristics of elastomers. One limitation was that the controlled-stress rheometer was unable to monitor rheological properties through to completion of setting.

  17. A predictable and accurate technique with elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Barghi, N; Ontiveros, J C

    1999-08-01

    A method for obtaining more predictable and accurate final impressions with polyvinylsiloxane impression materials in conjunction with stock trays is proposed and tested. Heavy impression material is used in advance for construction of a modified custom tray, while extra-light material is used for obtaining a more accurate final impression.

  18. Effect of disinfectant agents on dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Adabo, G L; Zanarotti, E; Fonseca, R G; Cruz, C A

    1999-05-01

    Difficulties in sterilizing impressions by traditional methods have led to chemical disinfection as an alternative, and some studies have shown that disinfectants may adversely affect impressions. This study investigated the effect of disinfection methods on the dimensional stability of 6 elastomeric materials. Impression materials were submitted to the following treatments: immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 minutes, immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 minutes, and no immersion (control). After treatments, impressions were poured, and respective stone casts were measured with a Nikon Profile projector and compared with the master model. The elastomeric materials had different reproduction capacities, and the disinfecting treatments did not differ from the control.

  19. A comparative study to determine the wettability and castability of different elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Vivekananda; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Itttigi, Jayaprkash; Jagadeesh, K N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the wettability of different hydrophilic and hydrophobic elastomeric impression materials and the gypsum castability. The wettability was evaluated by determining the contact angles of different elastomeric impression materials. The contact angle was determined by placing a drop of aqueous solution of calcium sulfate dihydrate on the flat surface of impression material and specimens were measured using a profile projector. Gypsum castability was determined by counting the number of voids formed in the die stone cast made from the impressions of a aluminum die. The voids were counted using an diopter magnifying lens. Polyether, different viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane, and condensation silicone impression materials exhibited low contact angle values and least number of voids in the die stone cast when compared with polysulfide impression material. There was significant correlation between the contact angle and voids formed in the die stone casts when fabricating die stone casts from various elastomeric impression material impressions. Accurate reproduction of prepared tooth or edentulous arch is of clinical importance in the fabrication of a fixed or removable prosthesis. Inaccuracies in the replication processes will ultimately have an adverse effect on the fit and adaptation of final restoration. The interaction is determined in part by hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of the elastomeric impression material. Inadequate wetting of an impression results in voids in the stone casts.

  20. The effect of various interim fixed prosthodontic materials on the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H

    2014-08-01

    After tooth preparation, interim fixed prosthodontic materials are used to fabricate interim restorations until the definitive restoration can be delivered. The polymerization of elastomeric impression materials may be inhibited when in indirect contact with interim fixed prosthodontic materials. The purpose of this study was to detect whether the polymerization of 6 commonly used types of elastomeric impression materials was affected by direct contact with 6 commonly used interim fixed prosthodontic materials and to further evaluate the efficacy of several decontamination methods to eliminate the indirect effect of the interim fixed prosthodontic materials on the setting of elastomeric impression materials. Six brands of elastomeric impression material (Virtual, Aquasil, Genie, Correct Plus, Express, Impregum) were evaluated in vitro after direct contact with various interim fixed prosthodontic materials (Trim Plus, Unifast, Integrity, Systemp C&B, Tuff-Temp, Protemp IV) by 3 general practitioners. The setting of the impression materials was visually scored as either inhibited or noninhibited. Latex was used as a positive control. The decontamination part of the study was done indirectly on the dentin of prepared natural teeth after they had been relined with the interim fixed prosthodontic material. The decontamination methods were air-water rinse, mouthwash (chlorhexidine 0.12%), 3% hydrogen peroxide, and pumice. A Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis was used to evaluate the results. Statistically significant setting inhibition was found with 5 brands of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials with all tested types of interim fixed prosthodontic material (P<.001) except Trim Plus. No tested interim fixed prosthodontic material caused inhibition with the polyether impression material, except for minimal inhibition with Protemp IV. The decontamination method performed with 3% H2O2 alone proved adequate in preventing impression material inhibition. Interexaminer

  1. A laboratory study of dimensional changes for three elastomeric impression materials using custom and stock trays.

    PubMed

    Boulton, J L; Gage, J P; Vincent, P F; Basford, K E

    1996-12-01

    Clinical success of fixed prosthodontic procedures is dependent in part upon the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials and impression procedures. Three elastomeric impression materials were used in custom and stock trays to determine the accuracy of impressions taken from an experimental stainless steel model representing premolar and molar bridge abutment preparations. Horizontal and vertical individual abutment and interabutment dimensions were measured on die stone replicas, and the measurements compared with those obtained from stainless steel master models. The results of this study demonstrate polysulphide is the least accurate impression material for both vertical and horizontal individual abutment dimensions. However, for interabutment horizontal dimensions, no statistical differences were noted between impression material types when using a custom tray. Stock trays produced unreliable results for all the materials tested.

  2. Compatibility of elastomeric impression materials for use as soft tissue casts.

    PubMed

    Beyak, B L; Chee, W W

    1996-11-01

    The communication of soft tissue contours from the clinical situation to the laboratory technician through the laboratory phases of the dental implant restoration is enhanced with the use of soft tissue casts. Modern elastomeric impression materials can function well as both the master impression and soft tissue cast materials. The purpose of this study was to test the compatibility of a variety of elastomeric impression materials and commercially available soft tissue cast materials with various matrix impression materials. Chemical interaction between the materials may result in adhesion or inhibition of the set of the soft tissue cast material. The results of this study indicated that consideration must be given to material compatibility if predictably successful results are to be achieved in soft tissue cast fabrication.

  3. Surface detail reproduction with new elastomeric dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J; Komatsu, Masashi

    2007-06-01

    To compare the surface detail reproduction ability of 2 polyethers, 1 polyether-polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) hybrid, and 1 polyvinyl siloxane reference impression material when impressions of prepared dentin are made, and to determine the wettability of the nonset and set impression materials. Impressions from air-dried or wet dentin surfaces were made with the light-bodied impression materials P2 Polyether (P2L), Impregum Garant L DuoSoft (IMP), the hybrid-type Fusion/Senn Light (SEN), and the PVS Flexitime Correct Flow (FLE). Roughness (Rz, Ra) was determined on 5 dentin specimens and 5 impressions (dry or wet) for each material. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan's test (a <.05). Wettability with water of nonset and set impression materials was recorded with an optical contact-angle measuring device. The set materials' wettability was determined on dry surfaces and after rinsing with water. Differential dentin surface reproduction with IMP, SEN, and FLE was between -2 and +2 Microm (Rz), and -0.2 and +0.2 Microm (Ra). Curing of P2L on dentin was inhibited. The contact angle of nonset IMP was less than 45 degrees, and initial angles for nonset SEN, FLE, and P2L were greater than 90 degrees. Early contact angles on rinsed FLE, P2L, and SEN were greater than 90 degrees. Angles on set IMP were consistently between initial 75 degrees and final 55 degrees. IMP, SEN, and FLE reproduce prepared dentin accurately, whereas P2L does not cure on dry or wet dentin. All materials have a reasonable potential of wetting moist surfaces.

  4. The Effect of Disinfectants and a Surface Wetting Agent on the Wettability of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Lad, Pritam P; Gurjar, Minal; Gunda, Sachin; Gurjar, Vivek; Rao, Nandan K

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercially available chemical disinfectants namely sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde and a surface wetting agent on the wettability of three high precision elastomeric impression materials, addition silicone, condensation silicone and polyether. Three different types of elastomeric impression materials commonly used in prosthodontic practice were selected. The glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect the impressions made with the above-mentioned elastomeric impression materials. True Blue surface wetting agent was selected. GBX contact angle analyzer was used to measure advancing and receding contact angle. The results of this study have demonstrated that the polyether impression material was the most hydrophilic of all the materials, followed by hydrophilic addition silicone. Condensation silicone was least hydrophilic. All materials showed improvement in the wettability when a topical surfactant was used. The short term disinfection of the three elastomeric impression materials does not affect the wettability of these impression materials.

  5. Effect of relative humidity on the hydrophilicity of unset elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Frank; Axmann, Detlef; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the initial hydrophilicity of unset elastomeric dental impression materials. Initial water contact angles were studied on thin unset films of 1 polyether and 4 polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials at 20%, 50%, and 80% RH by high-resolution drop shape analysis. One of 4 PVS materials reached the polyether's initial hydrophilicity. This PVS showed increased hydrophilicity with increasing RH. The initial hydrophilicity of impression materials can be influenced by the RH level. Accounting for RH will enhance the clinical relevance of hydrophilicity studies.

  6. Tensile bond strength between custom tray and elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Oka, Morihiko; Minagi, Shogo; Irie, Masao; Suzuki, Kazuomi

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how to achieve sufficient and stable adhesive strength between impression material and tray. Impression materials were molded between autopolymerizing resin columns, and tensile strength was measured as a function of these factors: tray storage time (1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days), adhesive drying time (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes), and tray surface roughness (air abrasion, bur-produced roughness, and no treatment). Tensile bond strength was not affected by tray storage time throughout the entire evaluation period of 10 days. As for tray adhesive drying time, Reprosil and Exaimplant yielded extremely low values for drying times of 10 minutes or less (P<0.05), while Imprint II and Impregum were not influenced by drying time. Vinyl polysiloxane achieved the highest adhesive strength with bur-produced roughness, which was significantly higher than with air abrasion or no treatment (P<0.05), whereas polyether achieved the lowest value with bur-produced roughness (P<0.05). It was concluded that surface treatment of custom tray should be adapted to the type of impression material used to achieve optimum bond strength.

  7. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. Aim The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Results Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. Conclusion The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection. PMID:28208993

  8. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Poulis, Nikolas; Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-12-01

    Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection.

  9. Surface detail reproduction of elastomeric impression materials related to rheological properties.

    PubMed

    German, Matthew J; Carrick, Thomas E; McCabe, John F

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to discern, for elastomeric impression materials, the important rheological properties and importance of hydrophilicity for detail reproduction. Viscosity, modulus and tan delta were measured using a controlled-stress rheometer in cone/plate configuration. The flow of the materials, immediately after mixing and at the manufacturer's stated working time, was measured using a shark fin test and the interaction with moist surfaces was determined by taking impressions from two different sized grooves in moist gypsum casts. Tan delta was found to be the parameter most indicative of the accuracy of the impression and the flow of the material. Impregum samples, a polyether material, exhibited the highest initial tan delta (7.4), the largest shark fins at both time periods and the most accurate impressions from both grooves. Aquasil, a polyvinylsiloxane material, had similar initial tan delta values (6.9) and impressions taken on the deep groove with this material closely matched the groove. The other two polyvinylsiloxane materials (Affinis and Flexitime) had significantly lower initial tan delta values (3.1 and 2.9, respectively), exhibited much smaller shark fins and a worse ability to accurately reproduce the deep groove. For large features, it is clear that the higher the initial tan delta of the impression material the better the ability to replicate larger features. However, with smaller features the relative hydrophobicity of the material becomes an important factor, with more hydrophilic materials better able to reproduce fine detail.

  10. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds: influence of disinfectant solutions and elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo D; Berger, Sandrine B; Siqueira, Ronaldo Mt; Grandi, Victor H; Lopes, Murilo B; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Caixeta, Rodrigo V; de Carvalho, Rodrigo V; Sinhoreti, Mário Ac

    2017-04-01

    This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds after disinfection using 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to those of molds that were not disinfected, for four elastomeric impression materials: polysulfide (Light Bodied Permlastic), polyether (Impregum Soft), polydimethylsiloxane (Oranwash L) andpolyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV). The molds were prepared on a matrix by applying pressure, using a perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following polymerization and either disinfected (by soaking in one of the solutions for 15 minutes) or not disinfected. The samples were thus divided into 16 groups (n=5). Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy were evaluated using optical microscopy to assess the 20-μm line over its entire 25 mm length. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Tukey's test (a=5%). The 20-μm line was completely reproduced by all elastomeric impression materials, regardless of disinfection procedure. There was no significant difference between the control group and molds disinfected with peracetic acid for the elastomeric materials Impregum Soft (polyether) and Aquasil Ultra LV (polyvinylsiloxane). The high-level disinfectant peracetic acid would be the choice material for disinfection. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. Elastomeric impression materials and cleaning systems for residue removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    A materials evaluation program was conducted to characterize castable resin compounds as suitable dimensional inspection aids. A fast curing dimethylsilicone based compound was selected as the best performer of the eleven compounds tested. Evaluation of physical properties revealed an inherent problem of particle adherence to metal surfaces tested. A cleaning study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the solvent systems in removing particulate matter from test surfaces. Silicon residues which can adversely affect bonding characteristics of the metals were identified in cleaning study tests. One solvent system composed of alkylarylsulfonic acids, toluene, and dichloromethane, gave superior results in breaking down and removing these polymerized compounds.

  12. The Effect of Disinfectants and a Surface Wetting Agent on the Wettability of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Gurjar, Minal; Gunda, Sachin; Gurjar, Vivek; Rao, Nandan K

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercially available chemical disinfectants namely sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde and a surface wetting agent on the wettability of three high precision elastomeric impression materials, addition silicone, condensation silicone and polyether. Materials and Methods: Three different types of elastomeric impression materials commonly used in prosthodontic practice were selected. The glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect the impressions made with the above-mentioned elastomeric impression materials. True Blue surface wetting agent was selected. GBX contact angle analyzer was used to measure advancing and receding contact angle. Results: The results of this study have demonstrated that the polyether impression material was the most hydrophilic of all the materials, followed by hydrophilic addition silicone. Condensation silicone was least hydrophilic. All materials showed improvement in the wettability when a topical surfactant was used. Conclusion: The short term disinfection of the three elastomeric impression materials does not affect the wettability of these impression materials. PMID:26124605

  13. Evaluation of the precision of three implant transfer impression techniques using two elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Tamer Mohamed Nasr; Elgendy, Mohamed Nabeel Mohamed; Kashef, Nahed Ahmed; Halim, Maha Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    A master cast representing a completely edentulous mandible was fabricated in polyurethane resin and had four implants secured to the anterior interforaminal area. Impressions were made using six technique-material combinations. Ten definitive casts were fabricated for each technique. Linear distances between implants were measured using a traveling microscope. There was no statistically significant difference between the direct unsplinted and splinted techniques (P > .05), while the indirect technique was statistically significantly different from the other two techniques (P < .05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two impression materials.

  14. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Sujan; Subhash, Vaddavalli; Vijay, Chellagulla; Das, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changed dimensions of dies obtained from impressions made with different combinations of addition sillicones which were subjected to variations in storage temperature. Materials & Methods: 45 die stone models were obtained of 45 impressions of which 15 each were stored at three different storage temperatures(25°C, 37°C and 42°C). 15 impressions each were made using one impression technique. The measurements of the dies made from the impressions were measured with the help of Profile Projector with a accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The results were statistically analyzed. The results indicated the significant decrease in dimensions when the storage temperature reduced from the mouth temperature. As compared to this there was a marginal increase in overall dimensions of all variables when storage temperature increased. Conclusion: More changes were seen in putty/light body combination followed by monophase and least in heavy/light body combination. How to cite the article: Kambhampati S, Subhash V, Vijay C, Das A. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):12-9. PMID:24653597

  15. Dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, F S; Popoff, D A V; Castro, C D L; Silva, G C; Magalhães, C S; Moreira, A N

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to review the literature concerning the dimensional stability of dental elastomeric impression materials, to support recommendations to control the variables that influence the accuracy of these materials. An electronic search of the Scopus and PubMed databases was performed in November 2010. Articles were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: investigation of the dimensional stability of dental elastomers, an experimental study, sample size reported, laboratory tests described, and published in an English language peer-reviewed journal. The search resulted in 47 articles published between 1958 and 2008; of these, 24 were selected for inclusion in the present study. Great variability was discovered in the experimental methodologies used, such as different working times, temperatures and storage mediums for the impressions, impression techniques, material thicknesses, tray types, and methods of evaluation. Despite the lack of standardization among the studies, this review supports the following recommendations to control the dimensional stability: impressions should be stored at temperatures between 21 +/- 2 degrees C; polyether impressions should be stored in an environment with a relative humidity below 50%; time until pouring has been settled for each elastomer material.

  16. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, Sujan; Subhash, Vaddavalli; Vijay, Chellagulla; Das, Aruna

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changed dimensions of dies obtained from impressions made with different combinations of addition sillicones which were subjected to variations in storage temperature. 45 die stone models were obtained of 45 impressions of which 15 each were stored at three different storage temperatures(25°C, 37°C and 42°C). 15 impressions each were made using one impression technique. The measurements of the dies made from the impressions were measured with the help of Profile Projector with a accuracy of 0.001mm. The results were statistically analyzed. The results indicated the significant decrease in dimensions when the storage temperature reduced from the mouth temperature. As compared to this there was a marginal increase in overall dimensions of all variables when storage temperature increased. More changes were seen in putty/light body combination followed by monophase and least in heavy/light body combination. How to cite the article: Kambhampati S, Subhash V, Vijay C, Das A. Effect of temperature changes on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):12-9.

  17. The effect of immersion disinfection procedures on dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Cassaro, Angelo; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immersion disinfection procedures on the dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials. Impressions of a stainless steel die were made with polyether (PE) and with addition-polymerized silicone rubber (PVS). The test specimens underwent disinfection treatment by immersion in two commercially available solutions containing quaternary ammonium compounds (Sterigum Powder, SP) and glutaraldehyde plus an amino derivative (MD520, MD), respectively. The impressions were measured at 4 different time points: before any disinfection treatment (T0); after the first disinfection (T1); 6 hours after the first disinfection (T2); after the second disinfection, carried out 6 hours after the first one (T3). Impressions which were not disinfected served as controls. When both impression materials were disinfected with SP, significant differences were detected among all measurements (P < 0.0001), with the exception of T2 vs T3 (P > 0.05). On the other hand, when MD was used, significant differences were found when T0 measurement was compared to T1, T2 and T3 measurements (P = 0.0043 for PE, and P = 0.0014 for PVS). The dimensional change of all material/disinfectant combinations was always

  18. An evaluation of elastomeric impression materials based on surface compressive strength.

    PubMed

    Omori, K; Arikawa, H; Inoue, K

    2001-04-01

    The setting times of seven commercially available elastomeric impression materials were determined using Wilson's reciprocating rheometer at temperatures 23 +/- 0.5 or 32 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The surface compressive strength and depression of these materials after setting time were measured using a rheometer (Fudoh). Each material was mixed according to the mixing proportion (base/accelerator or catalyst ratio) recommended by the manufacturer. The surface compressive strength and the depression of each material were measured by using a method which pressed the material to the edge of a sensitive rod (2.0 mm in diameter) connected to a load cell. In the case of silicone impression materials (additional type) at a temperature of 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, the surface compressive strength and the depression of these materials were extremely stable after the setting time. However, the surface compressive strength of other materials except additional type materials increased markedly after setting time and the depression corresponding to the surface compressive strength decreased. These increased largely with the increase, in pressing speed to the sensitive rod. At 450 s from the setting time of all materials, there was an adequate correlation (r = 0.84) between measured values and theoretical values derived using the theory of elasticity.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. Materials and Methods: The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer’s instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Result: Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (−0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (−0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. Conclusion: The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method. PMID:26435611

  20. The effect of elastomeric impression materials on the growth of micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Tuit, C M; Coogan, M M

    1999-10-01

    The influence of elastomeric impression materials on the growth of micro-organisms was examined in vitro. Bacillus subtilis was inoculated into broth containing impression materials and incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. Express STD Putty, President Putty and Jet-Light Body, Low and Very High Viscosity Permagum and Provil L stimulated growth whereas Impregum-F and Express Light Body inhibited growth. The influence of Impregum-F and Express Light Body on oral micro-organisms was investigated further. Broth extracts were prepared by soaking these materials in Todd Hewitt broth for either 5 or 10 minutes. Thereafter, the extracts were inoculated with oral strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 hours and plated on blood and Sabourauds agar to test for the presence of viable micro-organisms. The 10-minute broth extracts killed all the test isolates which suggests that impressions taken with Impregum-F and Express Light Body may not require disinfecting.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-09-01

    Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer's instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (-0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (-0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method.

  2. Thiol-Ene functionalized siloxanes for use as elastomeric dental impression materials

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Megan A.; Jankousky, Katherine C.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thiol- and allyl-functionalized siloxane oligomers are synthesized and evaluated for use as a radical-mediated, rapid set elastomeric dental impression material. Thiol-ene siloxane formulations are crosslinked using a redox-initiated polymerization scheme, and the mechanical properties of the thiol-ene network are manipulated through the incorporation of varying degrees of plasticizer and kaolin filler. Formulations with medium and light body consistencies are further evaluated for their ability to accurately replicate features on both the gross and microscopic levels. We hypothesize that thiol-ene functionalized siloxane systems will exhibit faster setting times and greater detail reproduction than commercially available polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) materials of comparable consistencies. Methods Thiol-ene functionalized siloxane mixtures formulated with varying levels of redox initiators, plasticizer, and kaolin filler are made and evaluated for their polymerization speed (FTIR), consistency (ISO4823.9.2), and surface energy (goniometer). Feature replication is evaluated quantitatively by SEM. The Tg, storage modulus, and creep behavior are determined by DMA. Results Increasing redox initiation rate increases the polymerization rate but at high levels also limits working time. Combining 0.86 wt% oxidizing agent with up to 5 wt% plasticizer gave a working time of 3 min and a setting time of 2 min. The selected medium and light body thiol-ene formulations also achieved greater qualitative detail reproduction than the commercial material and reproduced micrometer patterns with 98% accuracy. Significance Improving detail reproduction and setting speed is a primary focus of dental impression material design and synthesis. Radical-mediated polymerizations, particularly thiol-ene reactions, are recognized for their speed, reduced shrinkage, and ‘click’ nature. PMID:24553250

  3. A Comparative Evaluation of the Dimensional Stability of Three Different Elastomeric Impression Materials after Autoclaving – An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Kiran Kumar; Ravuri, Rajyalakshmi; Tella, Suchita

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials at three different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Standardized stainless steel master die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. The impression materials used for the study were condensation silicone (GP1), addition silicone (GP2) and polyether (GP3). A total of 45 samples of the stainless steel die were made (n = 45), that is 15 samples for each group. Impression materials were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and were loaded into the mold to make an impression of the die. Impressions were identified with the help of numerical coding system and measurements were made using stereomicroscope (MAGNUS MSZ-Bi) of 0.65x magnification with the help of image analysis software (IMACE PRO-INSIGHT VERSION.The results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and student t-test for comparison between the groups. Results: Within the limitations of the study statistically significant dimensional changes were observed for all the three impression materials at three different time intervals but this change was not clinically significant. Conclusion: It is well-known fact that all impressions should be disinfected to avoid possible transmission of infectious diseases either by direct contact or cross contamination. Immersion and spray disinfection as well as various disinfection solutions have been tested and proven to be effective for this purpose. But for elastomeric impression materials these methods have proven to be ineffective as they do not prevent cross contamination among the dental team. So autoclaving was one of the most effective sterilization procedure for condensation silicone and addition silicone. Since polyether is hydrophilic it is better to disinfect the impressions as recommended by the manufacturer or by immersion or spray

  4. A comparative evaluation of the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials after autoclaving - an invitro study.

    PubMed

    Thota, Kiran Kumar; Jasthi, Sujana; Ravuri, Rajyalakshmi; Tella, Suchita

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autoclaving on the dimensional stability of three different elastomeric impression materials at three different time intervals. Standardized stainless steel master die as per ADA specification number 19 was fabricated. The impression materials used for the study were condensation silicone (GP1), addition silicone (GP2) and polyether (GP3). A total of 45 samples of the stainless steel die were made (n = 45), that is 15 samples for each group. Impression materials were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions and were loaded into the mold to make an impression of the die. Impressions were identified with the help of numerical coding system and measurements were made using stereomicroscope (MAGNUS MSZ-Bi) of 0.65x magnification with the help of image analysis software (IMACE PRO-INSIGHT VERSION.The results were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance and student t-test for comparison between the groups. Within the limitations of the study statistically significant dimensional changes were observed for all the three impression materials at three different time intervals but this change was not clinically significant. It is well-known fact that all impressions should be disinfected to avoid possible transmission of infectious diseases either by direct contact or cross contamination. Immersion and spray disinfection as well as various disinfection solutions have been tested and proven to be effective for this purpose. But for elastomeric impression materials these methods have proven to be ineffective as they do not prevent cross contamination among the dental team. So autoclaving was one of the most effective sterilization procedure for condensation silicone and addition silicone. Since polyether is hydrophilic it is better to disinfect the impressions as recommended by the manufacturer or by immersion or spray atomization.

  5. Modified cytotoxicity evaluation of elastomeric impression materials while polymerizing with reduced exposure time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2012-12-01

    Cytotoxicity evaluation is an important step in biocompatibility assessment of dental impression materials. Previously, cytotoxicity evaluations were carried out on already set ('set') impression materials for contact time or extraction time of 24 h or longer in duration. However, clinically, dental impression materials are in contact with oral tissue while they are being set ('polymerizing'), for no longer than 10 min. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the difference in results between 'polymerizing' and 'set' forms of impression materials as well as the difference in results between longer duration of contact or extraction time (12 or 24 h) and shorter duration of time (15 or 30 min). Seven dental impression materials of different chemical compositions were tested. Two commonly used in vitro tests were used-test on extraction and test by direct contact. Both 'polymerizing' and 'set' forms of impression materials were used with different durations of extraction and contact (15 min, 30 min, 12 h and 24 h). There were significant (p < 0.05) differences of cell viability and cell proliferation between the 'polymerizing' and 'set' impression materials. Also, significant (p < 0.05) differences were noted with variance in duration of time. In light of the results, it is recommended to use a 'polymerizing' state of dental impression material for cytotoxicity evaluation, with 15 or 30 min of contact between cell and dental impression materials and an extraction time of 15 or 30 min that is more reflective of clinical situations.

  6. Accuracy of a new ring-opening metathesis elastomeric dental impression material with spray and immersion disinfection.

    PubMed

    Kronström, Mats H; Johnson, Glen H; Hompesch, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    A new elastomeric impression material has been formulated with a ring-opening metathesis chemistry. In addition to other properties of clinical significance, the impression accuracy must be confirmed. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new elastomeric impression material with vinyl polysiloxane and polyether following both spray and immersion disinfection. Impressions of a modified dentoform with a stainless steel crown preparation in the lower right quadrant were made, and type IV gypsum working casts and dies were formed. Anteroposterior (AP), cross-arch (CA), buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), occlusogingivobuccal (OGB), and occlusogingivolingual (OGL) dimensions were measured using a microscope. Working cast and die dimensions were compared to those of the master model. The impression materials were a newly formulated, ring-opening metathesis-polymerization impression material (ROMP Cartridge Tray and ROMP Volume Wash), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS, Aquasil Ultra Monophase/LV), and a polyether (PE, Impregum Penta Soft/Permadyne Garant L). Fifteen impressions with each material were made, of which 5 were disinfected by spray for 10 minutes (CaviCide), 5 were disinfected by immersion for 90 minutes (ProCide D), and 5 were not disinfected. There were significant cross-product interactions with a 2-way ANOVA, so a 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test were used to compare the dimensional changes of the 3 impression materials, by disinfection status and for each location (alpha=.05). For ROMP, there were no significant differences from the master, for any dimension, when comparing the control and 2 disinfectant conditions. No significant differences were detected among the 3 impression materials for CA, BL, and MD. The working die dimensions of OGB and OGL for VPS with immersion disinfection were significantly shorter than with PE and ROMP (P<.05). Overall, the AP dimension was more accurate than CA, and the BL of working dies

  7. Influence of prolonged setting time on permanent deformation of elastomeric impression materials.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, Markus; Haunschild, Sylvia; Erbe, Christina; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Upon removal, tear forces occur in various areas of an impression. As a result, thin sulcus details may be permanently deformed, affecting the impression's accuracy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the chemistry and prolonged setting time on the permanent deformation of light-body impression materials after stretching. A dumbbell-shaped mold (2 mm x 4 mm x 75 mm) was used to prepare specimens (n=20) of 6 different impression materials (Affinis Light Body, Aquasil Ultra XLV, Express 2 Light Body Flow Quick, Flexitime Correct Flow, P2 Polyether Light, and Impregum Garant L DuoSoft). After water storage (35 degrees C), either for the manufacturer's suggested setting time or for 5 minutes, specimens were stretched by 80% using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 200 mm/min. The permanent deformation (Deltal (%)) was determined after 2 hours of storage in ambient conditions. A 2-way ANOVA followed by a Games-Howell test was used to analyze the influence of material and storage time (alpha=.05). Polyether materials showed a significantly higher permanent deformation (Deltal>4% to 5%) than vinyl polysiloxane materials (P<.05). Extending the manufacturer's suggested setting time resulted in clinically relevant improvements in elastic recovery for products with a polyether backbone only. Increasing the setting time might be necessary for impression materials with a polyether backbone to improve elastic recovery.

  8. Tear strength of five elastomeric impression materials at two setting times and two tearing rates.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O; Litaker, Mark

    2008-01-01

    PROBLEM/AIMS: Thin sections of impression materials are susceptible to tearing in gingival crevices and interproximal spaces. This study measures the tear strength of six fast and regular set impression materials after different setting times and at different tearing rates. Tear strength specimens were prepared of four addition silicone materials: Aquasil (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), Imprint 3 (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), Stand Out (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Virtual (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein); one polyether material: Impregum (3M ESPE); and a new hybrid material: Senn (GC, Aichi, Japan) using a split mold. Specimens were divided into four groups (N = 5). Groups 1 and 2 were immediately removed from the mold and loaded in tension until failure using an Instron testing device (Instron Corp., Canton, MA, USA). Groups 3 and 4 were tested 24 hours after fabrication. Groups 1 and 3 were tested at 1 mm/minute, and groups 2 and 4 were tested at 500 mm/minute. A two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test revealed differences among material brands (alpha = 0.05) in all experimental groups. The polyether and hybrid material were in the lowest statistically significant ranking group for all experimental groups. A three-factor ANOVA determined that a 500 mm/minute tearing rate and a 24-hour set time produced higher tear strengths and that fast set materials produced greater tear strength than regular set materials. Most addition silicone materials provide higher tear strengths than polyether and hybrid materials. Materials display higher tear strengths after longer set times and at faster tearing rates. Impressions should be removed from the mouth with the fastest possible speed. Addition silicone materials should be used in impressions requiring replication of gingival crevices or interproximal spaces to prevent tearing of thin sheets of material. Impressions should be removed from the mouth and separated from the model with the fastest possible

  9. Surface quality and long-term dimensional stability of current elastomeric impression materials after disinfection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mary P; Rondeau, Meagan; Petrie, Cynthia; Tasca, Amy; Williams, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the effect of disinfection on surface quality and dimensional stability of more recent, reformulated vinylpolysiloxane (VPS) and polyether (PE) materials. Using ANSI/American Dental Association (ADA) specification 19 protocols, 50 impressions of stainless steel dies were made with each material. Ten impressions of each material were randomly assigned to a treatment group: (1) no disinfectant; (2) 10-minute dual phenol immersion; (3) 1-hour dual phenol; (4) 10-minute sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); and (5) 1-hour NaOCl. Impression surface quality immediately after disinfection was categorized as smooth/shiny, matte, or wrinkled/sticky. Dimensional stability was evaluated by measuring dimensional accuracy according to specification 19 after 24-hour, 1-week, and 2-week storage at ambient laboratory conditions. The PE material surface quality was significantly affected (Pearson Chi-square, pimpressions after 10-minute immersion and a matte/sticky surface on 100% of the PE impressions after 1-hour immersion. Separate 2-factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post hoc tests of dimensional accuracy within each material indicated a significant difference (pimpressions, which exhibited expansion. There were also significant differences (pimpressions. Despite PE expansion following disinfection and continued shrinkage of both the non-disinfected and disinfected VPS and PE impressions over a 2-week period, all dimensional accuracy measurements met the ADA standard,

  10. Evaluation of effectiveness of microwave irradiation for disinfection of silicone elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Abhilasha; Vinod, V; Bhasin, Vinny; Mathew, Xavier; Sajjan, Suresh; Ahmed, Syed Tauqheer

    2013-06-01

    Use of domestic microwave oven has been suggested as a method of disinfecting a number of dental materials used in dental practice. This study was done to analyse the effect of microwave irradiation on vinyl polysiloxane putty impression material (3M ESPE, Express™ STD) contaminated with test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans. 180 square shaped specimens of addition silicon putty material were prepared and divided into 3 groups for three test organisms. The 3 groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n = 15) for different exposure parameters (control group 5, 6 and 7 min exposure at 650 W. The specimens were contaminated using standard inoculums of test organism and then were irradiated using domestic microwaves. Broth cultures of the control and test group specimens were plated on selective media culture plates. Colonies formed were counted. Data analyses included Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney's tests. Nil values shows complete elimination of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa after 5, 6 and 7 min exposure. Staphylococcus aureus showed colonies with the mean value of 7.6 × 10(3) ± 2.3 × 10(3), 4.6 × 10(3) ± 2.6 × 10(3) after 5 and 6 min respectively and nil values after 7 min exposure. 5 min exposure caused complete elimination of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa strains, while 7 min exposure eliminated S. aureus completely.

  11. Flow profile of regular and fast-setting elastomeric impression materials using a shark fin testing device.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Cakir, Deniz; Ramp, Lance; Burgess, John O

    2011-06-01

    Light-bodied impression materials with high flow over time are needed to capture preparation margins, particularly with impressions of multiple preparations. The flow of five different impression materials (three vinyl polysiloxane, one polyether, and one hybrid) of two setting times (fast and regular) was compared over 30-second intervals. Flow was measured using a shark fin testing apparatus (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). A weighted metal caste was suspended above a cup of impression material. The caste was dropped into the impression material, which displaced the material and caused it to flow into a triangular notch within the caste, creating a "shark fin." The test was repeated for each specimen at 30-second increments. These shark fin molds were kept in an incubator to allow setting of the impression materials. After complete setting, the height of the "shark fin" was measured. The data were analyzed using separate two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD post hoc analyses to determine significant intergroup differences (p = 0.05). Shark fin values differed significantly among materials and at each time interval (p = 0.05). Polyether impression materials produced the greatest flow when compared with the vinyl polysiloxane and hybrid materials. Based on the limitations of this study and the materials used, polyether impression material had a better flow profile compared with the vinyl polysiloxane and hybrid materials. An impression material must be selected based on the consistency and flow properties of the material, its setting time, anatomic aspects of the preparation, and speed of the operator. Impressions with deep subgingival margins and/or multiple preparations may be better captured with a polyether impression material. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of Custom Trays, Dual-Arch Passive, Flexed Trays and Viscosities of Elastomeric Impression Materials on Working Dies.

    PubMed

    Arora, Mansi; Kohli, Shivani; Kalsi, Rupali

    2016-05-01

    Dual arch impression technique signifies an essential improvement in fixed prosthodontics and has numerous benefits over conventional impression techniques. The accuracy of working dies fabricated from dual arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of working dies fabricated from impressions made from two different viscosities of impression materials using metal, plastic dual arch trays and custom made acrylic trays. The study samples were grouped into two groups based on the viscosity of impression material used i.e. Group I (monophase), whereas Group II consisted of Dual Mix technique using a combination of light and heavy body material. These were further divided into three subgroups A, B and C depending on the type of impression tray used (metal dual arch tray, plastic dual arch tray and custom made tray). Measurements of the master cast were made using profile projector. Descriptive statistics like mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated for all the groups. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. The gypsum dies obtained with the three types of impression trays using two groups of impression materials were smaller than the master models in dimensions. The plastic dual arch trays produced dies which were the least accurate of the three groups. There was no significant difference in the die dimensions obtained using the two viscosities of impression materials.

  13. Influence of Custom Trays, Dual-Arch Passive, Flexed Trays and Viscosities of Elastomeric Impression Materials on Working Dies

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Shivani; Kalsi, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dual arch impression technique signifies an essential improvement in fixed prosthodontics and has numerous benefits over conventional impression techniques. The accuracy of working dies fabricated from dual arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. Aim This study was conducted to compare the accuracy of working dies fabricated from impressions made from two different viscosities of impression materials using metal, plastic dual arch trays and custom made acrylic trays. Materials and Methods The study samples were grouped into two groups based on the viscosity of impression material used i.e. Group I (monophase), whereas Group II consisted of Dual Mix technique using a combination of light and heavy body material. These were further divided into three subgroups A, B and C depending on the type of impression tray used (metal dual arch tray, plastic dual arch tray and custom made tray). Measurements of the master cast were made using profile projector. Descriptive statistics like mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated for all the groups. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results The gypsum dies obtained with the three types of impression trays using two groups of impression materials were smaller than the master models in dimensions. Conclusion The plastic dual arch trays produced dies which were the least accurate of the three groups. There was no significant difference in the die dimensions obtained using the two viscosities of impression materials. PMID:27437342

  14. Hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression materials.

    PubMed

    Sadan, Avishai

    2005-06-01

    VPS impression materials that contain a surfactant cannot be considered as hydrophilic, rather they are probably less hydrophobic. More VPS products that contain surfactants are expected to be introduced to the market. It is yet to be proven that surfactant-containing VPS materials have a better wettability than polyether-based impression materials. The current data still indicates that polyethers are more hydrophilic. The less hydrophobic behavior of the surfactant-containing VPS may provide a significant advantage in clinical practice. Due to this advantage, the author suggests that clinicians using VPS as their preferred elastomeric impression material should consider switching to surfactant-containing VPS impression materials.

  15. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1990-02-13

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  16. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1986-11-04

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  17. Effect of disinfecting solutions on accuracy of alginate and elastomeric impressions.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, A; Asmussen, E

    1989-10-01

    The effect of immersion in six disinfecting solutions on the accuracy of 10 impression materials was investigated. Impressions were taken of a truncated steel cone. After setting, the impressions were either stored at room temperature for 24 h, for control, or immediately immersed in a disinfecting agent for 60 min (in one case 10 min), and after 24 h poured with gypsum. A steel ring fitting the steel cone was placed on the resulting dies, and the discrepancy between the top surface of the ring and the die was measured. From these measurements the deviation between the base diameter of the die and of the impression was calculated to express the inaccuracy. All impressions except some in Blueprint exhibited a net shrinkage, giving rise to too large die stones and incomplete seating of the steel ring. Blueprint impressions, however, occasionally swelled and resulted in too small die stones and "overseating" of the steel ring. The disinfecting solutions had no significant impact on two impression materials. For the remaining eight materials the accuracy was decreased, increased, or unaffected by the immersion. Generally, the accuracy of the alginates investigated were more affected by the disinfecting solutions than were the elastomeric impression materials. The accuracy of the three alginates was drastically impaired by immersion in 70% ethanol, whereas the remaining five disinfecting solutions had a smaller, though sometimes statistically significant, effect on the accuracy. For the elastomeric materials only a few specific combinations of impression material and disinfecting solution reduced the accuracy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Medium-viscosity polyether impression material: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ritter, A V; Swift, E J

    2000-11-01

    Polyethers are elastomeric materials commonly used for making precision impressions. They are hydrophilic, which facilitates the contact of the unset material with the intraoral tissue and the wetting of the impression by cast materials. The final hardness of this new impression material is reduced in an attempt to overcome rigidity of the set impression. A case is described involving the restoration of a fractured maxillary premolar and a single-phase impression technique using the new polyether impression material.

  19. Dimensional stability and detail reproduction of irreversible hydrocolloid and elastomeric impressions disinfected by immersion.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G H; Chellis, K D; Gordon, G E; Lepe, X

    1998-04-01

    Because irreversible hydrocolloid impressions imbibe blood and saliva, immersion rather than spray disinfection may be more effective. Polyether has been shown to be dimensionally sensitive to immersion disinfection. The aim of this study was to determine whether irreversible hydrocolloid and polyether impressions could be disinfected by immersion without sacrificing accuracy and surface quality. Impressions were made of a master mandibular arch containing a crown preparation. Changes between the master and working casts were assessed. Irreversible hydrocolloids (Jeltrate; Palgaflex), a polyether (Impregum F), and an addition silicone (President) were used. Disinfectants were an iodophor (Biocide), a glyoxal glutaraldehyde (Impresept de), and a phenol glutaraldehyde (Sporicidin). The control was without disinfection. Casts were formed in Type IV gypsum. The roughness of working dies was also recorded and an analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation. Results. Casts from disinfected irreversible hydrocolloid and elastomeric impressions maintained accuracy for anteroposterior and cross arch dimensions where differences from the master was less than 0.1%. Buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions of working dies (disinfected and control) were 6 to 8 microm larger than the master for addition silicones and 11 to 16 pm for polyethers. The occlusogingival dimension of dies for control and disinfected polyether was 9 pm longer than the master compared with -3 microm for addition silicone. The range of mean surface roughness of working dies made from irreversible hydrocolloids was 1.4 to 1.7 microm and ranged from 0.5 to 0.7 microm for elastomeric impressions. Conclusion. Immersion disinfection of Jeltrate material with iodophor and Palgaflex material with glyoxal glutaraldehyde produced casts and dies as accurate as the control. Control and disinfected elastomeric impression produced dies as clinically accurate and smooth as the master. Disinfection of

  20. The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials.

    PubMed

    Papadiochos, Ioannis; Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis

    The concept of impression making process in dentistry began in the mid 1800s. Dentists realized that the construction of a prosthetic restoration required both a detailed capture of the oral tissues along with stone cast fabrications. To accomplish these goals, impression materials were essential. Beeswax represents the first impression material, while important bechmarks during the historical evolution of dental impression materials are considered to be the introduction of dental trays in the early 1800s and the invention of the gutta-percha, thermoplastic resins and plaster of Paris. The double (corrective) impression technique, along with the functional impression concept that was established after mid 1800s, are also identified as pivotal innovations. During the 20th century, the advances in material development slowed significantly since the majority of the current impression materials had already been invented. However, the introduction of elastomeric impression materials in the field of prosthodontics that offered the advantages of accuracy and dimensional stability substantially upgraded both the impression accuracy and the quality of the final restoration. Presently, the dental practitioner has access to a variety of impression materials and should be aware of their properties, indications and limitations as well. Futhermore, while continuous attempts are being made to enhance these materials, the ideal impression material has yet to be developed. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review about the historical development of impression dental materials. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  1. Effect of disinfecting solutions on surface texture of alginate and elastomeric impressions.

    PubMed

    Peutzfeldt, A; Asmussen, E

    1990-02-01

    The effect of immersion in six disinfecting solutions on the surface texture of 10 impression materials was investigated. Assessment of the surface texture was based on measurement of the ability to reproduce fine detail. Impressions were taken of a roughness standard, i.e. a steel block with known roughness. After setting, the impressions were either stored at room temperature for 24 h, for control, or immediately immersed in a disinfecting agent for 60 min (in one case 10 min), and after 24 h poured with gypsum. After another 24 h, the roughness of the dies was recorded with a profilometer. Three addition-curing silicones were left unaltered by disinfection. For the remaining seven materials, the ability of detail reproduction was changed for some of the combinations of impression material and disinfecting solution. In general, this meant a reduction of detail reproduction, but occasionally an improvement of the surface texture resulted from disinfection. Changes in surface texture were most often brought about by a solution of chlorinated trisodium phosphate. It was concluded that elastomeric impression materials reproduced fine detail better than did alginates and that both types of impression material may be immersed in specific disinfecting solutions for as long as 1 h without the surface texture being impaired.

  2. UV Curable Elastomeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    toluene, or xylene at levels as high as 600 g /L. Despite this fact, these coatings are currently exempt from 1998 National Emissions Standards for...resin with solvents and fillers, with a VOC of approximately 432 g /L. Current spray operations at Site 4, Plant 42, have a robotic spray system for...E-mail: dhess@arc-tech.com Material Supplier John Inks Northrop Grumman One Hornet Way El Segundo, CA 90245 Phone: 310-505-1260 E-mail

  3. Predictable elastomeric impressions in advanced fixed prosthodontics: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A

    1999-05-01

    Despite advances in dental material technology, the predictable procurement of accurate impressions for the fabrication of complex fixed prosthodontic restorations remains an elusive objective. The technical challenges and potential negative sequelae are exponentially magnified in advanced applications that involve multiple abutments and preparatory phases. A protocol for consistently achieving accurate impressions with the use of polyether impression materials and automatic instrumentation is presented and illustrated with multiple clinical examples. The technique is capable of yielding reliable results in extensive cases and requires minimal support from auxiliary personnel.

  4. Predictable elastomeric impressions in advanced fixed prosthodontics: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ernesto A

    2007-10-01

    Despite advances in dental material technology, the predictable procurement of accurate impressions for the fabrication of complex fixed prosthodontic restorations remains an elusive objective. The technical challenges and potential negative sequelae are exponentially magnified in advanced applications that involve multiple abutments and preparatory phases. A protocol for consistently achieving accurate impressions with the use of various impression materials and automatic instrumentation is presented and illustrated with multiple clinical examples. The technique is capable of yielding reliable results in extensive cases and requires minimal support from auxiliary personnel.

  5. Effects of Gingival Retraction Paste and Subsequent Cleaning with Hydrogen Peroxide on the Polymerization of Three Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Tariq S; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Al Rifaiy, Mohammad Q; Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H; Vohra, Fahim A; Balous, Moneeb A; Alqarni, Adel S; Alotaibi, Abdulmajeed O

    2017-09-27

    It has been hypothesized that there are no effects of Expasyl and subsequent cleaning with hydrogen peroxide on polymerization of selected commonly used impression materials. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Expasyl paste on the polymerization of three impression materials with and without subsequent cleaning using 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Nine standardized stainless steel specimens were fabricated. One hundred and eighty impressions were made using 3 materials (60 each) as follows: group I: poly(vinyl siloxane) (PVS) (Virtual); group II: polyether (Monophase); group III: polyether (Impregum). Groups were subdivided into 3 categories: control without intervention (n = 20), pre-application of Expasyl and subsequent 1-minute washing with water and air-drying (n = 20), and pre-application of Expasyl and subsequent cleaning with 3% H2 O2 for 10 seconds (n = 20). All impressions were made by one operator using auto-mixing cartridges under standardized conditions at room temperature. Evaluation of the polymerization inhibition was blindly and independently performed by three practitioners with comparable experience using a visual scale. The observation was subjectively categorized as noninhibited or inhibited. Data were tabulated and analyzed using Fisher's exact test with significance level set at p ˂ 0.05. Significant differences were found between the control group and the impressions made after contamination with Expasyl (p < 0.001). Polymerization inhibition of PVS and Impregum was similar (in 85% and 90% of the specimens, respectively) when washed with water. There was a statistically significant reduction in polymerization inhibition in both upon cleaning with H2 O2 (p < 0.001); however, polymerization inhibition occurred in 100% of Monophase specimens when contaminated with Expasyl despite the washing technique used. Under these in vitro conditions, it can be concluded that the remnants of Expasyl on specimens caused a

  6. The effect of surface moisture on detail reproduction of elastomeric impressions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Aw, Tar Chee

    2003-10-01

    Monophase and dual-viscosity impression techniques are available with little knowledge of which one might render better quality under wet and dry surface conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether type of material, viscosity selection, and presence of moisture affect detail reproduction of elastomeric impressions. Single-viscosity systems were polyether (Impregum Penta) and vinyl polysiloxanes (President MonoBody, Extrude MPV, and Aquasil). Dual-viscosity systems included polyether (Impregum Penta/Permadyne Garant) and vinyl polysiloxanes (Dimension Penta H/Dimension Garant L, Extrude Extra/Extrude Wash, and Aquasil/Aquasil LV). Impressions were made of a surface analyzer calibration standard possessing a uniform "saw-tooth" pattern with a mean roughness (Ra) of 2.87 mum, which was one fourth of the peak-to-valley height. Each of the 8 impression groups was subjected to dry (control) and wet conditions. The wet condition consisted of 3 mL of distilled water applied to the surface of the standard but allowed to escape during the procedure. Eighty impressions were made, 5 for each test group. After setting, the surface of each impression was scanned at 5 locations using a Surfanalyzer 4000. A 3-factor ANOVA and Student-Newman-Kuels test were used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). There were significant differences between polyether and vinyl polysiloxane materials, dual and monophase techniques, and the 2 surface conditions (P<.05). Cross-product interactions were not significant, allowing comparison of mean values for each factor. The mean Ra for single viscosity was 2.21 mum versus 1.67 mum for dual viscosity; polyether was 2.12 mum versus 1.89 mum for addition silicone; and under dry conditions, the mean was 2.04 mum versus 1.86 mum for wet conditions. Single-viscosity systems reproduced the standard saw-tooth pattern better than the dual-viscosity systems, as did polyether impression materials compared to addition silicones. Moisture led to a

  7. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In

  8. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N. Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Materials and Methods: Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. Results: When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Conclusion: Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry

  9. Dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence.

  10. Friction and abrasion of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.

    1975-01-01

    An abrasion apparatus is described. Experimental measurements are reported for four representative elastomeric materials, including a typical high-quality tire tread material and a possible replacement material for aircraft tire treads based on transpolypentenamer (TPPR). Measurements are carried out at different levels of frictional work input, corresponding to different severities of wear, and at both ambient temperature and at 100 C. Results indicate the marked superiority in abrasion resistance of the material based on TPPR, especially at 100 C, in comparison with the other materials examined.

  11. NMR Imaging of Elastomeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    on ’everse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP nuclear magnetic resonance , imaging, elastomers, tires, composites, porous...correspondence should be addressed 1i ABSTRACT Nuclear magnetic resonance images have been obtained for four porous glass disks of different porosities...INDEX HEADINGS: NMR imaging Porous materials Spin relaxation 2. I0J INTRODUCTION Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has seen increasing use in the

  12. Torque resistance of impression copings after direct implant impression: An in vitro evaluation of impression materials with and without adhesive.

