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Sample records for elderly female athletes

  1. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  2. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, D L; Wiggins, M E

    1997-10-01

    Women's participation in sporting activities is now diverse with new opportunities arising yearly. As a result, care of the the female athlete's unique medical concerns has become an important challenge and issue to the primary care physician. The major focus when caring for the female athlete should be the diagnosis and treatment of the female athlete triad. The components of the triad--disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--can have serious implications for the health of the female athlete. Appropriate prevention and screening methods for early diagnosis of the female athlete triad require future study and improvement. Healthy pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women can continue to maintain physical activity. Musculoskeletal injuries from sports are, in general, not gender specific but are more often sport specific. One exception is the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring in women soccer and basketball players. The exact cause of this is unknown but is continuing to be investigated.

  3. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  4. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  5. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, K E

    1998-05-01

    Although there are many similarities between men and women involved in sport activities, certain issues are unique to the female athlete. This article presents and brings to light some of the more important concerns that are specific to women engaged in sports. PMID:9626483

  6. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  7. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  8. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  9. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... pediatricians and adolescent medicine specialists, sports medicine doctors, nutritionists and dietitians, and mental health specialists can all ... granola bars, and fruit. Visit a dietitian or nutritionist who works with teen athletes. He or she ...

  10. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  11. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  12. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  13. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  14. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown.

  15. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  16. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  17. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  18. Female Athletes: Targets for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)

  19. Neuromuscular performance characteristics in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Huston, L J; Wojtys, E M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify possible predisposing neuromuscular factors for knee injuries, particularly anterior cruciate ligament tears in female athletes by investigating anterior knee laxity, lower extremity muscle strength, endurance, muscle reaction time, and muscle recruitment order in response to anterior tibial translation. We recruited four subject groups: elite female (N = 40) and male (N = 60) athletes and sex-matched nonathletic controls (N = 40). All participants underwent a subjective evaluation of knee function, arthrometer measurement of anterior tibial translation, isokinetic dynamometer strength and endurance tests at 60 and 240 deg/sec, and anterior tibial translation stress tests. Dynamic stress testing of muscles demonstrated less anterior tibial translation in the knees of the athletes (both men and women) compared with the nonathletic controls. Female athletes and controls demonstrated more anterior tibial laxity than their male counterparts and significantly less muscle strength and endurance. Compared with the male athletes, the female athletes took significantly longer to generate maximum hamstring muscle torque during isokinetic testing. Although no significant differences were found in either spinal or cortical muscle reaction times, the muscle recruitment order in some female athletes was markedly different. The female athletes appeared to rely more on their quadriceps muscles in response to anterior tibial translation; the three other test groups relied more on their hamstring muscles for initial knee stabilization.

  20. The Stereotype and Recognition of Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Cyd; And Others

    The stereotype of women athletes in college is predominantly positive rather than negative. In one study, female athletes were seen to be strong, strong-willed, leaders, brave and healthy. In the second study, women were judged to be significantly more attractive when the interviewer was male, and males gave significantly higher ratings than…

  1. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  2. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  3. Panopticonics: The Control and Surveillance of Black Female Athletes in a Collegiate Athletic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes black female student athletes' participation in an elite collegiate athletic program by showing how the program maximizes black females' athletic and academic potential through surveillance, control, and discipline. The program instills in black female athletes a model of womanhood whereby they come to expect and achieve academic and…

  4. Prevalence of the female athlete triad in edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Vardar, Erdal; Altun, Gülay Durmus; Kurt, Cem; Oztürk, Levent

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad, which is a clinical condition defined as the simultaneous occurrence of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteopenia and/or osteoporosis in female athletes. A total number of 224 female athletes from Edirne city participated in our study. Eating attitudes test (EAT 40) and a self-administered questionnaire were used to assess disordered eating behavior and menstrual status respectively. The participants having both disordered eating and amenorrhea were performed dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate bone mineral density. Thirty seven subjects (16.8%) had disordered eating behavior and 22 subjects (9.8%) were reported to have amenorrhea. Six athletes (2.7%) met two criteria (disordered eating and amenorrhea) of the triad. Of these, only three athletes met all components of the triad. We have found that the prevalence rate of female athlete triad was 1.36% among young Turkish female athletes. Female athletes have under considerable risk for the disordered eating and amenorrhea components of the triad. Key PointsThe prevalence rate of the occurrence of whole criteria of the female athlete triad was 1.36 % in young Turkish athletes in Edirne.Female athletes who met whole criteria of female athlete triad are more prone to the eating disorders.The occurrence of disordered eating behavior was higher in female athletes according to general population.Amenorrhea prevalence was significantly higher in female athletes who had disordered eating.