    PubMed

    Auroy, Pascal; Nicolas, Emanuel; Bedouin, Yvan

    2017-01-01

    No data are available on the ability of an impression coping to resist the manual placement of an abutment replica (implant analog) during prosthodontic laboratory procedures after a direct (pick-up) impression. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the torque resistance of impression copings after a direct impression, that is, the amount of rotational torque sufficient to induce irreversible displacement of impression copings in the impression material bulk once the impression has been made. A reference model with 5 abutment replicas was constructed. Five impression copings were screwed onto the abutment replicas, and standardized impressions were made. A controlled twisting force was applied to each impression coping. A torque tester recorded the torque variation. Three elastomeric impression materials were tested. ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=.05) were performed using an average of 30 measurements per impression material, with and without adhesive. ANOVA and the Tukey test results showed that the adhesive, cohesive, and mechanical bonds between the impression coping and the impression material depended greatly on the type of material and that the average rupture threshold of these bonds was statistically significantly different in pairwise comparisons (P<.05). The curve analysis showed that when the impression materials are used with adhesives, the deformation of the interface is irreversible beyond 5 Ncm of torque. The polyether impression material is the direct impression material that showed the highest breakdown threshold for adhesive bonding when used without an adhesive. The use of an adhesive on impression copings leads to irreversible deformation of the interface at torque stresses well below the adhesive bond threshold of the same materials used without an adhesive. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of impression materials for direct multi-implant impressions.

    PubMed

    Wee, A G

    2000-03-01

    Given that meticulous implant prosthodontic procedures are recommended to obtain the best possible intraoral fit, impression materials that are suitable for use with a direct impression technique warrant further investigation. This in vitro study compared the amount of torque required to rotate a square impression coping in an impression and evaluated the accuracy of solid implant casts fabricated from different impression materials. Two direct transfer implant impressions were made using 8 impression materials; the torque required to rotate an impression coping in the impressions was calculated. Ten direct transfer implant impressions were made from the master model and poured in a die stone (Resin Rock) for 3 of the 8 initial impression material groups. Linear distances between steel balls placed on each abutment replica were measured with a traveling microscope to determine distortion in the impression procedure for each group. Data were analyzed (P =.05) with ANOVA and Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test for post hoc. With a 1-way ANOVA, average torque values among the material groups differed significantly (P =.001). Polyether (medium consistency) was found to produce the highest overall torque values, followed by addition silicone (high consistency), and then polysulfide (medium consistency). Statistically significant difference was also found among the 3 material groups' mean absolute cast error using a 1-way ANOVA (P =.0086). Implant casts made from polyether (medium) or addition silicone (high) impressions were significantly more accurate than casts made from polysulfide medium impressions. On the basis of the results of this study, the use of either polyether (medium) or addition silicone (high) impression is recommended for direct implant impressions.

  14. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials.

    PubMed

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p < or = .05), presenting smaller discrepancies. However, condensation silicone was similar (p > or = .05) to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials.

  15. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. Aim To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. Materials and Methods To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean

  16. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Basapogu, Sreeramulu; Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-02-01

    The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophobic VPS

  17. Accuracy of impressions with different impression materials in angulated implants.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Prasad, K; Vakil, H; Jain, A; Chowdhary, R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the resultant (duplicative) casts made from two different impression materials (polyvinyl siloxane and polyether) in parallel and angulated implants. Three definitive master casts (control groups) were fabricated in dental stone with three implants, placed at equi-distance. In first group (control), all three implants were placed parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the cast. In the second and third group (control), all three implants were placed at 10° and 15 o angulation respectively to the long axis of the cast, tilting towards the centre. Impressions were made with polyvinyl siloxane and polyether impression materials in a special tray, using a open tray impression technique from the master casts. These impressions were poured to obtain test casts. Three reference distances were evaluated on each test cast by using a profile projector and compared with control groups to determine the effect of combined interaction of implant angulation and impression materials on the accuracy of implant resultant cast. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in dimensional accuracy of the resultant casts made from two different impression materials (polyvinyl siloxane and polyether) by closed tray impression technique in parallel and angulated implants. On the basis of the results of this study, the use of both the impression materials i.e., polyether and polyvinyl siloxane impression is recommended for impression making in parallel as well as angulated implants.

  18. Evaluation of Four Elastomeric Interocclusal Recording Materials.

    PubMed

    Dua, P; Gupta, S H; Ramachandran, S; Sandhu, H S

    2007-07-01

    The fabrication of dental prosthesis requires the transfer of interocclusal records from patient's mouth to semi-adjustable articulators using different kinds of recording media. Any inaccuracy in these interocclusal records leads to occlusal errors in the final prosthesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the dimensional changes occurring in the interocclusal recording material over a given period of time and the material's resistance to compression during the cast mounting on the articulator. In this in vitro study, the linear dimensional change and compressive resistance of four commercially available elastomeric interocclusal recording media was tested. Three were addition silicones and the fourth was a polyether material. Cylindrical samples of 10mm diameter of each material were prepared in three different thicknesses of 2, 4 and 6mm. Ten samples each of thickness of 2, 4 and 6mm for all four materials were prepared (total of 120 samples). The linear dimensional changes of the samples were evaluated after 24 hours of fabrication. The compressive resistance was measured when each of these was subjected to a constant compressive load of 25 Newtons. The mean linear dimensional change in a horizontal plane was minimum for Kanibite Hard, an addition silicone. Ramitec showed the maximum linear dimensional change. The mean compression distance was least for Futar D Occlusion (an addition silicone) and maximum for Ramitec (a polyether). It was observed that the samples of thickness 2mm for all the materials underwent least compression. The compressive resistance of each elastomer was inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample. This implies that minimum thickness of the recording materials should be used for recording maxillomandibular relations without sacrificing the strength of the interocclusal record.

  19. Tissue conditioning materials as functional impression materials.

    PubMed

    Chander, Satinder; Hill, Mark; Moore, Derek; Morrow, Leean

    2007-06-01

    There has been much written on the subject of tissue conditioner materials. In the context of functional impressions however there exists a lack of consensus opinion. In this article various aspects of functional impression materials have been considered. These include the effects of powder to liquid mixing ratio (P/L) on the visco elastic properties, effects on the surface hardness of dental stone when these materials are cast, undercut reproducibility, compressibility and dimensional stability. Definitive conclusions are difficult to draw however it seems the evidence supports the use of tissue conditioners as functional impression materials.

  20. Dental Impression Materials and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Punj, Amit; Bompolaki, Despoina; Garaicoa, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Dental impression making is the process of creating a negative form of the teeth and oral tissues, into which gypsum or other die materials can be processed to create working analogues. Contemporary dentistry generates new information every year and digital dentistry is becoming established and influential. Although dentists should stay abreast of new technologies, some of the conventional materials and time-tested techniques remain widely used. It is important to review the impression-making process to ensure that practitioners have up-to-date information about how to safely and effectively capture the exact form of the oral tissues to provide optimal patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3660 Impression material. (a) Identification. Impression material is a device composed of materials such as alginate or polysulfide intended to be...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3660 Impression material. (a) Identification. Impression material is a device composed of materials such as alginate or polysulfide intended to be...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3660 Impression material. (a) Identification. Impression material is a device composed of materials such as alginate or polysulfide intended to be placed... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660...

  4. Resistance to disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of elastomeric dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Pecorella, Sonia; Mammina, Caterina; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to resist disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of dental impressions obtained with two different elastomers: a polyether (Impregum) and an addition-polymerized silicone (Elite). Impressions were contaminated with a mixture of three biofilm-forming microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and disinfected immediately after contamination, or after microbial layers were allowed to develop during a six-hour storage. Two commercial disinfectants were tested: MD 520 containing 0.5% glutaraldehyde and Sterigum Powder without glutaraldehyde. Residual contamination was recovered by mechanical rinsing immediately after disinfection and after a six-hour storage of disinfected impressions, and assessed by colony counting. Both disinfectants tested were shown to be effective in reducing the microbial presence on the impression materials, achieving at least a 102 reduction of microbial counts compared to water rinsing. However, Sterigum was generally less effective on the Elite elastomer and could not grant disinfection on six-hour aged P. aeruginosa and C. albicans microbial layers. The results of this study suggest that the materials used for the impressions influence the efficacy of disinfection. Disinfectants should be tested according to conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice and the need for immediate disinfection of impressions should be clearly indicated by manufacturers.

  5. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    PubMed

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  6. Survey of Impression Materials and Techniques in Fixed Partial Dentures among the Practitioners in India

    PubMed Central

    Moldi, Arvind; Puranik, Shivakumar; Karan, Smita; Deshpande, Sumit; Neela, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Anecdotal evidence suggests that impression materials and techniques used in general dental practice for fixed partial dentures vary from those taught in dental schools. The aim of this survey was to integrate impression techniques evolved all over the years for fixed partial dentures and to know the techniques and materials which are used in the present day by the practitioners. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 questionnaires were sent to various practitioners in India, out of which 807 questionnaires were filled. Results. The results showed that 84.8% of prosthodontists (65.56%, urban areas) use elastomeric impression materials as well as irreversible hydrocolloids and 15.2% use irreversible hydrocolloid only. Amongst other practitioners, 55.46% use irreversible hydrocolloid (45%, rural and semiurban areas) and 44.54% use elastomeric impression materials. Elastomeric impression technique practiced most commonly is putty reline with/without spacer (77.2%); other techniques are multiple-mix and monophase techniques. Conclusion. The ideal materials, technique, and armamentarium are required for the long-term success of the treatment for fixed partial denture. Also, if the ideal procedure is not followed, it will lead to a compromised fit of the final prosthesis and failure of the treatment. PMID:23691334

  7. Survey of Impression Materials and Techniques in Fixed Partial Dentures among the Practitioners in India.

    PubMed

    Moldi, Arvind; Gala, Vimal; Puranik, Shivakumar; Karan, Smita; Deshpande, Sumit; Neela, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Anecdotal evidence suggests that impression materials and techniques used in general dental practice for fixed partial dentures vary from those taught in dental schools. The aim of this survey was to integrate impression techniques evolved all over the years for fixed partial dentures and to know the techniques and materials which are used in the present day by the practitioners. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 questionnaires were sent to various practitioners in India, out of which 807 questionnaires were filled. Results. The results showed that 84.8% of prosthodontists (65.56%, urban areas) use elastomeric impression materials as well as irreversible hydrocolloids and 15.2% use irreversible hydrocolloid only. Amongst other practitioners, 55.46% use irreversible hydrocolloid (45%, rural and semiurban areas) and 44.54% use elastomeric impression materials. Elastomeric impression technique practiced most commonly is putty reline with/without spacer (77.2%); other techniques are multiple-mix and monophase techniques. Conclusion. The ideal materials, technique, and armamentarium are required for the long-term success of the treatment for fixed partial denture. Also, if the ideal procedure is not followed, it will lead to a compromised fit of the final prosthesis and failure of the treatment.

  8. In vitro study on the dimensional accuracy of selected materials for monophase elastic impression making.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Ottl, Peter; Büchler, Alfred; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Hoffmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the dimensional accuracy of various impression materials for monophase elastic impression making. To isolate this parameter, a direct measurement of the impressions was made without taking the model material into consideration. A total of eight materials were tested; six impression materials were addition-curing silicones, and two were polyether impression materials. All materials were processed according to the manufacturers' instructions. A specially developed precision mold made of stainless steel served as basis for measuring the elastomeric impression materials. Using a stereomicroscope at a temperature of 23.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C and with a precision linear adjustment and lathe, sights were set on the marking points of customized posts. The measurement was performed after the earliest time possible for fabricating the model according to the manufacturer (time 1) and after 90 minutes (time 2). In a one-way analysis of variance, multiple average comparisons of dimensional accuracy were made (P < or = .05) between the impression materials under investigation. Under the conditions of this study, the impression materials tested demonstrated a very high dimensional accuracy. The arithmetic means of the dimensional changes ranged from -11 to 19 microns for both measuring times. Since as a rule, no significant dimensional changes occurred for the different impression materials between time 1 and time 2, this time interval for fabricating a model can be recommended.

  9. An alternative impression technique for mobile teeth.

    PubMed

    Lampraki, Evangelia; Chochlidakis, Konstantinos M; Rossopoulos, Evangelos; Ercoli, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The impression technique described combines elastomeric impression materials and irreversible hydrocolloid to make an accurate preliminary impression of extremely mobile and misaligned teeth. Upon setting, the materials are removed from the mouth in 3 different directions and reassembled extraorally. This technique provides an alternative, easy, accurate, and safe way to make a preliminary impression of mobile, periodontally involved teeth.

  10. Soft hydrogel materials from elastomeric gluten-mimetic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Scott, Shane; Wan, Fan; Dick, Scott; Harden, James; Biomolecular Assemblies Team

    2014-03-01

    Elastomeric proteins are ubiquitous in both animal and plant tissues, where they are responsible for the elastic response and mechanical resilience of tissues. In addition to fundamental interest in the molecular origins of their elastic behaviour, this class of proteins has great potential for use in biomaterial applications. The structural and elastomeric properties of these proteins are thought to be controlled by a subtle balance between hydrophobic interactions and entropic effects, and in many cases their characteristic properties can be recapitulated by multi-block protein polymers formed from repeats of short, characteristic polypeptide motifs. We have developed biomimetic multi-block protein polymers based on variants of several elastomeric gluten consensus sequences. These proteins include constituents designed to maximize their solubility in aqueous solution and minimize the formation of extended secondary structure. Thus, they are examples of elastic intrinsically disordered proteins. In addition, the proteins have distributed tyrosine residues which allow for inter-molecular crosslinking to form hydrogel networks. In this talk, we present experimental and simulation studies of the molecular and materials properties of these proteins and their assemblies.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... on a preformed impression tray and used to reproduce the structure of a patient's teeth and gums....

  12. 21 CFR 872.3660 - Impression material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression material. 872.3660 Section 872.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... on a preformed impression tray and used to reproduce the structure of a patient's teeth and gums....

  13. [Evaluation of cervical discrepancy of gold crowns in stone dies from various impression materials].

    PubMed

    Mantovani, A V; Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1990-01-01

    A stainless steel master die simulating a dental preparation for crown was used to make 3 gold castings from wax patterns obtained in 3 different ways: a) directly from the naked master die; b) from the same master die with a copper coping 30 microns thick; and c) with a similar copper coping, but 40 microns thick. The discrepancies of fit of the 3 master gold crowns were evaluated in 99 stones dies (33 for each casting) obtained from 11 different elastomeric impression materials (3 replicae of each). The results showed that: 1) stone dies with no coping presented a medium discrepancy of 284 microns, inadequate for clinical use; 2) the 30 microns and 40 microns copings presented medium discrepancies of 18 and 9 microns respectively, both suitable for clinical use. Thus, the use of copings tend to equalize the cervical discrepancy of fit of gold crowns, whatever be the elastomeric impression material used.

  14. Long-time dynamic compatibility of elastomeric materials with hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Fedors, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The tensile property surfaces for two elastomeric materials, EPT-10 and AF-E-332, were generated in air and in liquid hydrazine environments using constant strain rate tensile tests over a range of temperatures and elongation rates. These results were used to predict the time-to-rupture for these materials in hydrazine as a function of temperature and amount of strain covering a span of operating times from less than a minute to twenty years. The results of limited sheet-folding tests and their relationship to the tensile failure boundary are presented and discussed.

  15. Linear dimensional changes in plaster die models using different elastomeric materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Murata, Karina Yumi; Valle, Accácio Lins do; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Shiratori, Fábio Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Dental impression is an important step in the preparation of prostheses since it provides the reproduction of anatomic and surface details of teeth and adjacent structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional alterations in gypsum dies obtained with different elastomeric materials, using a resin coping impression technique with individual shells. A master cast made of stainless steel with fixed prosthesis characteristics with two prepared abutment teeth was used to obtain the impressions. References points (A, B, C, D, E and F) were recorded on the occlusal and buccal surfaces of abutments to register the distances. The impressions were obtained using the following materials: polyether, mercaptan-polysulfide, addition silicone, and condensation silicone. The transfer impressions were made with custom trays and an irreversible hydrocolloid material and were poured with type IV gypsum. The distances between identified points in gypsum dies were measured using an optical microscope and the results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p < 0.05) and Tukey's test. The mean of the distances were registered as follows: addition silicone (AB = 13.6 µm, CD=15.0 µm, EF = 14.6 µm, GH=15.2 µm), mercaptan-polysulfide (AB = 36.0 µm, CD = 36.0 µm, EF = 39.6 µm, GH = 40.6 µm), polyether (AB = 35.2 µm, CD = 35.6 µm, EF = 39.4 µm, GH = 41.4 µm) and condensation silicone (AB = 69.2 µm, CD = 71.0 µm, EF = 80.6 µm, GH = 81.2 µm). All of the measurements found in gypsum dies were compared to those of a master cast. The results demonstrated that the addition silicone provides the best stability of the compounds tested, followed by polyether, polysulfide and condensation silicone. No statistical differences were obtained between polyether and mercaptan-polysulfide materials.

  16. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  17. Predictable definitive impressions for multiple indirect restorations using a modified putty and wash impression procedure.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elvin W J; Cheng, Ansgar C; Khin, Neo Tee; Lee, Helena; Leong, Daylene J M

    2007-12-01

    Accurate impression-making is essential for the construction of accurately fitting indirect restorations. The putty and wash impression technique using an elastomeric impression material is a popular method. A modified technique is presented that ensures predictable registration of multiple tooth preparations in the dental arch in a single impression.

  18. A new generation of sterile and radiopaque impression materials: an in vitro cytotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Coppi, Chiara; Paolinelli Devincenzi, Chiara; Bortolini, Sergio; Consolo, Ugo; Tiozzo, Roberta

    2007-07-01

    Impression materials are largely used to record the geometry of dental tissue. Hence, the assessment of their possible cytotoxicity is a necessary step in the evaluation of their biocompatibility. The present study is carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a new elastomeric sterile and radiopaque impression material. Human gingival fibroblasts, cultured in vitro are exposed directly to Elite Implant in three different viscosities, heavy, medium, and light. At 3, 9, 24, 48, and 72 h, the cellular proliferation is evaluated. In parallel, human gingival fibroblasts are exposed indirectly by means of fluid extracts of Elite Implant. The cellular viability is evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, (MTT) assay (Sigma, St Louis, Mo). The gingival fibroblasts proliferation and viability are unaffected by the presence of Elite Implant. This new impression material may represent a safe medical device for clinical and surgical applications. In addition, this material is radiopaque and, thus, can be identified radiographically.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... custom impression tray for use in cases in which a preformed impression tray is not suitable, such as the... and gums is made. The resin impression tray material is applied to this preliminary study model...

  20. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 1: edentulous impressions.

    PubMed

    Massad, Joseph J; Cagna, David R

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in impression materials and stock edentulous impression trays have resulted in simplified approaches to impression making in removable prosthodontics. Once considered an absolute necessity, it is now possible to avoid the need for custom impression trays. In an effort to achieve reliable master casts in a single appointment, new and innovative procedures are now available. This article, the first in a 3-part series, will review historical information, basic concepts, materials considerations, and philosophic approaches to impression making in complete-denture therapy. A modem technique using readily available impression materials will be described and illustrated so readers can consider the benefits of incorporation into their daily management of edentulous patients.

  1. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 1: Edentulous impressions.

    PubMed

    Massad, Joseph J; Cagna, David R

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in impression materials and stock edentulous impression trays have resulted in simplified approaches to impression making in removable prosthodontics. Once considered an absolute necessity, it is now possible to avoid the need for custom impression trays. In an effort to achieve reliable master casts in a single appointment, new and innovative procedures are now available. This article, the first in a 3-part series, will review historical information, basic concepts, materials considerations, and philosophic approaches to impression making in complete-denture therapy. A modern technique using readily available impression materials will be described and illustrated so readers can consider the benefits of incorporation into their daily management of edentulous patients.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Elastomeric Materials for Geothermal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Mosesman, I. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A material was formulated having about 250-350 psi tensile strength and 30-80 percent elongation at 260 C for at least 24 hours in simulated brine. The relationship between these laboratory test results and sealing performance in actual or simulated test conditions is not entirely clear; however, it is believed that no conventional formation or casing packer design is likely to perform well using these materials. The synthetic effort focused on high temperature block copolymers and development of curable polystyrene. Procedures were worked out for synthesizing these new materials. Initial results with heat-cured unfilled polystyrene 'gum' at 260 C indicate a tensile strength of about 50 psi. Cast films of the first sample of polyphenyl quinoxaline-polystyrene block copolymer, which has 'graft-block' structure consisting of a polystyrene chain with pendant polyphenyl quinoxaline groups, show elastomeric behavior in the required temperature range. Its tensile strength and elongation at 260 C were 220-350 psi and 18-36 percent, respectively. All of these materials also showed satisfactory hydrolytic stability.

  3. Dimensional changes of alginate dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Nallamuthu, N; Braden, M; Patel, M P

    2006-12-01

    The weight loss and corresponding dimensional changes of two dental alginate impression materials have been studied. The weight loss kinetics indicate this to be a diffusion controlled process, but with a boundary condition at the surface of the concentration decreasing exponentially with time. This is in marked contrast to most desorption processes, where the surface concentration becomes instantaneously zero. The appropriate theory has been developed for an exponential boundary condition, and its predictions compared with experimental data; the agreement was satisfactory. The diffusion coefficients for two thicknesses of the same material were not identical as predicted by theory; the possible reasons for this are discussed.

  4. Injectable Drug Eluting Elastomeric Polymer: A Novel Submucosal Injection Material

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Palmer, Michael; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Abell, Thomas L.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodegradable hydrogels can deliver therapeutic payloads with great potentials in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to yield improvements in efficacy and foster mucosal regeneration. Objective To assess the efficacy of an injectable drug eluting elastomeric polymer (iDEEP) as a submucosal injection material. Design Comparative study among 3 different solutions using material characterization tests, ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Setting Academic hospital. Interventions 30 gastric submucosal cushions were achieved with saline (0.9%), sodium hyaluronate (0.4%), and iDEEP (n = 10) in ex vivo porcine stomachs. Four porcine gastric submucosal cushions were then performed in vivo using iDEEP. Main outcome measurements Maximum injection pressure, Rebamipide release rate, submucosal elevation duration, and assessment of in vivo efficacy by en bloc resection. Results No significant difference in injection pressures between iDEEP (28.9 ± 0.3 PSI) and sodium hyaluronate (29.5 ± 0.4 PSI, P > .05) was observed. iDEEP gels displayed a controlled release of Rebamipide up to 2 weeks in vitro. The elevation height of iDEEP (5.7 ± 0.5 mm) was higher than saline (2.8 ± 0.2 mm, P < .01) and SH (4.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < .05). All EMR procedures were successfully performed after injection of iDEEP, and a large gel cushion was noted after the resection procedure. Limitations Benchtop, ex vivo, and non-survival pig study. Conclusions A novel injection solution was evaluated for endoscopic resection. These results suggest that iDEEP may provide a significant step towards the realization of an ideal EMR and ESD injection material. PMID:22301346

  5. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section...

  6. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 2: immediate denture and reline impressions.

    PubMed

    Cagna, David R; Massad, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Accurate impressions are important elements in both the fabrication and maintenance phases of complete denture therapy. For patients possessing nonrestorable, periodontally hopeless residual dentitions, immediate denture therapy is often the treatment of choice. An impression procedure capable of accurately registering functional vestibular anatomy facilitates successful therapy. For complete dentures currently in function, periodic assessment and correction of fit extends long-term prosthesis performance. To maintain optimal tissue-base relationships, use of specialized impressions, and subsequent laboratory reline procedures is often indicated. For both of these impression procedures (i.e., immediate denture impressions and denture reline impressions), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material offers distinct advantages. Part 2 of this article series reports on the use of VPS for immediate denture and reline impression procedures.

  7. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material in removable prosthodontics. Part 2: Immediate denture and reline impressions.

    PubMed

    Cagna, David R; Massad, Joseph J

    2007-09-01

    Accurate impressions are important elements in both the fabrication and maintenance phases of complete denture therapy. For patients possessing nonrestorable, periodontally hopeless residual dentitions, immediate denture therapy is often the treatment of choice. An impression procedure capable of accurately registering functional vestibular anatomy facilitates successful therapy. For complete dentures currently in function, periodic assessment and correction of fit extends long-term prosthesis performance. To maintain optimal tissue-base relationships, use of specialized impressions, and subsequent laboratory reline procedures is often indicated. For both of these impression procedures (ie, immediate denture impressions and denture reline impressions), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material offers distinct advantages. Part 2 of this article series reports on the use of VPS for immediate denture and reline impression procedures.

  8. Summary of geothermal elastomeric materials (GEM) technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, Alan R.

    1982-10-08

    High temperature elastomer technology which significantly advances the state-of-the-art was developed by L'Garde under DOE sponsorship. DOE exercised foresight and sponsored direct transferal of this technology to industry. Consequently, the technology can be readily purchased today from three commercial sources in the form of finished elastomeric parts. This paper provides a summary and conclusion of this effort which transcended important technology from a report gathering dust to three ready sources of elastomeric parts providing the benefits of Y267 EPDM technology.

  9. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  10. Influences of differences in tray design and impression material on impression pressure at edentulous mandible.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayumi; Kawara, Misao; Iida, Takashi; Iwasaki, Masatoshi; Komiyama, Osamu

    2017-08-31

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tray design and impression material on impression pressure in a clinical simulation model of an edentulous mandible. Two types of polyvinylsiloxane elastomer, one type of polyether elastomer, and one type of alginate were used. The three tray types had no relief, 0.36 mm of relief, or 1.4 mm of relief, with or without escape holes. Impression pressure was measured at the median alveolar crest, the bilateral alveolar crests corresponding to molars, and the bilateral buccal shelves. Impression pressure significantly differed in relation to tray design and sensor position. In trays without escape holes, impression pressure was highest at the median alveolar crest and lowest at the buccal shelves, for all impression materials. However, impression material had no significant effects on impression pressure. Our results suggest that bite-pressure load on alveolar crests can be alleviated by making an impression with a tray that has relief and escape holes, while applying pressure to buccal shelves and almost no pressure to alveolar crests.

  11. Accuracy of three implant impression techniques with different impression materials and stones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won-Gun; Vahidi, Farhad; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of casts made using three different impression techniques to obtain an accurate definitive cast for fabrication of multiple-implant prostheses. Twelve experimental groups were formed combining the following conditions: three impression techniques, two impression materials, and two cast materials. The main effects of the three factors were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance using the full factorial general linear model between factors. The results showed that there were no significant differences in mean values for the transferred dimensions between the control and experimental groups. None of the measurements in the horizontal plane of the definitive casts demonstrated significant differences among the impression techniques with different impression and cast materials (P > .01).

  12. The fungicidal effect of ultraviolet light on impression materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Nahara, Y.; Tamamoto, M.; Hamada, T. )

    1991-04-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on fungi and impression materials were tested. UV light (250 microW/cm2) killed most Candida organisms (10(3) cells/ml) within 5 minutes. UV light (8000 microW/cm2) killed most C. albicans (10(7) cells/ml) within 2 minutes of exposure. The effect of UV light on dimensional change and surface roughness of impression materials (irreversible hydrocolloid, agar, and silicone rubber) was tested. The results showed that neither dimensional change nor surface roughness of the impression materials were affected. The results of this study indicate that UV light disinfects impression materials that are contaminated with Candida organisms.

  13. Impression techniques for implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chee, W; Jivraj, S

    2006-10-07

    The object of making an impression in implant dentistry is to accurately relate an analogue of the implant or implant abutment to the other structures in the dental arch. This is affected by use of an impression coping which is attached to the implant or implant abutment. This impression coping is incorporated in an impression - much as a metal framework is 'picked up' in a remount impression for fixed prosthodontics. With implant copings the coping is usually attached to the implant or abutment with screws. The impression material used is usually an elastomeric impression material; the two types most widely used and shown to be the most appropriate are polyether and polyvinyl siloxane impression materials.

  14. An in vitro study of the bond strength of five adhesives used for vinyl polysiloxane impression materials and tray materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surender; Gandhi, Udey Vir; Banerjee, Saurav

    2014-03-01

    Although stock trays often provide mechanical retention for elastomeric impression materials, manufacturers typically recommend the use of an adhesive, whether a stock or custom tray is used. The mention of the bond strength on the adhesive packaging is not available, therefore the clinician has no idea whatsoever of the ideal adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) materials, one with a poly(methyl methacrylate) autopolymerizing (PMMA) specimen and another with a light-polymerizing tray material (VLC), using the adhesive recommended by the manufacturer of the impression material, and two universal adhesives. A total of ninety specimens (15 × 15 × 20 mm) were used, 45 specimens were made in PMMA and rest 45 was made in VLC. Five paint-on adhesives (Coltene, Caulk, 3M, universal Zhermack and universal GC) were applied. Three impression materials, Affinis, Reprosil, and 3M, were mixed and injected into a perforated poly vinyl chloride cylinder. Tray specimens were positioned against the open cylinder end in contact with the VPS material. Tensile strength tests were conducted until adhesive separation failure. Mean values and standard errors of the adhesive strength were recorded in MPa for each material combination. GC paint-on universal adhesive provided significantly higher adhesive strength values.

  15. Effects of implant system, impression technique, and impression material on accuracy of the working cast.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Kerstin; Weskott, Katharina; Zenginel, Martha; Rehmann, Peter; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to identify the effects of the implant system, impression technique, and impression material on the transfer accuracy of implant impressions. The null hypothesis tested was that, in vitro and within the parameters of the experiment, the spatial relationship of a working cast to the placement of implants is not related to (1) the implant system, (2) the impression technique, or (3) the impression material. A steel maxilla was used as a reference model. Six implants of two different implant systems (Standard Plus, Straumann; Semados, Bego) were fixed in the reference model. The target variables were: three-dimensional (3D) shift in all directions, implant axis direction, and rotation. The target variables were assessed using a 3D coordinate measuring machine, and the respective deviations of the plaster models from the nominal values of the reference model were calculated. Two different impression techniques (reposition/pickup) and four impression materials (Aquasil Ultra, Flexitime, Impregum Penta, P2 Magnum 360) were investigated. In all, 80 implant impressions for each implant system were taken. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of variance. The implant system significantly influenced the transfer accuracy for most spatial dimensions, including the overall 3D shift and implant axis direction. There was no significant difference between the two implant systems with regard to rotation. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant effect on transfer accuracy only for the implant system. Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that the transfer accuracy of the intraoral implant position on the working cast is far more dependent on the implant system than on the selection of a specific impression technique or material.

  16. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section 872.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold...

  17. Dimensional changes of dental impression materials by thermal changes.

    PubMed

    Kim, K M; Lee, J S; Kim, K N; Shin, S W

    2001-05-01

    Dental impression materials for prosthodontic treatment must be easy to use, precisely replicate of oral tissue, be dimensionally stable, and be compatible with gypsum materials. The dimensional accuracy of all materials is affected by thermal changes; impression materials shrink during cooling from mouth temperature (37 degrees C) to room temperature (23 degrees C). Five kinds of light body addition-reaction silicone impression materials [Contrast (CT), Voco Co., Germany; Examix (EM), GC Co., Japan; Extrude (EX), Kerr Co., USA; Imprint II (IM), 3M Co., USA; Perfect (PF), Handae Chemical, Korea] were tested by making cylindrical specimens (6 mm diameter and 12 mm height). The thermal expansion of the impression materials was measured with a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA 2940, TA Instruments, USA) between 23-37 degrees C. Data were analyzed via the Mann-Whitney Usage Test. To simulate actual dental impressions, tooth and tray shapes were modeled to measure the linear shrinkage of impression materials at anterior and posterior locations. The thermal expansion of impression materials tested decreased as follows: CT >or= PF >or= EM >or= EX >or= IM (p < 0.05). The anterior region changed more than the posterior region for the same impression materials. The dimensional changes averaged more than 40 microm in the anterior region, but less than 40 microm in the posterior region for all materials. Thermal expansion coefficients of some impression materials were significantly different from each other (p < 0.05), and the anterior region had more dimensional change than the posterior region for the same impression materials.

  18. A coupled theory of fluid permeation and large deformations for elastomeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Shawn A.; Anand, Lallit

    2010-11-01

    An elastomeric gel is a cross-linked polymer network swollen with a solvent (fluid). A continuum-mechanical theory to describe the various coupled aspects of fluid permeation and large deformations (e.g., swelling and squeezing) of elastomeric gels is formulated. The basic mechanical force balance laws and the balance law for the fluid content are reviewed, and the constitutive theory that we develop is consistent with modern treatments of continuum thermodynamics, and material frame-indifference. In discussing special constitutive equations we limit our attention to isotropic materials, and consider a model for the free energy based on a Flory-Huggins model for the free energy change due to mixing of the fluid with the polymer network, coupled with a non-Gaussian statistical-mechanical model for the change in configurational entropy—a model which accounts for the limited extensibility of polymer chains. As representative examples of application of the theory, we study (a) three-dimensional swelling-equilibrium of an elastomeric gel in an unconstrained, stress-free state; and (b) the following one-dimensional transient problems: (i) free-swelling of a gel; (ii) consolidation of an already swollen gel; and (iii) pressure-difference-driven diffusion of organic solvents across elastomeric membranes.

  19. Effect of variation of impression material combinations, dual arch tray types, and sequence of pour on the accuracy of working dies: “An in vitro study”

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Nagam Raja; Reddy, Jakranpally Sathya; Padmaja, Bramha Josyula Indira; Reddy, Budigi Madan Mohan; Sunil, Motupalli; Reddy, Bommireddy Tejeswar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of dies made from dual arch impressions using different sectional dual arch trays, combinations of elastomeric impression materials, and the sequence of pour of dies. Subjects and Methods: The dual arch impression materials were grouped into three groups depending on the combination of impression materials used and each group is subdivided into four subgroups. A sample size of 8 in each subgroup yielding a total 96 impressions will be made into three groups of 32 each (Group I, II, and III). Group I constitute impressions made using monophase (M) impression material, Group II constitute impressions made using combination of heavy body and light body (HL), and Group III constitute impressions made using combination of putty and light body (PL). Dies obtained were evaluated with a travelling microscope to measure the buccolingual width of the tooth at the margin by using the sharp corners of the notches as reference points. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis namely mean and standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance test. Results: The results obtained in this study indicate that though not statistically significant, the metal dual arch trays performed better when compared to the plastic trays in reproducing die dimensions. Conclusions: From the results obtained, dies poured from combination of heavy body and light body impressions using plastic or metal dual arch trays showed least variation in bucco-lingual dimension from master model. PMID:27141172

  20. Elastomeric Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    van Eldijk, Mark B.; McGann, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Elastomeric polypeptides are very interesting biopolymers and are characterized by rubber-like elasticity, large extensibility before rupture, reversible deformation without loss of energy, and high resilience upon stretching. Their useful properties have motivated their use in a wide variety of materials and biological applications. This chapter focuses on elastin and resilin – two elastomeric biopolymers – and the recombinant polypeptides derived from them (elastin-like polypeptides and resilin-like polypeptides). This chapter also discusses the applications of these recombinant polypeptides in the fields of purification, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:21826606

  1. Dimensional accuracy of 3 silicone dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K

    2006-09-01

    This study was carried out to measure the dimensional changes in silicone impression material, which can affect the fitness of the prosthesis. Using both single and double mix techniques, 20 impression samples for each of 3 different proprietary silicones, Xantopren-H, President and Fulldent, were made. Selected measurements were made on the stone casts made from each impression. In all 3 cases, the single mix gave more accurate casts than the double mix technique. The Xantopren-H impressions had the most accurate dimensions.

  2. Developments in new aircraft tire tread materials. [fatigue life of elastomeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Mccarty, J. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Golub, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    Comparative laboratory and field tests were conducted on experimental and state-of-the-art aircraft tire tread materials in a program aimed at seeking new elastomeric materials which would provide improved aircraft tire tread wear, traction, and blowout resistance in the interests of operational safety and economy. The experimental stock was formulated of natural rubber and amorphous vinyl polybutadiene to provide high thermal-oxidative resistance, a characteristic pursued on the premise that thermal oxidation is involved both in the normal abrasion or wear of tire treads and probably in the chain of events leading to blowout failures. Results from the tests demonstrate that the experimental stock provided better heat buildup (hysteresis) and fatigue properties, at least equal wet and dry traction, and greater wear resistance than the state-of-the-art stock.

  3. Effect of reactive adhesives on the tensile bond strength of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials to methyl methacrylate tray material.

    PubMed

    Ona, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sato, Masayuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    The effect of new adhesives on the bond strength of elastomeric impression materials to acrylic trays was evaluated. Two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Fusion and Imprinsis) with reactive adhesives and one (Examix) with a conventional adhesive were tested. Flat, double-sided plates of auto-polymerizing methyl methacrylate (10 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared with one of the adhesives. Five specimens were prepared by injecting each impression material into a 2-mm gap between the two plates. Tensile tests were conducted until separation failure occurred. The mean bond strengths of Fusion (1.0 MPa) and Imprinsis (0.8 MPa) were significantly greater than that of Examix (0.2 MPa). On the contrary, one of five Fusion showed adhesive failure mode while all the Imprinsis exhibited mixed failure. The conflicting results were presumably attributed to the mean tear strength of Fusion (0.8 N/mm) being higher than that of Imprinsis (0.5 N/mm).

  4. Patients' preferences when comparing analogue implant impressions using a polyether impression material versus digital impressions (Intraoral Scan) of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Wismeijer, Daniel; Mans, Ronny; van Genuchten, Michiel; Reijers, Hajo A

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this clinical study was to assess the patients' perception of the difference between an analogue impression approach on the one hand and an intra-oral scan (IO scan) on the other when restoring implants in the non-aesthetic zone. A second objective was to analyse the difference in time needed to perform these two procedures. Thirty consecutive patients who had received 41 implants (Straumann tissue level) in the non-aesthetic zone in an implant-based referral practice setting in the Netherlands. As they were to receive crown and or bridge work on the implants, in one session, the final impressions were taken with both an analogue technique and with an intraoral scan. Patients were also asked if, directly after the treatment was carried out, they would be prepared to fill out a questionnaire on their perception of both techniques. The time involved following these two procedures was also recorded. The preparatory activities of the treatment, the taste of the impression material and the overall preference of the patients were significantly in favour of the IO scan. The bite registration, the scan head and gag reflex positively tended to the IO scan, but none of these effects were significant. The overall time involved with the IO scan was more negatively perceived than the analogue impression. Overall less time was involved when following the analogue impression technique than with the IO scan. The overall preference of the patients in our sample is significantly in favour of the approach using the IO scan. This preference relates mainly to the differences between the compared approaches with respect to taste effects and their preparatory activities. The patients did perceive the duration of IO scan more negatively than the analogue impression approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Accuracy of implant impression splinted techniques: effect of splinting material.

    PubMed

    Assif, D; Nissan, J; Varsano, I; Singer, A

    1999-01-01

    Three implant impression techniques, using 3 different splinting materials, were assessed for accuracy in a laboratory model that simulated clinical practice. For group A, an autopolymerizing acrylic resin was used to splint transfer copings. In group B, a dual-cure acrylic resin was used, and for group C, plaster, which was also the impression material, was used. A metal implant master cast with an implant master framework was made to accurately fit to the cast. This cast was the standard for all impressions. For each group, 15 impressions were made. Polyether impression material was used for groups A and B. The accuracy of the stone casts with the implant analogues was measured against the master framework, using strain gauges. A multiple analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to test for significant differences among the 3 groups. Additional analyses of variance were carried out to locate the source of difference. The statistical analyses revealed that a significant difference existed between groups A and B and between groups B and C but not between groups A and C. Impression techniques using autopolymerizing acrylic resin or impression plaster as a splinting material were significantly more accurate than dual-cure acrylic resin. Plaster is the material of choice in completely edentulous patients, since it is much easier to manipulate, less time consuming, and less expensive.

  6. Fatal anaphylactic shock due to a dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Spagnolo, Elvira Ventura; Cardia, Giulio; Minciullo, Paola L

    2009-01-01

    Materials used for dental impressions are usually safe. This study describes a case of fatal anaphylaxis that appeared immediately after the oral mucosa came into contact with an alginate paste used for dental impressions. The cadaveric examination and the postmortem toxicology report confirmed that the cause of death was anaphylactic shock. The patient was affected by both cardiovascular and lung diseases that worsened the condition and forbade the use of epinephrine. To the authors' knowledge, dental impression materials, and alginate in particular, have not been reported previously as being a cause of anaphylaxis.

  7. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  8. Evaluation of effect of tray space on the accuracy of condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Aeran, Himanshu

    2012-09-01

    Optimal thickness of impression materials in the custom tray in order to get the most accurate impression. To investigate the effect of different tray spacer thickness on the accuracy and the dimensional stability of impressions made from monophasic condensation silicone, addition silicone and polyether impression materials. Three different types of elastomeric monophasic impression materials were used for making the impression of a master die with tray having tray spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Each type of impression was poured in die stone after 1 h. Each cast was analyzed by a travelling microscope and compared with the master die. The data was tabulated and subjected to statistical evaluation. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 to 4 mm spaced trays produced more accurate stone casts when compared to 6 mm spaced tray. No statistical significant differences were observed between the accuracy and dimensional stability of the three materials tested. Minimum changes were observed when the cast was poured after 1 h and the tray space was 2 mm for all the materials tested. It is therefore advisable not to exceed tray space of 2 mm.

  9. Disinfection of bacterially contaminated hydrophilic PVS impression materials.

    PubMed

    Estafanous, Emad Wadie; Palenik, Charles John; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated disinfection of bacterially contaminated hydrophilic polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) and polyether impressions. Four light-bodied PVS (Examix, Genie, Take 1, Aquasil) and one polyether (Impregum) impression materials were evaluated using three disinfectants (EcoTru [EnviroSystems], ProSpray [Certol], and bleach [diluted 1:9]) as spray and immersion disinfections for 10-minute exposures. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella choleraesius ATCC 10708, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was the microbial challenge. Test specimens were prepared using aluminum molds with ten tapered cones. Mucin covered each cone, followed by 0.01 mL of each bacterium. Impressions were made using low viscosity impression material that was injected over the cones and filled custom trays. One-half of the impressions were spray disinfected, while the others underwent immersion disinfection. Trays that were contaminated but not disinfected served as positive controls, while those not bacterially contaminated or disinfected served as negative controls. The impressions were poured with Silky Rock Die Stone, and after setting, two cones were placed within a sterile capsule and triturated into powder. Four milliliters of TRIS buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.0) containing sodium thiosulfate (0.0055% w/v) were poured in each tube. After mixing, the solution was serially diluted and spread-plated onto selective agars. After incubation, colony counting occurred. No viable bacteria transferred to casts from either spray- or immersion-disinfected impressions. Negative controls produced no microbial colonies. Positive controls produced on average 3.35 × 10(5) bacterial cells. Results suggest the methods used could disinfect contaminated impression materials. Microbial transfer from nondisinfected impressions to cones approached 33.5%. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Temperature effects on the rheological properties of current polyether and polysiloxane impression materials during setting.

    PubMed

    Berg, John C; Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Adán-Plaza, Sergio

    2003-08-01

    Rheological tests of elastomeric impression materials during setting have been most often conducted at room temperature rather than at intraoral temperature. Because temperature may affect properties and the setting kinetics, clinically relevant inferences may not be accurate with studies conducted at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the viscoelastic properties of new low- and medium-viscosity elastomeric impression materials during setting at 33 degrees C and to evaluate the medium-viscosity materials at 3 additional temperatures. The impression materials investigated at 33 degrees C were 2 polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS) (Aquasil Deca and Aquasil LV) and 5 polyethers (PE) (Impregum Penta, Impregum Penta Soft H, Impregum Penta Soft L, Impregum Garant Soft L, and Permadyne Garant L). Three impression materials (Aquasil Deca, Impregum Penta, and Impregum Penta Soft H) were also investigated at 25 degrees, 29 degrees, and 37 degrees C. Time-dependent oscillatory rheometry was carried out on these materials (n=3) with a rheometer with a 25-mm diameter parallel plate cell. The storage modulus (G') and the loss tangent (tandelta) were determined as functions of time over a period from 0 seconds to 900 seconds, commencing 40 seconds after mixing. Induction time (t(ind)) or initial setting time and tandelta, the relative liquidlike behavior, were also computed. A single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the properties determined at 33 degrees C and a 2-factor ANOVA was used for the temperature studies, with hypothesis testing at alpha=.05. The G'(t) curves for all materials displayed the expected sigmoidal shape with time, with the solid-like behavior rising slowly, then more rapidly, and again slowly to final set. The initial setting time (t(ind)) was found to be approximately 2.8 minutes for the PVS materials and for Impregum Penta and Impregum Penta Soft H, but was significantly longer for the remaining 3 PE low viscosity materials

  11. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonam; Balakrishnan, Dhanasekar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. For a precise fit of multiple implant framework, having an accurate definitive cast is imperative. The present study evaluated dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different impression trays and materials with open tray impression technique. Materials and Methods. A machined aluminum reference model with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated. Forty implant level impressions were made. Eight groups (n = 5) were tested using impression materials (polyether and vinylsiloxanether) and four types of impression trays, two being custom (self-cure acrylic and light cure acrylic) and two being stock (plastic and metal). The interimplant distances were measured on master casts using a coordinate measuring machine. The collected data was compared with a standard reference model and was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the two impression materials. However, the difference seen was small (36 μm) irrespective of the tray type used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between varied stock and custom trays. Conclusions. The polyether impression material proved to be more accurate than vinylsiloxanether impression material. The rigid nonperforated stock trays, both plastic and metal, could be an alternative for custom trays for multi-implant impressions when used with medium viscosity impression materials. PMID:28348595

  12. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonam; Narayan, Aparna Ichalangod; Balakrishnan, Dhanasekar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. For a precise fit of multiple implant framework, having an accurate definitive cast is imperative. The present study evaluated dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different impression trays and materials with open tray impression technique. Materials and Methods. A machined aluminum reference model with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated. Forty implant level impressions were made. Eight groups (n = 5) were tested using impression materials (polyether and vinylsiloxanether) and four types of impression trays, two being custom (self-cure acrylic and light cure acrylic) and two being stock (plastic and metal). The interimplant distances were measured on master casts using a coordinate measuring machine. The collected data was compared with a standard reference model and was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the two impression materials. However, the difference seen was small (36 μm) irrespective of the tray type used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between varied stock and custom trays. Conclusions. The polyether impression material proved to be more accurate than vinylsiloxanether impression material. The rigid nonperforated stock trays, both plastic and metal, could be an alternative for custom trays for multi-implant impressions when used with medium viscosity impression materials.

  13. A Randomised Controlled Trial of complete denture impression materials

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, T.P.; Craddock, H.L.; Gray, J.C.; Pavitt, S.H.; Hulme, C.; Godfrey, M.; Fernandez, C.; Navarro-Coy, N.; Dillon, S.; Wright, J.; Brown, S.; Dukanovic, G.; Brunton, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is continuing demand for non-implant prosthodontic treatment and yet there is a paucity of high quality Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) evidence for best practice. The aim of this research was to provide evidence for best practice in prosthodontic impressions by comparing two impression materials in a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Methods Eighty-five patients were recruited, using published eligibility criteria, to the trial at Leeds Dental Institute, UK. Each patient received two sets of dentures; made using either alginate or silicone impressions. Randomisations determined the order of assessment and order of impressions. The primary outcome was patient blinded preference for unadjusted dentures. Secondary outcomes were patient preference for the adjusted dentures, rating of comfort, stability and chewing efficiency, experience of each impression, and an OHIP-EDENT questionnaire. Results Seventy-eight (91.8%) patients completed the primary assessment. 53(67.9%) patients preferred dentures made from silicone impressions while 14(17.9%) preferred alginate impressions. 4(5.1%) patients found both dentures equally satisfactory and 7 (9.0%) found both equally unsatisfactory. There was a 50% difference in preference rates (in favour of silicone) (95%CI 32.7–67.3%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion There is significant evidence that dentures made from silicone impressions were preferred by patients. Clinical significance Given the strength of the clinical findings within this paper, dentists should consider choosing silicone rather than alginate as their material of choice for secondary impressions for complete dentures. Trial Registration: ISRCTN 01528038.

 This article forms part of a project for which the author (TPH) won the Senior Clinical Unilever Hatton Award of the International Assocation for Dental Research, Capetown, South Africa, June 2014. PMID:24995473

  14. A randomised controlled trial of complete denture impression materials.

    PubMed

    Hyde, T P; Craddock, H L; Gray, J C; Pavitt, S H; Hulme, C; Godfrey, M; Fernandez, C; Navarro-Coy, N; Dillon, S; Wright, J; Brown, S; Dukanovic, G; Brunton, P A

    2014-08-01

    There is continuing demand for non-implant prosthodontic treatment and yet there is a paucity of high quality Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) evidence for best practice. The aim of this research was to provide evidence for best practice in prosthodontic impressions by comparing two impression materials in a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Eighty-five patients were recruited, using published eligibility criteria, to the trial at Leeds Dental Institute, UK. Each patient received two sets of dentures; made using either alginate or silicone impressions. Randomisations determined the order of assessment and order of impressions. The primary outcome was patient blinded preference for unadjusted dentures. Secondary outcomes were patient preference for the adjusted dentures, rating of comfort, stability and chewing efficiency, experience of each impression, and an OHIP-EDENT questionnaire. Seventy-eight (91.8%) patients completed the primary assessment. 53(67.9%) patients preferred dentures made from silicone impressions while 14(17.9%) preferred alginate impressions. 4(5.1%) patients found both dentures equally satisfactory and 7 (9.0%) found both equally unsatisfactory. There was a 50% difference in preference rates (in favour of silicone) (95%CI 32.7-67.3%, p<0.0001). There is significant evidence that dentures made from silicone impressions were preferred by patients. Given the strength of the clinical findings within this paper, dentists should consider choosing silicone rather than alginate as their material of choice for secondary impressions for complete dentures. ISRCTN 01528038. This article forms part of a project for which the author (TPH) won the Senior Clinical Unilever Hatton Award of the International Assocation for Dental Research, Capetown, South Africa, June 2014. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of elastomeric materials with application to design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1986-01-01

    Redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Booster has necessitated re-evaluation of the material used in the field joint O-ring seals. The viscoelastic characteristics of five candidate materials were determined. The five materials are: two fluorocarbon compounds, two nitrile compounds, and a silicon compound. The materials were tested in a uniaxial compression test to determine the characteristic relaxation functions. These tests were performed at five different temperatures. A master material curve was developed for each material from the experimental data. The results are compared to tensile relaxation tests. Application of these results to the design analysis is discussed in detail.