  5. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  6. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  7. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  8. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  9. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  10. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  11. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  12. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete. PMID:25014386

  13. Update on the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Michelle T; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Gibbs, Jenna C

    2013-06-01

    Updated prevalence estimates of all 3 components of the Female Athlete Triad, a syndrome characterized by low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is low (0 %-16 %), however, estimates of 1 or 2 concurrent components approach 50 %-60 % among certain athlete groups. Recent research identifies components of the Triad among female adolescent athletes, particularly those participating in leanness sports, such as endurance running. This is alarming, as adolescents require adequate nutrition and normal hormone function to optimize bone mineral gains during this critical developmental period. Current literature highlights new assessments, such as measurements of bone microarchitecture and hormone levels to better evaluate bone strength and the hormonal and metabolic profile of athletes with and at risk for the Triad. Recent data also provides support for additional potential consequences of the Triad, such as endothelial dysfunction and related cardiovascular effects, stress fractures, and musculoskeletal injuries. Additional prospective research is needed to evaluate long-term indicators and consequences of the Triad and identify effective behavioral treatment strategies. PMID:23613226

  14. "It's Cheesy when They Smile:" What Girl Athletes Prefer in Images of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krane, Vikki; Ross, Sally R.; Miller, Montana; Ganoe, Kristy; Lucas-Carr, Cathryn; Barak, Katie Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research in which we provided an opportunity for female college athletes to construct their own photographic portrayals, this study explored young female athletes' perceptions of the college athlete photographs. Fifty-two girls participated in focus group interviews where they viewed and discussed the images. The young…

  15. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  16. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  17. Eating behaviours in youths: A comparison between female and male athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, L de S; Kakeshita, I S; Almeida, S S; Gomes, A R; Ferreira, M E C

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the different factors associated with eating behaviors among young female and male athletes and non-athletes. A total of 580 female and male athletes and 362 female and male non-athletes between 10 and 19 years old participated. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to evaluate the factors associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We found higher scores for females on the diet subscale compared with males, regardless of athletic group (P < 0.05). Non-athlete youths scored higher on this subscale compared with male athletes (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate higher scores for female athletes with regard to the bulimia and preoccupation with food subscale compared with other the groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, we observed that non-athlete males were more likely to engage in binge eating compared with athletes of the same sex (P < 0.05). Finally, females had higher scores on the oral self subscale than males, regardless of athletic group (P < 0.05). We concluded that the factors associated with eating behaviors differ with regard to sex and group.

  18. Eating disorders in collegiate female athletes: factors that assist recovery.

    PubMed

    Arthur-Cameselle, Jessyca N; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that assist female athletes' recovery from eating disorders. Forty-seven female collegiate athletes who experienced eating disorders responded to an open-ended question regarding factors that most helped their recovery. The most common factors were the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport, support from others, and shifts in values/beliefs. A unique finding was that the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport most frequently facilitated recovery. This knowledge can help treatment providers to foster athletes' motivation to recover and distinguishes athletes as a unique treatment population from non-athletes.

  19. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Collegiate Athletes: Validation of the Athlete Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Kubas, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating than their nonathletic peers, but the psychological antecedents of this dysfunctional behavior in athletes have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to develop an athletics-oriented measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating and to test its initial…

  1. Too much of a good thing: female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The history and pathophysiology of the Female Athletic Triad is discussed along with the short-term and long-term complications. The work-up for hormonal abnormalities and specific treatment options are discussed. Also, nutrition and its affect on the Female Athletic Triad is mentioned within the realm of treatment. PMID:21736076

  2. Developing Competitive Excellence in the Talented Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildenhaus, Kevin J.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the historical development of female participation in sports, then identifies the unique issues associated with women's struggles for athletic acceptance and competitive excellence. Topics discussed include talent recognition and development, sex roles and socialization, physiology and maturation, coaching the female athlete,…

  3. Collegiate Athletic Trainers' Confidence in Helping Female Athletes With Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine college athletic trainers' confidence in helping female athletes who have eating disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING: We mailed a 4-page, 53-item survey to head certified athletic trainers at all National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA and IAA institutions (N = 236). A 2- wave mailing design was used to increase response rate. SUBJECTS: A total of 171 athletic trainers returned completed surveys for a response rate of 77%. Eleven institutions either did not identify their head athletic trainer or did not have an identifiable mailing address. Two surveys were undeliverable because of incorrect mailing addresses. MEASUREMENTS: The survey consisted of 4 subscales: (1) efficacy expectation, (2) outcome expectation, (3) outcome value, and (4) experience in dealing with eating disorders. Content validity was established by review from a national panel of experts. Reliability ranged from.66 to.73 for the subscales. RESULTS: Although virtually all athletic trainers (91%) had dealt with a female athlete with an eating disorder, only 1 in 4 (27%) felt confident identifying a female athlete with an eating disorder, and only 1 in 3 (38%) felt confident asking an athlete if she had an eating disorder. One in 4 athletic trainers (25%) worked at an institution that did not have a policy on handling eating disorders. Almost all athletic trainers (93%) felt that increased attention needs to be paid to preventing eating disorders among collegiate female athletes. CONCLUSIONS: Collegiate athletic programs are encouraged to develop and implement eating-disorder policies. Continuing education on the prevention of eating disorders among athletes is also strongly recommended. PMID:15085214

  4. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  5. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization.

  6. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization. PMID:23856303

  7. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored. PMID:20840252

  8. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  9. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty. PMID:20538152

  10. Food attitudes in female athletes: association with menstrual cycle length.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nancy I; Leidy, Heather J; Flecker, Kathleen A; Galucci, Angelique

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between indicators of risk of disordered eating, body image and varied menstrual cycle lengths. Altogether, 151 female athletes were invited from 16 sports and 70 female non-athletic controls were recruited from a university lecture class. The participants completed several surveys, including demographics, menstrual cycle history, physical activity, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Selected EDI subscales were summed to reflect eating disorder risk and body image. Menstrual cyclicity was based on self-reported cycle length for the last 6 months (normal cycles = 26-32 days, irregular cycles < or =26 or >32 days). Athletes overall had more irregular cycles (29.1%) than the non-athletes (15.7%) (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in scores for eating disorder risk, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, cognitive restraint (TFEQ) and disinhibition (TFEQ), only when athletes were divided based on menstrual cyclicity (i.e. irregularly cycling athletes had higher scores than athletes with normal menstrual cycle lengths). No differences in these scores were found between non-athletes with normal or irregular menstrual cycle lengths. In conclusion, irregularly short or long menstrual cycle length is associated with subtle indications of higher risk of disordered eating in female athletes.

  11. Iron status of female collegiate athletes involved in different sports.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Blessing, Daniel; Dunham, Kim; Barksdale, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18-25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However, several athletes from different sports had suboptimal iron status indexes. Of 17 athletes with a serum ferritin concentration < or = 15 microg/L, 8 (4 freshmen, 2 sophomores, 2 unknown) also exhibited low serum iron concentrations (< 60 microg/dL) and low transferrin saturation (< 16%). Thirteen (6 freshmen, 3 sophomores, 2 juniors, 2 seniors) of 51 (25%) athletes failed to consume two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron and exhibited suboptimal serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and/or transferrin saturation. Of nine athletes taking iron supplements, one exhibited suboptimal iron status. In summary, nonanemic iron depletion was present among female collegiate athletes involved in many different sports and in all years of participation (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior athletes). Female athletes should continue to be individually and routinely evaluated for nutritional deficiencies throughout their collegiate athletic careers.