  16. Effects of radiofrequency glow discharge on impression material surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Hesby, R M; Haganman, C R; Stanford, C M

    1997-04-01

    Argon radiofrequency glow discharge (RGD) may simultaneously sterilize and improve surface wettability of impression materials. The purpose of this study was to define RGD technical parameters that influence the surface wettability of impression material (optimization phase). Definition of RGD was followed by an assessment of these optimized RGD parameters on the wettability of four impression materials either uncontaminated or contaminated with saliva, compared with conventional liquid disinfection (application phase). For the optimization phase, addition silicone samples were cast against glass with 10 samples per group/parameter (n = 210). Parameters evaluated were duration of exposure, sample shape and angle, position within the RGD chamber, and argon gas delivery pressure. Changes in surface wettability were determined with contact angle measurements. For the application phase, standardized RGD parameters (90 degrees to the plasma flow, flat, 60 seconds, 5 psi) were used on four groups of impression materials with (n = 120 samples, 30 per material) or without (n = 120 samples, 30 per material) prior saliva contamination. RGD treatment of a polyvinyl siloxane impression material significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced contact angle measurements from 63 +/- 1 to 13 +/- 4 degrees, regardless of the parameter evaluated. For the application phase, results indicated different responses to RGD relative to nontreated controls. With all materials treated with RGD or disinfectant exposure, the finest 20 microns standard line was reproduced at x10 magnification with the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification 19 test die (Sabri Enterprise, Downers Grove, Ill.; n = 80, 10 samples per group). These results suggest RGD selectively alters impression material surface wettability.

  17. Development and evaluation of elastomeric materials for geothermal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Ingham, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A material for a casing packer for service for 24 hours in a geothermal environment was developed by synthesis of new elastomers and formulation of available materials. Formulation included use of commercial elastomer gumstocks and also crosslinking of plastic (high Tg) materials. Fibrous reinforcement of fluorocarbon rubbers was emphasized. Organic fiber reinforcement did not increase hot properties significantly. Glass fiber reinforcement gave significant increase in tensile properties. Elongation was reduced, and the glass-reinforced composition examined so far did not hold up well in the geothermal environment. Colloidal asbestos fibers were also investigated. A few experiments with polyphenyl ether gave material with low tensile and high compression set. Available high styrene SBR compositions were studied. Work to date suggests that new synthetic polymers will be required for service in geothermal environments.

  18. Does immediate dentin sealing influence the polymerization of impression materials?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiggi, Paula Cristine; Steiger, Arno Kieling; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the interaction between the resin materials used in immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques and impression materials with two different techniques to eliminate the oxygen-inhibition layer. Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin surface of 35 human molars was exposed. The teeth were used in two Groups: Group 1 – Impression with Express XT; Group 2 – Impression with Impregum. Groups 1 and 2 were divided into 14 subgroups: Groups 1a and 2a – Control groups; 1b and 2b – IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); 1c and 2c – IDS with CSE + additional polymerization with glycerin jelly; 1d and 2d – IDS with CSE + alcohol; 1e and 2e – IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F (PLF); 1f and 2f – IDS with CSE and PLF + additional polymerization with glycerin jelly; and 1g and 2g – IDS with CSE and PLF + alcohol. Five teeth were used in each experimental group, and the tooth surface was photographed using a digital camera. Results: Small quantity of unpolymerized impression material remained attached to the CSE or to the PLF in Groups 1b and 1e. Groups 1c and 1d prevented the interaction. Small quantity of polymerized impression material remained attached to the CSE or to the PLF for Groups 2b and 2e. The same interaction was observed for Groups 2c and 2d. For Groups 2c and 2f, no interactions were observed. Conclusion: Resin materials interacted with impression materials. The application of glycerin jelly and alcohol prevented the interaction of CSE with Express XT and PLF with Impregum; however, these treatments were not completely effective in preventing the interaction of CSE with Impregum and PLF with Express XT. PMID:25202218

  19. Study of the potential cytotoxicity of dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Roberta, Tiozzo; Federico, Magagna; Federica, Boraldi; Antonietta, Croce Maria; Sergio, Bortolini; Ugo, Consolo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of tow types of impression dental materials: polyethers (Impregum Penta, Permadyne Penta Heavy and Light) and vinyl polysiloxanes (Elite Mono Tray, Medium, Low viscosity and Elite H-D Putty). Their cytotoxic effects were studied by indirect and direct tests. The indirect tests were performed by incubating impression materials in serum free cell culture medium to prepare the soluble extracts. Balb/c 3T3 cells were incubated with extract dilutions (25, 50, 75 and 100%) for 24 h. The extracts of polyether materials caused a decrease of cellular viability, evaluated by light microscopy, by cell counting and by MTT test. The extracts of vinyl polysiloxanes materials induced a slight effect on cellular number and viability. The direct tests were performed by placing the impression materials in the centre of Petri dishes while Balb/c 3T3 were settling. The cellular proliferation was drastically reduced by polyethers and it was unaffected by the presence of vinyl polysiloxanes. These results show that: (a) the polyether materials are more toxic than vinyl polysiloxanes in our experimental conditions, (b) the impression materials are cytotoxic to the same degree in all assay methods.

  20. The dimensional accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using two different impression techniques: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nirmala; Nandeeshwar, D B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the linear dimensional changes of the three representative polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials and to compare the accuracy of single mix with double mix impression technique. A study mold was prepared according to revised American Dental Association specification number 19 for nonaqueous elastic dental impression materials. Three PVS impression materials selected were Elite-HD, Imprint(™) II Garant, Aquasil Ultra Heavy. Two impression techniques used were single mix and double mix impression technique. A total of 60 specimens were made and after 24 h the specimens were measured using profile projector. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance analysis and significant differences were separated using Student's Newman-Keul's test. When all the three study group impression materials were compared for double mix technique, the statistically significant difference was found only between Imprint(™) II Garantand Elite-HD (P < 0.05). Similarly, using single mix technique, statistically significant difference were found between Elite-HD and Imprint(™) II Garant (P < 0.05) and also between Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD (P < 0.05). When the linear dimensional accuracy of all three impression material in double mix impression technique and single mix impression technique were compared with the control group, Imprint(™) II Garant showed the values more nearing to the values of master die, followed by Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD respectively. Among the impression materials Imprint(™) II Garant showed least dimensional change. Among the impression techniques, double mix impression technique showed the better results.

  1. The dimensional accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using two different impression techniques: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Nirmala; Nandeeshwar, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study: To evaluate and compare the linear dimensional changes of the three representative polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials and to compare the accuracy of single mix with double mix impression technique. Methodology: A study mold was prepared according to revised American Dental Association specification number 19 for nonaqueous elastic dental impression materials. Three PVS impression materials selected were Elite-HD, Imprint™ II Garant, Aquasil Ultra Heavy. Two impression techniques used were single mix and double mix impression technique. A total of 60 specimens were made and after 24 h the specimens were measured using profile projector. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance analysis and significant differences were separated using Student's Newman–Keul's test. Results: When all the three study group impression materials were compared for double mix technique, the statistically significant difference was found only between Imprint™ II Garantand Elite-HD (P < 0.05). Similarly, using single mix technique, statistically significant difference were found between Elite-HD and Imprint™ II Garant (P < 0.05) and also between Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD (P < 0.05). When the linear dimensional accuracy of all three impression material in double mix impression technique and single mix impression technique were compared with the control group, Imprint™ II Garant showed the values more nearing to the values of master die, followed by Aquasil Ultra Heavy and Elite-HD respectively. Conclusion: Among the impression materials Imprint™ II Garant showed least dimensional change. Among the impression techniques, double mix impression technique showed the better results. PMID:26929515

  2. Do dental impression materials play a role in cross contamination?

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shlomo; Eini, Amir; Gorfil, Colin; Ben-Amar, Ariel; Slutzky, Hagay

    2011-01-01

    Dentists are required to institute infectious control procedures. Dental impression materials possessing antimicrobial properties may aid in reducing the risk of cross contamination since impression materials might play a role as carriers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of four impression materials. Four impression materials--Orthoprint, Impregum Penta, Aquasil Ultra Monophase, and Permlastic--were evaluated by the direct contact test. The materials were tested in contact with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. The materials were mixed; allowed to set; and examined immediately and after aging for 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week. Two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison procedures were applied to the results. Impregum Penta presented the broadest antibacterial spectrum of all the materials tested. There was a complete growth inhibition of S aureus and S epidermidis, and it sustained this ability for at least 7 days. It also showed an antifungal effect by partially inhibiting the growth of C albicans, a quality that was seen only immediately after setting. Aquasil Ultra showed an antifungal effect only immediately after setting. Permlastic showed a complete growth inhibition when in contact with C albicans and sustained this ability for at least 7 days. No significant antimicrobial properties were recorded for Orthoprint. When in contact with E faecalis, no significant antibacterial properties were recorded for any of the materials. None of the tested materials exhibited a long-lasting or complete antibacterial and antifungal property. Therefore, disinfection of impressions is essential.

  3. Conductive elastomeric extensometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, F. L.; Glenn, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    Bridge circuit, in which conductive elastomeric material is the variable leg, precisely measures surface area changes in the human body. Circuits are used singularly, or in quantity by adding elements and amplifier circuits. Elastomeric strips can be located in a form-fitting garment.

  4. Effects of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation on candidate elastomeric materials for long duration missions. Test series no.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, R. C.; Finckenor, M. M.; Kamenetzky, R. R.; Gray, P.

    1993-01-01

    Research was conducted at MSFC on the behavior of elastomeric materials after exposure to simulated space environment. Silicone S383 and Viton V747 samples were exposed to thermal vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and atomic oxygen and then evaluated for changes in material properties. Characterization of the elastomeric materials included weight, hardness, optical inspection under normal and black light, spectrofluorescence, solar absorptance and emittance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and permeability. These results indicate a degree of sensitivity to exposure and provided some evidence of UV and atomic oxygen synergism.

  5. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. CONCLUSION It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit. PMID:27826387

  6. Accuracy of different impression materials in parallel and nonparallel implants

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Mahroo; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ansarifard, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: A precise impression is mandatory to obtain passive fit in implant-supported prostheses. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three impression materials in both parallel and nonparallel implant positions. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two partial dentate maxillary acrylic models with four implant analogues in canines and lateral incisors areas were used. One model was simulating the parallel condition and the other nonparallel one, in which implants were tilted 30° bucally and 20° in either mesial or distal directions. Thirty stone casts were made from each model using polyether (Impregum), additional silicone (Monopren) and vinyl siloxanether (Identium), with open tray technique. The distortion values in three-dimensions (X, Y and Z-axis) were measured by coordinate measuring machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05). Results: Under parallel condition, all the materials showed comparable, accurate casts (P = 0.74). In the presence of angulated implants, while Monopren showed more accurate results compared to Impregum (P = 0.01), Identium yielded almost similar results to those produced by Impregum (P = 0.27) and Monopren (P = 0.26). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, in parallel conditions, the type of impression material cannot affect the accuracy of the implant impressions; however, in nonparallel conditions, polyvinyl siloxane is shown to be a better choice, followed by vinyl siloxanether and polyether respectively. PMID:26288620

  7. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system.

    PubMed

    Kurtulus, Karani; Tüfekci, Kenan

    2016-10-01

    Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit.

  8. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section 872.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... fabrication of crowns, bridges, or full dentures. A preliminary plaster or stone model of the patient's...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section 872.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... fabrication of crowns, bridges, or full dentures. A preliminary plaster or stone model of the patient's...

  10. Maxillomandibular relationship record for implant complete mouth rehabilitation with elastomeric material and facial surface index of existing denture

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravinkumar G.; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The maxillomandibular relationship (MMR) record is a critical step to establish the new occlusion in implant supported complete mouth rehabilitation. Using patients existing denture for recording the MMR requires implant definitive cast to be modified extensively to completely seat the denture (with unaltered flanges) on it. This may influence the correct seating of the denture on the implant definitive cast causing faulty recording of the MMR. Materials and Method: Elastomeric record bases, reinforced with the resin framework, are fabricated and relined with the light body elastomeric material when all the healing abutments are in place. The MMR is recorded with these elastomeric record bases using vacuum formed facial surface index of the occluded existing dentures as a guideline. Results: The elastomeric record bases with facial surface index of the existing dentures can allow clinicians to record MMR records without removing the healing abutments from the mouth with acceptable accuracy. This can save chair-side time of the procedure. The record of facial surfaces of existing complete denture in the form of vacuum formed sheet helps to set the occlusal vertical dimension. Conclusion: Use of facial surface index together with the elastomeric record bases can be the useful alternative technique to record the MMR in patients with implant supported full mouth rehabilitation. Further study is required to prove its routine clinical utility. PMID:26929537

  11. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p < 0.05). Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  12. The thermal and mechanical properties of a low density elastomeric ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, W. T.; Robertson, R. W.; Bush, A. L.; Pears, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical properties data were obtained for a low density elastomeric resin based ablation material with phenolic-glass honeycomb reinforcement. Data were obtained for the material in the charred and uncharred state. Ablation material specimens were charred in a laboratory furnace at temperatures in the range from 600 K to 1700 K to obtain char specimens representative of the ablation char layer formed during reentry. These specimens were then used to obtain effective thermal conductivity, heat capacity, porosity, and permeability data at the char formation temperature. This provided a boxing of the data which enables the prediction of the transient response of the material during ablation. Limited comparisons were made between the furnace charred specimens and specimens which had been exposed to simulated reentry conditions.

  13. Maxillomandibular relationship record for implant complete mouth rehabilitation with elastomeric material and facial surface index of existing denture.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita

    2015-01-01

    The maxillomandibular relationship (MMR) record is a critical step to establish the new occlusion in implant supported complete mouth rehabilitation. Using patients existing denture for recording the MMR requires implant definitive cast to be modified extensively to completely seat the denture (with unaltered flanges) on it. This may influence the correct seating of the denture on the implant definitive cast causing faulty recording of the MMR. Elastomeric record bases, reinforced with the resin framework, are fabricated and relined with the light body elastomeric material when all the healing abutments are in place. The MMR is recorded with these elastomeric record bases using vacuum formed facial surface index of the occluded existing dentures as a guideline. The elastomeric record bases with facial surface index of the existing dentures can allow clinicians to record MMR records without removing the healing abutments from the mouth with acceptable accuracy. This can save chair-side time of the procedure. The record of facial surfaces of existing complete denture in the form of vacuum formed sheet helps to set the occlusal vertical dimension. Use of facial surface index together with the elastomeric record bases can be the useful alternative technique to record the MMR in patients with implant supported full mouth rehabilitation. Further study is required to prove its routine clinical utility.

  14. Drying time of tray adhesive for adequate tensile bond strength between polyvinylsiloxane impression and tray resin material

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Myong-Hee; Shim, Joon-Sung; Lee, Keun-Woo

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Use of custom tray and tray adhesive is clinically recommended for elastomeric impression material. However there is not clear mention of drying time of tray adhesive in achieving appropriate bonding strength of tray material and impression material. PURPOSE This study is to investigate an appropriate drying time of tray adhesives by evaluating tensile bonding strength between two types of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials and resin tray, according to various drying time intervals of tray adhesives, and with different manufacturing company combination of impression material and tray adhesive. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adhesives used in this study were Silfix (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del, USA) and VPS Tray Adhesive (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) and impression materials were Aquasil Ultra (monophase regular set, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del, USA) and Imprint II Garant (regular body, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). They were used combinations from the same manufacture and exchanged combinations of the two. The drying time was designed to air dry, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, and 25 minutes. Total 240 of test specimens were prepared by auto-polymerizing tray material (Instant Tray Mix, Lang, Wheeling, Il, USA) with 10 specimens in each group. The specimens were placed in the Universal Testing machine (Instron, model 3366, Instron Corp, University avenue, Nowood, MA, USA) to perform the tensile test (cross head speed 5 mm/min). The statistically efficient drying time was evaluated through ANOVA and Scheffe test. All the tests were performed at 95% confidence level. RESULTS The results revealed that at least 10 minutes is needed for Silfix-Aquasil, and 15 minutes for VPS Tray Adhesive-Imprint II, to attain an appropriate tensile bonding strength. VPS Tray Adhesive-Imprint II had a superior tensile bonding strength when compared to Silfix-Aquasil over 15 minutes. Silfix-Aquasil had a superior bonding strength to VPS Tray Adhesive

  15. Utilizing stretch-tunable thermochromic elastomeric opal films as novel reversible switchable photonic materials.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian G; Lederle, Christina; Zentel, Kristina; Stühn, Bernd; Gallei, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the preparation of highly thermoresponsive and fully reversible stretch-tunable elastomeric opal films featuring switchable structural colors is reported. Novel particle architectures based on poly(diethylene glycol methylether methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) (PDEGMEMA-co-PEA) as shell polymer are synthesized via seeded and stepwise emulsion polymerization protocols. The use of DEGMEMA as comonomer and herein established synthetic strategies leads to monodisperse soft shell particles, which can be directly processed to opal films by using the feasible melt-shear organization technique. Subsequent UV crosslinking strategies open access to mechanically stable and homogeneous elastomeric opal films. The structural colors of the opal films feature mechano- and thermoresponsiveness, which is found to be fully reversible. Optical characterization shows that the combination of both stimuli provokes a photonic bandgap shift of more than 50 nm from 560 nm in the stretched state to 611 nm in the fully swollen state. In addition, versatile colorful patterns onto the colloidal crystal structure are produced by spatial UV-induced crosslinking by using a photomask. This facile approach enables the generation of spatially cross-linked switchable opal films with fascinating optical properties. Herein described strategies for the preparation of PDEGMEMA-containing colloidal architectures, application of the melt-shear ordering technique, and patterned crosslinking of the final opal films open access to novel stimuli-responsive colloidal crystal films, which are expected to be promising materials in the field of security and sensing applications.

  16. Positive control for cytotoxicity evaluation of dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-11-01

    Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) is elastomeric dental impression material which, despite having very few reports of adverse reactions, has shown high levels of cytotoxicity that is difficult to be interpreted without referencing to the positive control material. Therefore, in this study, positive control VPS was developed using sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for the reference of cytotoxicity test. The positive control VPS with SLS was formed with a different proportion of SLS (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 wt%) added to the base. The cytotoxicity test was then carried out using the extractions or dilutions of the extractions from each of the test samples using murine fibroblast cells (L929). The final product of positive control VPS behaved similar to commercially available VPS; being initially liquid-like and then becoming rubber-like. Ion chromatography showed that the level of SLS released from the product increased as the proportion of added SLS increased, consequently resulting in an increased level of cytotoxicity. Also, the commercially available VPS was less cytotoxic than the positive control VPS with more or equal to 2 wt% of SLS. However, even the VPS with the highest SLS (16 wt%) did not cause oral mucosa irritation during the animal study. The positive control VPS was successfully produced using SLS, which will be useful in terms of providing references during in vitro cytotoxicity testing.

  17. Dimensional stability of silicone-based impression materials.

    PubMed

    Fano, V; Gennari, P U; Ortalli, I

    1992-03-01

    This study attempts to demonstrate that the polymerization reaction is not the only factor that affects the shrinkage of silicone-based impression materials because evaporation of the constituents also contributes to the shrinkage. These factors can be evaluated by the study of time-dependent dimensional changes. This is shown both by chemical kinetics and by experimental testing of condensation and addition polymerizing impression materials with different viscosities. Comparison of the different materials shows that the two contributions, polymerization shrinkage, and evaporation shrinkage, can be assessed separately by analysis of the time-dependent shrinkage diagrams. The instability due to the polymerization reaction is complete after a few hours, but the contribution of the constituent evaporation, if present, can have a significant long-term role.

  18. Drying time of tray adhesive for adequate tensile bond strength between polyvinylsiloxane impression and tray resin material.

    PubMed

    Yi, Myong-Hee; Shim, Joon-Sung; Lee, Keun-Woo; Chung, Moon-Kyu

    2009-07-01

    Use of custom tray and tray adhesive is clinically recommended for elastomeric impression material. However there is not clear mention of drying time of tray adhesive in achieving appropriate bonding strength of tray material and impression material. This study is to investigate an appropriate drying time of tray adhesives by evaluating tensile bonding strength between two types of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials and resin tray, according to various drying time intervals of tray adhesives, and with different manufacturing company combination of impression material and tray adhesive. Adhesives used in this study were Silfix (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del, USA) and VPS Tray Adhesive (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) and impression materials were Aquasil Ultra (monophase regular set, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del, USA) and Imprint II Garant (regular body, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). They were used combinations from the same manufacture and exchanged combinations of the two. The drying time was designed to air dry, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 20 minutes, and 25 minutes. Total 240 of test specimens were prepared by auto-polymerizing tray material (Instant Tray Mix, Lang, Wheeling, Il, USA) with 10 specimens in each group. The specimens were placed in the Universal Testing machine (Instron, model 3366, Instron Corp, University avenue, Nowood, MA, USA) to perform the tensile test (cross head speed 5 mm/min). The statistically efficient drying time was evaluated through ANOVA and Scheffe test. All the tests were performed at 95% confidence level. The results revealed that at least 10 minutes is needed for Silfix-Aquasil, and 15 minutes for VPS Tray Adhesive-Imprint II, to attain an appropriate tensile bonding strength. VPS Tray Adhesive-Imprint II had a superior tensile bonding strength when compared to Silfix-Aquasil over 15 minutes. Silfix-Aquasil had a superior bonding strength to VPS Tray Adhesive-Aquasil, and VPS Tray Adhesive-Imprint II had a superior tensile

  19. Clinical efficacy of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials using the one-step two-viscosity impression technique.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sami; Schwedhelm, E Ricardo; Heindl, Harald; Mancl, Lloyd; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2015-08-01

    Impression making is a challenging clinical procedure for both patients and dentists. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare a recently introduced fast-setting polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material with heavy body/light body (HB/LB) combination (Imprint 4; 3M ESPE) (experimental group) with a conventional PVS impression material with HB/LB combination (Imprint 3; 3M ESPE) (control group), using the 1-step 2-viscosity impression technique. Two definitive impressions (1 of each material combination) were made of 20 crown preparations from 20 participants. The quality of impressions was rated by 3 evaluators (clinical evaluator, clinical operator, and dental technician) and by the patients for the level of comfort and taste of the impression materials. The order in which the 2 impressions were made with each material combination was randomized for each crown preparation. A paired t test for paired means and McNemar test for paired proportions were used for statistical comparisons (α=.05). Participants rated the comfort of the impression making with the experimental group significantly higher than that with the control group (P=.001). No significant differences were found in participants' rating for the taste of the impression materials (P=.46). The viscosity for tray material was rated as significantly better for the control group by the clinical operator (P=.004). The readability of the impression and visibility around the finish line were rated as significantly better for the experimental group than for the control group (P<.001). Except for the ease of removal of the stone (RS), the ratings for the 2 groups by the dental technician were similar. The ease of RS was rated as significantly better for the experimental group (P<.001). Eleven dies from the control and 9 from the experimental group were selected for fabrication of the definitive crowns (P=.65). Within the limitations of this clinical study, no significant differences were found in the

  20. Elastomeric optical fiber sensors and method for detecting and measuring events occurring in elastic materials

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Capps, Gary J.; Smith, David B.; White, Clifford P.

    1994-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.

  1. Effect of mixing technique on surface characteristics of impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lepe, X; Johnson, G H; Berg, J C; Aw, T C

    1998-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between the disinfection process, wettability, and mass change of impression materials. Hand-mixed high viscosity impression materials usually result in a material with numerous voids, which contribute to surface roughness and affect the surface characteristics of the material. This study evaluated the effect of mixing technique on advancing contact angle, receding contact angle, imbibition, and mass loss of various high and low viscosity polyether and polyvinyl siloxane materials. The null hypothesis tested was no differences exist between the different mixing systems. The Wilhelmy technique was used for deriving wetting properties of the materials used (Impregum F and Penta, Permadyne Syringe, Garant and Penta, Dimension Penta and Garant L, Aquasil). Conditions included no disinfection (0 hours) and 1, 5, and 18 hours of immersion disinfection in a full-strength solution of 2% acid glutaraldehyde disinfectant (Banicide). Weight changes before and after disinfection were measured to detect weight loss or mass increase over time. Weight loss in air was also measured to detect mass loss. Data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance at alpha = 0.05. All materials displayed some degree of imbibition of the disinfectant and experienced mass loss with polymerization, except the light viscosity polyvinyl that gained 0.18% at 5 hours. No significant differences were found in wettability among the polyether materials after 1 hour of disinfection. Less imbibition was observed for high viscosity mechanically mixed materials compared with the hand-mixed materials for both polyether and polyvinyl siloxane at 1-hour disinfection time. Polyether materials were more wettable than polyvinyl. Imbibition of high viscosity polyether and polyvinyl materials after 1 and 18 hours of disinfection were affected by the mixing system used.

  2. Production of a calcium silicate cement material from alginate impression material.

    PubMed

    Washizawa, Norimasa; Narusawa, Hideaki; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biomaterials from daily dental waste. Since alginate impression material contains silica and calcium salts, we aimed to synthesize calcium silicate cement from alginate impression material. Gypsum-based investment material was also investigated as control. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that although firing the set gypsum-based and modified investment materials at 1,200°C produced calcium silicates, firing the set alginate impression material did not. However, we succeeded when firing the set blend of pre-fired set alginate impression material and gypsum at 1,200°C. SEM observations of the powder revealed that the featured porous structures of diatomite as an alginate impression material component appeared useful for synthesizing calcium silicates. Experimentally fabricated calcium silicate powder was successfully mixed with phosphoric acid solution and set by depositing the brushite. Therefore, we conclude that the production of calcium silicate cement material is possible from waste alginate impression material.

  3. Validation of a Thermo-Ablative Model of Elastomeric Internal Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Heath T.

    2017-01-01

    In thermo-ablative material modeling, as in many fields of analysis, the quality of the existing models significantly exceeds that of the experimental data required for their validation. In an effort to narrow this gap, a laboratory-scale internal insulation test bed was developed that exposes insulation samples to realistic solid rocket motor (SRM) internal environments while being instrumented to record real-time rates of both model inputs (i.e., chamber pressure, total surface heat flux, and radiative heat flux) as well as model outputs (i.e., material decomposition depths (MDDs) and in-depth material temperatures). In this work, the measured SRM internal environment parameters were used in conjunction with equilibrium thermochemistry codes as inputs to one-dimensional thermo-ablative models of the PBINBR and CFEPDM insulation samples used in the lab-scale test firings. The computed MDD histories were then compared with those deduced from real-time X-ray radiography of the insulation samples, and the calculated in-depth temperatures were compared with those measured by embedded thermocouples. The results of this exercise emphasize the challenges of modeling and testing elastomeric materials in SRM environments while illuminating the path forward to improved fidelity.

  4. The effect of prolonged storage and disinfection on the dimensional stability of 5 vinyl polyether silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Usama; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Heo, Giseon; Torrealba, Ysidora

    2017-06-01

    Vinyl polyether silicone (VPES) has a different composition from other elastomeric impression materials as it combines vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) and polyether (PE). Therefore, it is important to study its properties and behavior under different test conditions. This study investigated the dimensional stability of 5 VPES consistencies when stored for up to 2 weeks, with and without using a standard disinfection procedure. 40 discs of each VPES consistency (total 200) were made using a stainless steel die and ring as described by ANSI /ADA specification No. 19. 20 discs of each material were immersed in a 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde solution for 30 minutes. Dimensional stability measurements were calculated immediately after fabrication and repeated on the same discs after 7 and 14 days of storage. The data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with a significance level set at α = 0.05. The discs mean contraction was below 0.5% at all test times ranging from 0.200 ± 0.014 to 0.325 ± 0.007. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference after 2-week storage between the disinfected and non-disinfected groups (P < .001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between the materials at the time of fabrication, the contraction of the materials increased with storage for 1 and 2 weeks. The dimensional changes of VPES impression discs after disinfection and prolonged storage complied with ANSI/ADA standard. The tested VPES impression materials were dimensionally stable for clinical use after disinfection for 30 minutes in glutaraldehyde and storage for up to 2 weeks.

  5. Effects of material composition on the ablation performance of low density elastomeric ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Kabana, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The ablation performance of materials composed of various concentrations of nylon, hollow silica spheres, hollow phenolic spheres, and four elastomeric resins was determined. Both blunt-body and flat-panel specimens were used, the cold-wall heating-rate ranges being 0.11 to 0.8 MW/sq m, respectively. The corresponding surface pressure ranges for these tests were 0.017 to 0.037 atmosphere and 0.004 to 0.005 atmosphere. Some of the results show that (1) the addition of nylon significantly improved the ablation performance, but the nylon was not compatible with one resin system; (2) panel and blunt-body specimen data do not show the same effect of phenolic sphere content on ablation effectiveness; and (3) there appears to be an optimum concentration of hollow silica spheres for good ablation performance. The composition of an efficient, nonproprietary ablator for lifting body application is identified and the ablation performance of this ablator is compared with the performance of three commercially available materials.

  6. Dimensional stability of newer alginate impression materials over seven days.

    PubMed

    Wandrekar, Siddharth; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Clark, Robert K F; Radford, David R

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dimensional stability of the so called '5 day stable' alginates. Ten specimens each of three alginate materials were prepared using a standardised impression technique and a typodont model. Travelling microscope measurements were recorded for six distances at 24 hour intervals. SEM and EDX analysis was undertaken. Changes in dimension over time and differences between materials were tested using analysis of variance. 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the percentage change for comparison with a target of 1.5% based on the ISO Standard. Statistically significant dimensional changes were observed in some measured distances for all materials, but only six out of fifty four distances measured at 1, 5 and 7 days in three materials showed 95% confidence intervals that included the 1.5% ISO standard. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportional change between the three materials. The three materials showed similar appearance under SEM and similar composition by EDX analysis. It is concluded that all materials demonstrated good dimensional stability over the recommended maximum of 5 days.

  7. Some effects of disinfecting solutions on the properties of alginate impression material and dental stone.

    PubMed

    Boden, J; Likeman, P; Clark, R

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of two disinfecting solutions on one brand of alginate impression material and dental stone. Control impressions were immersed in water for equivalent periods and the effect of storage of impressions after disinfection or control immersion in water was also investigated. There were no significant dimensional changes in impressions poured after one hour. All impressions stored for 16 hours before pouring showed significant dimensional changes. Mixing dental stone with one disinfectant caused a significant softening of the cast. It is strongly recommended that all impressions are thoroughly rinsed with water after disinfection to prevent incorporation of disinfectant in the cast.

  8. A technique for using short term soft liners as complete dentures final impression material.

    PubMed

    Baslas, Varun; Singh, Saumyendra V; Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kaur, Simranjeet; Singh, Kamleshwar; Agarwal, Kaushal K

    2014-01-01

    Tissue conditioners can be used to condition abused tissues, record functional impressions, make temporary relining for surgical splints and obturators, and for other clinical applications, mainly because of their specific viscoelasticity. Their function in complete denture fabrication is debatable but their use as a functional impression material has been proved. The present article describes a technique for using tissue conditioners as functional impression materials. Correct method of usage, manipulation, specific properties as impression materials and precautions in different situations for obtaining accurate impressions has been highlightened.

  9. Biodegradable and Elastomeric Poly(glycerol sebacate) as a Coating Material for Nitinol Bare Stent

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Hwang, Moon Young; Kim, JiHeung; Chung, Dong June

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized and evaluated biodegradable and elastomeric polyesters (poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS)) using polycondensation between glycerol and sebacic acid to form a cross-linked network structure without using exogenous catalysts. Synthesized materials possess good mechanical properties, elasticity, and surface erosion biodegradation behavior. The tensile strength of the PGS was as high as 0.28 ± 0.004 MPa, and Young's modulus was 0.122 ± 0.0003 MPa. Elongation was as high as 237.8 ± 0.64%, and repeated elongation behavior was also observed to at least three times the original length without rupture. The water-in-air contact angles of the PGS surfaces were about 60°. We also analyzed the properties of an electrospray coating of biodegradable PGS on a nitinol stent for the purpose of enhancing long-term patency for the therapeutic treatment of varicose veins disease. The surface morphology and thickness of coating layer could be controlled by adjusting the electrospraying conditions and solution parameters. PMID:24955369

  10. Biodegradable and elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) as a coating material for nitinol bare stent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ji; Hwang, Moon Young; Kim, JiHeung; Chung, Dong June

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized and evaluated biodegradable and elastomeric polyesters (poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS)) using polycondensation between glycerol and sebacic acid to form a cross-linked network structure without using exogenous catalysts. Synthesized materials possess good mechanical properties, elasticity, and surface erosion biodegradation behavior. The tensile strength of the PGS was as high as 0.28 ± 0.004 MPa, and Young's modulus was 0.122 ± 0.0003 MPa. Elongation was as high as 237.8 ± 0.64%, and repeated elongation behavior was also observed to at least three times the original length without rupture. The water-in-air contact angles of the PGS surfaces were about 60°. We also analyzed the properties of an electrospray coating of biodegradable PGS on a nitinol stent for the purpose of enhancing long-term patency for the therapeutic treatment of varicose veins disease. The surface morphology and thickness of coating layer could be controlled by adjusting the electrospraying conditions and solution parameters.

  11. A comparison of dimensional accuracy between three different addition cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Forrester-Baker, L; Seymour, K G; Samarawickrama, D; Zou, L; Cherukara, G; Patel, M

    2005-06-01

    Ten impressions of a metal implant abutment were made with each of three addition-cured silicone impression materials. Using the technique of co-ordinate metrology, the shoulder region of the abutment and corresponding regions of both impressions and dies made from these impressions were scanned and measured. Comparison of these measurements indicated that the mean dimension measured from the shoulder region for each group of impression materials was significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. However, when these impressions were cast in a gypsum based die material, none of the measured dimensions taken from the casts were significantly different from those taken from the original metal implant abutment. Thus, any change in measured dimensions occurring during impression making, was compensated for in some way by the casting process.

  12. The thermal and mechanical properties of a low-density glass-fiber-reinforced elastomeric ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, W. T.; Robertson, R. W.; Bush, A. L.; Pears, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the thermal and mechanical properties was performed on a molded low-density elastomeric ablation material designated as Material B. Both the virgin and charred states were examined to provide meaningful inputs to the design of a thermal protection system. Chars representative of the flight chars formed during ablation were prepared in a laboratory furnace from 600 K to 1700 K and properties of effective thermal conductivity, heat capacity, porosity and permeability were determined on the furnace chars formed at various temperature levels within the range. This provided a boxing of the data which will enable the prediction of the transient response of the material during flight ablation.

  13. Accuracy of five implant impression technique: effect of splinting materials and methods

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Bum

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dimensional stability of splinting material on the accuracy of master casts. MATERIALS AND METHODS A stainless steel metal model with 6 implants embedded was used as a master model. Implant level impressions were made after square impression copings were splinted using 5 different techniques as follows. (1) Splinted with autopolymerizing resin and sectioned, reconnected to compensate polymerization shrinkage before the impression procedure. (2) Splinted with autopolymerizing resin just before impression procedure. (3) Primary impression made with impression plaster and secondary impression were made over with polyether impression material. (4) Splinted with impression plaster. (5) Splinted with VPS bite registration material. From master model, 5 impressions and 5 experimental casts, total 25 casts were made for each of 5 splinting methods. The distortion values of each splinting methods were measured using coordinate measuring machine, capable of recordings in the x-, y-, z-axes. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a confidence level of 95% was used to evaluate the data and Tukey's studentized range test was used to determine significant differences between the groups. RESULTS Group 1 showed best accuracy followed by Group 3 & 4. Group 2 and 5 showed relatively larger distortion value than other groups. No significant difference was found between group 3, 4, 5 in x-axis, group 2, 3, 4 in y-axis and group 1, 3, 4, 5 in z-axis (P<.0001). CONCLUSION Both Splinting impression copings with autopolymerizing resin following compensation of polymerization shrinkage and splinting method with impression plaster can enhance the accuracy of master cast and impression plaster can be used simple and effective splinting material for implant impression procedure. PMID:22259700

  14. Application times for the single-step/double-mix technique for impression materials in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Frank; Saker, Odie; Axmann, Detlef; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jurgen; Engel, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophilicity of unset impression materials underlies changes occurring during working time. Hence, the clinical application time when impression materials contact oral tissues after mixing may play a critical role in successful impressions. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical time course of impression taking applying the single-step/double-mix technique. Application times of 86 impressions, comprising 265 prepared teeth and 46 implants, taken by 14 different clinicians at a university dental clinic were analyzed. The mean time from loading the impression tray until its final position in the patient's mouth (total application time) was 51.2 seconds; confidence intervals were 46.9 (lower limit) and 55.5 (upper limit). The number of registered teeth and implants did not influence the duration of impression taking. Related to wettability data, several polyvinyl siloxane impression materials show decreased hydrophilicity with respect to estimated application times. The authors suggest considering clinically relevant application times for impression taking in future in vitro studies on physicochemical characteristics of impression materials.

  15. The effect of a range of disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of some impression materials.

    PubMed

    Jagger, D C; Al Jabra, O; Harrison, A; Vowles, R W; McNally, L

    2004-12-01

    In this study the dimensional accuracy of two model materials; dental stone and plaster of Paris, reproduced from three commonly used impression materials; alginate, polyether and addition-cured silicone, retained by their adhesives in acrylic resin trays and exposed to four disinfectant solutions was evaluated. Ninety casts were used to investigate the effect of the four disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of alginate, polyether and addition-cured silicone impression material. For each impression material 30 impressions were taken, half were poured in dental stone and half in plaster of Paris. The disinfectants used were Dimenol, Perform-ID, MD-520, and Haz-tabs. Measurements were carried out using a High Precision Reflex Microscope. For the alginate impressions only those disinfected by 5-minute immersion in Haz-tabs solution and in full-strength MD 520 were not adversely affected by the disinfection treatment. All polyether impressions subjected to immersion disinfection exhibited a clinically acceptable expansion. Disinfected addition-cured silicone impressions produced very accurate stone casts. Those disinfected by spraying with fill-strength Dimenol produced casts that were very similar to those left as controls, but those treated by immersion disinfection exhibited negligible and clinically acceptable expansion. The results of the studied demonstrated that the various disinfection treatments had different effects on the impression materials. It is important that an appropriate disinfectant is used for each type of impression material.

  16. Effect of different impression materials and techniques on the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts

    PubMed Central

    Ebadian, Behnaz; Rismanchian, Mansor; Dastgheib, Badrosadat; Bajoghli, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different factors such as impression techniques and materials can affect the passive fit between the superstructure and implant. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different impression materials and techniques on the dimensional accuracy of implant definitive casts. Materials and Methods: Four internal hex implants (Biohorizons Ø4 mm) were placed on a metal maxillary model perpendicular to the horizontal plane in maxillary lateral incisors, right canine and left first premolar areas. Three impression techniques including open tray, closed tray using ball top screw abutments and closed tray using short impression copings and two impression materials (polyether and polyvinyl siloxane) were evaluated (n = 60). The changes in distances between implant analogues in mediolateral (x) and anteroposterior (y) directions and analogue angles in x/z and y/z directions in the horizontal plane on the definitive casts were measured by coordinate measuring machine. The data were analyzed by multivariate two-way analysis of variance and one sample t-test (α = 0.05). Results: No statistical significant differences were observed between different impression techniques and materials. However, deviation and distortion of definitive casts had a significant difference with the master model when short impression copings and polyvinyl siloxane impression material were used (P < 0.05). In open tray technique, there was a significant difference in the rotation of analogs compared with the master model with both impression materials (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was no difference between open and closed tray impression techniques; however, less distortion and deviation were observed in the open tray technique. In the closed tray impression technique, ball top screw was more accurate than short impression copings. PMID:25878678

  17. An elastomeric grating coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Ay, Feridun; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydinli, Atilla

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel nondestructive and reversible method for coupling free space light to planar optical waveguides. In this method, an elastomeric grating is used to produce an effective refractive index modulation on the surface of the optical waveguide. The external elastomeric grating binds to the surface of the waveguide with van der Waals forces and makes conformal contact without any applied pressure. As a demonstration of the feasibility of the approach, we use it to measure the refractive index of a silicon oxynitride film. This technique is nondestructive, reversible, low cost and can easily be applied to the characterization of optical materials for integrated optics.

  18. Effect of disinfection on irreversible hydrocolloid and alternative impression materials and the resultant gypsum casts.

    PubMed

    Suprono, Montry S; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Goodacre, Charles J; Winer, Myron S

    2012-10-01

    Many new products have been introduced and marketed as alternatives to traditional irreversible hydrocolloid materials. These alternative materials have the same structural formula as addition reaction silicone, also known as vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), impression materials. Currently, there is limited in vitro and in vivo research on these products, including on the effects of chemical disinfectants on the materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a spray disinfecting technique on a traditional irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 new alternative impression materials in vitro. The tests were performed in accordance with the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification Nos. 18 and 19. Under standardized conditions, 100 impressions were made of a ruled test block with an irreversible hydrocolloid and 3 alternative impression materials. Nondisinfected irreversible hydrocolloid was used as the control. The impressions were examined for surface detail reproduction before and after disinfection with a chloramine-T product. Type III and Type V dental stone casts were evaluated for linear dimensional change and gypsum compatibility. Comparisons of linear dimensional change were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA of mean ranks with the Scheffé post hoc comparisons (α=.05). Data for surface detail reproduction were analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank procedure and gypsum compatibility with the Kruskal-Wallis Rank procedure (α=.05). The alternative impression materials demonstrated significantly better outcomes with all 3 parameters tested. Disinfection with chloroamine-T did not have any effect on the 3 alternative impression materials. The irreversible hydrocolloid groups produced the most variability in the measurements of linear dimensional change. All of the tested materials were within the ADA's acceptable limit of 1.0% for linear dimensional change, except for the disinfected irreversible hydrocolloid

  19. Final impressions: a review of material properties and description of a current technique.

    PubMed

    Perakis, Nikolaos; Belser, Urs C; Magne, Pascal

    2004-04-01

    Esthetic rehabilitations are characterized by a sequence of well-structured clinical and laboratory steps, during which different kinds of impressions are required. This review presents a survey of the most clinically relevant physical properties that characterize final impression materials and their interactions with the products they are commonly in contact with. The principal steps of an esthetic rehabilitation involving a diagnostic phase, together with a rational step-by-step approach to final impressions, are described. The one-step/double-mix impression using polyvinyl siloxane materials associated with a "double cord" gingival displacement is explained.

  20. TRENDS IN COMPLETE DENTURE IMPRESSIONS IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Fahim; Rashid, Haroon; Hanif, Ayesha; Ghani, Siti Mariam Ab; Najeeb, Shariq

    2015-01-01

    Multiple materials and techniques have been reported for complete denture impressions in literature. The aim of the study was to assess the trends in complete denture impression materials and techniques among general dental practitioners (GDP) and specialists (SP) in Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaires were distributed among 500 dentists in Pakistan. The three-part questionnaire enquired about the demographic features, preferred impression materials, impression techniques and related procedures commonly used in their clinical practice. A comparison between the responses of SP and GDP was also drawn. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were performed to compare the responses. A total of 294 questionnaires were completed at a response rate of 58.8%. 75% of GDP used alginate for primary impressions and 66% of SP preferred impression compound for the same. A majority of both SP and GDP favoured the used of custom trays (SP 81%, GDP 85%) and selective pressure technique (SP 84%, GDP 53%) for final impression. However, 85% of GDP used zinc-oxide eugenol and 62% of SP favoured elastomeric materials for the same. Most of the SP and GDP used chemical cured resin custom trays (SP 54%, GDP 75%), however, 86% of SP used spaced trays and almost 60% of GDP preferred close-fitting trays. The practice of GDP and SP with regards to CD impression materials and techniques differed significantly. Continued education and training for GDP and SP with respect to procedures and techniques related to CD is recommended.

  1. Pilot study on accuracy and dimensional stability of impression materials using industrial CT technology.

    PubMed

    Steinhäuser-Andresen, Stefanie; Detterbeck, Andreas; Funk, Christoph; Krumm, Michael; Kasperl, Stefan; Holst, Alexandra; Hirschfelder, Ursula

    2011-03-01

    Using computed tomography, scan impressions can be saved and edited as virtual data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parameters influencing different impression materials and impression trays and their relevance with regard to accuracy and dimensional stability. Two alginate impressions (Zhermack Hydrogum®5 and Kaniedenta Tetrachrom®) and a polyether impression (3MEspe Impregum™) were each combined with two acrylic trays (3M Espe Position Tray™ and Profimed Opti-Tray) and CT scanned immediately after impression at the Fraunhofer Institute Development Center for X-ray Technology (EZRT) in Fürth, Germany. Each impression was digitized 10 times on the same day, 3 times after 2 days and twice after 6 days, thus determining the dimensional stability of the various materials. An acrylic model was digitized with a high-resolution µCT research scanner to be used as a reference for assessing the accuracy of the impression materials. For graphic and statistical analysis, VGStudio Max® was used. Both alginate impressions were less dimensionally stable than the polyether impression material. The Zhermack Hydrogum®5 alginate impression resulted in more deviation (151 µm) after 6 days than the Kaniedenta Tetrachrom® impression. The polyether scans showed a mean deviation of 73 µm. The accuracy of both alginates was similarly precise (mean value: Hydrogum®5 0.129 ± 0.021 mm, Tetrachrom® 0.137 ± 0.002 mm). The type of tray had limited influence on the results of the alginate impressions, while the accuracy of the Impregum™ impression depended on the tray combination chosen. The accuracy of the alginate impressions is sufficient for clinical use in orthodontics and produced, with correct storage, acceptable results even after 2 days. Hydrogum®5 impressions proved to be slightly more accurate than the reference material but less dimensionally stable than the Tetrachrom® impressions. The 3M Espe Position Tray™ seemed to be more practical due to a

  2. A Single Step Impression Technique of Flabby Ridges Using Monophase Polyvinylsiloxane Material: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Umesh Y.; Reddy, Vikram Simha; Hosi, Rushad Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Complete denture fabrication in clinically compromised situations such as flabby ridges is a challenging task for the clinician. Accurate impressioning of these tissues plays a major role in ensuring a well-fitting prosthesis. In this paper, the authors have proposed a newer technique of impression making of the flabby tissues using a combination of readily available newer and older materials to ensure an accurate and easy impression of these tissues. PMID:24872897

  3. Pressure generated on a simulated oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different designs.

    PubMed

    Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Burkhardt, John; Von Fraunhofer, Anthony; Romberg, Elaine

    2002-09-01

    To measure the pressure exerted by maxillary edentulous impressions composed of 3 commonly used impression materials using four different impression tray configurations. The study was performed using an oral analog that simulated an edentulous maxillary arch. Three pressure transducers were imbedded in the oral analog, 1 in the mid-palate area and the other 2 in the right and left ridge (maxillary first premolar areas). Custom trays of 4 different configurations were fabricated. The 3 impression materials tested were irreversible hydrocolloid, light-body and medium-body vinyl polysiloxane, and polysulfide. A total of 128 impressions were made. The custom tray and the oral analog were mounted using a reline jig. A Satec universal testing machine was used to apply a constant pressure of 2 kg/cm(2) over a period of 5 minutes on the loaded custom tray. The pressure was recorded every 10 seconds. Factorial analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test were used to analyze the results. A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (p < or =0.001). Irreversible hydrocolloid and medium-body vinyl polysiloxane produced a significantly higher pressure than light-body vinyl polysiloxane and polysulfide impression materials. The presence of holes and/or relief did not significantly alter the magnitude of pressure. All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification was not important in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used had more effect on the pressure produced during impression making on the simulated oral analog. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Accuracy and stability of impression materials subjected to chemical disinfection - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; Tzialla, A; Hatjivasiliou, K

    2008-04-01

    Disinfection of impressions by immersion or spraying with disinfecting solutions is considered nowadays mandatory for effective infection control. The purpose of this review was to examine existing evidence on the effects that chemical disinfection may have on critical qualities of impressions, namely dimensional accuracy and stability over time. A PubMed search was conducted to include original laboratory research articles written in English, published between 1980 and 2005 in peer-reviewed journals and investigating the effect of chemical disinfection, by immersion or spraying, on the dimensional changes that the impression materials experience after setting. Studies were also sought manually, by tracing the references cited in the retrieved articles. The reports on dimensional changes of disinfected impression materials, although rather numerous, are difficult to compare and analyze because of variations of the experimental design. The investigations broadly agree that the disinfection process does not generally affect the dimensional integrity of the impressions, in spite of the statistically significant differences occasionally found. However, the immersion in the disinfecting solution encourages water absorption phenomena in the case of the so-called hydrophilic impression materials, especially after the long-term immersion. Chemical interactions between impressions and disinfectants may occur, but they do not appear to influence the dimensional behaviour of the former. The overall effect of the disinfection is influenced not only by the changes experienced by the impression per se, but also by the alterations of the acrylic tray containing the impression and of the gypsum product poured in it.