  12. Talented Female Athletics: Are They Going for Gold?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Clare J.; Riley, Tracy L.; Gordon, Barrie

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the beliefs and experiences of 18 females identified as athletically talented. Results found participants did not perceive themselves as significantly talented or special in any way. However, the participants enjoyed being athletically talented and would not wish to be different. Positive aspects included increased confidence…

  13. Health Education Prevention for Eating Disorders among College Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated a health education intervention that emphasized risk factors associated with drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction among female college athletes. Surveys of athletes in intervention and comparison groups indicated that the intervention was associated with decreased drive for thinness, which in turn was associated with decreased…

  14. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  15. Timing of neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings prior to landing in high school male athletes, female athletes, and female non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jennifer M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Howell, Suzanne K; Kingma, Jackie J

    2008-08-01

    There is a discrepancy between males and females in regards to lower extremity injury rates, particularly at the knee [Agel, J., Arendt, E.A., Bershadsky, B., 2005. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball and soccer: a 13-year review. American Journal of Sports Medicine 33, (4) 524-530]. Gender differences in neuromuscular recruitment characteristics of the muscles that stabilize the knee are often implicated as a factor in this discrepancy. There is considerable research in the area of gender differences in regards to neuromuscular characteristics of the lower extremity in response to perturbation; however, most studies have been performed on the adult population only. Additionally, there is no consensus as to the gender differences that have been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to compare muscular preactivation of selected lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and medial/lateral hamstrings) in adolescent female basketball athletes, male basketball athletes, and female non-athletes in response to a drop landing. Subjects in the female non-athlete group recruited rectus femoris significantly slower than both the female athlete and male athlete groups (619.9=588.5>200.1ms prior to ground contact). The female non-athlete group also demonstrated a significantly slower vastus medialis compared to the female athlete group (127.1 vs 408.1ms), but not significantly slower than the male athlete group (127.1 vs 275.7ms). There were no differences between female athletes and male athletes for time to initial contraction of any muscle groups. No differences were found among the groups for medial or lateral hamstring activation. This study demonstrates that physical conditioning due to basketball participation appears to affect neuromuscular recruitment in adolescents and reveals a necessity to find alternate methods of training the hamstrings for improved neuromuscular capabilities to prevent

  16. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  17. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  18. Analysis of body esteem in female college athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, M S; Moode, F M

    2000-06-01

    This research compared the scores on the three subscales of the Body Esteem Scale of 67 female intercollegiate athletes from various sports, and 57 female nonathlete college students enrolled in regular college classes. Analysis indicated no significant differences between the groups on the Sexual Attractiveness and Weight Concern subscales, but only on the Physical Condition subscale, with athletes reporting higher scores and more positive perceptions of body esteem than nonathletes. PMID:10883765

  19. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  20. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  1. Long term consequences of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2013-06-01

    In the past 40 years, female sports participation, particularly at the high school level, has significantly increased. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Triad symptoms are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease; all of the components of the triad may not be affected simultaneously. The female athlete triad was first identified in 1992. Since that time, a vast amount of research related to the identification, management and prevention of this condition has been published. More recently, research related to the long term effects of triad components has come into light. Women who were diagnosed with female athlete triad syndrome as adolescents and young adults in the 1990s are now in their 30s and 40s; negative long term effects of the female athlete triad, such as low bone mineral density, are now starting to manifest. Women of all ages should be assessed for triad components during routine annual physical examinations; appropriate measures to treat any current triad components should be implemented. In addition, women in their 30s, 40s and early 50s should be screened for a history of the female athlete triad. Multidisciplinary management of these conditions is strongly recommended. PMID:23541905

  2. Bone density in eumenorrheic female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Lee, E J; LeBlanc, A; Poindexter, H B; Risser, J M; Schneider, V

    1990-10-01

    Information is limited on the effect of exercise on bone density in young eumenorrheic athletes. We studied 12 Caucasian intercollegiate volleyball players (V), nine basketball players (B), ten swimmers (S), and 13 non-athletes (N) with bone density measurements by photon absorptiometry of their calcaneus and lumbar spine (L2-L4). The effect of athletic status on bone density was analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance, with height and weight as covariates. The bone densities reported below are mean +/- SE, adjusted for the covariates; units = g.cm-2, P less than 0.005. The swimmers had a significantly lower mean density in the lumbar spine than all other groups; the non-athletes' mean density was also lower than that of volleyball players (V = 1.31 +/- 0.03, B = 1.26 +/- 0.04, N = 1.18 +/- 0.03, S = 1.05 +/- 0.03). The volleyball and basketball players' mean calcaneal densities were greater than those of the swimmers and non-athletes (V = 0.530 +/- 0.017, B = 0.564 +/- 0.023, N = 0.438 +/- 0.018, S = 0.375 +/- 0.019). The higher bone densities for athletes in vertical weight-bearing activities are consistent with some but not all published data. The swimmers' low bone density in the lumbar spine, less than published values for amenorrheic runners, was unexpected.