  5. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  6. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the effects of implant position, impression material, and tray type on implant impression accuracy.

    PubMed

    Gökçen-Rohlig, Bilge; Ongül, Değer; Sancakli, Erkan; Sermet, Bülent

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of implant position, impression, and tray material on the accuracy of implant impressions of edentulous arches with multiple implants. Four experimental groups were produced; medium-viscosity polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) was used in 3 groups and polyether was used in 1 group. In PVS groups, different tray types were used; metal stock trays, custom acrylic tray, and full-arch perforated plastic trays. In polyether group, custom acrylic trays were used. The discrepancies in 3 dimensions were measured. The casts obtained exhibited small deviations (7.50-9.71 µm) from the master cast. There was no statistically significant difference between the polyether and PVS groups. Similarly, different tray materials did not produce any statistically significant discrepancies within the PVS groups. There was no significant difference among the groups when the accuracy of anterior implants were compared, but within-the-group comparisons showed that except group 1 (GR1), the posterior implants demonstrated more accuracy than anterior ones. Polyether and PVS can safely be used for the impressions of the edentulous arches with multiple implants and different tray types produce similar accuracy results.

  8. Flame resistant elastic elastomeric fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Massucco, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of materials to improve flame resistance of elastic elastomeric fibers is discussed. Two approaches, synthesis of polyether based urethanes and modification of synthesized urethanes with flame ratardant additives, are described. Specific applications of both techniques are presented.

  9. Dimensional Changes of Alginate Dental Impression Materials-An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thombare, Ram U

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentists are always looking ahead for more dimensionally stable material for accurate and successful fabrication of prosthesis in this competitive world. Arrival of newer materials and increased material market puts dentists in dilemma for selection of material. Aim The study evaluated the effect of variations in time of pour and temperature on dimensional stability of three brands of commercially available alginates. Materials and Methods Velplast, Marieflex & Zelgan alginate impression materials were evaluated by measuring dimensional accuracy of the master cast. A die was prepared and mounted on the apparatus for the ease of impression making. The prepared casts were categorized into five groups and made up of three brands of alginate impression material with variation in time of pour viz: immediate, 20&40 minutes interval and with varying temperature of 250C, 300C & 400C. Results Impressions showed least distortion at varying degrees of temperature for 20 minutes, but the values obtained by storing of alginate impressions for 20 minutes at 300C were found to be nearly accurate than the values obtained by storing of impression at 400C. However, storing showed shrinkage of impressions. Conclusion Marieflex showed better accuracy in comparison with other two materials. Maintenance of temperature and humidity play key role during storage & transport to prevent distortion. But the study suggests immediate pouring which will minimize the distortion. The manipulation instructions, temperature of mixing water, environment & water powder ratio also plays key role in minimizing the distortion. PMID:26436059

  10. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids

    PubMed Central

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background: Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Materials and Methods: Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Results: Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions. PMID:23878566

  11. Evaluation of accuracy of complete-arch multiple-unit abutment-level dental implant impressions using different impression and splinting materials.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed; Baig, Mirza Rustum; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of multiple-unit dental implant casts obtained from splinted or nonsplinted direct impression techniques using various splinting materials by comparing the casts to the reference models. The effect of two different impression materials on the accuracy of the implant casts was also evaluated for abutment-level impressions. A reference model with six internal-connection implant replicas placed in the completely edentulous mandibular arch and connected to multi-base abutments was fabricated from heat-curing acrylic resin. Forty impressions of the reference model were made, 20 each with polyether (PE) and polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) impression materials using the open tray technique. The PE and PVS groups were further subdivided into four subgroups of five each on the bases of splinting type: no splinting, bite registration PE, bite registration addition silicone, or autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The positional accuracy of the implant replica heads was measured on the poured casts using a coordinate measuring machine to assess linear differences in interimplant distances in all three axes. The collected data (linear and three-dimensional [3D] displacement values) were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference resin model and analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney). No significant differences were found between the various splinting groups for both PE and PVS impression materials in terms of linear and 3D distortions. However, small but significant differences were found between the two impression materials (PVS, 91 μm; PE, 103 μm) in terms of 3D discrepancies, irrespective of the splinting technique employed. Casts obtained from both impression materials exhibited differences from the reference model. The impression material influenced impression inaccuracy more than the splinting material for multiple-unit abutment-level impressions.

  12. Dimensional Changes of Alginate Dental Impression Materials-An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha M; Thombare, Ram U

    2015-08-01

    Dentists are always looking ahead for more dimensionally stable material for accurate and successful fabrication of prosthesis in this competitive world. Arrival of newer materials and increased material market puts dentists in dilemma for selection of material. The study evaluated the effect of variations in time of pour and temperature on dimensional stability of three brands of commercially available alginates. Velplast, Marieflex & Zelgan alginate impression materials were evaluated by measuring dimensional accuracy of the master cast. A die was prepared and mounted on the apparatus for the ease of impression making. The prepared casts were categorized into five groups and made up of three brands of alginate impression material with variation in time of pour viz: immediate, 20&40 minutes interval and with varying temperature of 25(0)C, 30(0)C & 40(0)C. Impressions showed least distortion at varying degrees of temperature for 20 minutes, but the values obtained by storing of alginate impressions for 20 minutes at 30(0)C were found to be nearly accurate than the values obtained by storing of impression at 40(0)C. However, storing showed shrinkage of impressions. Marieflex showed better accuracy in comparison with other two materials. Maintenance of temperature and humidity play key role during storage & transport to prevent distortion. But the study suggests immediate pouring which will minimize the distortion. The manipulation instructions, temperature of mixing water, environment & water powder ratio also plays key role in minimizing the distortion.

  13. Evaluation of properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials mixed with disinfectant liquids.

    PubMed

    Amalan, Arul; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Upadhya, Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Addition of disinfectant to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials can eliminate the disinfection step to avoid dimensional changes associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various disinfectant mixing liquids on the properties of commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Four commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Zelgan, Vignette, Tropicalgin, and Algitex) were mixed with disinfectant liquid containing chlorhexidine (0.1 and 0.2%) and sodium hypochlorite (0.1 and 0.5%). After mixing with disinfectant liquids, materials were evaluated for pH changes during gelation, gelation time, flow, gel strength, permanent deformation and detail reproduction. Significant changes in gelation time were observed in irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials upon mixing with disinfectant liquids. In general, chlorhexidine increased the gelation time, whereas sodium hypochlorite reduced it. However, no significant changes in the flow were observed both with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Gel strength was found to decrease when mixed with chlorhexidine, whereas an increase in gel strength was observed upon mixing with sodium hypochlorite. Permanent deformation of the most irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was below the specification limit even after mixing with disinfectant liquids. Sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the surface detail reproduction, whereas no change in detail reproduction was observed with chlorhexidine. Chlorhexidine solution can be used to mix irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials in regular dental practice as it did not significantly alter the properties. This may ensure effective disinfection of impressions.

  14. Study of the interocclusal distortion in impressions taken with different types of closed-mouth trays and two types of impression materials.

    PubMed

    Mañes-Ferrer, José-Félix; Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo-José; Parra-Arenós, Carmina; Selfa-Bas, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different types of impression trays for the closed-mouth impression technique, using two different types of impression material. For this study, five different types of impression trays were used with two different types of impression materials, one of addition silicone and the other of polyether. We designed a model used for taking the impressions and for measuring interocclusal distortion. The results obtained show that the impression trays COE (GC (R) GC America INC. Alsip) and Premier (Premier (R), Premier Dental Products Co. Canada) show a lesser degree of interocclusal distortion when taking closed-mouth impressions. In terms of impression materials, the polyether was the one that produced the best results. From a clinical point of view, our study shows that the use of these types of trays is absolutely recommendable when used according to the clinical indications for which they have been designed; that said, we must not fail to consider that selecting the proper type of tray is also important.

  15. Analysis of three-dimensional distortion of two impression materials in the transfer of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, María L; Elias, Augusto; Vizcarrondo, Carlos E Toro; Psoter, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    In dental implant restorations, a lack of passivity may be associated with mechanical failure. Passivity can be compromised during impression making. The purpose of this study was to compare the distortion of mechanically mixed polyether and hydrophilic addition silicone impression materials, and to evaluate the effect of intercoping distance on distortion. Twenty impressions (10 polyether and 10 silicone) were made from a single mandibular definitive cast with 5 abutment analogs using standardized laboratory and technique protocols. The direct impression technique and mechanical mixing were used. A precision measuring machine established spatial coordinates of the impression copings in 3 dimensions, with the operator blinded to materials. Linear distances (concentricity) and angular inclinations (perpendicularity, parallelism) were calculated to measure impression distortion relative to the positions/angulations of the implants in the definitive cast. Distortion differences between materials and implant intercoping distances were tested using 2-factor ANOVA with an interaction term. A Bonferroni 2-sided test was used (alpha=.05). No significant difference was found between the impression materials for parallelism (P=.91) and concentricity (P=.85). For perpendicularity, the silicone material had an average of 0.643 degrees less distortion (P=.004). With respect to intercoping distances, no significant differences were found for perpendicularity (P=.234), parallelism (P=.114), or concentricity (P=.346). An interaction term for material and coping distance was not significant. Hydrophilic addition silicone and polyether impression materials have similar distortion effects for transfer procedures when using the direct impression technique and machine mixing. Silicone demonstrated superiority for perpendicularity distortion, though of a magnitude unlikely to have clinical significance. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  16. Randomized controlled clinical trial on the three-dimensional accuracy of fast-set impression materials.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Heike; Quaas, Sebastian; Haim, Manuela; Preißler, Jörg; Walter, Michael H; Koch, Rainer; Luthardt, Ralph G

    2013-06-01

    The use of fast-setting impression materials with different viscosities for the one-stage impression technique demands precise working times when mixing. We examined the effect of varying working time on impression precision in a randomized clinical trial. Focusing on tooth 46, three impressions were made from each of 96 volunteers, using either a polyether (PE: Impregum Penta H/L DuoSoft Quick, 3 M ESPE) or an addition-curing silicone (AS: Aquasil Ultra LV, Dentsply/DeTrey), one with the manufacturer's recommended working time (used as a reference) and two with altered working times. All stages of the impression-taking were subject to randomization. The three-dimensional precision of the non-standard working time impressions was digitally analyzed compared to the reference impression. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate models. The mean difference in the position of the lower right first molar (vs. the reference impression) ranged from ±12 μm for PE to +19 and -14 μm for AS. Significantly higher mean values (+62 to -40 μm) were found for AS compared to PE (+21 to -26 μm) in the area of the distal adjacent tooth. Fast-set impression materials offer high precision when used for single tooth restorations as part of a one-stage impression technique, even when the working time (mixing plus application of the light- and heavy-body components) diverges significantly from the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Best accuracy was achieved with machine-mixed heavy-body/light-body polyether. Both materials examined met the clinical requirements regarding precision when the teeth were completely syringed with light material.

  17. Effect of mixing techniques on bacterial attachment and disinfection time of polyether impression material

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Materials and Methods: Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. Results: E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P < 0.05); no other statistically significant differences were found between hand- and auto-mixed materials. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, significant differences were found between the disinfection procedures (Z > 2.394). Conclusion: The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface. PMID:24966729

  18. Selected characteristics of a new polyvinyl siloxane impression material--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Blatz, Markus B; Sadan, Avishai; Burgess, John O; Mercante, Donald; Hoist, Stefan

    2005-02-01

    This study evaluated the ability of a new polyvinyl siloxane impression material (Affinis, Coltène/Whaledent, material A) to obtain final impressions free of bubbles and voids for indirect fixed cuspal-coverage restorations. The results were compared to a control polyvinyl siloxane impression material (material B). Both materials were handled by inexperienced clinicians (undergraduate dental students) in student clinics. One-hundred and thirty patients who were treated in the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry Junior Student Clinic for indirect fixed cuspal-coverage restorations and who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment groups, group A (n = 65) or group B (n = 65). Two calibrated examiners evaluated the first impression of prepared posterior teeth at a magnification of 10x for acceptability (no voids or bubbles). Position of tooth, type of preparation, preparation finish line (Class I-V), and gingival bleeding scores were recorded. All statistical tests were performed with the level of significance set at .05. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test did not reveal significant associations between material and gingival bleeding score (P = .492). Significant differences in the location of the preparation finish line between materials were observed (P = .0096); material A was more frequently used in cases where the preparation finish line was located at least 2 mm subgingivally. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the material on the success of the impression (acceptable/ unacceptable). Material was highly significant in the logistic model (P < .001) with an odds in favor of an acceptable impression being eight times higher with material A than with material B (odds ratio = 8.00; 95% confidence index for odds ratio: 2.832, 22.601). The 60/65 (92.3%) impressions made with material A and 39/65 (60%) impressions made with material B were rated "acceptable." The new polyvinyl siloxane impression material

  19. Impression materials in fixed prosthodontics: influence of choice on clinical procedure.

    PubMed

    Hamalian, Techkouhie A; Nasr, Elie; Chidiac, José J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to review impression materials used for fabricating fixed restorations in dentistry. Their compositions, properties, advantages, and disadvantages are presented and compared. How these properties influence clinical decisions is also described. This review helps the clinician choose which material is more suitable for a specific case. A broad search of the published literature was performed using Medline to identify pertinent current articles. Textbooks, the Internet, and manufacturers' literature were also used to supplement this information. It is limited to impression materials used in fixed prosthodontics. The review gives basic knowledge of ideal impression material properties and discusses traditional and, primarily, more recently developed products, such as polyethers, poly(vinyl siloxane), polysulfides, and condensation silicone materials. Clear advantages and disadvantages for these impression materials are provided along with the role that compositional variations have on the outcome of the impression. This should enable clinicians and technicians to easily identify the important physical properties of each type of impression material and their primary clinical indications.

  20. The dimensional stability of impression materials and its effect on in vitro tooth wear studies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose M; Bartlett, David W

    2011-03-01

    To assess the dimensional stability of 8 impression materials over 12 weeks relevant to in vitro tribology studies. Ten impressions from eight impression materials were taken of a metal block (ADA block) conforming to the American Dental Association specification for impression materials and of another metal block (custom block) which allowed measurements over a larger surface area. The impressions and blocks were scanned on a non-contacting laser profilometer (Taicaan® - Southampton, UK) and using surface metrology software Boddies® (Taicaan® - Southampton, UK) measurements were made at 24h, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The impression materials tested were [1] Aquasil®, [2] Aquasil® DECA, [3] Affinis®, [4] Express®, [5] Extrude®, [6] Impregum®, [7] President® and [8] Take 1®. Seven addition silicones and one polyether [6] were tested. [2] and [6] were monophasic, the rest were putty-wash. The results from impressions of the ADA block showed that all materials contracted compared to measurements obtained directly from the block [1] expanded over time (+31.5 μm) (p<0.05). The results from the custom block showed that all materials contracted compared to direct measurements of the block. [4] and [7] expanded over time (+62 μm and +63.8 μm respectively). [8] contracted over time (-54.7 μm) (p<0.05). No material showed linear changes >1.5% and were stable for 12 weeks. Nevertheless, the range of changes would affect tribology studies were cut-offs lesser than the reported changes are selected. All impressions should be processed after similar time delays to reduce the errors introduced by dimensional changes. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extrusion-mixing compared with hand-mixing of polyether impression materials?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caroline; Kinsella, Daniel; Fleming, Garry J P

    2010-12-01

    The hypotheses tested were two-fold (a) whether altering the base:catalyst ratio influences working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression properties of a hand-mixed polyether impression material and (b) whether an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material would have a significant advantage over a hand-mixed polyether impression material mixed to the optimum base:catalyst ratio. The polyether was hand-mixed at the optimum (manufacturers recommended) base:catalyst ratios (7:1) and further groups were made by increasing or decreasing the catalyst length by 25%. Additionally specimens were also made from an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material and compared with the optimum hand-mixed base:catalyst ratio. A penetrometer assembly was used to measure the working time (n=5). Five cylindrical specimens for each hand-mixed and extrusion mixed group investigated were employed for elastic recovery and strain in compression testing. Hand-mixing polyether impression materials with 25% more catalyst than that recommended significantly decreased the working time while hand-mixing with 25% less catalyst than that recommended significantly increased the strain in compression. The extrusion-mixed polyether impression material provided similar working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression to the hand-mixed polyether mixed at the optimum base:catalyst ratio.

  2. Effect of implant angulation, connection length, and impression material on the dimensional accuracy of implant impressions: an in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Calesini, Gaetano; Zarone, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    With regard to implant-supported prostheses, to date no technique has been proven to guarantee a completely passive fit of prosthetic frameworks. Several clinical variables may affect the precision of impressions, particularly in the presence of implants. To compare the accuracy of implant impressions made with different materials, lengths of impression coping connections, and not parallel position of the implants. A calibrated testing device allowing reproducible standardized positions was used. Two control groups of master models and eight experimental groups with predetermined undercuts were used to make addition silicon and polyether implant impressions by means of the open-tray pick-up technique. Four reference distances were evaluated on each study cast by using a profile projector and a standardized measurement protocol. The data were statistically analyzed by means of three-factor analysis of variance. The impressions made in the presence of angulated implants were significantly less accurate than the ones made with parallel implants. The tested addition silicon resulted advantageous in presence of nonparallel implants whereas the polyether achieved the best results with parallel implants and standard impression copings. The angulation of the implants may cause strains of impressions, probably because of the higher forces required for the impression removal. Moreover, undercuts negatively affected the impression accuracy. More accurate casts were obtained using the tested addition silicon in the presence of nonparallel implants and using a standard length connection of the copings in the presence of parallel implants, respectively.

  3. The effect of chlorine-based disinfectant on wettability of a vinyl polysiloxane impression material.

    PubMed

    Blalock, John S; Cooper, Jeril R; Rueggeberg, Frederick A

    2010-11-01

    Extended contact of impression materials with chemical disinfectant could remove surfactant, significantly altering the contact angle and wettability characteristics of an impression material. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of contact time of chemical disinfectant solution on the dynamic contact angle of a commercial vinyl polysiloxsane impression material. Discs (3.5 × 25 mm) of heavy-body and wash consistencies of material (n=5) were fabricated and either left untreated, or subjected to spray treatment with a commercial disinfectant for various lengths of time (1, 20, or 60 minutes, or 24 hours). Treated specimens were washed and dried, after which dynamic contact angle measurements of a water droplet were determined at various points in time after deposition: 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 seconds. The same wash product was used without added surfactant (control). For a given type of impression material, contact angles were subjected to 1-way ANOVA within each droplet deposition time for all periods of disinfectant contact (α=.05). The Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was applied for pairwise means comparisons. For each impression material type, significant increases in contact angles were found as the duration of disinfectant contact increased, at each measured droplet deposition time point. For both materials containing surfactant, extended contact with chemical disinfectant resulted in increased contact angles that were not significantly different from those of the nonsurfactant-containing control product. Increasing the contact time between a surfactant-containing impression material and a disinfecting solution can significantly alter the resulting contact angle of the impression material and render it similar to a material depleted of surfactant. Following manufacturer-recommended chemical disinfection times reduces surfactant loss and only minimally affects surface wettability. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of

  4. Influence of retentive areas associated to onlay preparations on the dimensional stability of silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Yatsuda, Regis A; Lima, Adriano F; Yatsuda, Regiane; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Capp, Cláudia I; Novelli, Moacyr D; de Cara, Antonio A

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of retentive areas on onlay preparations on the dimensional alterations in condensation and addition silicone materials. A standard model with an onlay preparation was made. Each impression material was used through the double or simultaneous impression technique (n=25), resulting in a hundred impressions of the same model. Impressions were poured with type IV dental stone. Digital images were taken with a light microscope and the distances between the reference points created on the plaster dies were compared with the ones on the standard model. In the occlusal, mesial-medium and mesial-cervical segments, the double impression (DI) with condensation silicone presented similar values compared to the standard model. The values of the addition silicone with DI were similar to the standard model only in the mesial-occlusal segment. In the other segments (distal-cervical, distal-medium and distal-occlusal), all groups were statistically different from the control. It could be concluded that addition and condensation silicone impressions provided plaster dies with significant dimensional alterations in most of the evaluated areas when compared to the standard model. The retentive areas related to the onlay preparation influenced the dimensional stability of the addition and condensation silicone impressions.

  5. Dimensional accuracy of 2 irreversible hydrocolloid alternative impression materials with immediate and delayed pouring.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Usama; Hussein, Bayan; Oko, Andrea; Carey, Jason P; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    To assess dimensional accuracy and stability of 2 irreversible hydrocolloid alternative impression materials with immediate and delayed pouring. Two alternative impression materials, AlgiNot FS and Position Penta Quick, were compared with a traditional irreversible hydrocolloid, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial alginate. Impressions were made of a metal model with 4 cylinders of known dimensions, with pouring performed immediately or after 4 hours of storage. A digital micrometer was used to measure cylinder diameter on the model and the poured casts. Dimensional changes were analyzed according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 19 (2004 version) (α=0.05). There were significant differences among the 3 materials, between the 2 pour times and as a function of storage time (multivariate analysis of variance, p<0.001). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the 2 alternative impression materials, but changes for these materials differed significantly from those for the traditional impression material for immediate (p<0.05) and 4-hour (p<0.001) pouring. Linear dimensional changes for the 2 substitute materials were within the limits of the ANSI/ADA specification. With immediate pouring, both alternative impression materials exhibited minimal dimensional changes, which were maintained or reduced with 4-hour pouring. For both pouring times, these changes were less than 0.5%. The minimal dimensional changes observed with these irreversible hydrocolloid alternative impression materials after 4 hours of storage may save chairside time and help to produce accurate results for procedures such as partial denture framework, surgical guides, and pediatric and orthodontic devices.

  6. Surface roughness of impression materials and dental stones scanned by non-contacting laser profilometry.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose M; Curtis, Richard V; Bartlett, David W

    2009-04-01

    To analyze differences in the way dental materials digitize on a non-contacting laser profilometer (NCLP). Three Type IV dental stones and 15 impression materials were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions and expressed against a glass block to record its surface characteristics. From each material an area of 6 x 40 mm was scanned on the NCLP and the Ra, Rq and Rt roughness values measured from 20 randomly selected transverse profiles. The surface of the impression materials was subsequently poured in Moonstone (Bracon Ltd., Etchingham, England) dental stone and the same roughness values obtained from these casts. Differences in roughness values from the dental materials were compared using ANOVA and differences in roughness between impression materials and the Moonstone casts compared using paired t-tests. There were significant differences in roughness values between individual materials within each type (impression material or dental stone) (p<0.05). The roughness of the dental stones varied between Ra=0.87 and 0.99 microm, Rq=1.09 and 1.23 microm, and Rt=5.70 and 6.51 microm. The roughness values of the impression materials varied between Ra=0.75 and 4.56 microm; Rq=0.95 and 6.27 microm and Rt=4.70 and 39.31 microm. Darker materials showed higher roughness values compared to lighter materials (p<0.05). The roughness of the Moonstone casts varied between Ra=0.80 and 0.98 microm; Rq=1.01 and 1.22 microm, and Rt=5.04 and 6.38 microm. Roughness values of some impression materials were statistically significantly lower when the surface was reproduced in Moonstone (p<0.01). Digitization of dental materials on optical profilometers was affected by color and transparency.

  7. Physical properties and compatibility with dental stones of current alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Chimori, H; Nikawa, H

    2004-11-01

    This study examined physical properties and compatibility with dental stones of two types of alginate impression materials. Five powder-type alginate impression materials (Alginoplast EM, Aroma Fine, Algiace Z, Coe Alginate, Jeltrate Plus) and a paste-type alginate impression material (Tokuso AP-1) were used. The dynamic viscosity immediately after mixing was measured by means of a controlled-stress rheometer. The gelation times were determined according to Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) T6505, and recovery from deformation, strain in compression and compressive strength were determined according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) specification 1563. Detail reproduction and surface roughness of type III dental stones (New Plastone, New Sunstone) and a type IV dental stone (Die Stone) were evaluated using a ruled test block as specified in the ISO specification 1563 and a profilometer, respectively. The alginate impression materials evaluated in this study were all in compliance with the ISO specification 1563 and JIS T6505. The alginate impression materials had similar mechanical properties after gelation, whilst a wide range of dynamic viscosity immediately after being mixed, gelation times and compatibility with dental stones were found among the materials. The paste-type material had a higher dynamic viscosity and a shorter gelation time than the powder-type materials. The best surface quality was obtained with the paste-type material/type III dental stone cast combinations. The materials should be selected in consideration of initial flow, setting characteristics and compatibility with dental stones. The results suggested that a paste-type material would better meet the requirements of an alginate impression material.

  8. Investigation of a new approach to measuring contact angles for hydrophilic impression materials.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Klettke, Thomas; Goldberg, Jeffrey A; Benchimol, Jaques; Perry, Ronald D; Sharma, Shradha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the initial water contact angles of seven unset impression materials using commercially available equipment, in an effort to determine whether polyether impression materials (Impregum) have lower contact angles and are, therefore, more hydrophilic than VPS impression materials. The hydrophilic properties of unset polyether and VPS impression materials were analyzed with respect to their water contact angle measurements using the commercially available Drop Shape Analysis System DSA 10. Twenty-five data points per second were collected via video analysis. There was no delay from start of measurement and data collection. Data was collected for approximately 12 s. Droplet size was determined on the thickness of canula. If the droplets became too small in volume, the water that evaporated during the measurement was large in comparison to the volume of the droplet. Therefore, 5 microl was chosen as the lowest volume. Five trials were conducted per series for each featured material. Contact angles were calculated using the circle fitting method. Three tests using this technique were designed to control the variables of contact angle measurement with regard to time, the varying amount of fluid in contact with impression material during clinical use, and material thickness. Sample thickness of impression material was controlled by stripping the paste flat on a glass plate using a marking template to ensure a constant film thickness. Tests were conducted in a climatized room at 24 degrees C +/- 1 degree C. Deionized water was used as the fluid. The device was calibrated according to manufacturer's instruction for Young-Laplace fitting prior to the measurements. Results were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA, Tukey test, and t-test, as appropriate. Comparing the fast setting impression materials by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < .05) revealed the initial contact angles to range from 66.2 +/- 1.5 degrees to 127.5 +/- 4.4 degrees

  9. Applicable research in practice: understanding the hydrophilic and flow property measurements of impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Ronald D; Goldberg, Jeffrey A; Benchimol, Jacques; Orfanidis, John

    2006-10-01

    The flow properties and hydrophilicity of an impression material are key factors that affect its performance. This article details in vitro studies comparing these properties in 1 polyether and several vinyl polysiloxane light-body impression materials. The first series of studies examined the materials' flow properties used in a "shark fin" measurement procedure to determine which exhibited superior flow characteristics. The second series of studies reviewed the hydrophilic properties of the materials. Video analysis was used to record contact angle measurements at the early- and late-stage working times. Results showed 1 polyether material to be more hydrophilic. Applying this knowledge to practice, the authors present a clinical case in which a polyether's superior flow and quality of detail were used to make impressions for a patient receiving 8 single-unit zirconia crowns.

  10. A Paradigm shift in the concept for making dental impressions

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Mahadevan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dental impression is a revolutionary technological advancement that so surpasses the accuracy and efficiency of former techniques for obtaining replicas of prepared teeth for the purpose of fabricating restorations that its adoption by dentists is rapidly eclipsing the use of elastomeric impression materials. The ultimate goals of dentists dedicated to quality restorative dentistry are to make their treatment of patients as accurate, stressless, and efficient as possible. By elimination of the everyday problems described above, there is no question that the significant advantages of digital impressions will make intraoral digital scanning standard procedure in most dental offices within the next several years. Furthermore, digital impressions have proven to reduce remakes and returns, as well as increase overall efficiency. The patient also benefits by being provided a far more positive experience. Finally, through the use of digital impression making, it has been determined that laboratory products become more consistent and require less chair time at insertion. PMID:26015714

  11. Thermal performance of 625-kg/cu m elastomeric ablative materials on spherically blunted 0.44-radian cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champman, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Spherically blunted 0.44-radian (25 deg) half-angle conical models coated with elastomeric ablative materials were tested in supersonic arc-heated wind tunnels to evaluate performance of the ablators over a range of conditions typical of lifting entry. Four test conditions were combinations of stagnation point-heat transfer rates of 2.3 and 4.5 MW/m2 and stagnation pressures of 20 and 2kN/m2. Afterbody values of heat transfer rate and pressure were 0.05 to 0.20 of stagnation point values. Stagnation enthalpy varied from 4.4 to 25 MJ/kg (1900 to 11000 Btu/lbm) and free-stream Mach number was in a range from 3.5 to 4. Ablative materials retained the spherical nose shape throughout tests at the lower heat transfer level, but receded, assuming a flattened nose shape, during tests at the high heat transfer level. The residue layer that formed on the conical after-body was weak, friable, and extensively cracked. The reference ablative material, which contained phenolic microspheres, generally retained the conical shape on the model afterbody. However, a modified ablator, in which phenolic microspheres were replaced with silica microspheres, deformed and separated from the undegraded material, and thereby produced a very uneven surface. Substrate temperatures and ablator recession were in good agreement with values computed by a numerical analysis.

  12. Rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials before mixing and during setting related to handling characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyang-Ok; Lee, In-Bog

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the handling and rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression pastes before mixing and during setting, and to investigate the effect of its constituents on the properties of the materials. Five polyvinylsiloxane impression materials (Examixfine, Extrude, Honigum, Imprint II, and Express) were used. A flow test and a drip test were performed to determine the handling characteristics. The rheological properties of each impression material prior to mixing (shear stress, viscosity) and during setting (storage modulus G'), loss modulus G″), loss tangent tanδ) were measured with a stress-controlled rheometer at 25°C and 32°C, respectively. Inorganic filler content of each impression material was measured and observed with a SEM. The molecular weight distribution of polymer matrix was determined with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Express and Honigum display lower flow compared to the other materials, due to their high yield-stress values. Examixfine exhibits the greatest flow. All materials display pseudoplastic behavior, excluding the Examixfine catalyst. The viscosities at low shear rate are greatest for Express and Honigum; however, under high shear conditions, the viscosities of Extrude and Honigum are the lowest. Following mixing, each material show an increase in G', finally reaching a plateau, and the tanδ rapidly decreases with time. Imprint II shows the highest final G' as well as the most rapid decrease in tanδ. Express and Imprint II present the highest filler content and rough filler surface, while Honigum shows the lowest filler content and small filler particles. Most products are composed of polymers over 30 kDa and oligomers less than 1 kDa. Each impression material possesses different rheological properties, which significantly affect the handling characteristics. The yield stress of the impression material minimizes unnecessary flow prior to and after seating. Viscoelastic

  13. Pressure produced on the residual maxillary alveolar ridge by different impression materials and tray design: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Subash M; Mohan, Chenthil Arun; Vijitha, D; Balasubramanian, R; Satish, A; Kumar, Mahendira

    2013-12-01

    Increased ridge resorption may occur due to inappropriate pressure applied during final impression making phase of complete denture fabrication. This study was done to evaluate the pressure applied on the residual ridge while making impressions with two tray designs (with and without spacer) using, zinc oxide eugenol and light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Five edentulous subjects were randomly selected. For each of the five subjects four maxillary final impressions were made and were labelled as, Group A-Impression made with tray without spacer using zinc oxide eugenol impression, Group B-Impression made with tray with spacer using zinc oxide eugenol impression material, Group C-Impression made with tray without spacer using light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material, Group D-Impression made with tray with spacer using light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material. During the impression procedure a closed hydraulic system was used to remotely measure the pressures produced in three areas. The pressure produced were calibrated according to the micro strain record. Statistical comparisons of readings were done using t test and ANOVA. The acquired data revealed that ZOE produced an average pressures value of 26.534 and 72.05 microstrain, while light body PVS produced 11.430 and 37.584 microstrain value with and without spacer respectively. Significantly high values were recorded on the vault of the palate when using trays without spacer. The use of light body polyvinyl siloxane and zinc oxide eugenol impression material showed insignificant difference. Within the limitations of this study, tray design has a significantly effected on the pressures produced, while the impression materials does not have any significant difference.

  14. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p < 0.05). After fluoride addition, flexibility was 15.45-20.27%, and the recovery from deformation did not change except one material. Compressive strength after fluoride addition was 0.36-1.12 MPa. Addition of NaF or SnF2 in an alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  15. Silicone impression material foreign body in the middle ear: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Okamura, Koji; Yano, Takuya; Moteki, Hideaki; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of impression material foreign body in the middle ear. The first case had been affected with chronic otitis media. The silicone flowed into the middle ear through a tympanic membrane perforation during the process of making an ear mold. About 4 years and 8 months after, the patient had severe vertigo and deafness. We found bone erosion of the prominence of the lateral semicircular canal and diagnosed labyrinthitis caused by silicone impression material. In the second case silicone flowed into the canal wall down mastoid cavity. Both cases required surgery to remove the foreign body. The clinical courses in such cases are variable and timing of surgery is sometimes difficult. In addition to reporting these two cases, we present here a review of the literature regarding impression material foreign bodies.

  16. [Influence of autoclave sterilization on dimensional stability and detail reproduction of 5 additional silicone impression materials].

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong-kai; Sun, Zhi-hui; Jiang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability and detail reproduction of five additional silicone impression materials after autoclave sterilization. Impressions were made on the ISO 4823 standard mold containing several marking lines, in five kinds of additional silicone. All the impressions were sterilized by high temperature and pressure (135 °C, 212.8 kPa) for 25 min. Linear measurements of pre-sterilization and post-sterilization were made with a measuring microscope. Statistical analysis utilized single-factor analysis with pair-wise comparison of mean values when appropriate. Hypothesis testing was conducted at alpha = 0.05. No significant difference was found between the pre-sterilization and post-sterilization conditions for all locations, and all the absolute valuse of linear rate of change less than 8%. All the sterilization by the autoclave did not affect the surfuce detail reproduction of the 5 impression materials. The dimensional stability and detail reproduction of the five additional silicone impression materials in the study was unaffected by autoclave sterilization.

  17. Elastomeric polypeptide-based biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linqing; Charati, Manoj B.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Elastomeric proteins are characterized by their large extensibility before rupture, reversible deformation without loss of energy, and high resilience upon stretching. Motivated by their unique mechanical properties, there has been tremendous research in understanding and manipulating elastomeric polypeptides, with most work conducted on the elastins but more recent work on an expanded set of polypeptide elastomers. Facilitated by biosynthetic strategies, it has been possible to manipulate the physical properties, conformation, and mechanical properties of these materials. Detailed understanding of the roles and organization of the natural structural proteins has permitted the design of elastomeric materials with engineered properties, and has thus expanded the scope of applications from elucidation of the mechanisms of elasticity to the development of advanced drug delivery systems and tissue engineering substrates. PMID:21637725

  18. Flame resistant elastic elastomeric fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Massucco, A. A.; Sidman, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    Compositions exhibit elastomeric properties and possess various degrees of flame resistance. First material polyurethane, incorporates halogen containing polyol and is flame resistant in air; second contains spandex elastomer with flame retardant additives; and third material is prepared from fluorelastomer composition of copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene.

  19. Investigation of the effects of storage time on the dimensional accuracy of impression materials using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The storage conditions of impressions affect the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of storage time on dimensional accuracy of five different impression materials by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS Polyether (Impregum), hydrocolloid (Hydrogum and Alginoplast), and silicone (Zetaflow and Honigum) impression materials were used for impressions taken from an acrylic master model. The impressions were poured and subjected to four different storage times: immediate use, and 1, 3, and 5 days of storage. Line 1 (between right and left first molar mesiobuccal cusp tips) and Line 2 (between right and left canine tips) were measured on a CBCT scanned model, and time dependent mean differences were analyzed by two-way univariate and Duncan's test (α=.05). RESULTS For Line 1, the total mean difference of Impregum and Hydrogum were statistically different from Alginoplast (P<.05), while Zetaflow and Honigum had smaller discrepancies. Alginoplast resulted in more difference than the other impressions (P<.05). For Line 2, the total mean difference of Impregum was statistically different from the other impressions. Significant differences were observed in Line 1 and Line 2 for the different storage periods (P<.05). CONCLUSION The dimensional accuracy of impression material is clinically acceptable if the impression material is stored in suitable conditions. PMID:27826388

  20. Stigmatizing materialism: on stereotypes and impressions of materialistic and experiential pursuits.

    PubMed

    Van Boven, Leaf; Campbell, Margaret C; Gilovich, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Five studies examined the stigmatization of materialism. Participants expressed negative stereotypes of materialistic people, considering them to be more selfish and self-centered than experiential people (Study 1). Participants also viewed materialistic pursuits as more extrinsically motivated than experiential pursuits (Study 2). These stereotypes led respondents from varied demographic backgrounds to form less favorable impressions of individuals who were associated with prototypically materialistic versus experiential purchases, a result that was statistically mediated by impressions that materialistic purchases were more extrinsically motivated (Study 3). These differential impressions are primarily attributable to the denigration of materialistic people rather than the admiration of experiential people (Study 4). The stigmatization of materialism led participants to like less and enjoy interacting less with their conversation partners when discussing materialistic rather than experiential purchases (Study 5). The authors discuss these findings' implications for self-perception, accurate social perception, and well-being.

  1. Thermal and pH changes, and dimensional stability in irreversible hydrocolloid impression material during setting.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Funda; Yanikoğlu, Nuran; Duymuş, Zeynep

    2002-06-01

    Present study the relation between pH, thermal changes and dimensional stability during setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials was investigated. Ten specimens of each product were prepared for different measurements: Thermal, pH changes and dimensional stability (mass and linear). Thermal and pH readings for 20 min and dimensional measurements for a 2 hr period were taken after mixing. It was observed that pH and thermal values changed in relation to different materials, while they did not change with the time according to variance analysis results. On the other hand, dimensional stability showed significant differences with time in all tested impression materials. A continuous pH change was observed with the time of gelation in all irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials tested. Dimensional stability also showed significant differences with time in all impression material and as a result hydrocolloids with a high pH showed better dimensional stability than those with a low pH.

  2. Investigation of the effects of storage time on the dimensional accuracy of impression materials using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Alkurt, Murat; Yeşıl Duymus, Zeynep; Dedeoglu, Numan

    2016-10-01

    The storage conditions of impressions affect the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of storage time on dimensional accuracy of five different impression materials by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Polyether (Impregum), hydrocolloid (Hydrogum and Alginoplast), and silicone (Zetaflow and Honigum) impression materials were used for impressions taken from an acrylic master model. The impressions were poured and subjected to four different storage times: immediate use, and 1, 3, and 5 days of storage. Line 1 (between right and left first molar mesiobuccal cusp tips) and Line 2 (between right and left canine tips) were measured on a CBCT scanned model, and time dependent mean differences were analyzed by two-way univariate and Duncan's test (α=.05). For Line 1, the total mean difference of Impregum and Hydrogum were statistically different from Alginoplast (P<.05), while Zetaflow and Honigum had smaller discrepancies. Alginoplast resulted in more difference than the other impressions (P<.05). For Line 2, the total mean difference of Impregum was statistically different from the other impressions. Significant differences were observed in Line 1 and Line 2 for the different storage periods (P<.05). The dimensional accuracy of impression material is clinically acceptable if the impression material is stored in suitable conditions.

  3. An evaluation of dimensional accuracy of one-step and two-step impression technique using addition silicone impression material: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam A; Parkhedkar, R D

    2013-09-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, the effect of undercut of two different configurations and the elastic recovery of addition silicone impression material assessed indirectly, by measuring the dimensions on stone models recorded from the impression of the master model, using one-step and two-step impression technique, for addition silicone impression materials. Measurements are taken to evaluate horizontal or linear and vertical dimensional changes, of the abutment V and abutment C from the stainless steel model. Heavy body/light body material is used for making one-step impression technique in a custom tray. Putty/light body is used for taking two-step technique in a stock metal tray. Improved die stone is used for pouring the impression. The different 11 locations on the dies produced by two different techniques are measured microscopically on image analyzer and compared with those of stainless steel model. Anova test was applied to test the differences of mean values of inter and intra abutment measurements, to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t value. Results showed less deviation of stone models produced by one-step technique from stainless steel model, whereas the deviation of stone models produced by two-step is comparatively more. (p < 0.01). This difference of deviation is significantly less in one-step as compared to two-step technique. One-step is sufficiently dimensionally accurate than two-step technique in conjunction with addition silicone impression material. They have the best elastic recovery from the two undercut configurations.

  4. The influence of dental gloves on the setting of impression materials.

    PubMed

    Baumann, M A

    1995-08-19

    The increased wearing of gloves during dental treatment has created new problems for general dental practitioners. One of these is the retarded set or total inhibition of addition silicones caused by natural latex gloves. This study was designed to test different gloves and impression materials in common use. Eight latex gloves, selected with different properties representing all possible types, together with four non-latex gloves, made of neoprene, styrene-butadiene, polyethylene and polyvinylchloride, were tested. As a control, mixing with bare hands and with maize starch was carried out. The viscosity changes of five types of impression materials (polyvinylsiloxanes, condensation silicones, alginates, polyether and polysulphides) were measured with a Zwick hardness tester to give the Shore A hardness. No impression materials other than polyvinylsiloxanes were affected by pure latex gloves and those only by two brands. All other impression materials can be mixed and handled with gloved hands without affecting their setting time. The retarded set of polyvinylsiloxanes caused by natural latex gloves is not so widespread as had previously been thought.

  5. [A comparative study of mechanical properties of materials for custom-made impression trays used by implant-fixed restorations].

    PubMed

    Gvetadze, R Sh; Abramian, S V; Rusanov, F S; Nubarian, A P; Ivanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Materials for custom-made impression trays used for impression by implant fixed restorations were compared in the study. The analysis included such values as flexural strength and elasticity modulus, impression material adhesion strength with the use of adhesive and without it. Light-cured plastic Elite LC Tray had the best rates of bending strength and elasticity modulus and the Protakril M had the highest adhesion strength both with and without adhesive.

  6. Comparison of Different Final Impression Techniques for Management of Resorbed Mandibular Ridge: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Bhupender; Jayna, Manisha; Yadav, Harish; Suri, Shrey; Phogat, Shefali; Madan, Reshu

    2014-01-01

    The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory. PMID:25180105

  7. Comparison of different final impression techniques for management of resorbed mandibular ridge: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhupender; Jayna, Manisha; Yadav, Harish; Suri, Shrey; Phogat, Shefali; Madan, Reshu

    2014-01-01

    The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory.

  8. Radiodensity evaluation of dental impression materials in comparison to tooth structures

    PubMed Central

    FONSECA, Rodrigo Borges; BRANCO, Carolina Assaf; HAITER-NETO, Francisco; GONÇALVES, Luciano de Souza; SOARES, Carlos José; CARLO, Hugo Lemes; SINHORETI, Mário Alexandre Coelho; CORRER-SOBRINHO, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    In the most recent decades, several developments have been made on impression materials' composition, but there are very few radiodensity studies in the literature. It is expected that an acceptable degree of radiodensity would enable the detection of small fragments left inside gingival sulcus or root canals. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the radiodensity of different impression materials, and to compare them to human and bovine enamel and dentin Material and Methods Twenty-five impression materials, from 5 classes, were studied: addition and condensation silicones, polyether, polysulfides and alginates. Five 1-mm-thick samples of each material and tooth structure were produced. Each sample was evaluated 3 times (N=15), being exposed to x-ray over a phosphor plate of Digora digital system, and radiodensity was obtained by the software Digora for Windows 2.5 Rev 0. An aluminum stepwedge served as a control. Data were subjected to Kruskal- Wallis and Dunn's method (α=0.05). Results Different materials and respective classes had a different behavior with respect to radiodensity. Polysulfides showed high values of radiodensity, comparable to human enamel (p>0.05), but not to bovine enamel (p<0.05). Human dentin was similar only to a heavybody addition silicon material, but bovine dentin was similar to several materials. Generally, heavybody materials showed higher radiodensity than light-body ones (p<0.05). Conclusion Impression materials' radiodensity are influenced by composition, and almost all of them would present a difficult detection against enamel or dentin background in radiographic examinations. PMID:21085802

  9. Pressure generated on a simulated mandibular oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different design.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Adel; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; von Fraunhofer, Joseph; Romberg, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to measure the pressure exerted under a simulated mandibular edentulous impression at different locations using commonly used impression materials and four impression tray configurations. This study was performed using an oral analog that simulated an edentulous mandibular arch. Three pressure transducers were embedded in the oral analog-one pressure transducer in the anterior ridge area, and the other two in the right and left buccal shelves. Four configurations of custom trays were fabricated: trays with no relief, with and without holes; and trays with relief, with and without holes. The impression materials tested were light body polysulfide, light body vinyl polysiloxane, medium body vinyl polysiloxane, and irreversible hydrocolloid. The custom tray and the oral analog were mounted using a reline jig, and a Satec universal testing machine was used to apply a constant pressure of 1 kg/cm(2) over a period of 5 minutes on the loaded custom tray. Eighty impressions for the 16 groups (n = 5) were made, and pressures were recorded every 10 seconds. Factorial ANOVA and Tukey Multiple Comparison Test were used to analyze the results (p < 0.05). A significant difference was found in the pressure produced using different impression materials. Irreversible hydrocolloid and medium body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly higher pressure than light body polysulfide and light body vinyl polysiloxane impression materials. The presence of holes and/or relief significantly altered the magnitude of pressure produced by irreversible hydrocolloid and medium body vinyl polysiloxane but not light body polysulfide and light body vinyl polysiloxane. All impression materials produced pressure during simulated mandibular edentulous impression making. For making mandibular edentulous impressions, low-viscosity impression materials-light body polysulfide and light body vinyl polysiloxane-are recommended. Tray modification was not important in changing the amount of

  10. Accuracy of Implant Position Transfer and Surface Detail Reproduction with Different Impression Materials and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Siadat, Hakimeh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant position transfer and surface detail reproduction using two impression techniques and materials. Materials and Methods: A metal model with two implants and three grooves of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mm in depth on the flat superior surface of a die was fabricated. Ten regular-body polyether (PE) and 10 regular-body polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions with square and conical transfer copings using open tray and closed tray techniques were made for each group. Impressions were poured with type IV stone, and linear and angular displacements of the replica heads were evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Also, accurate reproduction of the grooves was evaluated by a video measuring machine (VMM). These measurements were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference model that served as control, and the data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and t-test at P= 0.05. Results: There was less linear displacement for PVS and less angular displacement for PE in closed-tray technique, and less linear displacement for PE in open tray technique (P<0.001). Also, the open tray technique showed less angular displacement with the use of PVS impression material. Detail reproduction accuracy was the same in all the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The open tray technique was more accurate using PE, and also both closed tray and open tray techniques had acceptable results with the use of PVS. The choice of impression material and technique made no significant difference in surface detail reproduction. PMID:27252761

  11. Comparison of implant cast accuracy of multiple implant impression technique with different splinting materials: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sunantha; Dorairaj, Jayachandran; Mohan, Jayashree; Simon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and passive fit of implant framework prosthesis, as well as the successful surgical operation is suggested as one of the critical requirements for long-term implant success. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of the master cast using open tray impression technique with conventional and novel splinting materials. A mandibular reference model with four ADIN implants was done. Ten custom trays were fabricated using the light curable resin sheets. Medium body polyether impression material was used. These trays were randomly divided between the two groups, with five trays in each group. Impression techniques were divided into two groups namely: Group A: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin (GC pattern resin). Group B: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with Pro-temp TM 4 (bis-GMA) syringable temporization material. Thus, final impressions were made. Total of 10 master casts were fabricated. Evaluation of casts using Dynascope-Vision Engineering, TESA microhite two- dimension and coordinate measuring machine were used. Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA test and post-hoc test. Same amount of deviation values obtained with resin splinted and bis-GMA splinted impression copings. The master cast obtained by both the splinting material exhibits no difference from the reference model. So bis-GMA can be used, which is easy to handle, less time consuming, less technique sensitive, rigid, and readily available material in clinics.

  12. Comparison of implant cast accuracy of multiple implant impression technique with different splinting materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Sunantha; Dorairaj, Jayachandran; Mohan, Jayashree; Simon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An accurate and passive fit of implant framework prosthesis, as well as the successful surgical operation is suggested as one of the critical requirements for long-term implant success. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of the master cast using open tray impression technique with conventional and novel splinting materials. Methodology: A mandibular reference model with four ADIN implants was done. Ten custom trays were fabricated using the light curable resin sheets. Medium body polyether impression material was used. These trays were randomly divided between the two groups, with five trays in each group. Impression techniques were divided into two groups namely: Group A: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin (GC pattern resin). Group B: Direct impression technique with open tray impression copings splinted with Pro-temp TM 4 (bis-GMA) syringable temporization material. Thus, final impressions were made. Total of 10 master casts were fabricated. Evaluation of casts using Dynascope-Vision Engineering, TESA microhite two- dimension and coordinate measuring machine were used. Results: Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA test and post-hoc test. Same amount of deviation values obtained with resin splinted and bis-GMA splinted impression copings. Conclusion: The master cast obtained by both the splinting material exhibits no difference from the reference model. So bis-GMA can be used, which is easy to handle, less time consuming, less technique sensitive, rigid, and readily available material in clinics. PMID:27141167

  13. Method and apparatus for non-destructive evaluation of composite materials with cloth surface impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madras, Eric I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and related apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by determination of the quantity known as Integrated Polar Backscatter, which avoids errors caused by surface texture left by cloth impressions by identifying frequency ranges associated with peaks in a power spectrum for the backscattered signal, and removing such frequency ranges from the calculation of Integrated Polar Backscatter for all scan sites on the composite material is presented.

  14. Study of the rare-earth metals magnetic powders filling influence on the basic properties of elastomeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhansakova, K. S.; Mitryaeva, N. S.; Russkikh, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    The work deals with the studying of technological, vulcanization and physical-mechanical properties of magnetic elastomeric compositions. Powders of rare-earth metals with different morphology of particles and different magnetic characteristics were used as fillers. Based on the results of the work performed, it was revealed that the applied technology of manufacturing magnetic elastomeric compositions based on synthetic rubber is optimal. The rationale for this is the balanced technological and physical-mechanical properties of vulcanizates. Morphology and magnetic characteristics of fillers also do not significantly change the vulcanization properties.

  15. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  16. Three-dimensional assessment of dental casts' occlusal surfaces using two impression materials.

    PubMed

    Tarawneh, F M; Panos, P G; Athanasiou, A E

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by means of a three-dimensional computed tomography scanning system the occlusal surface characteristics of dental casts made using two different impression materials. Alginate and polyvinyl siloxane impressions were taken of 20 dental students resulting in 40 dental casts. The casts were paired for each student separately so that each pair consisted of an alginate poured cast and a polyvinyl siloxane poured out cast. The casts were scanned using FlashCT scanner and for each cast, a three-dimensional digital image was obtained. The digitized casts were processed using the three-dimensional imaging software Geomagic Studio 9. A total of 464 paired teeth were digitally separated and superimposed. For each tooth, two measurements were obtained corresponding to the two different impression materials used. The two sets of volumes for all digitally separated teeth were compared and analysed using the Wilcoxon signed test. Larger volume measurements were obtained for teeth separated from alginate poured out casts than from their corresponding ones from polyvinyl siloxane casts (P = 0.005). When the teeth were divided into the groups of incisors, canines and premolars/molars, only the last one exhibited significant difference (P = 0.00). The mean difference between the volumes measured for all 464 teeth separated was 0.041 mm(3) (+/-0.33). The occlusal surfaces of teeth appear differently in dental casts depending on the impression materials used. Impressions of dental casts should be utilized with caution in relation to their research application and in reference with dental wear studies.

  17. An elastomeric material for facial prostheses: synthesis, experimental and numerical testing aspects.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Kathryn; Limbert, G; Waters, Mark G; Middleton, J

    2003-12-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for new improved materials which better simulate the tissues they are replacing. This study was based on a mixed experimental/analytical/numerical approach. A new polymeric material was developed to provide a better alternative to the materials currently used in maxillofacial prosthetics. A series of experimental tensile tests were performed in order to characterise the tensile properties of the material. A Mooney-Rivlin type hyperelastic formulation was chosen to describe the constitutive behaviour of the polymer which operates at the finite strain regime. The material parameters (two) of the constitutive law were identified with the experimental data. The Mooney-Rivlin material was found to be suitable to represent accurately the mechanical behaviour of the polymer up to 50% strain as shown by the excellent agreement between analytical and experimental results. An FE model reproducing all the characteristics of the experimental tensile tests was built and a series of three FE analyses were conducted and has proven the proper finite element implementation of the material model. This preliminary study will serve as a basis to introduce more complex features such as viscoelasticity and wrinkling of the soft polymeric structure in order to optimise the performances of the final prosthetic material.

  18. Clinical characteristics of an allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Liebermann, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions to dental impression materials may occur throughout dental treatment, with diverse manifestations from slight redness to severe pain and a burning mouth with total stomatitis. Patients are often unaware of these allergic reactions, which makes early identification of the cause almost impossible. In addition, symptoms usually begin after 24 hours and mostly in patients with a preexisting history of allergic responses. This report describes a patient with a suspected allergic reaction to a polyether dental impression material during prosthetic rehabilitation associated with a mandibular telescopic denture. Although instances of such occurrence are rare, clinicians need to be aware of these symptoms and select materials carefully for patients with a history of allergy.

  19. An evaluation of the fit of metal-ceramic restorations made with an autoclaved silicone-based impression material.

    PubMed

    Kollefrath, Ralf; Savary, Marcel; Schwela, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    To demonstrate the clinical feasibility of autoclaving certain silicone impression materials in order to avoid potential cross-contamination during handling, transport, and subsequent processing. Semicritical devices are recommended to be treated at least with high-level disinfectants or actually steam sterilized at 134°C. To date dental impressions have been disinfected rather than sterilized, so the question remains should they be sterilized before being sent to the dental laboratory? Two identical impressions per case were made of metal-ceramic crown and fixed partial denture preparations on the same patient using addition type polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials (AFFINIS,® Coltene/Whaledent AG, 9450 Altstätten, Switzerland) in different trays. The first impression (IMPx1) was cleaned and treated with an intermediate-level disinfectant (FD 322--Fast Disinfection Spray, Dürr Dental, 74321 Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany). The second impression (IMPx2) was cleaned, treated with an intermediate-level disinfectant as with IMPx1, subjected to a computer tomography (CT) scan with a dimensional resolution of ± 10 µm, steam sterilized, and then subjected to a second CT scan. The dimensional changes of the second impression after steam sterilization were calculated by comparing the overlay of the two CT scans and expressed by color coding of the impression graphics. After the second scan, the impression was sent to a dental laboratory to fabricate a metal-ceramic crown or metal-ceramic fixed partial denture restoration to the one produced from the first impression (IMPx1) subjected only to disinfection. This process was repeated for four clinical cases. Impressions made with AFFINIS® silicone impression materials in a rigid reinforced polycarbonate impression tray or in a metal dual-arch tray can be autoclaved. The overall dimensional stability of the impressions and the quality of single crowns and small fixed partial dentures made using IMPx2 was not

  20. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study

    PubMed Central

    Shylesh, Kumar B S; Hallikerimath, R B; Rajeev, V V; Ganesh, S; Meenakshi, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the basic physical properties of 3 commonly available tissue-conditioning materials to gain knowledge for their clinical use as impression materials. Materials & Methods: A total of 60 samples were prepared and each sample was mixed and prepared according to manufacture direction. Finally five specimens of each tissue conditioners were subjected for each of the above test at different time duration. Results & Conclusion: The study showed that all the materials underwent water loss from the time of mixing to 24 hr & became hard. The plasticity of coecomfort & viscogel decreased from the time of mixing upto 1hr & 2hr respectively & again increased after that till 24 hrs, but the softone showed decreased plasticity after 30 min till 24hrs. Softone & coecomfort at 30 min showed better flow & more plasticity than that of viscogel. The dimensional accuracy of softone & viscogel at 30min is better than that of coecomfort. Thus softone at 30 min after mixing has better Dimensional accuracy, Plasticity and Flow; suitable for making functional impression then that of Coe-comfort and Viscogel. How to cite this article: Shylesh K B S, Hallikerimath R B, Rajeev V V, Ganesh S, Meenakshi S. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):20-27. PMID:24155598

  1. Effect of mixing technique on shrinkage rate of one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lampé, István; Marton, Sándor; Hegedüs, Csaba

    2004-01-01

    Different mixing techniques may affect the quality of set impression materials. Therefore, dimensional accuracy is the most important factor when constructing a passive and accurate prosthesis. In this study, observation of the shrinkage rate of one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials, which are both commercially available for cartridge- and hand-mix techniques, was used for comparative analysis. The hypothesis was that the cartridgemix technique would produce a more precise impression. The authors also sought to confirm the hypothesis that the studied materials would remain stable after setting. The low-viscosity polyether material was Permadyne Garant 2:1, type 3 (ESPE). The polyvinyl siloxane materials were: (1) medium-viscosity Provil Novo Medium, cartridge- and hand-mix type 2 (Heraeus Kulzer); and (2) low-viscosity President, hand- and cartridge-mix type 3 (Coltène). Measurements were made according to American Dental Association specification No. 19. Ten specimens were made of each impression material; the same examiner measured each specimen 10 times. Shrinkage rates of the same materials mixed using different techniques were compared 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 72 hours after mixing. Dimensional changes at the different measuring times were also compared. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with the SPSS for Windows program package, version 11.0 (SPSS); a two-sample t test was applied to compare the mixing techniques at every measuring time; and a Friedman test was used to analyze the changes in shrinkage rate during the evaluation period (P > .05). Figure 1 shows the shrinkage rate data for all materials. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference at any measuring point when the mixing techniques of the polyvinyl siloxane materials were compared. However, analysis showed significant differences for both hand- and cartridge-mixed materials when measurements at 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 72 hours were compared

  2. Biometric Denture Space- Concept of Neutral Zone Revisited Using A Hydrocolloid Impression Material

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswaran, Aruna; Nayar, Sanjna

    2015-01-01

    Though the concept of neutral zone in making complete denture and its significance are well known, the material of choice has always been experimented to achieve better results. Recording of neutral zone using irreversible hydrocolloid (Alginate) as a material of choice would make the way of recording the neutral zone easier, as well as comfortable for the patient, when compared with other materials used for the purpose. This article describes the method of recording the biometric denture space (neutral zone) using hydrocolloid impression material which is most commonly used in everyday dental practice. PMID:26673250

  3. An in vitro study of the antiviral properties of an alginate impression material impregnated with disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Tyler, R; Tobias, R S; Ayliffe, G A; Browne, R M

    1989-06-01

    The antiviral properties of a new alginate impression material impregnated with a disinfectant (didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride) were evaluated in vitro against herpes simplex virus type I and poliovirus type I. The material was exposed to the virus suspension for periods of up to 60 min. The impregnated alginate material showed no clinically acceptable effect against either virus, although log reductions of 1.0 and 1.7 plaque-forming units of herpes virus were obtained after exposure to the material containing the disinfectant for 5 and 60 min, respectively.

  4. In Vitro Implant Impression Accuracy Using a New Photopolymerizing SDR Splinting Material.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Adolfo; Meneghello, Roberto; Savio, Gianpaolo; Sivolella, Stefano; Katsoulis, Joannis; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to evaluate three-dimensionally (3D) the accuracy of implant impressions using a new resin splinting material, "Smart Dentin Replacement" (SDR). A titanium model of an edentulous mandible with six implant analogues was used as a master model and its dimensions measured with a coordinate measuring machine. Before the total 60 impressions were taken (open tray, screw-retained abutments, vinyl polysiloxane), they were divided in four groups: A (test): copings pick-up splinted with dental floss and fotopolymerizing SDR; B (test): see A, additionally sectioned and splinted again with SDR; C (control): copings pick-up splinted with dental floss and autopolymerizing Duralay® (Reliance Dental Mfg. Co., Alsip, IL, USA) acrylic resin; and D (control): see C, additionally sectioned and splinted again with Duralay. The impressions were measured directly with an optomechanical coordinate measuring machine and analyzed with a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric modeling software. The Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test was used to compare groups. While there was no difference (p = .430) between the mean 3D deviations of the test groups A (17.5 μm) and B (17.4 μm), they both showed statistically significant differences (p < .003) compared with both control groups (C 25.0 μm, D 19.1 μm). Conventional impression techniques for edentulous jaws with multiple implants are highly accurate using the new fotopolymerizing splinting material SDR. Sectioning and rejoining of the SDR splinting had no impact on the impression accuracy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparing the Accuracy of Three Different Impression Materials in Making Duplicate Dies

    PubMed Central

    Bajoghli, Farshad; Sabouhi, Mahmoud; Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Behnamnia, Zeynab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marginal adaptation is very important in cast restorations. Maladaptation leads to plaque retention, reduction of mechanical and esthetic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of three different impression materials (including: Additional silicone [AS] and condensational silicone [CS] and polyether [PE]) for duplicating master dies. Materials and Methods: Three master dies from an acrylic tooth model-with supragingival and shoulder finishing line was made by using PE: Impergum, CS: Speedex, and AS: Panasil separately. The Ni-Cr copings were prepared from master dies separately. They were placed on the acrylic model and the mean marginal difference was recorded by using a stereomicroscope. Then 30 duplicate test dies were made by using the same impression materials and the marginal gaps were recorded. The comparison was done by one-way ANOVA and SPSS software (Version 13) at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The mean marginal difference of four walls from Impergum (38.56 um) was the lowest than Speedex (38.92 um) and Panasil (38.24 um). The Impergum had the highest capability in making duplicate dies (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The Impergum impression material manifested the highest capability in making a better marginal adaptation of duplicate dies but further studies are needed to make a precise decision. PMID:26229364

  6. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study.

    PubMed

    Shylesh, Kumar B S; Hallikerimath, R B; Rajeev, V V; Ganesh, S; Meenakshi, S

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the basic physical properties of 3 commonly available tissue-conditioning materials to gain knowledge for their clinical use as impression materials. A total of 60 samples were prepared and each sample was mixed and prepared according to manufacture direction. Finally five specimens of each tissue conditioners were subjected for each of the above test at different time duration. The study showed that all the materials underwent water loss from the time of mixing to 24 hr & became hard. The plasticity of coecomfort & viscogel decreased from the time of mixing upto 1hr & 2hr respectively & again increased after that till 24 hrs, but the softone showed decreased plasticity after 30 min till 24hrs. Softone & coecomfort at 30 min showed better flow & more plasticity than that of viscogel. The dimensional accuracy of softone & viscogel at 30min is better than that of coecomfort. Thus softone at 30 min after mixing has better Dimensional accuracy, Plasticity and Flow; suitable for making functional impression then that of Coe-comfort and Viscogel. How to cite this article: Shylesh K B S, Hallikerimath R B, Rajeev V V, Ganesh S, Meenakshi S. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Tissue Conditioning Materials as used in Functional Impression - A Lab Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):20-27.

  7. Changes in water contact angles during the first phase of setting of dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Mondon, Matthias; Ziegler, Christiane

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the changes in wettability of dental impression materials during setting. This study compared the properties of the initial water contact of two different dental impression materials and their subsequent development during polymerization. Two dental impression materials (Impregum Penta Soft and Aquasil) with different chemical compositions (polyether and polyvinyl siloxane, respectively) were investigated with respect to their changing wetting properties by time-resolved static contact angle measurements. Ten sets of measurements each were taken over a period of 400 seconds with 150 points of data each; the first pictures were used for further characterization of the initial interaction. With 73 degrees, Impregum Penta Soft exhibited a significantly lower contact angle, which stayed lower during the process of setting, compared to the silicone-based material. The initial interaction of the droplet showed a repulsive interaction of Aquasil with the water droplet. Impregum Penta Soft showed a more hydrophilic behavior during the process of setting compared to Aquasil and can therefore be expected to exhibit better flow properties. The method of time-resolved static contact angle measurements is a well-suited analytic instrument to monitor temporally changing wetting phenomena.

  8. A summary of laboratory testing performed to characterize and select an elastomeric O-ring material to be used in the redesigned solid rocket motors of the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    An elastomeric O-ring material is used in the joints of the redesigned solid motors (RSRM's) of the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). The selection of the O-ring material used in the RSRM's was a very thorough process that included efforts by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Langley Research Center, and the Thiokol Corporation. One of the efforts performed at MSFC was an extensive in-house laboratory test regime to screen potential O-ring materials and ultimately to characterize the elastomeric material that was chosen to be used in the RSRM's. The laboratory tests performed at MSFC are summarized.

  9. Elastomeric shutter mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Clifford M.

    1995-05-01

    An elastomeric shutter mechanism for opening and closing a passageway in the wall of a vessel, such as a submarine hull is presented. A single, unitary, retractable shutter member made of an elastomeric material is partially attached to the wall around a portion of a passageway. The single, unitary, retractable shutter member is moveable from a closed position when the unattached portion of the shutter member is abutting the wall around the passageway to an open position when the unattached portion of the shutter member is retracted away from the wall around the passageway. Cables are attached to the inside surface of the shutter member for retracting the shutter member and opening the passageway. Mechanical stops are positioned inside of the vessel for abutting the shutter member when retracted to the open position by the cables. On an underwater vessel such as a submarine, the shutter member is sealed in the closed position by a pressure differential between the inside surface and the outside surface of the shutter member or latched in place in the closed position. Split ribs are included on the inside surface of the shutter member to resist the expansion of the shutter member when maintained in the closed position by the pressure differential.

  10. Comparing the Accuracy of Three Different Impression Materials in Making Duplicate Dies.

    PubMed

    Bajoghli, Farshad; Sabouhi, Mahmoud; Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Behnamnia, Zeynab

    2015-07-01

    Marginal adaptation is very important in cast restorations. Maladaptation leads to plaque retention, reduction of mechanical and esthetic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of three different impression materials (including: Additional silicone [AS] and condensational silicone [CS] and polyether [PE]) for duplicating master dies. Three master dies from an acrylic tooth model-with supragingival and shoulder finishing line was made by using PE: Impergum, CS: Speedex, and AS: Panasil separately. The Ni-Cr copings were prepared from master dies separately. They were placed on the acrylic model and the mean marginal difference was recorded by using a stereomicroscope. Then 30 duplicate test dies were made by using the same impression materials and the marginal gaps were recorded. The comparison was done by one-way ANOVA and SPSS software (Version 13) at a significant level of 0.05. The mean marginal difference of four walls from Impergum (38.56 um) was the lowest than Speedex (38.92 um) and Panasil (38.24 um). The Impergum had the highest capability in making duplicate dies (P > 0.05). The Impergum impression material manifested the highest capability in making a better marginal adaptation of duplicate dies but further studies are needed to make a precise decision.

  11. Two- and three-dimensional accuracy of dental impression materials: effects of storage time and moisture contamination.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Deepa T; Jagger, Daryll C; Jagger, Robert G; Barbour, Michele E

    2010-01-01

    Dental impression materials are used to create an inverse replica of the dental hard and soft tissues, and are used in processes such as the fabrication of crowns and bridges. The accuracy and dimensional stability of impression materials are of paramount importance to the accuracy of fit of the resultant prosthesis. Conventional methods for assessing the dimensional stability of impression materials are two-dimensional (2D), and assess shrinkage or expansion between selected fixed points on the impression. In this study, dimensional changes in four impression materials were assessed using an established 2D and an experimental three-dimensional (3D) technique. The former involved measurement of the distance between reference points on the impression; the latter a contact scanning method for producing a computer map of the impression surface showing localised expansion, contraction and warpage. Dimensional changes were assessed as a function of storage times and moisture contamination comparable to that found in clinical situations. It was evident that dimensional changes observed using the 3D technique were not always apparent using the 2D technique, and that the former offers certain advantages in terms of assessing dimensional accuracy and predictability of impression methods. There are, however, drawbacks associated with 3D techniques such as the more time-consuming nature of the data acquisition and difficulty in statistically analysing the data.

  12. Experimental study on the use of spacer foils in two-step putty and wash impression procedures using silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Mann, Karsten; Davids, Andreas; Range, Ursula; Richter, Gert; Boening, Klaus; Reitemeier, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    The 2-step putty and wash impression technique is commonly used in fixed prosthodontics. However, cutting sluiceways to allow the light-body material to drain is time-consuming. A solution might be the use of a spacer foil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of spacer foil on the margin reproduction and dimensional accuracy of 2-step putty and wash impressions. Two methods of creating space for the wash material in a 2-step putty and wash impression were compared: the traditional cutout technique and a spacer foil. Eleven commercially available combinations of silicone impression materials were included in the study. The impressions and the cast production were carried out under standardized conditions. All casts were measured with a 3-dimensional (3D) coordinate measuring machine. Preparation margin reproduction and the diameters and spacing of the stone cast dies were measured (α=.05). The 2 methods showed significant differences (P<.05) in the reproduction of the preparation margins (complete reproduction cutout, 90% to 98%; foil, 74% to 91%). The use of a foil resulted in greater dimensional accuracy of the cast dies compared to the cutout technique. Cast dies from the cutout technique were significantly smaller than the metallic original cast (cutout median, 4.55 mm to 4.61 mm; foil median, 4.61 to 4.64). Spacing between the dies revealed only a few additional significant differences between the techniques. When spacer foils were used, dies were obtained that better corresponded to the original tooth. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of water quality on setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.

    PubMed

    Bradna, Pavel; Cerna, Darina

    2006-12-01

    Setting of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials is based on the ionic reaction between carboxylic groups and calcium ions and may, therefore, be affected by ionic species present in the mixing water. The impact of this phenomenon on the clinical performance of these materials has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to compare the setting behavior of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials when mixed with tap and distilled water, and to determine the impact of typical cations present in tap water and their concentrations on the setting process. Six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Kromopan 100, Xantalgin Select FS, Alginoplast, Elastic Plus, Ypeen, and Ypeen Premium) were mixed with tap and distilled water (control) according to manufacturers' recommendations. Elastic Plus was also mixed with aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and AlCl(3) to determine the role of typical cations on setting. Using a controlled shear stress oscillatory rheometer, time changes of storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli during setting were measured at 23 degrees C and used to determine the working and setting times and rigidity of set impression materials. The sample size (n=3) for each material/mixing system was increased to 8 to increase reliability of measurements in systems where the effect of mixing water was low or variance of results was high. The data were analyzed (alpha=.05) using a t test (tap water), a 1-way ANOVA, a Tukey post hoc test (shear stress), and a nested ANOVA and Fisher Least Significant Difference post hoc analysis (cation and cation concentration). Statistical analysis showed significant (P<.001) acceleration in the setting rate for Kromopan 100, the working time of which was shorter with tap water by 23.4 seconds and the setting time, by 32.8 seconds. Similar significant reductions (in seconds) in both working and setting times, respectively, were found with Xantalgin

  14. Flight and ground tests of a very low density elastomeric ablative material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. C.; Chapman, A. J., III

    1972-01-01

    A very low density ablative material, a silicone-phenolic composite, was flight tested on a recoverable spacecraft launched by a Pacemaker vehicle system; and, in addition, it was tested in an arc heated wind tunnel at three conditions which encompassed most of the reentry heating conditions of the flight tests. The material was composed, by weight, of 71 percent phenolic spheres, 22.8 percent silicone resin, 2.2 percent catalyst, and 4 percent silica fibers. The tests were conducted to evaluate the ablator performance in both arc tunnel and flight tests and to determine the predictability of the albator performance by using computed results from an existing one-dimensional numerical analysis. The flight tested ablator experienced only moderate surface recession and retained a smooth surface except for isolated areas where the char was completely removed, probably following reentry and prior to or during recovery. Analytical results show good agreement between arc tunnel and flight test results. The thermophysical properties used in the analysis are tabulated.

  15. Experimental hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials incorporating a novel surfactant compared with commercial VPS.

    PubMed

    Ud Din, Shahab; Parker, Sandra; Braden, Michael; Tomlins, Pete; Patel, Mangala

    2017-08-01

    To formulate experimental hydrophilic (Exp) VPS impression materials incorporating a novel surfactant (Rhodasurf CET-2), and to compare their contact angles (CAs) with commercial materials, before/after disinfection. CAs were measured immediately after setting and after disinfection (1% NaOCl; 30min and 24h), together with their change whilst a droplet remained on the materials surface (over 10, 20, 30 60 and 120s), on three commercial (Aquasil Ultra-Monophase [Aq M], Elite HD-Monophase [Elt M], Extrude Medium-bodied [Extr M]) and four experimental (Exp I-IV) materials, using the Drop Shape Analysis 100 technique. The results were compared statistically. CAs of all experimental materials were within the range of those obtained for the commercial materials, with the exception of Exp-IV, which presented with the lowest CAs at the three time points. The control Exp-I was hydrophobic at all three time points (CAs ∼100+), as was Elite. Immediately after setting, Aq M had low CAs but these increased significantly after 30min of disinfection. After twenty four hours' disinfection CAs of all Exp/commercial VPS increased significantly compared to immediately after setting. The CAs of droplets left on the material (120s) decreased with time, even after disinfection, except for Exp-I. The novel surfactant Rhodasurf CET-2 in Exp-III and IV, is an effective surfactant, retaining a low CA after disinfection, compared with Igepal CO-530 in Aq M. Disinfecting VPS impression materials for more than 30min increases their surface CAs, and therefore prolonged disinfection periods should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The disinfection of impression materials by using microwave irradiation and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2014-10-01

    Microwave irradiation and immersion in solutions have been recommended for denture disinfection. However, the effect of dry conditions and impression materials has not been completely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave irradiation and hydrogen peroxide for the disinfection of dental impression materials. Specimens (diameter 10 mm, thickness 2 mm) were made with polyvinyl siloxane. Experimental groups were treated with hydrogen peroxide (group H), microwave irradiation (group M), and a combination of both hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation (group MH) for 1 minute, 2 minutes, and 3 minutes. The control group was untreated. The total sample size was 120. The specimens were divided into 2 groups, those exposed to Streptococcus mutans and those exposed to Escherichia coli. The disinfection effect and physical properties (contact angle, compatibility with gypsum, strain in compression, tear strength) were evaluated. All 3 groups (H, M, MH) were effective in reducing the number of colony forming units (CFU) per unit volume (mL) for both S mutans and E coli compared with the control. The most significant reduction in the CFU/mL of both bacteria was noted in the MH group and was used to compare either treatment alone (P<.05). No statistically significant difference was noted between the control and treatment groups in terms of all of the physical properties tested (P>.05). Microwave irradiation was identified as a useful disinfection method against S mutans and E coli, especially when combined with H2O2, without adversely affecting the physical properties of dental impression materials. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of tray space and repeat pours on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinylsiloxane impression.

    PubMed

    Rajapur, Anand; Dixit, Santosh; Hoshing, Chetan; Raikar, Sonal P

    2012-11-01

    While literature demonstrates that the optimum accuracy is obtained with the custom trays, the use of stock trays for elastomeric impressions appears to be popular in general practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thickness of impression material on the dimensional accuracy of impressions made from monophasic polyvinylsiloxane impression material. This study also studies the dimensional stability of the impressions poured at different time intervals. A metal model simulating two abutment teeth was fabricated along with reference lines inscribed on them. Custom impression trays were fabricated with spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. impressions were made using monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material. The impressions were poured and stone models were obtained. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions were determined indirectly by measuring the dimensional changes of the recovered stone models. The dimensional stability was also evaluated by pouring the impressions at time intervals of 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 and 4 mm tray space produced more accurate stone models when compared to 6 mm tray space. There was no significant deviation in the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions when impressions were made using impression trays with 2, 4 and 6 mm tray spacers. There was a significant decrease in interabutment distance (p = 0.001) and height of the abutment (p = 0.024) when impressions were made using impression trays with a tray space of 6 mm. There were no significant differences found among the stone models obtained from 1 hour, 24 hours and 1 week pour times. The mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the abutments were not affected by the variations in thickness of impression material. There was a decrease in the height of the abutment which was clinically not significant. As the thickness of the impression

  18. [Changes of the elastomer impression materials after their immersion in some disinfection agents for AIDS infection control purposes].

    PubMed

    Pissiotis, A; Panagiotoyni, E; Kapari, D; Kaloyiannides, A

    1989-01-01

    In achieving infection control in the dental office and the dental laboratory it has been suggested that impressions made in the dental office should be disinfected before they are send to the dental laboratory. In this study we examined the solubility and the linear changes of some elastomer impression materials after their immersion in disinfection agents after ten, twenty and forty minute time intervals. The disinfection agents used were: 75% alcohol, domestic chlorine 10%, the agent sterile pack (isopropyl alcohol) and 2% activated glutaraldehyde (SIDEX). Water was used as control. Our findings show that all types of elastomer impression materials appear to suffer insignificant changes both linear and weight-wise but polyether impression materials show significant changes in almost all the disinfection agents that were used and the time intervals that were studied.

  19. A case of small-bowel obstruction secondary to inadvertent ingestion of impression material.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James P; Webb, David E; Hutchison, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) is responsible for approximately 12 to 16 percent of surgical hospital admissions and more than 300,000 operations annually in the United States. This has resulted in more than $2.3 billion in health care delivery per year. SBO is a serious complication, carrying a 10 percent risk of mortality. The authors report a case of SBO resulting from inadvertent ingestion of polysulfide impression material. A 74-year-old man visited the emergency department with diffuse, nonradiating, colicky periumbilical pain. The patient was admitted to the general surgery service of the hospital, and after four days of supportive therapy without evidence of progression of the foreign body, he underwent an exploratory laparotomy. The authors later identified the foreign body as polysulfide impression material. SBO is a rare but significant complication that can result from a procedure that clinicians perform on a routine basis. Dentists should consider this complication whenever they are concerned that a high-risk patient may have ingested dental materials.

  20. The Effect of Three Different Disinfection Materials on Alginate Impression by Spray Method

    PubMed Central

    Badrian, Hamid; Ghasemi, Ehsan; Khalighinejad, Navid; Hosseini, Nafiseh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. Method and Materials. In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of alginate impression material were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 0.525, Deconex, and Epimax by way of spraying. Afterwards, they were kept in plastic bags with humid rolled cotton for 5 and 10 minutes. The number of colonies was counted after 24 and 48 hours for bacteria and after 72 hours for fungus. Statistical Mann-Whitney test was used for data analysis (α = 0.05). Results. After 5 minutes, Epimax showed the highest disinfection action on Staphylococcus aureus as it completely eradicated the bacteria. The disinfection capacity of different agents can be increased as time elapses except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated completely in both 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion. This study revealed that alginate can be effectively disinfected by three types of disinfecting agents by spraying method, although Epimax showed the highest disinfection action after 10 minutes compared to other agents. PMID:22900196

  1. The effect of pouring time on the dimensional accuracy of casts made from different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Mehta, Richa; Duggal, Nidhi; Vasudeva, Kamlesh

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the time dependent accuracy of casts made from three different irreversible hydrocolloids. Materials and Methods: The effect of delayed pouring on the accuracy of three different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials – Regular set CA 37(Cavex, The Netherlands), regular set chromatic (Jeltrate, Dentsply), and fast set (Hydrogum soft, Zhermack Clinical) was investigated. A brass master die that contained two identical posts simulating two complete crown-tapered abutment preparations with reference grooves served as a standardized master model. A total of 120 impressions were made using specially prepared stock-perforated brass tray with 40 impressions of each material. The impressions were further sub-grouped according to four different storage time intervals: 0 min (immediately), 12 min, 30 min, and 1 h. The impressions were stored at room temperature in a zip-lock plastic bag. Interabutment and intraabutment distances were measured in the recovered stone dies (Type IV, Kalrock) using a profile projector with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The data so obtained was analyzed statistically. Results: Results of this study showed no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of casts obtained at different time intervals. Conclusion: Because it is not always possible to pour the impression immediately in routine clinical practice, all irreversible hydrocolloid materials studied could be stored in a zip-lock plastic bag for upto 1 h without any significant distortion. PMID:24124296

  2. The effect of pouring time on the dimensional accuracy of casts made from different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Mehta, Richa; Duggal, Nidhi; Vasudeva, Kamlesh

    2013-07-01

    To determine the time dependent accuracy of casts made from three different irreversible hydrocolloids. The effect of delayed pouring on the accuracy of three different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials - Regular set CA 37(Cavex, The Netherlands), regular set chromatic (Jeltrate, Dentsply), and fast set (Hydrogum soft, Zhermack Clinical) was investigated. A brass master die that contained two identical posts simulating two complete crown-tapered abutment preparations with reference grooves served as a standardized master model. A total of 120 impressions were made using specially prepared stock-perforated brass tray with 40 impressions of each material. The impressions were further sub-grouped according to four different storage time intervals: 0 min (immediately), 12 min, 30 min, and 1 h. The impressions were stored at room temperature in a zip-lock plastic bag. Interabutment and intraabutment distances were measured in the recovered stone dies (Type IV, Kalrock) using a profile projector with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The data so obtained was analyzed statistically. Results of this study showed no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of casts obtained at different time intervals. Because it is not always possible to pour the impression immediately in routine clinical practice, all irreversible hydrocolloid materials studied could be stored in a zip-lock plastic bag for upto 1 h without any significant distortion.

  3. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Amir; Mahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. A total of 288 elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators from three manufacturers (Dentaurum, RMO, 3M Unitek) were stretched to 100% and 150% of their original inner diameter. Force levels were measured initially and at 3-minute, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week intervals. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Results. The means of initial forces of elastomeric ligatures and separators from three above-mentioned companies, when stretched to 100% of their inner diameters, were 199, 305 and 284 g, and 330, 416, 330 g; when they were stretched to 150% of their inner diameters the values were 286, 422 and 375 g, and 433, 540 and 504 g, respectively. In active tieback state, 11-18% of the initial force of the specimens was lost within the first 3 minutes and 29-63% of the force decay occurred in the first 24 hours; then force decay rate decreased. 62-81% of the initial force was lost in 4 weeks. Although force decay pattern was identical in all the products, the initial force and force decay of Dentaurum elastomeric products were less than the similar products of other companies (P<0.05). Under the same conditions, the force of elastomeric separators was greater than elastomeric ligatures of the same company. Conclusion. Regarding the force pattern of elastomeric ligatures and separators and optimal force for tooth movement, many of these products can be selected for applying orthodontic forces in active tieback state.

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial activities and compressive strength of alginate impression materials following disinfection procedure.

    PubMed

    Alwahab, Zahraa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of disinfecting solution when incorporated into alginate powder instead of water against some microorganisms and on compressive strength of alginate. For measuring antimicrobial activity of alginate, 60 alginate specimens were prepared and divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate incorporated in the mix instead of water. The tested microorganisms were: gram +ve cocci, gram -ve bacilli and yeast (each group 10 samples). For measuring compressive strength, 20 specimens of alginate were divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with chlorhexidine incorporated in the mix. The statistical analysis of antimicrobial efficacy of alginate was performed with Mann-Whitney U-test, which revealed very high significant difference when comparing among groups (p < 0.000). Student t-test analyzed the compressive strength data which revealed nonsignificant difference between groups (p > 0.05). The incorporation of disinfecting agents into impression materials could serve an important role in dental laboratory infection control and it had no adverse effect on compressive strength of the hydrocolloid alginate. The risk of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to dental laboratories via impression has been considered a topic of importance for a number of years.

  5. Effects of mixing technique on bubble formation in alginate impression material.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Kramer, Robert T; Im, Francis; Snow, Dallin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found that variations in mixing technique can influence the porosity content of alginate impression material. The aim of this study was twofold: determine whether bubble formation in alginate is influenced by the sequence of water/powder addition prior to mixing, and to compare 4 different mixing techniques. Manual spatulation, an automated spinning bowl, a centrifugal mixer and a vacuum mixer were evaluated for the resulting porosity in the set alginate. It was found that adding powder first, versus water first, made no difference in the bubble content using the 3 automated mixing techniques (P = 0.714). However, porosity was significantly less for powder-first trials using manual spatulation (P < 0.05). It was also found that surface porosity in the resulting impressions was significantly less for centrifugal and vacuum mixing when compared to manual spatulation, while internal porosity was significantly less for centrifugal mixing compared to all other mixing techniques (P < 0.05). The centrifugal mixing and vacuum mixing techniques required the least amount of mixing time.

  6. Effect of a laboratory surfactant on compatibility of type IV dental stones with addition-cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Tredwin, Christopher Jeremy; Nesbit, Michael; Butta, Rajeev; Moles, David R

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of a surfactant on surface detail reproduction between combinations of addition-cured silicone impression materials and type IV stones. Six hundred impressions were made of a ruled test block using; Examix-NDS, Doric-Es Flo-Light, Panasil Contact Plus, Extrude Wash and President Plus Jet. Half of the impressions were treated with a surfactant (Aurofilm). Impressions were poured with type IV dental stones; Silky Rock, Fuji Rock, Suprastone and Vel-Mix and the 20 mu line was scored. A laboratory surfactant (Aurofilm) significantly reduced (P<0.01) compatibility with; (i) Examix-NDS and Suprastone, (ii) Examix-NDS and Velmix, (iii) Extrude Wash and Fuji Rock.

  7. Evaluation of accuracy of casts of multiple internal connection implant prosthesis obtained from different impression materials and techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Malesh; Garg, Pooja; Prithviraj, D R

    2014-04-01

    Movement of impression copings inside the impression material using a direct (open tray) impression technique during clinical and laboratory phases may cause inaccuracy in transferring the 3-dimensional spatial orientation of implants intraorally to the cast. Consequently, the prosthesis may require corrective procedures. This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of 3 different impression techniques using polyether and vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material to obtain a precise cast for multiple internal connection implants. A reference acrylic resin model with 4 internal connection implants was fabricated. Impressions of the reference model were made using 3 different techniques and 2 different impression materials. The study consisted of 24 specimens divided into 6 groups of 4 each. Impressions were poured with ADA type IV stone (Kalrock, Kalabhai Karson Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, India). All casts were evaluated for the positional accuracy (mm) of the implant replica heads using a profile projector. These measurements were compared to the measurements calculated on the reference resin model, which served as a control. Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison procedures to evaluate group means. The results revealed significant difference for anterior implant distance between the 2 impression materials (P < .01) and also among the 3 different techniques (P < .05). The lowest mean variation was found with the polyether impression material and the splinted technique. For posterior implants, the results suggested no significant difference between the 2 impression materials (P ≥ .05). Although results were not statistically significant, the polyether impression material showed the lowest mean variation as compared to the VPS impression material. However, there was a significant difference among the 3 different techniques (P < .05). Among the 3 different techniques, the lowest mean variation between 2 posterior

  8. The effect of a range of disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy and stability of some impression materials.

    PubMed

    Jagger, D C; Vowles, R W; McNally, L; Davis, F; O'Sullivan, D J

    2007-03-01

    Disinfection of dental impressions should be considered as a routine procedure in dental surgeries and dental laboratories. Disinfectants can have deleterious effects on some properties of impression materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensional accuracy and dimensional stability of a model dental stone, reproduced from five commonly used impression materials (Aquasil soft putty/Aquasil Ultra LV; Aquasil Monophase; Aquasil Ultra Heavy; Impregum F and Provil putty/Provil Light CD wash) retained by their adhesives in acrylic resin trays and exposed to three disinfectant solutions (Perform ID; Haz-Tabs and MD 520). Two hundred models were used to investigate the effect of the three disinfectants on the dimensional accuracy of the five impression materials. Five impressions were taken for each impression material for each disinfection treatment group. Measurements were carried out using a High Precision Reflex Microscope. All materials demonstrated a percentage change in dimensions when subjected to no disinfection when compared to the brass master die and all materials demonstrated a percentage change in dimension when subjected to the different disinfection procedures. The results of this study have demonstrated that for all of the materials investigated, the changes in dimensional stability were small in the order of microns. These changes may however be of clinical significance for procedures requiring a high degree of accuracy, for example fixed prosthodontics. The materials respond differently depending on the disinfectant used and it may therefore be appropriate that manufacturers recommend the use of particular disinfectants for their products in order to ensure optimum dimensional accuracy and stability.

  9. Wettability, imbibition, and mass change of disinfected low-viscosity impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lepe, Xavier; Johnson, Glen H; Berg, John C; Aw, Tar C; Stroh, G Scott

    2002-09-01

    There is an ongoing effort by dental manufacturers to create impression materials with improved wetting properties. Disinfection solutions may alter the surface characteristics of these newer materials. This study compared wettability, imbibition, and mass change of various recently introduced automixed low-viscosity addition silicone and polyether materials before and after immersion disinfection. The Wilhelmy technique was used for deriving wetting properties of 5 addition silicone materials (Clinician's Choice Affinity, Clinician's Choice Superhydrophilic [experimental], Kerr's Take One, 3M's Imprint II, and Dentsply's Aquasil LV) and 2 polyether materials (ESPE's Permadyne Garant and Impregum Garant). Conditions included a control with no disinfection (0 hours), as well as (1/2) hour of immersion disinfection in a full-strength solution of 2% acid glutaraldehyde disinfectant (Banicide). Weight changes before and after disinfection and weight loss in air were measured over an 18-hour period to detect imbibition and mass change over time. The data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance at alpha=0.05, with n = 3 for advancing (ACA) and receding (RCA) contact angles and n = 2 for imbibition and mass change. Statistical significant differences in wettability (P<.001) were found among nondisinfection control groups, as well as among (1/2)-hour disinfection groups. Polyethers were the most wettable materials overall. Impregum Garant polyether demonstrated significantly lower RCA for the control (48.4 degrees) and at (1/2) hour of disinfection (51.8 degrees). The 2 polyethers and Take One lost mass, whereas Aquasil LV gained mass in air; however, all materials exhibited some degree of imbibition during disinfection. Within the limitations of this study, the 2 polyether materials tested exhibited significantly lower ACA's and RCA's compared with the 5 addition silicones tested. Imbibition for the 2 polyether materials was significantly higher (P<.001

  10. An unusual foreign body in the maxillary sinus: Dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Y; Zengin, A Z; Karli, R

    2016-01-01

    Foreign bodies in paranasal sinuses are very rare and most of them are encountered in the maxillary sinus. These foreign bodies may be organic or inorganic and can enter the maxillary sinus through an oro-antral fistula. The oro-antral fistula is formed by a break in the bony segment of the maxillary sinus floor and usually arises subsequent to maxillary premolar and molar extractions. A 63-year-old female patient evaluated for a nonhealing, left, toothless palate lesion and chronic headache occurring over 4 years. Radiography and computed tomography revealed bone discontinuity in the left floor of the maxillary sinus and calcifications within the antrum. A blue foreign body, later identified as dental impression material, was removed by intranasal endoscopy. A careful oral examination is recommended prior to prosthetic restorations. In addition, paranasal sinus foreign bodies should be surgically removed to prevent secondary soft tissue reactions.

  11. The influence of storage duration on the setting time of type 1 alginate impression material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadina, A.; Triaminingsih, S.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Alginate is one of the most commonly used dental impression materials; however, its setting time is subject to change depending on storage conditions and duration. This creates problems because consumer carelessness can affect alginate shelf life and quality. In the present study, the setting times of two groups of type I alginate with different expiry dates was tested. The first group consisted of 11 alginate specimens that had not yet passed the expiry date, and the second group consisted of alginates that had passed the expiry date. The alginate powder was mixed with distilled water, poured into a metal ring, and tested with a polished rod of poly-methyl methacrylate. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the setting times of the alginate that had not passed the expiry date (157 ± 3 seconds) and alginate that had passed the expiry date (144 ± 2 seconds). These findings indicate that storage duration can affect alginate setting time.

  12. Alginate impressions: A practical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, V Vidyashree; Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nair, K Chandrasekharan

    2008-01-01

    The choice of an impression material for a particular situation depends on the treatment being provided, operator preference, and so on. Even with the introduction of more advanced and more accurate rubber base impression materials, irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials have stood the test of time. This article gives a detailed perspective of how best to make alginate impressions. PMID:20142882

  13. The dynamic interaction of water with four dental impression materials during cure.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Dariush; Berg, John C

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the interaction of water with four different dental impression materials: Aquasil (Ultra XLV Type 3), Take 1 (Wash Regular Set), Genie (Light Body, Standard Set), and Impregum Garant (Soft Light Bodied Consistency). Apparent contact angles of de-ionized water made against thin horizontal sample films of the different materials under different conditions were measured from analysis of profile images of symmetrical sessile drops of water placed on the sample films using a Model FTA200 dynamic drop shape analysis system, which included a JAI M30 high speed CCD camera combined with a zoom microscope. Data were taken for specimens of dry ages (times following mixing) from a minimum of 20 seconds up to 1220 seconds. Imaging was started before the initial water/impression material contact, and lasted for at least 420 seconds in each case. The interval at the beginning of each run was 0.033 second, and then increased by a factor of 1.012 to the end. During the initial 3 seconds following the drop deposition, the drop's shape oscillated due to inertial effects, so apparent contact angle data during this period were neglected in all cases. All measurements were made at room temperature. The drops were enclosed in a humidified chamber that suppressed evaporation. All data were repeated at least five times, and results were analyzed where appropriate using one-way ANOVA. Microscopic images of the water/impression material interactions for fresh (uncured) materials were acquired to reveal the destructive interactions that resulted from such contact. Finally, surface tension measurements were made of water that had been contacted with material of varying dry age using the pendant drop method capability of the drop shape analysis system. These helped to assess the origin of hydrophilicity development for the different materials. For short curing times (dry ages), water showed a destructive effect on the integrity of all of the

  14. Combined Characterization of the Time Response of Impression Materials via Traditional and FTIR Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Derchi, Giacomo; Manca, Enrico; Shayganpour, Amirreza; Barone, Antonio; Diaspro, Alberto; Salerno, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil) and one polyether (Impregum). The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques with strong physical-chemical background for the assessment of temporal response. Traditional characterization was carried out by shark fin test device and durometer at both ambient and body temperature. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was performed at room temperature. From shark fin height and Shore hardness versus time the working time and the setting time of the materials were evaluated, respectively. These were in reasonable agreement with the nominal values, except for Impregum, which showed longer working time. Spectroscopy confirmed the different character of the two types of materials, and provided for Imprint 4 and Aquasil an independent evaluation of both evolution times, consistent with the results of the other techniques. Shark fin test and durometer measurements showed deviations in setting time, low sensitivity to temperature for Flexitime, and longer working time at higher temperature for Impregum. Deviations of working time appear in operating conditions from what specified by the manufacturers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy can provide insight in the correlation between material properties and their composition and structure.

  15. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of four different die materials before and after disinfection of the impression: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nandini, Yamini; Vinitha, K B; Manvi, Supriya; Smitha, M

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the linear dimensional accuracy of die materials before and after disinfection of the impression. Type IV and V conventional dental stone, type IV-resin impregnated and copper-plated die materials were studied. A stainless-steel master die analogs to a complete veneer crown preparation with three scribed lines (I: vertical, II and III: horizontal) was machined and measurements were made from these scribed reference lines. Impressions were made with monophase addition silicone impression material for each of the specimens. 2% glutaraldehyde was used as a disinfectant. The fabricated dies were measured to the nearest 0.0001 mm. ANOVA and post hoc was carried out using Scheffe multiple comparison test at significance level of 0.05. Type IV resin-impregnated dental stone and copperplated dies approximated the dimensions of the master die. Type IV and V conventional dental stone dies showed greater variation in measurements. Statistically significant differences were observed for type IV resin-impregnated and copper-plated dies in dimension I and III. For dimension II no significant differences were found for dies fabricated from four die materials. A one-way analysis of variance indicated no statistical significant differences among the two groups of dies fabricated from disinfectant treated impressions and those fabricated from nondisinfectant treated impressions. Type IV resin-impregnated dental stone and copper-plated dies are dimensionally more accurate than type IV and V conventional dental stone die materials. No significant linear distortion in the dies fabricated from the disinfected impressions was observed.

  16. Investigation of dental alginate and agar impression materials as a brain simulant for ballistic testing.

    PubMed

    Falland-Cheung, Lisa; Piccione, Neil; Zhao, Tianqi; Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Hanlin, Suzanne; Jermy, Mark; Waddell, J Neil

    2016-06-01

    Routine forensic research into in vitro skin/skull/brain ballistic blood backspatter behavior has traditionally used gelatin at a 1:10 Water:Powder (W:P) ratio by volume as a brain simulant. A limitation of gelatin is its high elasticity compared to brain tissue. Therefore this study investigated the use of dental alginate and agar impression materials as a brain simulant for ballistic testing. Fresh deer brain, alginate (W:P ratio 91.5:8.5) and agar (W:P ratio 81:19) specimens (n=10) (11×22×33mm) were placed in transparent Perspex boxes of the same internal dimensions prior to shooting with a 0.22inch caliber high velocity air gun. Quantitative analysis to establish kinetic energy loss, vertical displacement elastic behavior and qualitative analysis to establish elasticity behavior was done via high-speed camera footage (SA5, Photron, Japan) using Photron Fastcam Viewer software (Version 3.5.1, Photron, Japan) and visual observation. Damage mechanisms and behavior were qualitatively established by observation of the materials during and after shooting. The qualitative analysis found that of the two simulant materials tested, agar behaved more like brain in terms of damage and showed similar mechanical response to brain during the passage of the projectile, in terms of energy absorption and vertical velocity displacement. In conclusion agar showed a mechanical and subsequent damage response that was similar to brain compared to alginate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An antibacterial and absorbable silk-based fixation material with impressive mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chenglong; Pu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Guan; Feng, Xinglong; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Qingshui; Xia, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Implant-associated infections and non-absorbing materials are two important reasons for a second surgical procedure to remove internal fixation devices after an orthopedic internal fixation surgery. The objective of this study was to produce an antibacterial and absorbable fixation screw by adding gentamicin to silk-based materials. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro by plate cultivation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also investigated the properties, such as the mechanical features, swelling properties, biocompatibility and degradation, of gentamicin-loaded silk-based screws (GSS) in vitro. The GSS showed significant bactericidal effects against S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity remained high even after 4 weeks of immersion in protease solution. In addition, the GSS maintained the remarkable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility of pure silk-based screws (PSS). Interestingly, after gentamicin incorporation, the degradation rate and water-absorbing capacity increased and decreased, respectively. These GSS provide both impressive material properties and antibacterial activity and have great potential for use in orthopedic implants to reduce the incidence of second surgeries. PMID:27869175

  18. An antibacterial and absorbable silk-based fixation material with impressive mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Pu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Guan; Feng, Xinglong; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Qingshui; Xia, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Implant-associated infections and non-absorbing materials are two important reasons for a second surgical procedure to remove internal fixation devices after an orthopedic internal fixation surgery. The objective of this study was to produce an antibacterial and absorbable fixation screw by adding gentamicin to silk-based materials. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro by plate cultivation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also investigated the properties, such as the mechanical features, swelling properties, biocompatibility and degradation, of gentamicin-loaded silk-based screws (GSS) in vitro. The GSS showed significant bactericidal effects against S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity remained high even after 4 weeks of immersion in protease solution. In addition, the GSS maintained the remarkable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility of pure silk-based screws (PSS). Interestingly, after gentamicin incorporation, the degradation rate and water-absorbing capacity increased and decreased, respectively. These GSS provide both impressive material properties and antibacterial activity and have great potential for use in orthopedic implants to reduce the incidence of second surgeries.