  3. Bone Health in Adolescent Athletes with a Focus on Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and life-long fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences later in life, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical time for bone acquisition. This review discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, physical activity effects, and nutritional contributions are presented, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. The Female Athlete Triad (the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) is an important issue for adolescent, athletic women, and is therefore reviewed, including prevention and treatment strategies. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed. PMID:21378496

  4. Caring for the elderly female psychiatric patient.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudhasir; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    With the growth of the elderly population, and the female elderly population in particular, healthcare providers will see increasing numbers of elderly women with psychiatric disorders. To properly care for this group of patients, better understanding is needed not only of group differences in this patient population but also of the differences in each individual, as they age, given their unique life experiences, cohort effects, medical comorbidity, social situation, and personality traits. Understandably, these characteristics will interact with psychiatric disorders in ways that may increase the challenge to correctly diagnose and treat these patients. In addition, understanding late life changes, the prevalence of various mental disorders and the sometimes unique presentation of mental disorders in this age group is required to better diagnose and treat this population.

  5. Helping Teenage Girls Avoid the Female Athlete Triad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilardi, Deb

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…

  6. Anorexia, bulimia, and the female athlete triad: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Felicia A; Warren, Michelle P

    2010-03-01

    The female athlete triad is an increasingly prevalent condition involving disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. An athlete can suffer from all 3 components of the triad, or just 1 or 2 of the individual conditions. The main element underlying all the aspects of the triad is an adaptation to a negative caloric balance. Screening for these disorders should be an important component of an athlete's care. Prevention and treatment should involve a team approach, including a physician, a nutritionist, and a mental health provider.

  7. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  8. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group. PMID:26722341

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament tear prevention in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Holly J; Giza, Eric R; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of implementing neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs in female athletes and their ability to decrease the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The relationship of sex, age, and training on the incidence of ACL injury is pivotal in developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program to decrease ACL injuries occurring in female athletes. Based on the 2-year results, ACL incidence has remained consistently lower in the intervention group versus the control group. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program may have a direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries incurred by female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiologic and biomechanic studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention that will effectively decrease ACL injuries in this high-risk population. PMID:16282037

  10. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  11. 2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth; De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon; Barrack, Michelle; Burke, Louise; Drinkwater, Barbara; Lebrun, Connie; Loucks, Anne B; Mountjoy, Margo; Nichols, Jeanne; Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot

    2014-01-01

    The female athlete triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three triad components, and early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious end points that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement presents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, CA) and second (Indianapolis, IN) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. This consensus statement was intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the female athlete triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. PMID:25014387

  12. Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: what gives?

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A

    2005-02-01

    Knee injuries occur commonly in sports, limiting field and practice time and performance level. Although injury etiology relates primarily to sports specific activity, female athletes are at higher risk of knee injury than their male counterparts in jumping and cutting sports. Particular pain syndromes such as anterior knee pain and injuries such as noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur at a higher rate in female than male athletes at a similar level of competition. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries can be season or career ending, at times requiring costly surgery and rehabilitation. Beyond real-time pain and functional limitations, previous injury is implicated in knee osteoarthritis occurring later in life. Although anatomical parameters differ between and within the sexes, it is not likely this is the single reason for knee injury rate disparities. Clinicians and researchers have also studied the role of sex hormones and dynamic neuromuscular imbalances in female compared with male athletes in hopes of finding the causes for the increased rate of ACL injury. Understanding gender differences in knee injuries will lead to more effective prevention strategies for women athletes who currently suffer thousands of ACL tears annually. To meet the goal in sports medicine of safely returning an athlete to her sport, our evaluation, assessment, treatments and prevention strategies must reflect not only our knowledge of the structure and innervations of the knee but neuromuscular control in multiple planes and with multiple forces while at play.

  13. Risk of Disordered Eating Among Division I Female College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    WELLS, ELIZABETH K.; CHIN, ALEXANDRA D.; TACKE, JENNIFER A.; BUNN, JENNIFER A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of disordered eating (DE) among female athletes in lean and non-lean sports using the ATHLETE survey. The ATHLETE survey is divided into six different constructs, and a high score indicates a high risk for DE. Eighty-three varsity female athletes from eight Campbell University sports teams completed the survey and a medical history form anonymously. The sports were divided into sports that traditionally have a high risk for DE (lean sports) and those with a low risk (non-lean sports). The lean sports included: cheerleading, cross country/track and field, swimming, and volleyball. The non-lean sports included: basketball, golf, soccer, and softball. The total mean score of the ATHLETE survey for the lean sports was 100.1 ± 17.4, compared to the non-lean sports scoring 90.1 ± 16.9, p = 0.011. The two constructs that showed significant difference between lean and non-lean sports were Social Pressure on Body Shape (lean: 12.2 ± 3.9, non-lean: 9.4 ± 4.6, p = 0.005) and Team Trust (lean: 7.4 ± 3.3, non-lean: 5.6 ± 2.2, p = 0.004). The results indicate that lean sports exhibited a higher risk for development of DE compared to athletes participating in non-lean sports. It appears that the primary influence of DE in these female athletes came from external social pressures that may therefore dictate their exercise and nutritional habits. PMID:27293502

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Toth, A P; Cordasco, F A

    2001-01-01

    With the participation of women in athletics growing rapidly over the last two decades, a disturbing gender-specific pre-disposition has emerged regarding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries of the knee. Female athletes have a two- to eightfold higher incidence of ACL injury than their male counterparts. It is estimated that 38,000 women sustain ACL tears per year. The majority of ACL injuries in female athletes occur through noncontact mechanisms, most often during deceleration activities, such as landing from a jump or cutting. The risk factors for noncontact ACL injuries can be categorized as intrinsic (anatomic and hormonal) and extrinsic (environmental and biomechanical). This article will discuss these risk factors that are thought to contribute to the higher incidence of ACL injuries in women, the development of prevention strategies, and the outcomes of ACL reconstruction in women.

  15. Competitive Trait Anxiety in Male and Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David W.; Cunningham, Herb

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of competitive trait anxiety (CTA) among university male and female varsity athletes supports the proposed relationship of fear of failure and of evaluation to CTA, but suggests that the pattern of this relationship varies across age, gender, sport, and other variables. (JD)

  16. Appropriate and Inappropriate Practices for Coaching Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity; Sims, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This article is intended to provide coaches, parents/guardians and school administrators with specific guidelines that identify coaching practices that are in the best interests of the adolescent female athlete (appropriate) and those that are counterproductive or even harmful (inappropriate). These guidelines can be used as a self-assessment for…

  17. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  18. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors. PMID:27618372

  19. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; p<.05). Non-athletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (p<.01). A linear regression approach indicated a statistically significant indirect effect (0.63, CI95=0.18, 1.20) of athletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports.

  20. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; p<.05). Non-athletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (p<.01). A linear regression approach indicated a statistically significant indirect effect (0.63, CI95=0.18, 1.20) of athletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports. PMID:25841217

  1. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. PMID:27207600

  2. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  3. Female adolescent athletes' coping: a season-long investigation.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Katherine A; Holt, Nicholas L

    2010-01-01

    Athletes' stressors and coping have been studied over relatively short periods or time (i.e. 28 or 31 days; Nicholls, 2007), but little is known about how stressors and coping fluctuate over the course of an entire competitive season. The first objective of this study was to examine recurrent stressors and coping strategies over the course of the season. The second objective was to examine coping as a process. Thirteen female basketball players (mean age 16 years) completed pre- and post-season interviews and maintained audio diaries during the season. Content analyses were completed and themes were analysed longitudinally across three phases of the season (early, mid, and late). Reported stressors changed across phases of the season, and these changes appeared to relate to the team's changing contextual demands. Coping strategies also changed across phases of the season. Individual profiles of each athlete's coping over the season were created. Ten athletes were generally more reactive in their coping, while only three athletes were more proactive. The three athletes identified with a proactive approach planned their coping and used feedback to evaluate coping efforts. Planning and evaluation appeared to distinguish between more reactive and more proactive coping.