  19. A self-disinfecting irreversible hydrocolloid impression material mixed with povidone iodine powder

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hussien Abdalfatah; Asfour, Hani; Shikho, Souaad Abdulelah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of adding povidone (PVP) iodine powder with different concentrations to irreversible hydrocolloid on both microbiological and dimensional stability. Materials and Methods: Regular set of (alginate) irreversible hydrocolloid was selected as control group. PVP-iodine powder was mixed with the alginate powder at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight (test groups). All specimens were tested for their antimicrobial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as dimensional stability. Results: The results of test groups showed that concentrations 1, 5, and 10, weight % had little effect against S. mutans and S. aureus microorganisms. While concentrations 15 and 20 weight % had demonstrated greater effect on microbial growth. The mean of dimensional stability in mm of modified alginate with PVP-iodine at 15 and 20 weight % was –0.119 ± 0.255 and –0.035 ± 0.074, respectively. While the mean dimensional stability in mm of unmodified alginate was –0.112 ± 0.176. The results of dimensional stability showed that 15 and 20 concentrations of test groups adversely affect the dimensional stability. The adverse effect was noticed to be significant in concentration 20%, where as it was nonsignificant in 15% concentration. Conclusion: Modified alginate impression material with 15 weight % PVP-iodine powered give the material, a self-disinfected properties with less deteriorating effect on dimensional stability. PMID:28042266

  20. Evaluation of the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression material for bite mark analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Rakesh, N; Kaushik, Atul; Devaraju, D; Kumar, B S Nanda

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic Vinyl Poly Siloxane [VPS] impression material for bite mark documentation and analysis. Medium body VPS impressions of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth among thirty subjects were taken and dental stone casts prepared. Hollow volume overlays were made and metric analysis was done using advanced imaging software like Adobe Photoshop - 9 and Image J. These values were compared to the measurements taken from bite mark impressions of the same 30 individuals on wax wafers using light body VPS material. The mean differences in the parameters measured by the different techniques were compared using Intra Class Correlation Coefficients [ICCC]. Additionally validity parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were computed.

  1. Evaluation of the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane impression material for bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sujatha S.; Rakesh, N.; Kaushik, Atul; Devaraju, D.; Kumar, B.S. Nanda

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy, precision and validity of hydrophilic Vinyl Poly Siloxane [VPS] impression material for bite mark documentation and analysis. Medium body VPS impressions of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth among thirty subjects were taken and dental stone casts prepared. Hollow volume overlays were made and metric analysis was done using advanced imaging software like Adobe Photoshop - 9 and Image J. These values were compared to the measurements taken from bite mark impressions of the same 30 individuals on wax wafers using light body VPS material. The mean differences in the parameters measured by the different techniques were compared using Intra Class Correlation Coefficients [ICCC]. Additionally validity parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were computed. PMID:27857665

  2. Single Stage Silicone Border Molded Closed Mouth Impression Technique-Part II.

    PubMed

    Solomon, E G R

    2011-09-01

    Functioning of a complete denture depends to a great extent on the impression technique. Several impression techniques have been described in the literature since the turn of this century when Greene [Clinical courses in dental prothesis, 1916] brothers introduced the first scientific system of recording dental impression. Advocates of each technique have their own claim of superiority over the other. The introduction of elastomeric impression materials [Skinner and Cooper, J Am Dent Assoc 51:523-536, 1955] has made possible new techniques of recording impression for complete denture construction. These rubber like materials are of two types; one has a polysulfide base and is popularily known as polysulfide rubber (Thiokol and Mercaptan). The other variety has a silicone base known as silicone rubber or silicone elastomer. Silicone elastomers are available in four different consistencies; a thin easy flowing light bodied material,a creamy medium bodied material, a highly viscous heavy bodied material and a kneadable putty material. This paper describes an active closed mouth impression technique with one stage border molding using putty silicone material as a substitute for low fusing compound.

  3. Effect of five brands of latex gloves on the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, C M; Sangur, Rajashekar

    2012-01-01

    Addition silicone impression materials have been used as impression material for more than 20 years. Although they are among the most expensive impression materials, they became popular during the past decade as they have excellent physical properties. Prevention of infection is an important aspect in dental treatment since dental professionals are routinely exposed to the wide variety of microorganisms present in saliva. Gloves are the most common protective measure used during dental treatment. The gloves are mostly made of latex. In this study, we examine how the setting time of three types polyvinyl putty materials were affected by the use of five different brands of latex gloves and one brand of vinyl gloves. Each material was first mixed without wearing gloves according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the stipulated mixing time, the setting time was measured using the Vicat needle. The setting time is measured from the time of mixing till the time that the needle does not produce any indentation on the surface of the material. The putty material was then mixed with gloved hands (using the five different brands of latex gloves in turn) and the setting time was measured. Then the material was mixed with washed gloved hands, and the setting time was measured again. Finally, the material was mixed with vinyl gloved hands and the setting time was measured. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: Reprosil and Express showed significant variation in the setting time with the latex gloved hands.There was no significant variation in the setting time when material was mixed with unwashed vs washed gloved hands.Vinyl gloves did not significantly affect the setting time of any of the putty impression materials.

  4. The influence of mixing methods and disinfectant on the physical properties of alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Karoline; Kellens, Annelies; Wevers, Martine; Thilakarathne, Pushpike J; Willems, Guy

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were to quantify the effect of manual versus automatic mixing and of using a disinfectant on mechanical properties of three different alginate impression materials. Two of the three alginates tested were especially developed for orthodontic use: Orthotrace® and Orthofine® while the third was a conventional alginate CA37FS®. Alginates were mixed by hand or automatically using a Cavex alginate mixer II®. Mixing was performed at room temperature using tap water. The material was allowed to set in a water bath at 35°C (±1°C), simulating intra-oral setting conditions, and half of the samples were disinfected before testing. For each tested material, 10 standardized samples were used. The disinfectant used was the CavexImpreSafe® that has a bactericide, virucide, and fungicide function. The specimens were exposed for 3 minutes in a 3% solution and were then tested according to the ISO 1563: 1990 (E) standard specifications. Descriptive statistics and three-way analysis of variance were performed, and a 5% significance level was used for statistical analysis. Evaluation of tensile strength and elastic recovery of different alginate samples, hand versus automatical mixing or disinfected versus not disinfected, resulted in significant differences for all materials except for Orthofine®. Considering detail reproduction, all three alginates evaluated reproduced the 50-μm line successfully without interruption. The mixing method can significantly affect the elastic recovery and tensile strength of the alginates tested while the effect of using a disinfectant is less explicit.

  5. To study the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression material at various time intervals after mixing.

    PubMed

    Katna, Vishal; Suresh, S; Vivek, Sharma; Meenakshi, Khandelwal; Ankita, Gaur

    2014-12-01

    Aims and objective of the study was to evaluate the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression materials at various time intervals, after mixing 49 samples (seven groups) were fabricated for flow property of the material. The sample were fabricated as equal length of base and accelerator paste of the test materials was taken on the glass slab and mixed with a rigid stainless steel spatula as per manufacturers recommendation till the homogenous mix was obtained. The mix material was loaded in glass syringe and 0.5 ml material was injected on a cellophane sheet placed on marked glass plate. A cellophane sheet and glass plate 70 and 500 g weight was carefully placed on freshly dispensed zinc oxide eugenol impression paste sequentially. The diameter of the mix was noted after 30 s and 1 min of load application and also after the final set of material. The diameter gives the flow of material. The samples were stored at the room temperature. The data of the flow property was analyzed with analysis of variance, Post hoc test and t test. The flow of the zinc oxide eugenol impression paste after 30 s, 1 min and final set of load application for Group A to Group G was noted. Maximum flow was seen for Group G zinc oxide eugenol impression material followed by Group F, D, E, B, C and A in descending order respectively after 30 s, where as the flow property changed after 1 min in the sequence of maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, B, A, C, and F. Lastly after final set of the impression material the flow maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, C, F, A and B in descending order. Based on statistical analysis of the results and within in the limitations of this in-vitro study, the following conclusions were drawn that; the flow of zinc oxide eugenol impression material after 30 s, 1 min and that after the final set was maximum for P.S.P. (Group G) and the flow for PYREX (Group A) was minimum.

  6. Performance of fast-setting impression materials in the reproduction of subgingival tooth surfaces without soft tissue retraction.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Heike; Röhl, Andreas; Walter, Michael H; Luthardt, Ralph G; Quaas, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Fast-setting impression materials may be prone to inaccuracies due to accidental divergence from the recommended mixing protocol. This prospective randomized clinical trial aimed to assess three-dimensional (3D) deviations in the reproduction of subgingival tooth surfaces and to determine the effect of either following or purposely diverging from the recommended mixing procedure for a fast-setting addition-curing silicone (AS) and fast-setting polyether (PE). After three impressions each were taken from 96 participants, sawcut gypsum casts were fabricated with a standardized procedure and then optically digitized. Data were assessed with a computer-aided 3D analysis. For AS impressions, multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of the individual tooth and the degree to which the recommended mixing protocol was violated. For PE impressions, the ambient air temperature and individual tooth showed significant effects, while divergence from the recommended mixing protocol was not of significance. The fast-setting PE material was not affected by changes in the recommended mixing protocol. For the two fast-setting materials examined, no divergences from the recommended mixing protocol of less than 2 minutes led to failures in the reproduction of the subgingival tooth surfaces.

  7. First impressions count.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jonathan W; Moazzez, Rebecca; Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-09-01

    The art and craft of recording intra-oral anatomy successfully with dental impressions relies on the interaction of three critical factors--the 'golden triangle of impression-taking': an appreciation of the anatomical features to be recorded, the material used to take the impression and the clinical handling/operative technique applied. This paper aims to discuss the three factors and their inter-relationships, detailing clinical tips for successful, reproducible and consistent outcomes. Obtaining accurate dental impressions is the key to success in a wide range of clinical restorative procedures. This paper offers clinical advice to practitioners to plan and then take predictable, good quality impressions for their restorative cases.

  8. Friction of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Claudio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Di Giuseppe, Maria Grazia; Lucci, Maria

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of variations in the size of elastomeric ligatures on the static frictional resistance generated by orthodontic sliding mechanics under dry condition. Frictional forces generated by elastomeric ligatures treated with a lubricating material (silicone) were analyzed as well. An Instron testing machine was used to assess the static frictional forces of a 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel rectangular wire that was ligated to a molar convertible tube and to three stainless steel 0.022-inch pre-adjusted brackets with elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions: small, medium, and large. The static friction produced by two prototypes of silicone-lubricated elastomeric ligatures was also measured. The small and medium elastomeric ligatures produced significantly less friction than the large ligatures. No statistically significant difference was found between small and medium ligatures. The decrease in frictional forces of small and medium modules had to be ascribed mainly to the smaller thickness of both ligatures with respect to large ligatures. The lubricated elastomeric ligatures generated significantly smaller frictional forces than nonlubricated elastomeric ligatures with different dimensions. The variation in the dimensions of the elastomeric ligatures is able to influence the static frictional resistance generated by orthodontic sliding mechanics in the buccal segments. The use of small and medium elastomeric ligatures determines a 13-17% decrease in static friction compared with large ligatures. Silicone-lubricated modules can reduce static friction by 23-34% with respect to the small and medium nonlubricated elastomeric ligatures and by 36-43% compared with nonlubricated large ligatures.

  9. Highly tunable elastomeric silk biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, Benjamin P.; Hanna, Craig W.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Moreau, Jodie E.; Applegate, Matthew B.; Burke, Kelly A.; Marelli, Benedetto; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric, fully degradable and biocompatible biomaterials are rare, with current options presenting significant limitations in terms of ease of functionalization and tunable mechanical and degradation properties. We report a new method for covalently crosslinking tyrosine residues in silk proteins, via horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide, to generate highly elastic hydrogels with tunable properties. The tunable mechanical properties, gelation kinetics and swelling properties of these new protein polymers, in addition to their ability to withstand shear strains on the order of 100%, compressive strains greater than 70% and display stiffness between 200 – 10,000 Pa, covering a significant portion of the properties of native soft tissues. Molecular weight and solvent composition allowed control of material mechanical properties over several orders of magnitude while maintaining high resilience and resistance to fatigue. Encapsulation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) showed long term survival and exhibited cell-matrix interactions reflective of both silk concentration and gelation conditions. Further biocompatibility of these materials were demonstrated with in vivo evaluation. These new protein-based elastomeric and degradable hydrogels represent an exciting new biomaterials option, with a unique combination of properties, for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25395921

  10. Comparative evaluation of pressure generated on a simulated maxillary oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different spacer designs: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sakshi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Literature reveals that masticatory load on denture bearing tissues through complete dentures should be maximum on primary stress bearing areas and least on relief area in accordance with the histology of underlying tissues. A study to validate the existing beliefs was planned to compare the pressure on mucosa using selective pressure technique and minimal pressure technique, with the incorporation of two different impression materials utilizing the pressure sensors during secondary impression procedure. Materials and Methods: The study was performed using a maxillary analog. Three pressure sensors were imbedded in the oral analog, one in the mid palatine area and the other two in the right and left ridge crest. Custom trays of two different configurations were fabricated. The two impression materials tested were light body and zinc oxide eugenol. A total of 40 impressions were made. A constant weight of 1 kg was placed, and the pressure was recorded as initial and end pressures. Results: A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (P < 0.001). Light body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly lesser pressure than zinc oxide eugenol impression materials. The presence of relief did affect the magnitude of pressure at various locations. Conclusion: All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification is an important factor in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used also had a significant role to play on the pressures acting on the tissues during impression procedure. Clinical Implication: Light body VPS impression material may be recommended to achieve minimal pressure on the denture bearing tissues in both selective as well as minimal pressure techniques. PMID:27041902

  11. Comparative evaluation of pressure generated on a simulated maxillary oral analog by impression materials in custom trays of different spacer designs: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sakshi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Garima

    2016-01-01

    Literature reveals that masticatory load on denture bearing tissues through complete dentures should be maximum on primary stress bearing areas and least on relief area in accordance with the histology of underlying tissues. A study to validate the existing beliefs was planned to compare the pressure on mucosa using selective pressure technique and minimal pressure technique, with the incorporation of two different impression materials utilizing the pressure sensors during secondary impression procedure. The study was performed using a maxillary analog. Three pressure sensors were imbedded in the oral analog, one in the mid palatine area and the other two in the right and left ridge crest. Custom trays of two different configurations were fabricated. The two impression materials tested were light body and zinc oxide eugenol. A total of 40 impressions were made. A constant weight of 1 kg was placed, and the pressure was recorded as initial and end pressures. A significant difference in the pressure produced using different impression materials was found (P < 0.001). Light body vinyl polysiloxane produced significantly lesser pressure than zinc oxide eugenol impression materials. The presence of relief did affect the magnitude of pressure at various locations. All impression materials produced pressure during maxillary edentulous impression making. Tray modification is an important factor in changing the amount of pressure produced. The impression materials used also had a significant role to play on the pressures acting on the tissues during impression procedure. Light body VPS impression material may be recommended to achieve minimal pressure on the denture bearing tissues in both selective as well as minimal pressure techniques.

  12. Improvdent: Improving dentures for patient benefit. A crossover randomised clinical trial comparing impression materials for complete dentures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the UK Adult Dental Health Survey (2009) 15% of adults aged 65–74, 30% aged 75–84 and 47% aged >85 years are edentulous and require complete dentures. Patients’ quality of life and nutrition status are affected by poor dentures. The quality of the dental impression is the most important issue for improving the fit and comfort of new dentures. There is paucity of RCT evidence for which impression material is best for complete dentures construction. This study aims to compare two impression materials for effectiveness and cost effectiveness. Methods/Design IMPROVDENT is a double-blind crossover trial comparing the use of alginate and silicone, two commonly used denture impression materials, in terms of patient preference and cost-effectiveness. Eighty five edentulous patients will be recruited and provided with two sets of dentures, similar in all aspects except for the impression material used (alginate or silicone). Patients will try both sets of dentures for a two-week period, unadjusted, to become accustomed to the feel of the new dentures (habituation period). Patients will then wear each set of dentures for a period of 8 weeks (in random order) during which time the dentures will be adjusted for optimum comfort. Finally, patients will be given both sets of dentures for a further two weeks to wear whichever denture they prefer (confirmation period). Patients will be asked about quality of life and to rate dentures on function and comfort at the end of each trial period and asked which set they prefer at the end of the habituation period (unadjusted denture preference) and confirmation period (adjusted denture preference). A health economic evaluation will estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of producing dentures from the two materials. A qualitative study will investigate the impact of dentures on behaviour and quality of life. Funding: IMPROVDENT is funded by NIHR RfPB (PB-PG-0408-16300). Discussion This trial aims to

  13. IMPROVDENT: improving dentures for patient benefit. A crossover randomised clinical trial comparing impression materials for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Gray, Janine C; Navarro-Coy, Nuria; Pavitt, Sue H; Hulme, Claire; Godfrey, Mary; Craddock, Helen L; Brunton, Paul A; Brown, Sarah; Dillon, Sean; Dukanovic, Gillian; Fernandez, Catherine; Wright, Jonathan; Collier, Howard; Swithenbank, Shirley; Lee, Carol; Hyde, T Paul

    2012-08-31

    According to the UK Adult Dental Health Survey (2009) 15% of adults aged 65-74, 30% aged 75-84 and 47% aged >85 years are edentulous and require complete dentures. Patients' quality of life and nutrition status are affected by poor dentures. The quality of the dental impression is the most important issue for improving the fit and comfort of new dentures. There is paucity of RCT evidence for which impression material is best for complete dentures construction. This study aims to compare two impression materials for effectiveness and cost effectiveness. IMPROVDENT is a double-blind crossover trial comparing the use of alginate and silicone, two commonly used denture impression materials, in terms of patient preference and cost-effectiveness. Eighty five edentulous patients will be recruited and provided with two sets of dentures, similar in all aspects except for the impression material used (alginate or silicone). Patients will try both sets of dentures for a two-week period, unadjusted, to become accustomed to the feel of the new dentures (habituation period). Patients will then wear each set of dentures for a period of 8 weeks (in random order) during which time the dentures will be adjusted for optimum comfort. Finally, patients will be given both sets of dentures for a further two weeks to wear whichever denture they prefer (confirmation period).Patients will be asked about quality of life and to rate dentures on function and comfort at the end of each trial period and asked which set they prefer at the end of the habituation period (unadjusted denture preference) and confirmation period (adjusted denture preference). A health economic evaluation will estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of producing dentures from the two materials. A qualitative study will investigate the impact of dentures on behaviour and quality of life. IMPROVDENT is funded by NIHR RfPB (PB-PG-0408-16300). This trial aims to provide evidence on the costs and quality of dentures

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rahul S.; Shah, Rupal J.; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The clinician’s skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. Aim To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. Materials and Methods A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. Results With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the

  15. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Poonam R; Kulkarni, Rahul S; Shah, Rupal J; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita

    2017-04-01

    The clinician's skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the plastic trays in reference of tray selection and

  16. Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  17. Preservation of the negative image of tooth enamel with dental impression material enhances morphometric measurements of gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Marian L; Andringa, Anastasia; Turner, Lloyd T; Dalton, Timothy P; Derkenne, Sandrine; Nebert, Daniel W

    2003-04-01

    Gingival overgrowth is a common health problem caused by genetic and environmental risk factors. Animal models for quantitative histological studies are needed to uncover genetic predisposition and dose-response data that might put individuals at increased risk for gingival disease. Gingival height, thickness, inflammation, and the degree of encroachment of gingiva over the tooth, are clinical measures of overgrowth; most of these parameters can be measured histologically, but in order to quantify gingival coverage of the tooth, the image of the crown must be present. Tooth and bone typically require decalcification for histology; thus, the tooth crown, a critical landmark, is lost. We describe a method for imaging the crown histologically, using impression materials applied to dissected mouse mandibles. Four dental alginates, three polyvinyl siloxanes, and one polyether and gelatin were used. The impression-material/mandibular tissue blocks were processed routinely. Polyvinyl siloxanes were incompatible with embedding resin; alginates, polyether and gelatin could be fixed, decalcified, embedded, and sectioned. Alginates and gelatin could be stained. Success in imaging the tooth crown varied with the preparation, but the alginates, polyether, and gelatin permitted a useful degree of measurement of exposed crown and enamel thickness, along with other morphometric parameters such as thickness of the dentin, lateral mandibular ramus, rete pegs, height of the gingiva, and volume density of vessels and inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. In conclusion, this new application for impression materials allows gingival coverage of tooth crown, as well as numerous other parameters to be measured for comparison with clinical data.

  18. Impression techniques and misfit-induced strains on implant-supported superstructures: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Murat C; Akça, Kivanç

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare misfit-induced strains on implant-supported superstructures fabricated by two impression techniques and two different elastomeric impression materials. A master cast hosting four Straumann implants was constructed. On this cast, a total of 21 implant-level impressions were made by the direct technique using a polyether impression material and synOcta screwed aluminum impression caps (PE-D), and by the indirect technique using polyether (PE-IN) or polyvinylsiloxane impression material (VPS-IN) with snap-on impression caps and synOcta plastic positioning cylinders. Two casts were randomly selected from each group of seven, and a total of four screw-retained superstructures, supported by either two or four implants (one of each type on both casts), were cast in a gold alloy for each group. Linear strain gauges were bonded on the superstructures, and misfit-induced strains were recorded during superstructure connection on each of the working casts and on the master cast using a data acquisition system and corresponding software at a sample rate of 10 kHz. Connection on the implants in the master cast increased strains considerably on most of the superstructures, in comparison with strain gradients measured when the superstructures were connected on the casts from which they were fabricated (P <.05). The differences in strain amplitude between connection on the cast from which the superstructure was fabricated and on the master cast were higher for superstructures fabricated by PE-D than for those fabricated by PE-IN and VPS-IN. The snap-on indirect impression technique for Straumann implants leads to acceptable superstructures, regardless of the impression material used.

  19. Method for making an elastomeric member with end pieces

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; McNinch, Jr., Joseph H.; Nowell, Gregory C.

    1984-01-01

    A molding process for molding an elongated elastomeric member (60) with wire mesh sleeves (16) bonded to the ends (14). A molding preform (10) of elastomeric material is positioned within a seamless mold cylinder (26), and the open ends of the wire mesh sleeves (16) are mounted to end plug assemblies (30) slidably received into the mold cylinder (26) and positioned against the ends (14) of the preform (10). A specialized profile is formed into surfaces (44) of the respective end plug assemblies (30) and by heating of the mold (26), the ends (14) of the elastomeric preform (10) are molded to the profile, as well as bonded to the reinforcing wire mesh sleeves (16). Vacuum is applied to the interior of the mold to draw outgassing vapors through relief spaces therethrough. The completed elastomeric member (60) is removed from the mold cylinder (26) by stretching, the consequent reduction in diameter enabling ready separation from the mold cylinder (26) and removal thereof.

  20. Method for making an elastomeric member with end pieces

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.; McNinch, J.H. Jr.; Nowell, G.C.

    1984-10-23

    A molding process is described for molding an elongated elastomeric member with wire mesh sleeves bonded to the ends. A molding preform of elastomeric material is positioned within a seamless mold cylinder, and the open ends of the wire mesh sleeves are mounted to end plug assemblies slidably received into the mold cylinder and positioned against the ends of the preform. A specialized profile is formed into surfaces of the respective end plug assemblies and by heating of the mold, the ends of the elastomeric preform are molded to the profile, as well as bonded to the reinforcing wire mesh sleeves. Vacuum is applied to the interior of the mold to draw outgassing vapors through relief spaces there through. The completed elastomeric member is removed from the mold cylinder by stretching, the consequent reduction in diameter enabling ready separation from the mold cylinder and removal thereof. 9 figs.

  1. An Investigation into the Accuracy of Two Currently Available Dental Impression Materials in the Construction of Cobalt-Chromium Frameworks for Removable Partial Dentures.

    PubMed

    Dubal, Rajesh Kumar; Friel, Tim; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the suitability of irreversible hydrocolloid as an impression material for cobalt-chromium framework construction. Scans of casts derived from (1) alginate and (2) addition-cured polyvinylsiloxane impressions were superposed on to a control. The differences within and between groups were compared at fixed landmarks. The investigation revealed a high degree of scan coincidence within and between groups. However, certain features, such as undercuts, resulted in a lower degree of scan coincidence. Irreversible hydrocolloid appears to be a viable alternative to addition-cured polyvinyl-siloxane as an impression material for cobalt-chromium framework construction.

  2. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models: influence of disinfectant solutions and alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Borsato, Thaís Teixeira; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Gonini-Jr, Alcides; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models obtained from molds disinfected with 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to models produced using molds which were not disinfected, with 3 alginate materials (Cavex ColorChange, Hydrogum 5 and Jeltrate Plus). The molds were prepared over matrix containing 20-, 50-, and 75-µm lines, performed under pressure with perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following gelation and either disinfected (using one of the solutions by spraying followed by storage in closed jars for 15 min) or not disinfected. The samples were divided into 12 groups (n=5). Molds were filled with dental gypsum Durone IV and 1 h after the start of the stone mixing the models were separated from the tray. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy were evaluated using optical microscopy on the 50-µm line with 25 mm in length, in accordance with the ISO 1563 standard. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjected to ANOVA. The 50 µm-line was completely reproduced by all alginate impression materials regardless of the disinfection procedure. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values of dimensional accuracy in combinations between disinfectant procedure and alginate impression material (p=0.2130) or for independent factors. The disinfectant solutions and alginate materials used in this study are no factors of choice regarding the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of stone models.

  3. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  4. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Liu, Wei; Xing, Feng

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout. PMID:28788137

  5. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Liu, Wei; Xing, Feng

    2014-07-24

    An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of elastomeric damping material on the stability of a bearingless main rotor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, M.; Staley, J.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1980-01-01

    The considered investigation was conducted in connection with a contract to design, fabricate, and test a prototype bearingless main rotor (BMR) system. Part of the design process involved an aeroelastic stability investigation in a wind tunnel. Attention is given to a description of model testing, model test results, the description of the full scale wind tunnel configuration, full scale test results, and aspects of correlation with theory. It was found that the complex geometry of the BMR, with 12.5 degrees of nose-up prepitch at the hub and 2.5 degrees of tip-up predroop at the blade attachment clevis, is required to achieve a stable configuration. Subsequent model testing showed that a constrained layer of elastomer material could increase stability at all rotor speeds and collectives tested for a flat strap configuration.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of elastomeric damping material on the stability of a bearingless main rotor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, M.; Staley, J.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1980-01-01

    The considered investigation was conducted in connection with a contract to design, fabricate, and test a prototype bearingless main rotor (BMR) system. Part of the design process involved an aeroelastic stability investigation in a wind tunnel. Attention is given to a description of model testing, model test results, the description of the full scale wind tunnel configuration, full scale test results, and aspects of correlation with theory. It was found that the complex geometry of the BMR, with 12.5 degrees of nose-up prepitch at the hub and 2.5 degrees of tip-up predroop at the blade attachment clevis, is required to achieve a stable configuration. Subsequent model testing showed that a constrained layer of elastomer material could increase stability at all rotor speeds and collectives tested for a flat strap configuration.

  8. Adhesiveless Transfer Printing of Ultrathin Microscale Semiconductor Materials by Controlling the Bending Radius of an Elastomeric Stamp.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungbum; Kim, Namyun; Song, Kwangsun; Lee, Jongho

    2016-08-09

    High-performance electronic devices integrated onto unconventional substrates provide opportunities for use in diverse applications, such as wearable or implantable forms of electronic devices. However, the interlayer adhesives between the electronic devices and substrates often limit processing temperature or cause electrical or thermal resistance at the interface. This paper introduces a very simple but effective transfer printing method that does not require an interlayer adhesive. Controlling the bending radius of a simple flat stamp enables picking up or printing of microscale semiconductor materials onto rigid, curvilinear, or flexible surfaces without the aid of a liquid adhesive. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the underlying mechanism of the suggested approach. Adhesiveless printing of thin Si plates onto diverse substrates demonstrates the capability of this method.

  9. A comparative evaluation of tray spacer thickness and repeat pour on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Deepti; Yadav, Reena; Arora, Aman

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of various tray spacer thickness and subsequent repeated pours on the accuracy and dimensional stability of the impression made from monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. Custom trays with different spacer thickness (2, 4 and 6 mm) were used for making an impression of a master model simulating 3 unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. These impressions were poured with die stone and repoured. Distance between the reference points were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Casts obtained from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd pour of the impression in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness tray have similar dimensional accuracy amongst each other and with the master model except in molar diameter and inter-abutment distances of cast obtained from 6 mm spacer thickness tray. The vertical distance of stone dies were decreased, whereas horizontal distance increased as the thickness of impression material is increased. There were statistically non-significant changes occurring among the repeated pours in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness. 2 and 4 mm spacer thickness are acceptable for making an impression for three unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material and it was not affected by two subsequent (1 st and 2 nd) repeated pours.

  10. NMR Imaging of Elastomeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-31

    1991, 10, 59. (Ill Cory, D.G., Miller, J.B., 7Turner, R., Garroway , A.N., Mol. Phys. 1990, 70, 331-7 [121 Jezzard, P., Carpenter, T.A., Hall, L.D.{Polym...SPE Paper 18272, 63rd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, TX, Oct. 2-5, 1988. 9. D.G. Cory, J.B. Miller, R. Turner, and A.N. Garroway ...B.; Turner, R.; Garroway , A. N. Mol. as the cause of the arrowhead artifacts. We thank An- Phys. I", 70, 331. nadell Fowler and John Pearce for

  11. Elastomeric Materials for Acoustical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-15

    ASTM’s D 573-67, D 865-62, and D 1870-68) are useful in studying the effects of heat on rubber in accelerated aging . The accelerated tests are... radiation is contained in ASTM D 1148-77. ASTM D 750-68 describes equipment procedures for accelerated aging tests using sample exposure to calibrated...crosslinked polymer that has often been compounded to optimize a certain characteristic, such as aging resistance or water -permeability resistance

  12. Good Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Geraldine; Pulsifer, Mary

    1986-01-01

    An art activity featuring ballerinas in classic poses and costumes was extended by a visit to an exhibit on Edgar Degas. Hearing impaired students shared their impressions of another traveling exhibit with French students via computers. (CL)

  13. [Comparative evaluation of the shrinkage of addition-type silicone impression material using hand-mix and cartridge-mix technique].

    PubMed

    Lampé, István; Hegedús, Csaba

    2002-12-01

    Impression materials show shrink during polymerisation. The average shrinkage of C-silicon impression materials is 0.6-1% after 24 hours. The A-silicons show 0.15-0.2% shrinkage after 24 hours. Like in other chemical reactions, the ratio of the ingredients and the mixing can strongly effect the final properties of the polymerised material. In their study the authors compared the shrinkage of Promodent ASK low-viscosity A-type silicon impression material using hand mix and cartridge mix technique. The measurements were carried out according to ADA 19 specifications. The statistical analysis of the results did not show significant differences in the shrinkage between the two mix techniques after 30 minutes, 24 hours and 72 hours.

  14. Clinical marginal fit of zirconia crowns and patients' preferences for impression techniques using intraoral digital scanner versus polyvinyl siloxane material.

    PubMed

    Sakornwimon, Nawapat; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2017-09-01

    The use of digital intraoral scanners is increasing; however, evidence of its precision in making crown impressions clinically remains scarce. Patients should also feel more comfortable with digital impressions, but only a few studies evaluating this subject have been performed. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the marginal fit of monolithic zirconia crowns and patients' preferences for digital impressions versus polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions. Sixteen participants with indications for single molar crowns were included. After crown preparation, digital impressions by intraoral scanner and PVS impressions were made. The participants were asked to complete a 6-item questionnaire with a visual analog scale related to perceptions of each of the following topics: time involved, taste/smell, occlusal registration, size of impression tray/scanner, gag reflex, and overall preference. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated from both impressions. The crowns were evaluated intraorally, and a blinded examiner measured the marginal discrepancy of silicone replicas under a stereomicroscope. Intraexaminer reliability was evaluated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. Data for patients' preferences and marginal discrepancies were analyzed using the paired t test (α=.05). Visual analog scale scores for digital impressions were statistically significantly higher than those for PVS impressions in every topic (P<.05), except for occlusal registration. The results showed excellent reliability of the examiner with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .996. No significant difference was found in marginal discrepancies between the PVS group and the digital group on all sides (P>.05). No differences were found in the clinical marginal fit of zirconia crowns fabricated from either digital impressions compared with PVS impressions. Furthermore, patients' satisfaction with digital

  15. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  16. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  17. Chemical Retraction Agents - in vivo and in vitro Studies into their Physico-Chemical Properties, Biocompatibility with Gingival Margin Tissues and Compatibility with Elastomer Impression Materials.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Danuta; Saczko, Jolanta; Kulbacka, Julita; Więckiewicz, Włodzimierz

    2016-04-18

    Gingival margin retraction/displacement (GMR/D) is a commonly accepted procedure in restorative dentistry. Of the various retraction methods, the chemo-mechanical approach with retraction media and chemical retraction agents (ChRAs) is the most used. Different local and/or systemic side effects were observed after "chemical attacks" from these retraction agents. Moreover, no consensus exists as to the compatibility of chemical agents with different impression materials. This paper reports the findings of in vivo and in vitro studies and we discuss the physico-chemical properties of chemical retraction agents, their undesirable clinical side effects, biological activity and compatibility with selected groups of elastomer impression materials.

  18. Disinfection procedures: their efficacy and effect on dimensional accuracy and surface quality of an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material.

    PubMed

    Rentzia, A; Coleman, D C; O'Donnell, M J; Dowling, A H; O'Sullivan, M

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial efficacy and effect of 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex OPA(®)) and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of gypsum casts retrieved from an irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. A simulated clinical cast and technique was developed to compare the dimensional accuracy and surface quality changes of the test gypsum casts with controls. Dimensional accuracy measurements were completed between fixed points using a travelling microscope under low angle illumination at a magnification of ×3. Surface quality changes of "smooth" and "rough" areas on the cast were evaluated by means of optical profilometry. The efficacy of the disinfection procedures against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by determining the number of colony forming units (cfu) recovered after disinfection of alginate discs inoculated with 1×10⁶cfu for defined intervals. The dimensional accuracy of the gypsum casts was not significantly affected by the disinfection protocols. Neither disinfectant solution nor immersion time had an effect on the surface roughness of the "smooth" area on the cast, however, a significant increase in surface roughness was observed with increasing immersion time for the "rough" surface. Complete elimination of viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells from alginate discs was obtained after 30 and 120 s immersion in Cidex OPA(®) and NaOCl, respectively. Immersion of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions in Cidex OPA(®) for 30 s was proved to be the most effective disinfection procedure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust and Soft Elastomeric Electronics Tolerant to Our Daily Lives.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Saito, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Yuki; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Futaba, Don N; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-09-09

    Clothes represent a unique textile, as they simultaneously provide robustness against our daily activities and comfort (i.e., softness). For electronic devices to be fully integrated into clothes, the devices themselves must be as robust and soft as the clothes themselves. However, to date, no electronic device has ever possessed these properties, because all contain components fabricated from brittle materials, such as metals. Here, we demonstrate robust and soft elastomeric devices where every component possesses elastomeric characteristics with two types of single-walled carbon nanotubes added to provide the necessary electronic properties. Our elastomeric field effect transistors could tolerate every punishment our clothes experience, such as being stretched (elasticity: ∼ 110%), bent, compressed (>4.0 MPa, by a car and heels), impacted (>6.26 kg m/s, by a hammer), and laundered. Our electronic device provides a novel design principle for electronics and wide range applications even in research fields where devices cannot be used.

  20. Elastomeric Seal Development for Advanced Docking/Berthing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Christopher; Oswald, Jay; Dunlap, Patrick; Steinetz, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Elastomeric seals ar Elastomeric seals are being considered for application to the Advanced Docking / Berthing System. Currently, three candidate elastomers are being evaluated. To meet the unique requirements of the ADBS, several test fixtures have been built to determine each elastomer s Environmental and operating temperature compatibility Material stability when exposed to Atomic Oxygen and Ultraviolet radiation Adhesion force required to separate Compression set Leak rate These results will be compared with those from the metallic seal development to determine the final seal design

  1. Actuating dielectric elastomers in pure shear deformation by elastomeric conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yin; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-10

    Pure shear experiments are commonly used to characterize dielectric elastomer (DE) material properties and to evaluate DE actuator/generator performance. It is increasingly important for many applications to replace conventional carbon grease electrodes with stretchable elastomeric conductors. We formulate a theory for DE with elastomeric conductors, synthesize transparent hydrogel as ionic conductors, and measure actuation of DE in pure shear deformation. Maximum 67% actuation strain is demonstrated. The theory agrees well with our measurement and also correlates well with reported experiments on DE with electronic conductors.

  2. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated. PMID:27221079

  3. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-05-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated.

  4. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

  5. Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

    Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

  6. A survey of U.S. prosthodontists and dental schools on the current materials and methods for final impressions for complete denture prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Cynthia S; Walker, Mary P; Williams, Karen

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey members of The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) to evaluate current materials and methods for final impressions for complete denture prosthodontics in the United States. In addition, those methods were compared with methods and materials taught in U.S. dental schools via a second survey sent to the chairpersons of prosthodontic/restorative departments. An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all 1762 active ACP members in the United States in 2003. A slightly modified questionnaire was also distributed to chairpersons of prosthodontic/restorative departments in the 54 U.S. dental schools. Data analysis was performed via frequency distribution and chi-square statistics. Nine hundred and forty-five questionnaires were returned by members of the ACP (54% return rate) and 42 questionnaires were returned by the U.S. dental schools (78% return rate). The majority of the reporting prosthodontists (88%) and dental schools (98%) use a border-molded custom tray for final impressions for complete denture prosthodontics. The most popular material for border molding was plastic modeling compound (67% of reporting ACP members, and 95% of the responding dental schools). Variability of the materials used for final impressions was observed, with the most popular materials being polyvinylsiloxane for the ACP members (36%) and polysulfide for the dental schools (64%). Statistically significant differences were found in the materials used for border molding by prosthodontists based on the time elapsed since completion of prosthodontic training. No differences were found in the materials used for impression of edentulous arches based on years of experience. Geographic location did not influence the materials and methods used by prosthodontists for complete denture final impressions. There was variability of the materials and techniques used for final impressions by ACP members and dental schools; however, overall there was an agreement

  7. Dimensional accuracy of two rubber base impression materials as a function of spacer design and techniques in custom trays for fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Pankaj; Dhiman, R K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-12-01

    A prostheses can't be better than the cast over which it has been fabricated. To make accurate casts, accurate impressions are mandatory. To get an accurate and dimensionally stable impression, various techniques and materials have been advocated. This study compares the most commonly used techniques and materials for dimensional accuracy. Two types of spacers were designed to compare the addition silicon and polyether and their techniques. A metal die was used to make the impressions. A total of 60 impressions were made using multiple mix and monophasic techniques for addition silicon and polyether in custom trays. A travelling microscope was used to measure the dimensional accuracy of die stone casts retrieved from impressions. The results were compared using paired t test and SPSS software. The study was highly significant (p < 0.001). The polyether was more accurate than the addition silicon and spacer design I (adapted to the edentulous area) was more accurate than the design II (spacer over the abutments, not adapted to edentulous area). The multiple mix technique was more accurate than the monophasic for addition silicon. The combination of multiple mix technique with spacer design I for addition silicon gave the best accurate results.

  8. First Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coen, Frank

    1969-01-01

    The unreliability of first impressions and subjective judgments is the subject of both Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" and Lionel Trilling's "Of This Time, Of That Place"; consequently, the works are worthwhile parallel studies for high school students. Austen, by means of irony and subtle characterization, dramatizes the…

  9. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  10. Non-flammable elastomeric fiber from a fluorinated elastomer and containing an halogenated flame retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S. G.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions are described comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain halogen containing polyols, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and articles of manufacture comprised of the flame retardant clastomeric materials and non elastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, nylons, etc.

  11. Gingival displacement for impression making in fixed prosthodontics: contemporary principles, materials, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Baba, Nadim Z; Goodacre, Charles J; Jekki, Rami; Won, John

    2014-01-01

    The clinical success and longevity of indirect restorations depend on the careful and accurate completion of several procedures. One of the challenging procedures is management of the gingival tissues and gingival esthetics. The goal for management of gingival tissues and gingival esthetics is to maintain the normal appearance of healthy gingival. Achieving this goal requires optimal health before treatment and minimal trauma during treatment. The best way of optimizing health and minimizing trauma is to avoid contacting the gingiva with restorative materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood deposited on fabric--evaluating the use of alginate casting materials followed by chemical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; NicDaéid, Niamh; Savage, Kathleen A; Bandey, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Most footwear marks made in blood on a surface such as fabric tend to be enhanced in situ rather than physically recovered using a lifting technique prior to enhancement. This work reports on the use of an alginate material to recover the impressed footwear marks made in blood and deposited on a range of fabric types and colours. The lifted marks were then enhanced using acid black 1 and leuco crystal violet with excellent results. This presents a new method for the lifting and recovery of blood impressions in situ from crime scene followed by subsequent mark enhancement of the lifted impression. Copyright © 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials.

    PubMed

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  14. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL GINGIVAL RETRACTION SOLUTIONS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH AND INHIBITION OF POLYMERIZATION OF FOUR TYPES OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  15. Pressure dynamics in the trays caused by differences of the various impression materials and thickness of the relief in the maxillary edentulous model.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masatoshi; Kawara, Misao; Inoue, Sayumi; Komiyama, Osamu; Iida, Takashi; Asano, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the pressure dynamics in the trays caused by differences in the various impression materials and in the thickness of the relief provided for the trays. In this study, two types of polyvinylsiloxane elastomers, one type of polyether elastomer and one type of alginate impression material were used. Pressure sensors were embedded at eight locations in a model of an edentulous maxilla, and used a simulation model covered with a pseudomucosa. For each impression material, the measurement was performed five times for each of the three types of trays, and the mean values were determined. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey's HDS method, and the various pressure sensor values for each of the impression materials were compared 10s and 20s after the start of the measurement. Additionally, we compared differences among the three types of trays after 20s. The pressure values for sensors placed in the relief region tended to become uniform. Furthermore, we saw a tendency for the pressure to increase at the alveolar crests of the first molars on the left and right and at the posterior border of the palate, all of which support the denture, when relief was provided. The above results suggest that making the final impression for the denture using the selective pressure technique, with consideration given to the pressure dynamic, may lead to a good outcome in terms of preservation of the alveolar ridge. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Process for spinning flame retardant elastomeric compositions. [fabricating synthetic fibers for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having halogen containing polyols incorporated into the polymer chain, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives were developed. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and manufactured articles as well as nonelastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, and nylons, for high oxygen environments.

  17. In situ heart valve tissue engineering using a bioresorbable elastomeric implant - From material design to 12 months follow-up in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kluin, Jolanda; Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Brugmans, Marieke C P; Fioretta, Emanuela S; Dijkman, Petra E; Söntjens, Serge H M; Duijvelshoff, Renée; Dekker, Sylvia; Janssen-van den Broek, Marloes W J T; Lintas, Valentina; Vink, Aryan; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Janssen, Henk M; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2017-05-01

    The creation of a living heart valve is a much-wanted alternative for current valve prostheses that suffer from limited durability and thromboembolic complications. Current strategies to create such valves, however, require the use of cells for in vitro culture, or decellularized human- or animal-derived donor tissue for in situ engineering. Here, we propose and demonstrate proof-of-concept of in situ heart valve tissue engineering using a synthetic approach, in which a cell-free, slow degrading elastomeric valvular implant is populated by endogenous cells to form new valvular tissue inside the heart. We designed a fibrous valvular scaffold, fabricated from a novel supramolecular elastomer, that enables endogenous cells to enter and produce matrix. Orthotopic implantations as pulmonary valve in sheep demonstrated sustained functionality up to 12 months, while the implant was gradually replaced by a layered collagen and elastic matrix in pace with cell-driven polymer resorption. Our results offer new perspectives for endogenous heart valve replacement starting from a readily-available synthetic graft that is compatible with surgical and transcatheter implantation procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect upon friction of the degradation of orthodontic elastomeric modules.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ian Robert; Spary, David John; Rock, William Peter

    2012-10-01

    Orthodontic elastomeric modules are susceptible to degradation and deformation after time in the mouth. The aims of this study were to determine whether degradation of elastomeric modules significantly affects friction during sliding mechanics and to investigate whether there is a difference in the behaviour of elastomeric modules after storage in both in vivo and in vitro environments. An Instron testing machine was used to determine the friction generated by elastomeric modules on 0.019 × 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires at 4 degrees of bracket tip. Four brands of modules were tested straight from the packet (n = 15), after storage in artificial saliva (n = 15), and after being in patients' mouths (n = 32). Modules were tested after 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks after storage in both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of variance revealed that the degradation of elastomeric modules had a variable affect upon friction and that each storage medium produced a distinct pattern of frictional resistance. Modules stored in artificial saliva experienced a significant reduction in friction (P < 0.001) while modules collected from patients' mouths produced similar friction to modules tested straight from the packet. TP Super Slick® modules under dry test conditions produced significantly greater friction than the other three types of test modules (P < 0.001). The structure and surface characteristics of elastomeric modules may affect frictional resistance when a bracket slides along an archwire. These effects vary according to time, storage medium, and brand of elastomeric material.

  19. EFFECT OF CERVICAL RELINING OF ACRYLIC RESIN COPINGS ON THE ACCURACY OF STONE DIES OBTAINED USING A POLYETHER IMPRESSION MATERIAL

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, André Tomazini Gomes; de Freitas, César Antunes; de Sá, Fátima Cristina; Ursi, Wagner José Silva; Simões, Tânia Christina; de Freitas, Márcia Furtado Antunes

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the respective dies after polyether elastomeric procedure in the presence or absence of cervical contact of the acrylic resin shell with the cervical region, establishing a comparison to dies obtained with stock trays. This study consisted of three groups with 10 specimens each: 1) acrylic copings without cervical contact, (cn); 2) acrylic copings with cervical contact (cc); 3) perforated stock tray, (st). The accuracy of the resulting dies was verified with the aid of a master crown, precisely fit to the master steel die. ANOVA test found statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.001). Tukey's test found that the smallest discrepancy occurred in group cn, followed by cc, while the st group presented the highest difference (cc x cn: p=0.007; st x cn: p<0.001; st x cc: p<0.001). PMID:19089282

  20. Modeling friction phenomena and elastomeric dampers in multibody dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Changkuan

    the behavior of the elastomeric damper based on a continuum mechanics approach: the configuration of the damper is modeled using a finite element approach, and material behavior is represented by a set of nonlinear constitutive laws and material parameters. The validated finite element model of the elastomeric damper is then coupled with a comprehensive, multibody dynamics analysis code to predict the behavior of complex systems featuring elastomeric components, for example, rotorcraft with elastomeric lead-lag dampers.

  1. Pneumatic impression: Improving dental arch impression with an inflatable balloon.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lokendra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this impression technique is to overcome the problem associated with restricted mouth opening in association with high arched palate by employing pneumatic impression technique using latex balloon. A stock tray was modified with auto polymerizing acrylic resin. On the modified tray, a latex balloon was attached with aid of cyanoacrylate. The outlet of the balloon was then connected to a clinical sphygmomanometer bulb with the rubber pipe for air passage which would aid in inflating the balloon. The prepared tray assembly was then equipped for recording the impression. An adequate amount of addition polysiloxane impression material, sufficient to cover the entire area of the balloon was loaded onto the tray. The balloon was then inflated with the help of a sphygmomanometer bulb which transferred the air only in one direction. On completion of setting time of the impression material, the air pressure was relieved by deflating of balloon which helped in the easy removal of the impression. The impression was subsequently removed from the oral cavity and disinfected. This novel technique was helpful for recording impression in patients presenting with restricted mouth opening and high arched palate.

  2. Comparison of Contamination of Low-Frictional Elastomeric Rings with That of Conventional Elastomeric Rings by Streptococcus mutans - An In-vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, V. Surendra; Shetty, Siddarth; Jose, Nidhin Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of brackets and ligatures has been shown to be related to an increase in gingival inflammation and increased risk of decalcification. The various measures were taken to reduce the plaque accumulation and also lot of efforts were made by manufacturers that reduced the binding friction between the ligature rings and arch wire that facilitated easy sliding of the tooth through the wire. The low frictional ligatures rings manufactured by different manufacturers presumed to attract fewer bacteria due to greater reduction in surface roughness. Our study aimed to evaluate whether the low frictional elastomeric rings accumulate fewer bacteria than conventional ligature rings. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (15 males and 15 females) who underwent fixed appliance therapy were selected. The study was done using split-mouth design. In each volunteer, synergy low frictional elastomeric rings were tied to brackets bonded to the maxillary premolar on the right side and mandibular premolar on the left side. Conventional elastomeric rings that served as control group were tied to the contralateral teeth, with the same design. Samples were collected after four weeks (28 days) and cultured for bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Results: There was no statistical difference between Streptococcus mutans count in low frictional elastomeric rings with that of conventional rings. Conclusion: We concluded that adherence of Streptococcus mutans is similar in both synergy low frictional elastomeric rings and conventional clear elastomeric rings and thus the manufacturer’s claim of minimal bacterial adherence was discarded. PMID:26023638

  3. Thermomechanical behavior of shape memory elastomeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Luo, Xiaofan; Rodriguez, Erika D.; Zhang, Xiao; Mather, Patrick T.; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can fix a temporary shape and recover their permanent shape in response to environmental stimuli such as heat, electricity, or irradiation. Most thermally activated SMPs use the macromolecular chain mobility change around the glass transition temperature ( Tg) to achieve the shape memory (SM) effects. During this process, the stiffness of the material typically changes by three orders of magnitude. Recently, a composite materials approach was developed to achieve thermally activated shape memory effect where the material exhibits elastomeric response in both the temporary and the recovered configurations. These shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) consist of an elastomeric matrix reinforced by a semicrystalline polymer fiber network. The matrix provides background rubber elasticity while the fiber network can transform between solid crystals and melt phases over the operative temperature range. As such it serves as a reversible "switching phase" that enables shape fixing and recovery. Shape memory elastomeric composites provide a new paradigm for the development of a wide array of active polymer composites that utilize the melt-crystal transition to achieve the shape memory effect. This potentially allows for material systems with much simpler chemistries than most shape memory polymers and thus can facilitate more rapid material development and insertion. It is therefore important to understand the thermomechanical behavior and to develop corresponding material models. In this paper, a 3D finite-deformation constitutive modeling framework was developed to describe the thermomechanical behavior of SMEC. The model is phenomenological, although inspired by micromechanical considerations of load transfer between the matrix and fiber phases of a composite system. It treats the matrix as an elastomer and the fibers as a complex solid that itself is an aggregate of melt and crystal phases that evolve from one to the other during a

  4. Dinosaur Impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taquet, Philippe

    1998-09-01

    Perhaps you are a paleontologist or have always wondered what it is like to be one. Or you are fascinated by fossils and like to read about the origins and natural history of dinosaurs. Or maybe you are an avid traveler and reader of travelogues. If you are any of these things, then this book is for you. Originally published in 1994 in French, Dinosaur Impressions is the engaging account of thirty years of travel and paleontological exploration by Philippe Taquet, one of the world's most noted paleontologists. Dr. Taquet takes the reader on a surprisingly far-flung tour ranging from the Provence countryside to the Niger desert, from the Brazilian bush to the Mongolian Steppes, and from the Laos jungle to the Moroccan mountains in search of dinosaur bones and what they have to tell us about a vanished world. With wry humor and lively anecdotes, Dr. Taquet retraces the history of paleontological research, along the way discussing the latest theories of dinosaur existence and extinction. Elegantly translated by Kevin Padian, Dinosaur Impressions provides a unique, thoughtful perspective not often encountered in American- and English-language works. This insightful, first-hand account of an exceptional career is also a travelogue par excellence that will enthrall enthusiasts and general readers alike. Philippe Taquet is the Director of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris and is a member of the French Academy of Sciences. Kevin Padian is a professor in the Department of Integrative Biology and Curator of the Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the editor of The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs (Cambridge, 1986) and The Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs (1997).

  5. The Effect of Disinfection with Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5% on Dimensional Stability of Condensation Silicone Impression Materials of Speedex and Irasil

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hasan; Malekzadeh, Afsaneh; Emami, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Impression materials are concerned as a significant source of cross-contamination because of exposure to blood and saliva. Purpose: Considering the importance of infection control in the dental environments, this study is performed to investigate the dimensional changes of two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, after immersion in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Method: In this in-vitro study, two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, were used on a prefabricated metal model having two dies, one with and the other without undercut. Each impression material was used to prepare 30 impressions; half of each group was immersed in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min. The casts were prepared and a profile projector was used to measure the casts in terms of height and diameter of the die without undercut, distance between the two dies, die diameter below the undercut, and the height of the die above the undercut. The results were statistically analyzed using Student t-test. Results: In Speedex group, an increase was detected in the height of die without undercut and the height of the die above the undercut, but other dimensions have decreased. No significant change was observed in dimensions of Speedex group except for the distance between the two dies and die height above the undercut. In Irasil group, the height of the die without undercut, the distance between the two dies and the height of the die above the undercut have increased; while decrease was observed in other dimensions. Compared with the original sample, no significant difference was observed in dimensions except for the height of the die above the undercut. Conclusion: These changes for Speedex group include changes in distance between the two dies and the height above the undercut which can impede proper placement of prosthesis, particularly fixed partial dentures in which the accuracy of the distance between the two

  6. Engineered elastomeric proteins with dual elasticity can be controlled by a molecular regulator.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Li, Hongbin

    2008-08-01

    Elastomeric proteins are molecular springs that confer excellent mechanical properties to many biological tissues and biomaterials. Depending on the role performed by the tissue or biomaterial, elastomeric proteins can behave as molecular springs or shock absorbers. Here we combine single-molecule atomic force microscopy and protein engineering techniques to create elastomeric proteins that can switch between two distinct types of mechanical behaviour in response to the binding of a molecular regulator. The proteins are mechanically labile by design and behave as entropic springs with an elasticity that is governed by their configurational entropy. However, when a molecular regulator binds to the protein, it switches into a mechanically stable state and can act as a shock absorber. These engineered proteins effectively mimic and combine the two extreme forms of elastic behaviour found in natural elastomeric proteins, and thus represent a new type of smart nanomaterial that will find potential applications in nanomechanics and material sciences.

  7. Applying Elastomeric Insulation Inside A Round Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Peter G.

    1989-01-01

    Elastomer wound onto inside surface in continuous strip. Technique being developed to apply elastomeric insulation to inner surfaces of axisymmetric cases. Requires modification of machine wrapping strip of elastomer on outside of rotating mandrel. Intended for coating insides of rocket-motor cases, technique also used to install elastomeric linings in pressure vessels, containers for chemical, and environmental chambers.

  8. Elastomeric Cathode Binder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble copolymer binder mixed with cathode material and solvent forms flexible porous cathode used in lithium and Ni/Cd batteries. Cathodes prepared by this process have lower density due to expanding rubbery binder and greater flexibility than conventional cathodes. Fabrication procedure readily adaptable to scaled-up processes.

  9. The effect of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite 0.5% on dimensional stability of condensation silicone impression materials of speedex and irasil.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hasan; Malekzadeh, Afsaneh; Emami, Ameneh

    2014-09-01

    Impression materials are concerned as a significant source of cross-contamination because of exposure to blood and saliva. Considering the importance of infection control in the dental environments, this study is performed to investigate the dimensional changes of two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, after immersion in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. In this in-vitro study, two condensation silicone impression materials, Speedex and Irasil, were used on a prefabricated metal model having two dies, one with and the other without undercut. Each impression material was used to prepare 30 impressions; half of each group was immersed in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 20 min. The casts were prepared and a profile projector was used to measure the casts in terms of height and diameter of the die without undercut, distance between the two dies, die diameter below the undercut, and the height of the die above the undercut. The results were statistically analyzed using Student t-test. In Speedex group, an increase was detected in the height of die without undercut and the height of the die above the undercut, but other dimensions have decreased. No significant change was observed in dimensions of Speedex group except for the distance between the two dies and die height above the undercut. In Irasil group, the height of the die without undercut, the distance between the two dies and the height of the die above the undercut have increased; while decrease was observed in other dimensions. Compared with the original sample, no significant difference was observed in dimensions except for the height of the die above the undercut. These changes for Speedex group include changes in distance between the two dies and the height above the undercut which can impede proper placement of prosthesis, particularly fixed partial dentures in which the accuracy of the distance between the two dies are of utmost importance. In Irasil group, the height of above the

  10. Dimensional accuracy of 2-stage putty-wash impressions: influence of impression trays and viscosity.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, Markus; Ferger, Paul; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the impression tray and viscosity of the wash material on the dimensional accuracy of impressions taken using a 2-stage putty-wash technique. Identically shaped metal stock trays (MeTs) and disposable plastic stock trays (DiTs) were used for taking impressions (n = 10) of a mandibular cast (4 abutments) with 2 different impression materials. Dies were poured and the relative diameter deviation was calculated after measurement. Zero viscosity of the materials was determined. Dimensional accuracy was significantly affected when DiTs were used. Lower-viscosity wash materials led to more precise impressions.

  11. Elastomeric polyurea nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalini, R.; Roland, C. M.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), nano-layered silicate (nanoclay), and trisilanolphenyl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) on the rheology and mechanical properties of an oligomeric polydiamine and the polyurea formed by its reaction with isocyanate were measured. The MWCNT and nanoclay increase the viscosity of the polydiamine and form a flocculated filler network at very low concentrations (< 1%). This network imparts a strong strain-dependence to the dynamic modulus. These effects are absent with POSS, which primarily affects the polyurea chemistry. The tensile modulus of the cured polyurea is higher for all three additives, and using POSS significantly tougher material can be obtained, provided adjustments to the stoichiometry are made.

  12. Analysis of the Influence of Food Colorings in Esthetic Orthodontic Elastomeric Ligatures

    PubMed Central

    Dias da Silva, Vanessa; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Dias, Caroline; Osório, Leandro Berni

    2016-01-01

    Proposition: The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the color changes of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of different shades when exposed to four food colorings commonly found in the diet of patients. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures in the colors pearl, pearl blue, pearl white and colorless, which were immersed for 72 hours in five different solutions: distilled water (control group), coffee, tea, Coca-Cola ® and wine. The color changes of the esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures were measured with the aid of a spectrophotometer, at T1 - as provided by the manufacturer; and T2 - after colorings process. Results: The results indicated that the esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of all initial hues are susceptible to pigmentation. Among the evaluated colors, all changed the finished look and the color of the samples tested. In ascending order, the color of the samples was as follows: distilled water, Coca-Cola®, black tea, wine and coffee. Conclusion: The substances that have a greater potential for pigmentation in esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures were black tea, wine and coffee, respectively. All shades of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures are susceptible to color change. PMID:27733878

  13. Lasting Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Many schools and universities thought they were getting a good deal when they were building education facilities in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the K-12 and higher-education spaces constructed to accommodate the millions of baby-boomer students no longer look like the quick-fix bargain they did years ago. Low-quality materials and construction,…

  14. Lasting Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Many schools and universities thought they were getting a good deal when they were building education facilities in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the K-12 and higher-education spaces constructed to accommodate the millions of baby-boomer students no longer look like the quick-fix bargain they did years ago. Low-quality materials and construction,…

  15. An alternative impression technique for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Özçelik, Tuncer Burak

    2014-02-01

    This article describes a technique for creating adequate space for an even thickness of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material at the periphery during complete denture impression making. A PVS border molding material is injected around the borders of a custom tray, a 17-μm-thick stretch wrap film is folded into 4 layers, and a tray-shaped piece slightly larger than the size of the custom tray is placed on the tray covering the borders. After the border molding procedure is completed, the film is removed and the definitive impression completed with a medium-viscosity PVS impression material.

  16. Corrective Primary Impression Technique

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Aquaviva; Dua, Neha; Herekar, Manisha

    2010-01-01

    The article describes a simple, quick and corrective technique for making the preliminary impression. It records the extensions better as compared to the impressions made using only impression compound. This technique is accurate and gives properly extended custom tray. Any deficiencies seen in the compound primary impression are corrected using this technique hence, this technique is called as a “corrective primary impression technique”. PMID:20502648

  17. 21 CFR 872.6880 - Preformed impression tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed impression tray. 872.6880 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6880 Preformed impression tray. (a) Identification. A preformed impression tray is a metal or plastic device intended to hold impression material...

  18. Resilin: protein-based elastomeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Su, Renay S-C; Kim, Yeji; Liu, Julie C

    2014-04-01

    Resilin is an elastomeric protein found in insect cuticles and is remarkable for its high strain, low stiffness, and high resilience. Since the first resilin sequence was identified in Drosophilia melanogaster (fruit fly), researchers have utilized molecular cloning techniques to construct resilin-based proteins for a number of different applications. In addition to exhibiting the superior mechanical properties of resilin, resilin-based proteins are autofluorescent, display self-assembly properties, and undergo phase transitions in response to temperature. These properties have potential application in designing biosensors or environmentally responsive materials for use in tissue engineering or drug delivery. Furthermore, the capability of resilin-based biomaterials has been expanded by designing proteins that include both resilin-based sequences and bioactive domains such as cell-adhesion or matrix metalloproteinase sequences. These new materials maintain the superior mechanical and physical properties of resilin and also have the added benefit of controlling cell response. Because the mechanical and biological properties can be tuned through protein engineering, a wide range of properties can be achieved for tissue engineering applications including muscles, vocal folds, cardiovascular tissues, and cartilage.

  19. First Impressions From Faces.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    Although cultural wisdom warns 'don't judge a book by its cover,' we seem unable to inhibit this tendency even though it can produce inaccurate impressions of people's psychological traits and has significant social consequences. One explanation for this paradox is that first impressions of faces overgeneralize our adaptive impressions of categories of people that those faces resemble (including babies, familiar or unfamiliar people, unfit people, emotional people). Research testing these 'overgeneralization' hypotheses elucidates why we form first impressions from faces, what impressions we form, and what cues influence these impressions. This article focuses on commonalities in impressions across diverse perceivers. However, brief attention is given to individual differences in impressions and impression accuracy.

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Detail Reproduction of Four Hydrophilic Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression Materials Tested Under Dry, Moist, and Wet Conditions-An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Nagrath, Rahul; Lahori, Manesh; Agrawal, Manjari

    2014-12-01

    Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials have application in a wide variety of situations in both fixed and removable prosthodontics. A major limitation of VPS impression materials is their hydrophobicity. There are two aspects of this problem, the wettability of the polymerized impression by dental gypsum materials and the ability of the unpolymerized material to wet intraoral tissues. To address this problem, manufacturers have added surfactants and labelled these new products as "hydrophilic vinyl polysiloxane." The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare dimensional accuracy and surface detail reproduction of four hydrophilic VPS impression materials, when used under dry, moist, and wet conditions. A total of 180 samples were made of stainless steel die similar to as described in ADA sp. no. 19. The die was scored with three horizontal and two vertical lines. Impressions were made under dry, moist and wet conditions. Dimensional accuracy was measured by comparing the length of the middle horizontal line in each impression to the same line on the metal die, by using Universal Length Measuring machine. A 2-way ANOVA was performed on the percentage change data for measured lengths of the 4 impression materials under the 3 conditions to evaluate dimensional accuracy. Surface detail was evaluated in two ways: (1) by use of criteria similar to ADA sp. no. 19 for detail reproduction, and (2) by use of a method that categorized the impressions as satisfactory or unsatisfactory based on their surface characteristics: presence of pits, voids, or roughness. Pearson X2 (α = 0.05) was used to compare surface detail reproduction results. Conditions (dry, moist, and wet) did not cause significant adverse effects on the dimensional accuracy of all the four material. With both surface detail analyses, dry, moist, and wet conditions had a significant effect on the detail reproduction of all the four materials (P < 0.05). The study concluded that the

  1. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps☆

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Patrick; Aladeen, Traci; Kirkegaard, Paul; LaChance, Dennis; Slover, Christine

    2015-01-01

    solutions examined. All decreases in telavancin concentration were ≤2.7%. Comparison of each test sample solution to the corresponding glass control indicated no loss of active drug due to absorption by the elastomeric material of the pumps. The greatest increase in the amount of total degradants observed over the 8-day period was ~0.7 w/w%. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that telavancin remains chemically stable when diluted in the Intermate Infusion System and the Homepump Eclipse elastomeric pumps and stored at 2°C to 8°C for up to 8 days protected from light at the concentration range and dilution schemes evaluated. PMID:26649079

  2. Strain-induced crystallization in elastomeric polymer networks prepared in solution and sol-gel derived high-temperature organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premachandra, Jagath Kumara

    Cross-linking polymer chains in solution should bring about fewer inter-chain entanglements in the resulting network. The subsequent drying of this network should compress the chains into a "super-contracted" state. The opposing effects of these changes on strain-induced crystallization in cis-1,4-polyisoprene networks formed in solution were investigated. Higher elongations were required to achieve strain-induced crystallinity in the networks prepared at higher dilutions, suggesting that in this regard the compressed states of the chains was more important than their reduced entangling. The constrained-junction theory was applied to strain-induced crystallization in the above networks. The stress-strain isotherms generated from this theory were in satisfactory agreement with experiment. It was found that the constraint parameter kappa decreases with increase in dilution during cross-linking mainly due to the fact that cross-linking in solution decreases chain interpenetration. The dependence of hydrolysis and condensation of gamma-ureidopropyltrimethoxysilane on pH in the water-methanol system at 23sp°C was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of rates of hydrolysis showed that gamma-ureidopropyltrimethoxysilane is most stable in the water-methanol system at pH 7.7. The rate of overall condensation of silanols produced by the hydrolysis was qualitatively analyzed. These silanol groups are relatively more stable around pH 4.87. The mechanical properties, thermal stability and water absorption of high-temperature sulfopolybenzobisthiazole-silica hybrid materials were investigated. The use of a bonding agent N,N-diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane facilitated the interfacial bonding between the organic and inorganic phases in these materials prepared through the sol-gel process. Tensile modulus, thermal stability and the resistant to water absorption were increased with increase in silica content in the resulting composites

  3. Accuracy of implant impression techniques.

    PubMed

    Assif, D; Marshak, B; Schmidt, A

    1996-01-01

    Three impression techniques were assessed for accuracy in a laboratory cast that simulated clinical practice. The first technique used autopolymerizing acrylic resin to splint the transfer copings. The second involved splinting of the transfer copings directly to an acrylic resin custom tray. In the third, only impression material was used to orient the transfer copings. The accuracy of stone casts with implant analogs was measured against a master framework. The fit of the framework on the casts was tested using strain gauges. The technique using acrylic resin to splint transfer copings in the impression material was significantly more accurate than the two other techniques. Stresses observed in the framework are described and discussed with suggestions to improve clinical and laboratory techniques.

  4. Understanding Mechanical Response of Elastomeric Graphene Networks.

    PubMed

    Ni, Na; Barg, Suelen; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Macul Perez, Felipe; Miranda, Miriam; Lu, Cong; Mattevi, Cecilia; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-09-08

    Ultra-light porous networks based on nano-carbon materials (such as graphene or carbon nanotubes) have attracted increasing interest owing to their applications in wide fields from bioengineering to electrochemical devices. However, it is often difficult to translate the properties of nanomaterials to bulk three-dimensional networks with a control of their mechanical properties. In this work, we constructed elastomeric graphene porous networks with well-defined structures by freeze casting and thermal reduction, and investigated systematically the effect of key microstructural features. The porous networks made of large reduced graphene oxide flakes (>20 μm) are superelastic and exhibit high energy absorption, showing much enhanced mechanical properties than those with small flakes (<2 μm). A better restoration of the graphitic nature also has a considerable effect. In comparison, microstructural differences, such as the foam architecture or the cell size have smaller or negligible effect on the mechanical response. The recoverability and energy adsorption depend on density with the latter exhibiting a minimum due to the interplay between wall fracture and friction during deformation. These findings suggest that an improvement in the mechanical properties of porous graphene networks significantly depend on the engineering of the graphene flake that controls the property of the cell walls.

  5. Understanding Mechanical Response of Elastomeric Graphene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Na; Barg, Suelen; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Macul Perez, Felipe; Miranda, Miriam; Lu, Cong; Mattevi, Cecilia; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-light porous networks based on nano-carbon materials (such as graphene or carbon nanotubes) have attracted increasing interest owing to their applications in wide fields from bioengineering to electrochemical devices. However, it is often difficult to translate the properties of nanomaterials to bulk three-dimensional networks with a control of their mechanical properties. In this work, we constructed elastomeric graphene porous networks with well-defined structures by freeze casting and thermal reduction, and investigated systematically the effect of key microstructural features. The porous networks made of large reduced graphene oxide flakes (>20 μm) are superelastic and exhibit high energy absorption, showing much enhanced mechanical properties than those with small flakes (<2 μm). A better restoration of the graphitic nature also has a considerable effect. In comparison, microstructural differences, such as the foam architecture or the cell size have smaller or negligible effect on the mechanical response. The recoverability and energy adsorption depend on density with the latter exhibiting a minimum due to the interplay between wall fracture and friction during deformation. These findings suggest that an improvement in the mechanical properties of porous graphene networks significantly depend on the engineering of the graphene flake that controls the property of the cell walls. PMID:26348898

  6. Understanding Mechanical Response of Elastomeric Graphene Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Na; Barg, Suelen; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Macul Perez, Felipe; Miranda, Miriam; Lu, Cong; Mattevi, Cecilia; Saiz, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-light porous networks based on nano-carbon materials (such as graphene or carbon nanotubes) have attracted increasing interest owing to their applications in wide fields from bioengineering to electrochemical devices. However, it is often difficult to translate the properties of nanomaterials to bulk three-dimensional networks with a control of their mechanical properties. In this work, we constructed elastomeric graphene porous networks with well-defined structures by freeze casting and thermal reduction, and investigated systematically the effect of key microstructural features. The porous networks made of large reduced graphene oxide flakes (>20 μm) are superelastic and exhibit high energy absorption, showing much enhanced mechanical properties than those with small flakes (<2 μm). A better restoration of the graphitic nature also has a considerable effect. In comparison, microstructural differences, such as the foam architecture or the cell size have smaller or negligible effect on the mechanical response. The recoverability and energy adsorption depend on density with the latter exhibiting a minimum due to the interplay between wall fracture and friction during deformation. These findings suggest that an improvement in the mechanical properties of porous graphene networks significantly depend on the engineering of the graphene flake that controls the property of the cell walls.

  7. Universal paradigms for predictable final impressions.

    PubMed

    Vakay, Rena T; Kois, John C

    2005-03-01

    The master blueprint for indirect restorations is the final impression. The challenge for the clinician is to establish a protocol that ensures a predictably excellent final impression. The purpose of this article is to provide a protocol that integrates the many detailed steps of impression making, from patient comfort to dental laboratory communication. Understanding the biology of the dentogingival junction, dental materials and their interactions, and proper technique all contribute to the final results.

  8. Intraoral Digital Impressioning for Dental Implant Restorations Versus Traditional Implant Impression Techniques.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the past two to three decades, intraoral digital impression systems have gained acceptance due to high accuracy and ease of use as they have been incorporated into the fabrication of dental implant restorations. The use of intraoral digital impressions enables the clinician to produce accurate restorations without the unpleasant aspects of traditional impression materials and techniques. This article discusses the various types of digital impression systems and their accuracy compared to traditional impression techniques. The cost, time, and patient satisfaction components of both techniques will also be reviewed.

  9. Elastomeric member for energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; Chute, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16), disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, transition end sections, and is attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). During manufacture, woven wire mesh sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle. Each sleeve (26, 28) contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween.

  10. Management of excessive movable tissue: a modified impression technique.

    PubMed

    Shum, Michael H C; Pow, Edmond H N

    2014-08-01

    Excessive movable tissue is a challenge in complete denture prosthetics. A modified impression technique is presented with polyvinyl siloxane impression material and a custom tray with relief areas and perforations in the area of the excessive movable tissue.

  11. Elastomeric organic material for switching application

    SciTech Connect

    Shiju, K. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com Praveen, T. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com Preedep, P. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Organic Electronic devices like OLED, Organic Solar Cells etc are promising as, cost effective alternatives to their inorganic counterparts due to various reasons. However the organic semiconductors currently available are not attractive with respect to their high cost and intricate synthesis protocols. Here we demonstrate that Natural Rubber has the potential to become a cost effective solution to this. Here an attempt has been made to fabricate iodine doped poly isoprene based switching device. In this work Poly methyl methacrylate is used as dielectric layer and Aluminium are employed as electrodes.

  12. Gun Liner Emplacement With an Elastomeric Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Include area code) 410 -306-0816 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Contents List of Figures iv  List of Tables v...12  Figure 9. Inner diameter measurements for Stellite liners no. 1 and 2...5  Table 2. Bond strength results for 4-in Stellite 25 liners ................................................................6  Table 3. Bond

  13. Recombinant Exon-Encoded Resilins for Elastomeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guokui; Rivkin, Amit; Lapidot, Shaul; Hu, Xiao; Arinus, Shira B.; Dgany, Or; Shoseyov, Oded; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Resilin is an elastomeric protein found in specialized regions of the cuticle of most insects, providing outstanding material properties including high resilience and fatigue lifetime for insect flight and jumping needs. Two exons (1 and 3) from the resilin gene in Drosophila melanogaster were cloned and the encoded proteins expressed as soluble products in Escherichia coli. A heat and salt precipitation method was used for efficient purification of the recombinant proteins. The proteins were solution cast from water and formed into rubber-like biomaterials via horseradish peroxidase-mediated cross-linking. Comparative studies of the two proteins expressed from the two different exons were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichrosim (CD) for structural features. Little structural organization was found, suggesting structural order was not induced by the enzyme-mediateed dityrosine cross-links. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to study the elastomeric properties of the uncross-linked and cross-linked proteins. The protein from exon 1 exhibited 90% resilience in comparison to 63% for the protein from exon 3, and therefore may be the more critical domain for functional materials to mimic native resilin. Further, the cross-linking of the recombinant exon 1 via the citrate-modified photo-Fenton reaction was explored as an alternative dityrosine mediated polymerization method and resulted in both highly elastic and adhesive materials. The citrate-modified photo-Fenton system may be suitable for in-vivo applications of resilin biomaterials. PMID:21963157

  14. Complete denture impression techniques practiced by private dental practitioners: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kakatkar, Vinay R

    2013-09-01

    Impression making is an important step in fabricating complete dentures. A survey to know the materials used and techniques practiced while recording complete denture impressions was conducted. It is disheartening to know that 33 % practitioners still use base plate custom trays to record final impressions. 8 % still use alginate for making final impressions. An acceptable technique for recording CD impressions is suggested.

  15. Elastomeric PGS scaffolds in arterial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

    2011-04-08

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro

  16. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-12-10

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  17. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  18. Basilar impression in children.

    PubMed

    Teodori, J B; Painter, M J

    1984-12-01

    Ataxia is a common neurologic sign in childhood. Basilar impression due to bony abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction is an uncommon but readily treatable cause of ataxia in children. Two children who had neck stiffness, ataxia, nystagmus, and corticospinal tract signs are described. Basilar impression was recognized only after specific radiologic studies were performed. Both children were treated surgically with good results.

  19. Very first impressions.

    PubMed

    Bar, Moshe; Neta, Maital; Linz, Heather

    2006-05-01

    First impressions of people's personalities are often formed by using the visual appearance of their faces. Defining how quickly these impressions can be formed has critical implications for understanding social interactions and for determining the visual properties used to shape them. To study impression formation independent of emotional cues, threat judgments were made on faces with a neutral expression. Consequently, participants' judgments pertained to the personality rather than to a certain temporary emotional state (e.g., anger). The results demonstrate that consistent first impressions can be formed very quickly, based on whatever information is available within the first 39 ms. First impressions were less consistent under these conditions when the judgments were about intelligence, suggesting that survival-related traits are judged more quickly. The authors propose that low spatial frequencies mediate this swift formation of threat judgments and provide evidence that supports this hypothesis. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  20. ETI: Our first impressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Johnson, Joel T.

    2000-06-01

    Despite scant or ambiguous information, people are capable of developing comprehensive and detailed impressions. Consequently, if the detection of an electromagnetically-active civilization is announced, many people will rapidly form impressions of what the extraterrestrials and their civilization are "like". First impressions are crucial, not only because of their immediate psychological, social, and political consequences on Earth, but because they can influence the future of interstellar communication. Initial impressions will rest less on hard data than on the nature and tone of the "evidence" that is gleaned from the transmission; the interpretation and dissemination of this evidence; and the hard wiring, psychological programming, cultural conditioning, and social influence processes that shape human perception. We consider how dispositional inferences, implicit theories of personality, negatively toned or adverse information, physical appearance, prior expectations, the confirmation bias, and thinking and unthinking approaches to attitude formation are likely to affect human impressions of ETI.

  1. Microintegrating smooth muscle cells into a biodegradable, elastomeric fiber matrix.

    PubMed

    Stankus, John J; Guan, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Wagner, William R

    2006-02-01

    Electrospinning permits fabrication of biodegradable elastomers into matrices that can resemble the scale and mechanical behavior of the native extracellular matrix. However, achieving high-cellular density and infiltration with this technique remains challenging and time consuming. We have overcome this limitation by electrospraying vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) concurrently with electrospinning a biodegradable, elastomeric poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU). Trypan blue staining revealed no significant decrease in cell viability from the fabrication process and electrosprayed SMCs spread and proliferated similar to control unprocessed SMCs. The resulting SMC microintegrated PEUU constructs were cultured under static conditions or transmural perfusion. Higher cell numbers resulted with perfusion culture with 131% and 98% more viable cells versus static culture at days 4 and 7 (p<0.05). Fluorescent imaging and hematoxylin and eosin staining further illustrated high cell densities integrated between the elastomeric fibers after perfusion culture. SMC microintegrated PEUU was strong, flexible and anisotropic with tensile strengths ranging from 2.0 to 6.5 MPa and breaking strains from 850 to 1,700% dependent on the material axis. The ability to microintegrate smooth muscle or other cell types into a biodegradable elastomer fiber matrix embodies a novel tissue engineering approach that could be applied to fabricate high cell density elastic tissue mimetics, blood vessels or other cardiovascular tissues.

  2. Extrusion, slide, and rupture of an elastomeric seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjin; Chen, Chao; Liu, Qihan; Lou, Yucun; Suo, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    Elastomeric seals are essential to two great technological advances in oilfields: horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. This paper describes a method to study elastomeric seals by using the pressure-extrusion curve (i.e., the relation between the drop of pressure across a seal and the volume of extrusion of the elastomer). Emphasis is placed on a common mode of failure found in oilfields: leak caused by a crack across the length of a long seal. We obtain an analytical solution of large elastic deformation, which is analogous to the Poiseuille flow of viscous liquids. We further obtain analytical expressions for the energy release rate of a crack and the critical pressure for the onset of its propagation. The theory predicts the pressure-extrusion curve using material parameters (elastic modulus, sliding stress, and fracture energy) and geometric parameters (thickness, length, and precompression). We fabricate seals of various parameters in transparent chambers on a desktop, and watch the seals extrude, slide, rupture and leak. The experimentally measured pressure-extrusion curves agree with theoretical predictions remarkably well.

  3. Microintegrating smooth muscle cells into a biodegradable, elastomeric fiber matrix

    PubMed Central

    Stankus, John J.; Guan, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Wagner, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospinning permits fabrication of biodegradable elastomers into matrices that can resemble the scale and mechanical behavior of the native extracellular matrix. However, achieving high-cellular density and infiltration with this technique remains challenging and time consuming. We have overcome this limitation by electrospraying vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) concurrently with electrospinning a biodegradable, elastomeric poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU). Trypan blue staining revealed no significant decrease in cell viability from the fabrication process and electrosprayed SMCs spread and proliferated similar to control unprocessed SMCs. The resulting SMC microintegrated PEUU constructs were cultured under static conditions or transmural perfusion. Higher cell numbers resulted with perfusion culture with 131% and 98% more viable cells versus static culture at days 4 and 7 (p < 0.05). Fluorescent imaging and hematoxylin and eosin staining further illustrated high cell densities integrated between the elastomeric fibers after perfusion culture. SMC microintegrated PEUU was strong, flexible and anisotropic with tensile strengths ranging from 2.0 to 6.5 MPa and breaking strains from 850 to 1700% dependent on the material axis. The ability to microintegrate smooth muscle or other cell types into a biodegradable elastomer fiber matrix embodies a novel tissue engineering approach that could be applied to fabricate high cell density elastic tissue mimetics, blood vessels or other cardiovascular tissues. PMID:16095685

  4. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  5. Elastomeric binders for electrodes. [in secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. H.; Somoano, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The poor mechanical integrity of the cathode represents an important problem which affects the performance of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells. Repeated charge of a TiS2 cathode may give rise to stresses which disturb the electrode structure and can contribute to capacity loss. An investigation indicates that the use of an inelastic binder material, such as Teflon, aggravates the problem, and can lead to electrode disruption and poor TiS2 particle-particle contact. The feasibility of a use of elastomers as TiS2 binder materials has, therefore, been explored. It was found that elastomeric binders provide an effective approach for simplifying rechargeable cathode fabrication. A pronounced improvement in the mechanical integrity of the cathode structure contributes to a prolonged cycle life.

  6. Elastomeric binders for electrodes. [in secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. H.; Somoano, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The poor mechanical integrity of the cathode represents an important problem which affects the performance of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells. Repeated charge of a TiS2 cathode may give rise to stresses which disturb the electrode structure and can contribute to capacity loss. An investigation indicates that the use of an inelastic binder material, such as Teflon, aggravates the problem, and can lead to electrode disruption and poor TiS2 particle-particle contact. The feasibility of a use of elastomers as TiS2 binder materials has, therefore, been explored. It was found that elastomeric binders provide an effective approach for simplifying rechargeable cathode fabrication. A pronounced improvement in the mechanical integrity of the cathode structure contributes to a prolonged cycle life.

  7. Elastomeric Recombinant Protein-based Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Weiss, Anthony S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Elastomeric protein-based biomaterials, produced from elastin derivatives, are widely investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds due to their remarkable properties including substantial extensibility, long-term stability, self-assembly, high resilience upon stretching, low energy loss, and excellent biological activity. These elastomers are processed from different sources of soluble elastin such as animal-derived soluble elastin, recombinant human tropoelastin, and elastin-like polypeptides into various forms including three dimensional (3D) porous hydrogels, elastomeric films, and fibrous electrospun scaffolds. Elastin-based biomaterials have shown great potential for the engineering of elastic tissues such as skin, lung and vasculature. In this review, the synthesis and properties of various elastin-based elastomers with their applications in tissue engineering are described. PMID:23935392

  8. Preliminary silicone putty casts: diagnosis to final impression for complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, K E; Dominici, J T; Clark, E P

    1996-04-01

    Silicone putty casts are useful for articulating existing dentures for evaluation and problem solving before relining procedures are performed or a new prosthesis is made. Tissue health may require significant modification of the existing dentures and treatment with tissue-conditioning material before final impressions are made. This practical procedure uses a functional impression that substitutes for a quality preliminary impression and combines tissue conditioning, a functional impression, silicone putty cast, custom final impression tray, and a final impression for a complete denture.

  9. An implant-retained auricular impression technique to minimize soft tissue distortion.

    PubMed

    Kubon, Todd M; Anderson, James D

    2003-01-01

    Achieving adaptation of an auricular prosthesis begins with an accurate impression. It is important to consider how the selection of the impression materials will affect the final outcome of the prosthesis. A procedure is presented to minimize the distortion of the soft tissues caused by the impression materials and procedure. The procedure consists of splinting the implant impression copings, then recording the soft tissue in silicone impression material, followed by the application of acrylic tray resin to provide rigidity.

  10. The effect of ultrasonic processing of multi-wall carbon nanotubes on properties of elastomeric compositions on the basis of synthetic isoprene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitryaeva, N. S.; Myshlyavtsev, A. V.; Akimenko, S. S.

    2017-08-01

    The paper studies the effect of ultrasonic processing on the vulcanizing, physical, mechanical and electrophysical properties of elastomeric compositions based on synthetic isoprene rubber. Microscopic studies of multi-wall carbon nanotubes samples before and after ultrasonic processing are carried out. Due to the research, the applied ultrasonic processing method provides splitting of bundles formed from multi-wall carbon nanotubes. This results in elastomeric material with increased strength and high electrical conductivity with a low concentration of nanofiller.

  11. [Impression technics in implantology].

    PubMed

    Vanheusden, A

    2001-01-01

    The implant-borne prostheses have become an integral part of the oral rehabilitation procedures. The aim of this article is to describe the most current impression techniques for oral implant prosthetics used at the University of Liège, Belgium. Impression protocols adapted to various prosthetic procedures are described step-by-step through several clinical cases. Emphasis is put on the means necessary for achieving a precise adaptation and a passive fit of the final prosthetic suprastructure.

  12. Influence of thermally induced chemorheological changes on the torsion of elastomeric circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wineman, Alan; Shaw, John

    2006-05-01

    When an elastomeric material is deformed and subjected to temperatures above some characteristic value T cr (near 100∘C for natural rubber), its macromolecular structure undergoes time and temperature-dependent chemical changes. The process continues until the temperature decreases below T cr. Compared to the virgin material, the new material system has modified properties (reduced stiffness) and permanent set on removal of the applied load. A new constitutive theory is used to study the influence of the changes of macromolecular structure on the torsion of an initially homogenous elastomeric cylinder. The cylinder is held at its initial length and given a fixed twist while at a temperature below T cr. The twist is then held fixed and the temperature of the outer radial surface is increased above T cr for a period of time and then returned to its original value. Assuming radial heat conduction, each material element undergoes a different chemical change. After enough time has elapsed such that the temperature field is again uniform and at its initial value, the cylinder properties are now inhomogeneous. Expressions for the time variation of the twisting moment and axial force are determined, and related to assumptions about material properties. Assuming the elastomeric networks to act as Mooney-Rivlin materials, expressions are developed for the permanent twist on release of torque, residual stress, and the new torsional stiffness in terms of the kinetics of the chemical changes.

  13. Pain and distress induced by elastomeric and spring separators in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Balbeesi, Hana O.; Bin Huraib, Sahar M.; AlNahas, Nadia W.; AlKawari, Huda M.; Abu-Amara, Abdulrahman B.; Vellappally, Sajith; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present investigation is to evaluate patients’ pain perception and discomfort, the duration of pain and the level of self-medication over time during tooth separation, and the effectiveness of elastomeric and spring types of orthodontic separators in Saudi population. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 30 female adolescent patients who had elastomeric/spring separators as part of their orthodontic treatment. A self-administrated questionnaire comprising 16 multiple choice questions and another with visual analog scale were used to record the patient's pain perceptions at 4 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days from the time of insertion. The level of pain and discomfort during these time periods were assessed by a visual analog scale. After a separation period of 7 days, the amount of separation was measured with a leaf gauge. Type and frequency of analgesic consumption was also recorded. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM SPSS -Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.,) was used for statistical analysis. Results: The data showed significant increase in the level of pain at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 3 days from separator placement. The elastomeric separators produced significantly more separation than the spring separators and also caused maximum pain during the first 3 days after insertion. However, there was no significant difference between the score of pain between two separators at all time intervals. Conclusion: Both elastomeric and spring separators showed comparative levels of pain and discomfort during the early phase of separation. Elastomeric separators were found to be more effective in tooth separation than spring separators. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate this preliminary observation. PMID:28032047

  14. How the adoption of impression management goals alters impression formation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bryan; Poposki, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Five experiments (N = 390) tested the hypothesis that adopting an impression management goal leads the impression manager to view an interaction partner as having less of the trait he or she is attempting to express. This hypothesis was confirmed for the impression management goals of appearing introverted, extraverted, smart, confident, and happy. Experiment 2 shows that adoption of the impression goal could alter judgments even when participants could not act on the goal. Experiment 3 provides evidence that adopting an impression management goal prompted a comparison mind-set and that this comparison mind-set activation mediated target judgments. Experiment 4 rules out a potential alternative explanation and provides more direct evidence that comparison of the impression manager's self-concept mediates the impression of the target. Experiment 5 eliminates a potential confound and extends the effect to another impression goal. These experiments highlight the dynamic interplay between impression management and impression formation.

  15. Deciphering indented impressions on plastic.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon; Klein, Asne; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2003-07-01

    The questioned document laboratory is often called upon to decipher writing that has been erased, obliterated, or that has faded. In cases like these, the original writing is no longer legible to the naked eye, but may be enhanced using various light sources. Certain remnants of the ink's components absorb into the substrate's fibers and can be visualized, usually as luminescence or absorbance. A case is described here that involved the theft of a credit card. An empty plastic credit card holder was found in the possession of a suspect, and as submitted for examination. Indented impressions could be discerned on its clear plastic window and presumably originated from the credit card that had been held in the envelope. These indented impressions were deciphered in the hope that they would reveal enough details from the credit card to establish a connection between the plastic envelope and the stolen credit card. With methods generally utilized in the toolmarks and materials laboratory and the photography laboratory of the Israel Police, most of the indented impressions on the plastic were deciphered and a connection between the plastic envelope and the stolen credit card was demonstrated.

  16. Determining the accuracy of stock and custom tray impression/casts.

    PubMed

    Millstein, P; Maya, A; Segura, C

    1998-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of casts made from stock tray and custom tray impressions using polysiloxane impression material. The results indicate that all casts distort but that impressions made from custom trays were more accurate and consistent in reproduction than were stock tray impressions.

  17. Method of making hollow elastomeric bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyles, H. F.; Moacanin, J.; Cuddihy, E. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Annular elastomeric bodies having intricate shapes are cast by dipping a heated, rotating mandrel into a solution of the elastomer, permitting the elastomer to creep into sharp recesses, drying the coated mandrel and repeating the operation until the desired thickness has been achieved. A bladder for a heart assist pump in which a cylindrical body terminating in flat, sharp horizontal flanges fabricated by this procedure has been subjected to over 2,500 hours of simulated life conditions with no visible signs of degradation.

  18. Current concepts and techniques in complete denture final impression procedures.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Vicki C; Rashedi, Behnoush

    2003-12-01

    In 2001, a survey of U.S. dental schools was conducted to determine which concepts, techniques and materials are currently prevalent in the teaching of final impression procedures for complete dentures in the predoctoral clinical curriculum. The questionnaire was mailed to the chairperson of the prosthodontic/restorative departments of 54 U.S. dental schools. Of these, 44 schools returned the completed survey resulting in a response rate of 82%. Results from this survey show that the majority of schools (71%) teach the selective-pressure technique for final impression making; the majority of the schools (64%) use modeling plastic impression compound for border molding the final impression tray; 39% of the schools do not place vent holes in the final impression tray, 30% of schools place more than one hole and 27% place one hole only; the majority of the schools (98%) are using custom trays for final impressions. Ninety-eight percent of the schools are border molding the custom tray and 70% of schools are using a visible light-cured (VLC) composite resin material to make the trays. Thirty-six percent of the schools are teaching the Boucher impression technique and 34% are teaching the modified Boucher impression technique. Predoctoral clinical complete denture educational programs agree on many aspects of final impression making, however, there is variability in their teachings regarding the impression philosophy and the materials used.

  19. A study of the surface hardness and dimensional stability of several intermaxillary registration materials.

    PubMed

    Chai, J; Tan, E; Pang, I C

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the surface hardness, the effect of time on surface hardness, and the dimensional stability of various intermaxillary relationship registration materials. The Shore hardness values of one zinc oxide-eugenol material, one polyether, and seven poly(vinyl siloxane) materials were obtained at 30 minutes and 24 hours after the start of mixing. The dimensional stability of one polyether and seven poly(vinyl siloxane) materials was measured using a standard mold as described in American Dental Association (ADA) Specification No. 19. All materials exhibited relatively high surface hardness despite some statistical differences among them. Four materials possessed higher surface hardness at 24 hours than at 30 minutes. Although the polyether showed significantly lower dimensional stability than the other materials, all materials satisfied the minimum requirement for Type I elastomeric impression material.

  20. Airbag Impressions in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbags left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.

  1. Airbag Impressions in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbags left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.

  2. Virtual First Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

  3. Impressions of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes

    2005-01-01

    I was early arriving for an appointment with the superintendent at the school where I would begin my first year as an elementary school principal. While I waited, I reflected on my first teaching job, where I had formed my first and most lasting impressions of leadership from the principal. Now it was my turn to be a principal, and I aspired to…

  4. Virtual First Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

  5. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1-day-old Neonate with Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty-Gauze Hybrid Impression Technique for Maxillary Impression

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro-nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient. This clinical report presents a simple and safe impression technique for maxillary impression making in neonates and infants with cleft palate. A gauze piece was used to confine the impression material during functional movements of sucking while impression making in an awake child to avoid the risk of aspiration or swallowing. PMID:27512543

  6. The effect of impression technique and implant angulation on the impression accuracy of external- and internal-connection implants.

    PubMed

    Mpikos, Pavlos; Kafantaris, Nikolaos; Tortopidis, Dimitrios; Galanis, Christos; Kaisarlis, George; Koidis, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of impression technique and implant angulation on the impression accuracy of external- and internal-connection implants using a novel experimental device. An experimental device was designed and fabricated to make in vitro impressions by means of open- and closed-tray techniques. Impressions of eight implants with two different connections (four external-hex and four internal-hex) at three angulations (0, 15, and 25 degrees) were made using a medium-consistency polyether material. Evaluation of implant impression accuracy was carried out by directly measuring the difference in coordinate values between the implant body/impression coping positioned on the base and the impression coping/laboratory analog positioned in the impression using a touch-probe coordinate measuring machine. Experimental data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. The significance level of all hypothesis testing procedures was set at P<.05. The results showed that: (1) for implants with external connections, impression accuracy is not significantly affected by the impression technique, implant angulation, or their interaction; and (2) for implants with internal connections, impression accuracy is significantly affected only by implant angulation: Impression inaccuracy was greater at the 25-degree implant angulation. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the open- and closed-tray techniques had no effect on the accuracy of multiple implant impressions. The interaction between impression technique and implant angulation was also not significant. However, implant angulation significantly affected the impression accuracy when implants with internal connections were used.

  7. Smart composites based on controllably grafted graphene oxide particles and elastomeric matrix with sensing capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrlik, Miroslav; Osicka, Josef; Ilcikova, Marketa; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Mosnacek, Jaroslav

    2017-04-01

    This study utilize the simple fabrication method for graphene oxide (GO) sheet preparation, their controllable modification using surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) technique and thus suitable interaction with elastomeric matrix for final enhancement and controlling of the sensing capability upon light stimulus. GO particles and their grafted analogues were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to properly see the controllable coating as well as reduction of GO during the single-step synthesis. The composites containing various amounts of GO, controllably modified GO and elastomeric matrix poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) elastomer were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis and thermal conductivity. The phenomenon how the GO and modified GO particles influence the mobility of the polymer chains and thermal conductivity will be investigated. The impact on change of the material properties with respect to the light-responsive and sensing capabilities is discussed.

  8. Experimental study of lead and elastomeric dampers for base isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J. M.; Hodder, S. B.

    1981-10-01

    A base isolation system which incorporated multilayer isolation bearings of polychloroprene rubber was involved in a series of experiments. Several forms of isolation system using the same basic bearing design but including inserts of different materials in a central hole in each bearing were studied. The inserts were used to enhance the damping properties of the system and to improve the response. The results indicate that there are no difficulties in designing an effective isolation system in polychloroprene rubber and that the multilayer elastomeric bearings can substantially reduce the seismic loads experienced by a building and its contents. Elastomeric inserts were effective in improving the response only to a limited extent. The use of lead inserts to enhance the damping was very effective in controlling the displacement.

  9. Impression Testing of Self-Healing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Huber, Amy

    2005-01-01

    As part of the BIOSANT program (biologically-inspired smart nanotechnology), scientists at NASA-Langley have identified a "self-healing" plastic that spontaneously closes the hole left by the passage of a bullet. To understand and generalize the phenomenon in question, the mechanical properties responsible for this ability are being explored. Low-rate impression testing was chosen to characterize post-yield material properties, and it turned out that materials that heal following ballistic puncture also show up to 80% healing of the low-rate impression. Preliminary results on the effects of temperature and rate of puncture are presented.

  10. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  11. Surface Decoration: And Impressed Pots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Jan Hoag

    1978-01-01

    The pots described in this article evolved through a process of pressing objects into clay pieces for textural impressions and arranging these impressed pieces together for an overall pattern. (Author)

  12. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  13. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  14. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  15. The effect of dietary pigmentation on the esthetic appearance of clear orthodontic elastomeric modules

    PubMed Central

    Talic, Nabeel F; Almudhi, Abdullazez A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the stain resistance of three types of clear elastomeric modules exposed to several common dietary substances through the assessment of the perception of a group of dentists to discoloration using visual analog scale (VAS). Materials and Methods: Elastomeric modules from Unitek (AU), Ormco (OR), and dentaurum (DE) were immersed in the following food substances: Coffee, black tea, chocolate, energy drink, ketchup, and Coca-Cola for 72 h. VAS was used to reflect the module staining severity. Results: Significant difference was found among the three types of modules examined in this study. OR modules showed the least mean staining ratings by the examiners. There was no statistical difference in the staining properties between AU and DE modules. Coffee and tea showed higher staining potential as compared to all staining media. Furthermore, there was no difference in the staining characteristics of coffee and black tea. Conclusions: Coffee and tea are strong staining media that should be avoided by patients who opted to have esthetic appliances for their orthodontic treatment. Elastomeric modules manufactured by AU showed higher staining optical properties as compared to the other two companies, which could be related to the manufacturing processing of these modules. PMID:27127754

  16. Ultimate Control of Rate-Dependent Adhesion for Reversible Transfer Process via a Thin Elastomeric Layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan; Yoon, Min-Ah; Jang, Bongkyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Seop

    2017-03-30

    Adhesion between a stamp with an elastomeric layer and various devices or substrates is crucial to successfully fabricate flexible electronics using a transfer process. Although various transfer processes using stamps with different adhesion strengths have been suggested, the controllable range of adhesion is still limited to a narrow range. To precisely transfer devices onto selected substrates, however, the difference in adhesion between the picking and placing processes should be large enough to achieve a high yield. Herein, we report a simple way to extend the controllable adhesion range of stamps, which can be achieved by adjusting the thickness of the elastomeric layer and the separation velocity. The adhesion strength increased with decreasing layer thickness on the stamp due to a magnification of the confinement and rate-dependent effects on the adhesion. This enabled the controllable range of the adhesion strength for a 15 μm-thick elastomeric layer to be extended up to 12 times that of the bulk under the same separation conditions. The strategy of designing stamps using simple adhesion tests is also introduced, and the reversible transfer of thin Si chips was successfully demonstrated. Tuning and optimizing the adhesion strength of a stamp according to the design process suggested here can be applied to various materials for the selective transfer and replacement of individual devices.

  17. Microfabricated elastomeric stencils for micropatterning cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Folch, A; Jo, B H; Hurtado, O; Beebe, D J; Toner, M

    2000-11-01

    Here we present an inexpensive method to fabricate microscopic cellular cultures, which does not require any surface modification of the substrate prior to cell seeding. The method utilizes a reusable elastomeric stencil (i.e., a membrane containing thru holes) which seals spontaneously against the surface. The stencil is applied to the cell-culture substrate before seeding. During seeding, the stencil prevents the substrate from being exposed to the cell suspension except on the hole areas. After cells are allowed to attach and the stencil is peeled off, cellular islands with a shape similar to the holes remain on the cell-culture substrate. This solvent-free method can be combined with a wide range of substrates (including biocompatible polymers, homogeneous or nonplanar surfaces, microelectronic chips, and gels), biomolecules, and virtually any adherent cell type.

  18. Excitation of a surface plasmon with an elastomeric grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, A.; Dâna, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2006-07-01

    We report on a new method to excite surface plasmon polaritons on a thin metal slab surface using an elastomeric grating which is fabricated by replica molding technique. The grating is placed on the metal surface which creates a periodic perturbation on the surface matching the momentum of the incident light to that of the surface plasmon. The conformal contact between the metal surface and the elastomeric grating changes the dielectric medium periodically and allows the observation of an effective surface plasmon polariton at the metal-air and metal-polymer interfaces of the grating. To clarify the nature of the observed plasmon, comparison of the elastomeric grating with elastomeric slabs was performed with the attenuated total reflection method.

  19. A new simplified beading and boxing procedure for elastic impression.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Anup; Maru, Kavita; Bali, Sandeep Kaur; Jain, Sumet; Shukla, Jyotsna; Kataria, Neene

    2011-03-01

    Beading and Boxing of impression is taught in most dental colleges. The boxing procedure is crucial step to preserve the details of the final impression especially of the vestibular area. This article describes an alternative beading-boxing procedure that is compatible with all impression materials, is efficient, simple, inexpensive, and practicable. Use of commercially available instant adhesive around the border to act as a joining agent between elastic impressions and beading wax or bead made up of base plate wax is advocated in this technique.

  20. Dimensional stability ofautoclave sterilised addition cured impressions and trays.

    PubMed

    Deb, S; Etemad-Shahidi, S; Millar, B J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensional accuracy of impressions following sterilisation by autoclaving. Dental impressions (75) were of a dentoform containing 6 reference points. The impressions were split into 5 groups of 15, each group used a different impression technique. Groups were divided into 3 subgroups with 5 impressions as control, 5 for disinfection by Perform-ID and 5 being autoclaved. Measurements were made using a travelling light microscope. A minimal significant dimensional difference (0.01impression method. No significant dimensional differences were observed for all other groups (P>0.05). The trays and materials tested were suitable for the autoclave sterilisation.

  1. Composite Materials for Maxillofacial Prostheses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    necessary and Identify byv block number) MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESES; PROSTHETIC MATERIALS: MICROCAPSULES : SOFT FILLERS; ELASTOMER COMPOSITES 2,. ABSTRACT...used as fillers in the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. The projected systems are elastomeric-shelled, liquid-filled microcapsules . Improvements...elastomeric-shelled, liquid-filled microcapsules . Experiments continued on the interfacial polymerization process, with spherical, sealed, capsules

  2. Gagging during impression making: techniques for reduction.

    PubMed

    Farrier, Sarah; Pretty, Iain A; Lynch, Christopher D; Addy, Liam D

    2011-04-01

    In everyday dental practice one encounters patients who either believe themselves, or subsequently prove themselves, to be gaggers. Gagging is most frequently experienced during impression making, but is also reported during the taking of radiographs, in the placement of restorations in posterior teeth and, in some individuals, the insertion of a finger for examination purposes. This paper describes some techniques that can easily be mastered by clinicians that may help both operator and patient avoid this unpleasant occurrence. Techniques such as acupressure, the adaptation of trays, or even the use of alternative impression materials and breathing techniques all have their place, and clinicians may have to try several of these, perhaps in conjunction, in order to assist their patients. A significant number of patients attend for dental treatment that require impressions, and for those with gagging problems it can be a horrendous experience. Being able to make the procedure less of an ordeal is better for all involved.

  3. [Impressibility of schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Bazhin, E F; Korneva, T V; Lomachenkov, A S

    1978-01-01

    The authors studied the abilities to identify emotional states according to the acustico-phonetical symptoms of speech in 160 schizophrenic patients and 80 normals. These studies were performed with the aid of a specially elaborated tape recorder test. It was established that difficulties in accomplishing these tasks were found in schizophrenic patients with paranoid symptomatology. Patients with other clinical states, including sufficiently expressed specific disturbances in the emotional sphere, extremely subtly differentiated the emotional state of the announcers. These data are considered as proof of preserved impressive abilities in the majority of schizophrenic patients. The significance of these factors for the organization of psychosocial influences are discussed.

  4. Magnetron sputtering of metallic coatings onto elastomeric substrates for a decrease in fuel permeation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myntti, Matthew F.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the application of a metallic coating by magnetron sputtering onto elastomeric substrates, as an inhibiting layer to permeation transport. The metallic coatings which were deposited were aluminum, titanium, and copper. The substrates used were NBR, FVMQ, and FKM elastomers. The permeating fluids were ASTM Fuel C, isooctane, and toluene. The magnetron sputtering properties of these metallic elements were unique to each material, with the titanium sputtering rate being very low. The sputtering rates of these materials correlated well with their sublimation temperature. It was found that some of the metallic particles which were sputtered onto the substrates, implanted into the surface of the elastomeric membranes, with the total amount and distance of implantation being related to the density of the substrate material. The permeation of these solvents through the composite materials was reduced by the presence of these coatings with the reduction in permeation rate ranging from 12 to 25% for Fuel C. The pervaporation properties of these substrates were also evaluated. It was found from this analysis that for the FVMQ and NBR substrates, the permeation rate of the permeating solute molecules was proportional to the size of the permeation molecule. The substrate materials were not significantly stiffened by the addition of the thin metallic coatings. The coated materials were cohesive and well adhered, as determined by stretching of the substrate materials with the metallic layer in place. Upon stretching, there was no evidence of damage to the metallic coating.

  5. Elastomeric and soft conducting microwires for implantable neural interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kolarcik, Christi L.; Luebben, Silvia D.; Sapp, Shawn A.; Hanner, Jenna; Snyder, Noah; Kozai, Takashi D.Y.; Chang, Emily; Nabity, James A.; Nabity, Shawn T.; Lagenaur, Carl F.; Cui, X. Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Current designs for microelectrodes used for interfacing with the nervous system elicit a characteristic inflammatory response that leads to scar tissue encapsulation, electrical insulation of the electrode from the tissue and ultimately failure. Traditionally, relatively stiff materials like tungsten and silicon are employed which have mechanical properties several orders of magnitude different from neural tissue. This mechanical mismatch is thought to be a major cause of chronic inflammation and degeneration around the device. In an effort to minimize the disparity between neural interface devices and the brain, novel soft electrodes consisting of elastomers and intrinsically conducting polymers were fabricated. The physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of these materials were extensively characterized to identify the formulations with the optimal combination of parameters including Young’s modulus, elongation at break, ultimate tensile strength, conductivity, impedance and surface charge injection. Our final electrode has a Young’s modulus of 974 kPa which is five orders of magnitude lower than tungsten and significantly lower than other polymer-based neural electrode materials. In vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated the favorable interaction between these soft materials and neurons, astrocytes and microglia, with higher neuronal attachment and a two-fold reduction in inflammatory microglia attachment on soft devices compared to stiff controls. Surface immobilization of neuronal adhesion proteins on these microwires further improved the cellular response. Finally, in vivo electrophysiology demonstrated the functionality of the elastomeric electrodes in recording single unit activity in the rodent visual cortex. The results presented provide initial evidence in support of the use of soft materials in neural interface applications. PMID:25993261

  6. Development of a snubber type magnetorheological fluid elastomeric lag damper for helicopter stability augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngatu, Grum T.

    Most advanced helicopter rotors are typically fitted with lag dampers, such as elastomeric or hybrid fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag dampers, which have lower parts counts, are lighter in weight, easier to maintain, and more reliable than conventional hydraulic dampers. However, the damping and stiffness properties of elastomeric and fluid elastomeric lag dampers are non-linear functions of lag/rev frequency, dynamic lag amplitude, and operating temperature. It has been shown that elastomeric damping and stiffness levels diminish markedly as amplitude of damper motion increases. Further, passive dampers tend to present severe damping losses as damper operating temperature increases either due to in-service self-heating or hot atmospheric conditions. Magnetorheological (MR) dampers have also been considered for application to helicopter rotor lag dampers to mitigate amplitude and frequency dependent damping behaviors. MR dampers present a controllable damping with little or no stiffness. Conventional MR dampers are similar in configuration to linear stroke hydraulic type dampers, which are heavier, occupy a larger space envelope, and are unidirectional. Hydraulic type dampers require dynamic seal to prevent leakage, and consequently, frequent inspections and maintenance are necessary to ensure the reliability of these dampers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of combining the simplicity and reliability of FE and smart MR technologies in augmenting helicopter lag mode stability, an adaptive magnetorheological fluid-elastomeric (MRFE) lag damper is developed in this thesis as a retrofit to an actual fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag damper. Consistent with the loading condition of a helicopter rotor system, single frequency (lag/rev) and dual frequency (lag/rev at 1/rev) sinusoidal loading were applied to the MRFE damper at varying temperature conditions. The complex modulus method was employed to linearly characterize and compare the performance of the MRFE damper with the

  7. Comparison of the three-dimensional correctness of impression techniques: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Luthardt, Ralph Gunnar; Walter, Michael H; Quaas, Sebastian; Koch, Rainer; Rudolph, Heike

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies showed superior impression correctness for one-stage impressions. However, clinical data, especially clinical trials, are lacking in this matter. The aim of the study was to investigate the three-dimensional correctness of impressions for final restorations applying three different impression techniques. Three impressions each were made from 48 patients with different techniques using metal stock trays. In a randomized order, one-stage putty-wash, two-stage putty-wash, and monophase impressions (respectively, Dimension Penta H and Garant L, Dimension Penta H Quick and Garant L Quick, Impregum Penta; 3M ESPE) were made with either polyvinyl siloxane or polyether materials. The double-cord technique was applied at all abutment teeth. Factors potentially influencing the correctness of the impressions were recorded. The precision of the impressions was three-dimensionally analyzed using the resulting gypsum models. Discrepancies between the impressions were calculated using the one-stage putty-wash impression as reference. Discrepancies between the one-stage putty-wash impressions and the monophase impressions are significantly lower compared with two-stage putty-wash impressions. The depth of the most subgingival portion of the preparation margin significantly influences the discrepancies between the impression techniques. In light of the major influence of clinical parameters on impression correctness, one-stage procedures should be favored. These findings support the results of in vitro investigations.

  8. Utilization of the UV laser with picosecond pulses for the formation of surface microstructures on elastomeric plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Tofil, S.; Scendo, M.; Tarelnik, W.

    2017-08-01

    Elastomeric plastics belong to a wide range of polymeric materials with special properties. They are used as construction material for seals and other components in many branches of industry and, in particular, in the biomedical industry, mechatronics, electronics and chemical equipment. The micromachining of surfaces of these materials can be used to build micro-flow, insulating, dispensing systems and chemical and biological reactors. The paper presents results of research on the effects of micro-machining of selected elastomeric plastics using a UV laser emitting picosecond pulses. The authors see the prospective application of the developed technology in the sealing technique in particular to shaping the sealing pieces co-operating with the surface of the element. The result of the study is meant to show parameters of the UV laser’s performance when producing typical components such as grooves, recesses for optimum ablation in terms of quality and productivity.

  9. Discoloration and force degradation of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

    PubMed Central

    Nakhaei, Samaneh; Agahi, Raha Habib; Aminian, Amin; Rezaeizadeh, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate color changes and force degradation of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures in different stretching patterns during a 8-weeks period. METHODS: Two elastomers with the minimum and two with the maximum color changing, and gray elastomers of two brands (American Orthodontics and Ortho Technology) were selected according to an opinion poll with clinicians and color changes after 4 weeks of intraoral use were evaluated. These elastomers were mounted on special jigs fabricated using a CAD-CAM technique, underwent different stretching patterns and the force was measured in 0, 24 hours, 2, 4 and 8 weeks. During in vivo part of the study, force levels of elastomers were measured after 4 weeks on a material testing machine. Data were analyzed with four-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. RESULTS: All the elastomers showed color changing but the degree of color stability was significantly different. The mean force degradation was higher in 1-mm stretch groups. After 8 weeks, the average residual force of elastomers was 1.45 ± 0.18 N and the maximum force decay was seen in the elastomers that exhibited the maximum initial force. CONCLUSION: There is significant relationship between the stretching pattern and the amount of residual force of elastomers. Elastomers with higher initial forces exhibited higher percentages of force loss after 8 weeks. It seems that there is a relationship between initial color and color changing of elastomers. PMID:28658355

  10. Diffusion of nanoparticles in solution through elastomeric membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemzem, Mohamed; Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion phenomena encountered in mass transfer of liquids play an important role in many technological processes of polymer manufacturing and use. In addition and alongside the notable growth of nanoparticles use, particularly when in suspension in liquid solutions, it has become important to pay some attention to their interactions with polymeric structures. The aim of this work is to evaluate some diffusion parameters of gold nanoparticle solutions as well as of their liquid carrier (water) through elastomeric membranes. Gravimetric method was chosen as the main technique to quantify swelling phenomena and to assess kinetic properties. The dynamic liquid uptake measurements were conducted on gold nanoparticles (5 nm and 50 nm in diameter) in aqueous solutions when brought into contact with two types of nitrile material samples. Results showed that diffusion mechanism of the liquids lies between Fickian and sub-Fickian modes. Slight deviations were noticed with the gold nanoparticle solutions. A growth in liquid interaction with the rubbery structure in presence of the nanoparticles was also observed from comparison of K factor (characteristic of the elastomer-liquid interaction). Difference between the characteristics of the two membranes was also reported using this parameter. Besides, diffusion coefficients testified the impact of the membrane thickness on the penetration process, while no significant effect of the nature of the nanoparticle solution can be seen on this coefficient.

  11. A method for nanofluidic device prototyping using elastomeric collapse.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-min; Huh, Yun Suk; Craighead, Harold G; Erickson, David

    2009-09-15

    Nanofluidics represents a promising solution to problems in fields ranging from biomolecular analysis to optical property tuning. Recently a number of simple nanofluidic fabrication techniques have been introduced that exploit the deformability of elastomeric materials like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These techniques are limited by the complexity of the devices that can be fabricated, which can only create straight or irregular channels normal to the direction of an applied strain. Here, we report a technique for nanofluidic fabrication based on the controlled collapse of microchannel structures. As is demonstrated, this method converts the easy to control vertical dimension of a PDMS mold to the lateral dimension of a nanochannel. We demonstrate here the creation of complex nanochannel structures as small as 60 nm and provide simple design rules for determining the conditions under which nanochannel formation will occur. The applicability of the technique to biomolecular analysis is demonstrated by showing DNA elongation in a nanochannel and a technique for optofluidic surface enhanced Raman detection of nucleic acids.

  12. Charge Effects on Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappiyoor, Ravi; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Dudek, Daniel; Puri, Ishwar

    2012-02-01

    Several biological molecules of nanoscale dimensions, such as elastin and resilin, are capable of performing diverse tasks with minimal energy loss. These molecules are efficient in that the ratio of energy output to energy consumed is very close to unity. This is in stark contrast to some of the best synthetic materials that have been created. For example, it is known that resilin found in dragonflies has a hysteresis loss of only 0.8% of the energy input while the best synthetic rubber made to date, polybutadiene, has a loss of roughly 20%.We simulate tensile tests of naturally occurring motifs found in resilin (a highly hydrophilic protein), as well as similar simulations found in reduced-polarity counterparts (i.e. the same motif with the charge on each individual atom set to half the natural value, the same motif with the charge on each individual atom set to zero, and a motif in which all the polar amino acids have been replaced with nonpolar amino acids). The results show a strong correlation between charge and extensibility. In order to further understand the effect of properties such as charge on the system, we will run simulations of elastomeric proteins such as resilin in different solvents.

  13. Complete arch implant impression technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junping; Rubenstein, Jeffrey E

    2012-06-01

    When making a definitive impression for an arch containing multiple implants, there are many reported techniques for splinting impression copings. This article introduces a splint technique that uses the shim method, which has been demonstrated to reduce laboratory and patient chair time, the number of impression copings and laboratory analogs needed, and the ultimate cost. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of impression technique on bond strength.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaping; Hobson, Ross S; McCabe, John F

    2004-01-01

    If the effects of surface preparation (eg, acid etching, laser preparation, crystal growth) are to be investigated on the same tooth from which the bond strength is recorded, a method of surface replication is required that does not affect the subsequent bond. This study investigated the effect of 2 different methods of taking impressions on bond strength. Three groups of 11 mandibular incisors were used. The labial enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds. Group A (control) had no impression taken; in group B (silicone), impressions were taken with silicone impression material before bonding; in group C (polyether), an impression was taken with polyether before bonding. After the impressions were taken, GAC brackets (A Company, San Diego, Calif) were bonded to the labial surfaces of the etched enamel with Transbond XT light-cured composite (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Teeth with bonded brackets were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and then bond strength was measured on a testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was also recorded. The lowest bond strength was found after silicone replication (mean [standard deviation]: 8.6 [1.7] MPa) and the highest in the control group (21.2 [4.0] MPa). There was no significant difference between the control group and the polyether replication group (19.1 [4.7] MPa). The surface detail replications of polyether and silicone were found to be identical. It was concluded that polyether had no significant effect on bond strength and was suitable for surface replication before bonding. Polyether allows replication of the enamel surface without a significant effect on bond strength, and this technique could be used to examine the relationship between enamel preparation techniques and subsequent bond strength between composite and enamel.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Elastomeric Heptablock Terpolymers Structured by Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonzo, C.Guillermo; Fleury, Guillaume; Chaffin, Kimberly A.; Bates, Frank S.

    2010-12-07

    We report the synthesis and characterization of fully saturated hydrocarbon block copolymer thermoplastic elastomers with competitive mechanical properties and attractive processing features. Block copolymers containing glassy poly(cyclohexylethylene) (C), elastomeric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (P), and semicrystalline poly(ethylene) (E) were produced in a CEC-P-CEC heptablock architecture, denoted XPX, by anionic polymerization and catalytic hydrogenation. The X blocks contain equal volume fractions of C and E, totaling 40%-60% of the material overall. All the XPX polymers are disordered above the melt temperature for E (T{sub m,E} {approx_equal} 95 C) as evidenced by SAXS and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy measurements. Cooling below T{sub m,E} results in crystallization of the E blocks, which induces microphase segregation of E, C, and P into a complex morphology with a continuous rubbery domain and randomly arranged hard domains as shown by TEM. This mechanism of segregation decouples the processing temperature from the XPX molecular weight up to a limiting value. Tensile mechanical testing (simple extension and cyclic loading) demonstrates that the tensile strength (ca. 30 MPa) and strain at break (>500%) are comparable to the behavior of CPC triblock thermoplastic elastomers of similar molecular weight and glass content. However, in the CPC materials, processability is constrained by the order-disorder transition temperature, limiting the applications of these materials. Elastic recovery of the XPX materials following seven cycles of tensile deformation is correlated with the fraction of X in the heptablock copolymer, and the residual strain approaches that of CPC when the fraction of hard blocks f{sub X} {le} 0.39.

  16. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  17. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  18. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  19. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  20. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of...

  1. Development of a flameproof elastic elastomeric fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Nilgrom, J.; Massucco, A.; Sheth, S. G.; Dawn, F. S.

    1971-01-01

    Various flexible polyurethane structures containing halogen were synthesized from polyesters derived from aliphatic or aromatic polyols and dibasic acids. Aliphatic halide structures could not be used because they are unstable at the required reaction temperatures, giving of hydrogen halide which hydrolyzes the ester linkages. In contract, halogen-containing aromatic polyols were stable and satisfactory products were made. The most promising composition, a brominated neopentyl glycol capped with toluene disocyanate, was used as a conventional diisocyanate, in conjunction with hydroxy-terminated polyethers or polyesters to form elastomeric urethanes containing about 10% bromine with weight. Products made in this manner will not burn in air, have an oxygen index value of about 25, and have tensile strength values of about 5,000 psi at 450% elongation. The most efficient additives for imparting flame retardancy to Spandex urethanes are aromatic halides and the most effective of these are the bromide compounds. Various levels of flame retardancy have been achieved depending on the levels of additives used.

  2. Unusual reversible elastomeric gels from Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sol; Gonzales, Karen N; Romero, Eduardo G; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-04-01

    Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in extreme conditions of desiccation and nutrient-poor soils. Their colonies form spherical gelatinous bodies are composed of a variety of polysaccharides that allow them to store water and nutrients. In this paper, we study this type of biological gel that shows characteristics of both chemical and physical gels. The structure of this gel was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, plate-plate rheometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and absorption/desorption tests. The storage modulus of this gel was found to be frequency independent, as is usual for chemical gels. The stress sweeps showed a reversible stress softening behaviour that was explained in terms of the physical nature of the interactions of this network. The high density of physical crosslinks probably allows this physical network to behave as a highly elastomeric chemical network, limiting the relaxation of individual chains. On the other hand, reversibility is associated with the physical nature of its bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing of elastomeric liners used in limb prosthetics: classification of 15 products by mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Nicholson, Brian S; Zachariah, Santosh G; Cassisi, Damon V; Karchin, Ari; Fergason, John R

    2004-03-01

    The mechanical properties of 15 elastomeric liner products used in limb prosthetics were evaluated under compressive, frictional, shear, and tensile loading conditions. All testing was conducted at load levels comparable to interface stress measurements reported on transtibial amputee subjects. For each test configuration, materials were classified into four groups based on the shapes of their response curves. For the 15 liners tested, there were 10 unique classification sets, indicating a wide range of unique materials. In general, silicone gel liners classified within the same groups thus were quite similar to each other. They were of lower compressive, shear, and tensile stiffness than the silicone elastomer products, consistent with their lightly cross-linked, high-fluid content structures. Silicone elastomer products better spanned the response groups than the gel liners, demonstrating a wide range of compressive, shear, and tensile stiffness values. Against a skin-like material, a urethane liner had the highest coefficient of friction of any liner tested, although coefficients of friction values for most of the materials were higher than interface shear:pressure ratios measured on amputee subjects using Pelite liners. The elastomeric liner material property data and response groupings provided here can potentially be useful to prosthetic fitting by providing quantitative information on similarities and differences among products.

  4. Alternative impression technique for multiple abutments in difficult case to control

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bock-Young

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Even though excellent impression materials are now available for making accurate replication for hard and soft tissue, the numerous dentists have faced lots of obstacles in making simultaneous impressions of multiple abutments. CASE DESCRIPTION This article describes a modified method of tray fabrication using auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impression technique for multiple prepared teeth in cases with limitations and difficulties in taking dental impressions. CLINICAL IMPLICATION This segmental tray technique has several advantages, including higher impression quality, fewer impressions, and being more comfortable for the patient and less stressful for the clinician. PMID:21165179

  5. Simulated Body Fluid Nucleation of Three-Dimensional Printed Elastomeric Scaffolds for Enhanced Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Nathan J; Tan, Wilhelmina Nanrui; Shen, Charlie; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-07-01

    Osseous tissue defects caused by trauma present a common clinical problem. Although traditional clinical procedures have been successfully employed, several limitations persist with regards to insufficient donor tissue, disease transmission, and inadequate host-implant integration. Therefore, this work aims to address current limitations regarding inadequate host tissue integration through the use of a novel elastomeric material for three-dimensional (3D) printing biomimetic and bioactive scaffolds. A novel thermoplastic polyurethane-based elastomeric composite filament (Gel-Lay) was used to manufacture porous scaffolds. In an effort to render the scaffolds more bioactive, the flexible scaffolds were subsequently incubated in simulated body fluid at various time points and evaluated for enhanced mechanical properties along with the effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, and 3-week osteogenesis. This work is the first reported use of a novel class of flexible elastomeric materials for the manufacture of 3D printed bioactive scaffold fabrication allowing efficient and effective nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA) leading to increased nanoscale surface roughness while retaining the bulk geometry of the predesigned structure. Scaffolds with interconnected microfibrous filaments of ∼260 μm were created and nucleated in simulated body fluid that facilitated cell adhesion and spreading after only 24 h in culture. The porous structure further allowed efficient nucleation, exchange of nutrients, and metabolic waste removal during new tissue formation. Through the incorporation of osteoconductive HA, human fetal osteoblast adhesion and differentiation were greatly enhanced thus setting the tone for further exploration of this novel material for biomedical and tissue regenerative applications.

  6. Simulated Body Fluid Nucleation of Three-Dimensional Printed Elastomeric Scaffolds for Enhanced Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Nathan J.; Tan, Wilhelmina Nanrui; Shen, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Osseous tissue defects caused by trauma present a common clinical problem. Although traditional clinical procedures have been successfully employed, several limitations persist with regards to insufficient donor tissue, disease transmission, and inadequate host-implant integration. Therefore, this work aims to address current limitations regarding inadequate host tissue integration through the use of a novel elastomeric material for three-dimensional (3D) printing biomimetic and bioactive scaffolds. A novel thermoplastic polyurethane-based elastomeric composite filament (Gel-Lay) was used to manufacture porous scaffolds. In an effort to render the scaffolds more bioactive, the flexible scaffolds were subsequently incubated in simulated body fluid at various time points and evaluated for enhanced mechanical properties along with the effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, and 3-week osteogenesis. This work is the first reported use of a novel class of flexible elastomeric materials for the manufacture of 3D printed bioactive scaffold fabrication allowing efficient and effective nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA) leading to increased nanoscale surface roughness while retaining the bulk geometry of the predesigned structure. Scaffolds with interconnected microfibrous filaments of ∼260 μm were created and nucleated in simulated body fluid that facilitated cell adhesion and spreading after only 24 h in culture. The porous structure further allowed efficient nucleation, exchange of nutrients, and metabolic waste removal during new tissue formation. Through the incorporation of osteoconductive HA, human fetal osteoblast adhesion and differentiation were greatly enhanced thus setting the tone for further exploration of this novel material for biomedical and tissue regenerative applications. PMID:27298115

  7. Implant overdenture impressions using a dynamic impression concept

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Kil; Park, Sang-Hun; Lee, Cheong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic impression is a functional impression that records the functional movement of the patient's own muscle and muscle attachment. This process reduces the number of random factors. This article describes a method for making a special tray using a dynamic impression concept that was made from provisional dentures used for implant healing. The individual tray is used to make a wash-impression to record the features of the mucosa in detail. The main advantage of this technique is that it provides a functional relationship of the implant components to the supporting tissues without overextension because provisional denture had been used for 2 months and the border length of individual tray was nearly the same as that of provisional denture. The delivery of the prosthesis constructed using this impression technique is time-saving because there is no need for border molding and there are fewer post-insertion appliance adjustments. PMID:24605209

  8. A functional open-tray impression technique for implant-retained overdenture prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak

    2012-10-01

    Several implant impression techniques with different materials have been described in the literature. Generally, border molding, functional, and final impressions have been made with 3 different materials, which makes the procedure technique-sensitive and time-consuming. A combination of open-tray and functional impression techniques is described in this technical report. Border molding and functional impression procedures are made at the same time using a vinyl polysiloxane impression material, which makes this technique a simple and time-efficient alternative for clinicians.

  9. A review on the cords & plies reinforcement of elastomeric polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, S. S.; Husin, H.; Mat-Shayuti, M. S.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Steel, polyester, nylon and rayon are the main materials of cords & plies that have been reinforced in the natural rubber to produce quality tyres but there is few research reported on cord and plies reinforcement in silicone rubber. Taking the innovation of tyres as inspiration, this review's first objective is to compile the comprehensive studies about the cords & plies reinforcement in elastomeric polymer matrix. The second objective is to gather information about silicone rubber that has a high potential as a matrix phase for cords and plies reinforcement. All the tests and findings are gathered and compiled in sections namely processing preparation, curing, physical and mechanical properties, and adhesion between cords-polymer.

  10. Making a Great First Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  11. Making a Great First Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  12. First results of ESA's IMPRESS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppener, Marc; Minster, Olivier; Jarvis, David John

    2008-07-01

    IMPRESS is an acronym for Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification. This 5-year project was selected by the European Commission in 2004 and is being coordinated by the European Space Agency. The main scientific objective of IMPRESS is to gain a better understanding of the links between materials processing routes, structure and final properties of novel intermetallic alloys. From a technical standpoint, the project aims to develop and test two distinct prototypes based on intermetallic materials; namely (i) gas turbine blades and (ii) Raney-type catalytic powders. Numerous material processing routes are being investigated within the project with a strong emphasis on solidification. For turbine blade manufacturing the main processes under study are casting and heat treatment. For catalytic powder production the focus is placed on gas atomisation and vapour condensation processes. IMPRESS combines a wide range of fundamental studies of solidification both on ground and in space, as well as industrial process development. This paper will describe some of the different facets related to solidification and the benchmark space experiments.

  13. High-refractive-index measurement with an elastomeric grating coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Ay, Feridun; Dâna, Aykutlu; Kiyat, Isa; Aydinli, Atilla

    2005-12-01

    An elastomeric grating coupler fabricated by the replica molding technique is used to measure the modal indices of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) planar waveguide structure. Because of the van der Waals interaction between the grating mold and the waveguide, the elastomeric stamp makes conformal contact with the waveguide surface, inducing a periodic index perturbation at the contact region. The phase of the incident light is changed to match the guided modes of the waveguide. The modal and bulk indices are obtained by measuring the coupling angles. This technique serves to measure the high refractive index with a precision better than 10-3 and allows the elastomeric stamp to be removed without damaging the surface of the waveguide.

  14. Use of Clinical UV Chamber to Disinfect Dental Impressions: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kumar, Varun; Gupta, Neelu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dental impressions are potential source of infection in a prosthodontic practice. Risk of transmission of infection through saliva, blood etc is considered as hazard for both dentist as well as dental auxiliary staff. A number of methods are currently employed for disinfecting the impressions which are technique sensitive and time consuming. This study focuses on disinfecting impression using dental UV chamber which is commonly employed for storing sterilized instruments. Aim The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate the use of clinical UV chamber to disinfect various impression materials at different time intervals and its comparison with 2% glutaraldehyde using standard immersion technique. Materials and Methods Total sample size of 180 specimens was taken from three different impression materials. The impressions were made from 30 dentulous subjects. A total of ten impressions were made for each impression material i.e. alginate, addition silicone and polyether impression material. Six punch samples were taken from each impression. Out of 6 punch sample, one was kept as control, second was disinfected by immersing in freshly prepared 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 10 minutes and remaining four were exposed to UV rays for 3 minutes, 6 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes using dental UV chamber. Amount of disinfection achieved was evaluated by counting the colonies over the culture plates with the help of digital colony. Results The results showed that the mean CFUs for alginate were found to be i.e. 11797.40 ± 5989.73 (mean ± SD). The mean CFUs for addition silicone impression material was found 7095.40 with a standard deviation of 4268.83 and the mean CFUs for polyether impression material was found to be 2168.92 ± 1676 (mean ± SD). Conclusion For alginate and addition silicone impression material, disinfection was achieved on exposure to UV rays for a period of 10 minutes. However, for polyether impression material 3 minutes of exposure to

  15. New elastomeric silicone based networks applicable as electroactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejenariu, Anca G.; Boll, Mads; Lotz, Mikkel R.; Vraa, Christoffer; Skov, Anne L.

    2011-04-01

    Commercial elastomer materials are available for dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP) purposes but the applied commercial elastomers have not been developed with the specific application in mind. It is therefore obvious that optimization of the elastomer material should be possible. In this study we focus on optimization of the mechanical properties of the elastomer and show that it is possible to lower the elastic modulus and still not compromise the other required mechanical properties such as fast response, stability, low degree of viscous dissipation and high extensibility. The elastomers are prepared from a vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and a 4-functional crosslinker by a platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction between the two reactants. Traditionally, elastomers based on hydrosilylation are prepared via a 'one-step two-pot' procedure (with a mix A and a mix B mixed in a given ratio). An alternative network formulation method is adopted in this study in order to obtain an elastomeric system with controlled topology - a so-called bimodal network. Bimodal networks are synthesized using a 'two-step four-pot' mixing procedure which results in a nonhomogeneous network structure which is shown to lead to novel mechanical properties due to the low extensibility of the short chains and the high extensibility of the long chains. The first ensures stability and the last retards the rupture process thereby combining two desired properties for DEAP purposes without necessarily compromising the viscous dissipation. Several elastomers are prepared and tested for the linear viscoelastic behaviour, i.e. behaviour in the small-strain limit (up to approximately 10% strain). The bimodal networks are, however, capable of extensions up to several times their initial length but the focus here is the small-strain limit.

  16. Artist Impression of Hot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-14

    This image shows an artist's impression of the 10 hot Jupiter exoplanets studied using the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. From top left to lower left, these planets are WASP-12b, WASP-6b, WASP-31b, WASP-39b, HD 189733b, HAT-P-12b, WASP-17b, WASP-19b, HAT-P-1b and HD 209458b. The colors of the planets are for illustration purposes only. There is little scientific data on color with the exception of HD 189733b, which became known as the "blue planet." The planets are also depicted with a variety of different cloud properties. The wind patterns shown on these 10 planets, which resemble the visible structures on Jupiter, are based on theoretical models. The illustrations are to scale with each other. HAT-P-12b, the smallest of these planets, is approximately the size of Jupiter, while WASP-17b, the largest one in the sample, is almost twice the size. The hottest planets within the sample are portrayed with a glowing night side. This effect is strongest on WASP-12b, the hottest exoplanet in the sample, but also visible on WASP-19b and WASP-17b. It is also known that several of the planets exhibit strong Rayleigh scattering. This effect causes the blue hue of the daytime sky and the reddening of the sun at sunset on Earth. It is also visible as a blue edge on the planets WASP-6b, HD 189733b, HAT-P-12b and HD 209458b. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20056

  17. Impression Procedures for Metal Frame Removable Partial Dentures as Applied by General Dental Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Fokkinga, Wietske A; van Uchelen, Judith; Witter, Dick J; Mulder, Jan; Creugers, Nico H J

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study analyzed impression procedures for conventional metal frame removable partial dentures (RPDs). Heads of RPD departments of three dental laboratories were asked to record features of all incoming impressions for RPDs during a 2-month period. Records included: (1) impression procedure, tray type (stock/custom), impression material (elastomer/alginate), use of border-molding material (yes/no); and (2) RPD type requested (distal-extension/tooth-bounded/combination). Of the 132 total RPD impressions, 111 (84%) involved custom trays, of which 73 (55%) were combined with an elastomer. Impression border-molding material was used in 4% of the cases. Associations between impression procedure and RPD type or dentists' year/university of graduation were not found.

  18. Maxillomandibular relationship record for complete arch/mouth implant restorations using putty-elastomeric occlusion rim at healing abutment level

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravinkumar G.; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recording of the maxillomandibular relationship (MMR) in implant complete arch restorations usually necessitates removal of the healing abutments to attach the record bases, which makes the procedures tedious and time-consuming. Materials and Methods: This article describes the procedure of recording of MMR for complete mouth rehabilitation with the help of the putty elastomeric record base cum occlusion rim reinforced with the acrylic resin framework. This technique records the MMR without removing the healing abutments from mouth and without attaching the acrylic-resin record base with wax occlusion rim. Results: The use of putty-elastomeric occlusion rim provides stable interocclusal records for implant supported complete arch (or mouth) rehabilitation. Conclusion: Maxillomandibular relationship records made with the present technique is less time-consuming and accurate with less chances of distortion of the MMR records. PMID:26321828

  19. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease. Aim Purpose of this study was to determine in vivo the retention of plaque on three different elastic ligatures, in comparison with stainless steel ligature, to determine a possible association between type of ligatures and accumulation of microorganisms. Material and Methods three elastic ligation systems were analyzed for plaque retention: ring-shape, clear, latex ligatures (Leone® Spa), ring-shape, grey, polyurethane ligatures (Micerium® Spa) and grey, polyurethane, Slide low-friction ligatures (Leone® Spa), compared with stainless steel ligatures (Leone® Spa) used as control. Forthy orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy were selected. A sample for each type of ligature were applied inside the oral cavity of each subject. Samples were kept in the oral cavity for 28 days, ligating 0.16 X 0.22 stainless steel archwire to stainless steel orthodontic premolars brackets. The presence of bacterical slime was quantified by spectrophotometric method (crystal violet-Bouin’s fixative) and morphological observations was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results From analysis of bacterical slime emerges that all the elastics showed a low plaque retention, especially if compared to the group of steinless steel ligatures, that presented a greater plaque adhesion, statistically significant compared to the Slide group (r<0.0002) and the two elastic groups (r<0.0001). This study reported no significant difference between the Slide ligatures and the traditional elastic ligatures as regards the retention of plaque. SEM images showed presence of cocci, rods and few filamentous organisms and an interbacterial matrix in all observed samples. Conclusion Elastomeric ligatures showed a significant lower susceptibility

  20. An evaluation of three implant level impression techniques for single tooth implant.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, M Firas; Setchell, Derrick J; Searson, Lloyd J

    2004-03-01

    This laboratory study investigated the hypotheses that there is no difference between three implant level impression techniques using vinyl polysiloxane impression material. The tested techniques were 1)- the repositioning technique. 2)-The pickup technique. 3)- The pickup technique with the impression copings splinted to the impression trays with autopolymerising acrylic resin. The Reflex Microscope was used for 3D measurement of distances and angles. Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test were applied to analyse the data. The results showed significant differences in implant analogue position with the repositioning and the pickup (unsplinted) impression techniques from the master model. Alarming rotational errors were recorded with the repositioning and the pickup (unsplinted) techniques. However, connecting the impression coping to the impression tray improves the accuracy of the pickup impression technique.

  1. Functional Impressions in Complete Denture and Overdenture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kršek, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    Tooth loss can cause loss of occlusal, masticatory, esthetic, physiognomic, phonetic and psychosocial function of patients. The most frequently used treatment method of completely edentulous patients and patients with a small number of remaining teeth are complete dentures or overdentures. One of the most important clinical and laboratory procedures in their fabrication is functional impression taking. The aim of this paper was to present procedures of taking functional impressions in fabrication of complete dentures and overdentures, using standardized techniques and materials. An accurate functional impression together with other correctly performed clinical and laboratory procedures ensure good retention and stability of dentures, which is a precondition for restoring patients’ lost functions. PMID:27688385

  2. Resilin-PEG Hybrid Hydrogels Yield Degradable Elastomeric Scaffolds with Heterogeneous Microstructure.

    PubMed

    McGann, Christopher L; Akins, Robert E; Kiick, Kristi L

    2016-01-11

    Hydrogels derived from resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have shown outstanding mechanical resilience and cytocompatibility; expanding the versatility of RLP-based materials via conjugation with other polypeptides and polymers would offer great promise in the design of a range of materials. Here, we present an investigation of the biochemical and mechanical properties of hybrid hydrogels composed of a recombinant RLP and a multiarm PEG macromer. These hybrid hydrogels can be rapidly cross-linked through a Michael-type addition reaction between the thiols of cysteine residues on the RLP and vinyl sulfone groups on the multiarm PEG. Oscillatory rheology and tensile testing confirmed the formation of elastomeric hydrogels with mechanical resilience comparable to aortic elastin; hydrogel stiffness was easily modulated through the cross-linking ratio. Macromolecular phase separation of the RLP-PEG hydrogels offers the unique advantage of imparting a heterogeneous microstructure, which can be used to localize cells, through simple mixing and cross-linking. Assessment of degradation of the RLP by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) illustrated the specific proteolysis of the polypeptide in both its soluble form and when cross-linked into hydrogels. Finally, the successful encapsulation and viable three-dimensional culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) demonstrated the cytocompatibility of the RLP-PEG gels. Overall, the cytocompatibility, elastomeric mechanical properties, microheterogeneity, and degradability of the RLP-PEG hybrid hydrogels offer a suite of promising properties for the development of cell-instructive, structured tissue engineering scaffolds.

  3. Soft materials with recoverable shape factors from extreme distortion states

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, Jonathan; Sulaiman, Santy; Arkles, Barry; Lewicki, James P.

    2016-01-20

    We present elastomeric polysiloxane nanocomposites with elongations of >5000% (more than 3× greater than any previously reported material) with excellent shape recovery. Highly deformable materials are desirable for the fabrication of stretchable implants and microfluidic devices. No crosslinking or domain formation is observed by a variety of analytical techniques, suggesting that their elastomeric behavior is caused by polymer chain entanglements.

  4. Soft materials with recoverable shape factors from extreme distortion states

    DOE PAGES

    Goff, Jonathan; Sulaiman, Santy; Arkles, Barry; ...

    2016-01-20

    We present elastomeric polysiloxane nanocomposites with elongations of >5000% (more than 3× greater than any previously reported material) with excellent shape recovery. Highly deformable materials are desirable for the fabrication of stretchable implants and microfluidic devices. No crosslinking or domain formation is observed by a variety of analytical techniques, suggesting that their elastomeric behavior is caused by polymer chain entanglements.

  5. Enhancement of muddy footwear impressions.

    PubMed

    Theeuwen, A B; van Barneveld, S; Drok, J W; Keereweer, I; Lesger, B; Limborgh, J C; Naber, W M; Schrok, R; Velders, T

    2001-06-01

    Methods for chemical enhancement of muddy footwear impressions were compared in order to differentiate between utilisation at the scene of crime, the local (regional) police laboratory and the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI)

  6. Social Relevance Enhances Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1, using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2, older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults’ ability to successfully retrieve contextual information. PMID:22364168

  7. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  8. A complete denture impression technique survey of postdoctoral prosthodontic programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mamta; Vahidi, Farhad; Berg, Robert W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to survey program directors of postdoctoral prosthodontic programs in the United States regarding their programs' complete denture impression techniques. The key objectives of the survey were to identify the current trends in complete denture impression making and to determine which techniques and materials are taught in US postdoctoral prosthodontic programs. An online survey was sent to all program directors of US postdoctoral prosthodontic programs. The survey comprised two sections: preliminary impressions and final impressions. The survey contained 22 questions that would take approximately 5 minutes to complete. All responses remained anonymous throughout the survey. The response rate for the survey was 87%. A majority of the programs did not separately border mold the tray prior to making the preliminary impressions (82%). The impression material of choice for the preliminary impression was irreversible hydrocolloid (88%). Selective pressure was the predominantly used impression philosophy (80%). All programs border molded the custom tray, and 95% recorded the borders in sections. The material of choice for border molding the custom tray was modeling plastic impression compound (71%). The most commonly used impression material for the final impressions was polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) (42%), and the second most commonly used impression material was polysulphide (32%). The most common technique for locating the posterior palatal seal was marking intraorally and transferring onto the final impression (65%). Most programs routinely advised their patients not to wear their existing dentures for at least 24 hours before the final impressions were made (83%). Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The most commonly used material for the preliminary impression was irreversible hydrocolloid and for the final impression was PVS. (2) Modeling plastic impression compound was used by most programs to

  9. Evaluation of Low Level Laser Therapy on Pain Perception Following Orthodontic Elastomeric Separation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Almallah, Mai M.E.; Almahdi, Wael H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal pain caused by elastomeric separators is a very common problem in the commencement of orthodontic treatment. Previous studies have shown good results in reducing this pain by Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and different protocols of application have been suggested in the literature. Aim This trial aimed to evaluate LLLT on managing orthodontic pain caused by elastomeric separators and to compare single versus double irradiation in possible pain reduction. Materials and Methods A clinical randomized compound (parallel-group and split-mouth design) trial was conducted on 36 patients between 12 and 26 years of age. Elastomeric separators were placed at the mesial and distal surfaces of the first molars in one jaw (upper or lower) for each patient and in only one side of the mouth (the other side served as the placebo side). The trial had two groups: the first group received single irradiation of LLLT [Gallium Aluminum Arsenide (GaAlAs): 830 nm, 4J/cm2, 100mW] immediately after separators insertion, where as the second group received double irradiation immediately after separators insertion and after 24hours. All patients were instructed to rate the level of pain at 1, 6, 24, 48, 96 hours on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The student ‘t’ tests, repeated measures ANOVA and LSD post-hoc tests were employed. Results LLLT was successful in reducing post-separation pain when the experimental side was compared to the placebo side at all assessment times in each group (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between single and double irradiation groups in terms of pain reduction (p>0.05). Conclusion GaAlAs LLLT application reduced early orthodontic pain caused by elastomeric separators by single or double irradiation. PMID:28050498

  10. Mechanochemical Kinetics in Elastomeric Polymer Networks: Heterogeneity of Local Forces Results in Nonexponential Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2017-03-16

    A common approach to inducing selective mechanochemical transformations relies on embedding the target molecules (called mechanophores) within elastomeric polymer networks. Mechanical properties of such elastomers can also be modulated through the mechanochemical response of the constituent polymer chains. The inherent randomness in the molecular structure of such materials leads to heterogeneity of the local forces exerted on individual mechanophores. Here we use coarse-grained simulations to study the force distributions within random elastomeric networks and show that those distributions are close to exponential regardless of the applied macroscopic load, entanglement effects, or network parameters. Exponential form of the distribution allows one to completely characterize the mechanophore kinetics in terms of the mean value of the force. At the same time, heterogeneity of the local force affects the kinetics qualitatively: While a narrow force distribution around the mean would lead to exponential kinetics, exponential force distribution results in highly nonexponential kinetics, with a fast kinetic phase involving highly loaded molecules, followed by a slow phase dominated by unloaded molecules.

  11. A constrained maximization formulation to analyze deformation of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gaurav; Krishnan, Girish

    2017-06-01

    Fiber reinforced elastomeric enclosures (FREEs) are soft and smart pneumatic actuators that deform in a predetermined fashion upon inflation. This paper analyzes the deformation behavior of FREEs by formulating a simple calculus of variations problem that involves constrained maximization of the enclosed volume. The model accurately captures the deformed shape for FREEs with any general fiber angle orientation, and its relation with actuation pressure, material properties and applied load. First, the accuracy of the model is verified with existing literature and experiments for the popular McKibben pneumatic artificial muscle actuator with two equal and opposite families of helically wrapped fibers. Then, the model is used to predict and experimentally validate the deformation behavior of novel rotating-contracting FREEs, for which no prior literature exist. The generality of the model enables conceptualization of novel FREEs whose fiber orientations vary arbitrarily along the geometry. Furthermore, the model is deemed to be useful in the design synthesis of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators for general axisymmetric desired motion and output force requirement.

  12. Inuit Impressions in Soapstone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Shannon

    1998-01-01

    Tells how Inuit artists approach the making of soapstone sculptures as a process of intuition and "reading" the materials. Describes a project in which students make their own soapstone carvings using coping saws, wood rasps, and sandpaper as tools. Notes tips and techniques for working with the soapstone and tools. (DSK)

  13. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  18. A Study of Elastomeric Materials for Tank Track Pads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    above equation into the form: a C TC1 + This is known as the Mooney - Rivlin Equation. However this still repre- sents only the first curvature of the...of the actual problem When a tank is in motion, the rubber track pads undergo shear and com- pressive deformations as they contact the ground surface...mechanical work is dissipated into heat resulting in the heat of the rubber pads. This is because the rubber pads are viscoelastic substances which during a

  19. Equilibrium swelling of elastomeric materials in solvent environments

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.F.

    1990-03-01

    The equilibrium swelling of silicones, fluorosilicones, VITON and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) elastomers in an environment of the jet fuel JP4 was investigated. The volume of silicone and DPDM elastomers increased by approximately 100% when they were placed in a saturated environment of JP4. Conversely, the volume of the fluorosilicone elastomer increased by approximately 15% and that of VITON less than 1%. In acetone, a commonly used solvent, the equilibrium swelling of VITON and the fluorosilicone elastomer was excessive, on the order of 100%, wheras the silicone and EPDM elastomers exhibited small changes in dimensions. Reasons for these observations are discussed in detail. We also present a simple scheme by which one may, qualitatively, determine the dimensional stability of these elastomers in different solvents if the cohesive energy density of the solvent, which is readily available in a number of handbooks, is known. We also evaluated the vulnerability of some commonly used engineering thermoplastics to JP4. The results are tabulated. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tab.

  20. A Technique to Transfer the Emergence Profile Contours of a Provisional Implant Crown to the Definitive Impression.

    PubMed

    Shah, Karnik; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-01-01

    This clinical report describes a method to create a proper emergence profile and accurately transfer it to the definitive impression, using an indirectly fabricated modified impression post. A provisional screwretained crown was indexed with a polyvinyl siloxane material. An autopolymerizing acrylic resin was used to modify an impression post on the polyvinyl siloxane index, which was then screwed onto the implant for the definitive impression after proper soft tissue healing. The indirectly fabricated modified impression post helped to transfer the contours to the definitive impression with minimal soft tissue irritation.

  1. Hybrid, elastomeric hydrogels crosslinked by multifunctional block copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Longxi; Liu, Chao; Zhu, Jiahua; Pochan, Darrin J.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2010-01-01

    Amphiphlic block copolymers consisting of hydrophilic, poly(acrylic acid) randomly decorated with acrylate groups and hydrophobic, rubbery poly(n-butyl acrylate) self-assembled into well-defined micelles with an average diameter of ~21 nm. Radical polymerization of acrylamide in the presence of the crosslinkable micelles gave rise to hybrid, elastomeric hydrogels whose mechancial properties can be readily tuned by varying the BCM concentration. PMID:21278815

  2. Long Life Elastomeric Aircraft Hydraulic Seals. Part I2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) Hydraulic O-Ring Seals Long Life Fluorocarbon Elastomer Dynamic Testing Backup...Rings 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) The continued development work of long life elastomeric...amines, azoles and quinoline types are extracted by the service media which limits their effectivity in protecting the polymer against oxidative attack