  4. Copper status of collegiate female athletes involved in different sports.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Sorrels, L Michelle; Blessing, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    Copper status was assessed in 70 female collegiate athletes aged 18 to 25 years participating in cross country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics during the 2000-2001 season. A group of 8 college-aged females, 20 to 23 years of age, who were not collegiate athletes, served as controls. Mean copper intakes including supplements did not differ significantly among the controls and athletic teams. Mean copper intakes including supplements as micrograms/day and percent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) were as follows: controls 1071 +/- 772 microg (119 +/- 86%), cross country track 1468 +/- 851 microg (163 +/- 95%), tennis 1099 +/- 856 microg (122 +/- 95%), softball 654 +/- 420 microg (73 +/- 47%), swimming 1351 +/- 1060 g (150 +/- 118%), soccer 695 +/- 368 microg (77 +/- 41%), and gymnastics 940 +/- 863 microg (104 +/- 96%). Forty-one percent of athletes and 29% of controls failed to consume two thirds of the RDA for copper. Mean serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations were within the normal range and did not differ significantly among the controls (117 +/- 22 microg/dl, 445 +/- 122 mg/L) and cross country track (98 +/- 17 microg/dl, 312 +/- 59 mg/L), tennis (140 +/- 84 microg/dl, 424 +/- 244 mg/L), softball (95 +/- 30 microg/dl, 310 +/- 77 mg/L), swimming (98 +/- 25 microg/dl, 312 +/- 40 mg/L), soccer (93 +/- 15 microg/dl, 324 +/- 54 mg/ L), basketball (85 +/- 10 microg/dl, 280 +/- 62 mg/L), and gymnastics (96 +/- 21 microg/dl, 315 +/- 68 mg/L) teams. Copper status of female collegiate athletes appears to be adequate in this cross-sectional assessment.

  5. PREVALENCE OF THE FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD IN HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES AND SEDENTARY STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Anne Z; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Moraski, LuAnn; Carrera, Guillermo F.; Wilson, Charles R.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Schimke, Jane E.; Gutterman, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad (low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density) in high school varsity athletes in a variety of sports compared with sedentary students/controls. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic medical center in the Midwest. Participants Eighty varsity athletes and eighty sedentary students/controls volunteered for this study. Intervention Subjects completed questionnaires, had their blood drawn and underwent bone mineral density testing. Main Outcome Measures Each participant completed screening questionnaires assessing eating behavior, menstrual status and physical activity. Each subject completed a 3-day food diary. Serum hormonal, TSH and prolactin levels were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Low energy availability was present in similar numbers of athletes (36%) and sedentary/control subjects (39%; p=0.74). Athletes suffered more menstrual abnormalities (54%) compared with sedentary students/controls (21%) (p=<0.001). DXA revealed that 16% of the athletes and 30% of the sedentary/controls had low BMD (p=0.03). Risk factors for reduced BMD include sedentary control student, low BMI and increased caffeine consumption. Conclusions A substantial number of high school athletes (78%) and a surprising number of sedentary students (65%) suffer from one or more components of the triad. Given the high prevalence of triad characteristics in both groups, education in the formative elementary school years has the potential to prevent several of the components in both groups, therefore, improving health and averting long-term complications. PMID:19741317

  6. A Study of the Experiences of Black College Female Student Athletes at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Noel Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather descriptive data on the experiences of Black female student athletes. A better understanding of the experiences of Black female student athletes as students, as athletes, and as developing young women may help student affairs practitioners better understand their collegiate experience; provide them with…

  7. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  8. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents. PMID:22741211

  9. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Korotkova, Tatiana A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Stewart, Dennis R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC) and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strength in animal models. Methods: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears – basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball – were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05. Results: 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL). The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL) and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL) and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL) and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL); these differences were not significant (P = 0.53). Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC) differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2.80 ng/mL), and those not using hormonal contraceptives (6.99 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between serum progesterone and SRC and an attenuation of SRC with hormonal contraceptive use. Our results

  10. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete. PMID:26458108

  11. Medications of elderly institutionalized incontinent females.

    PubMed

    Keister, K J; Creason, N S

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore drug use of elderly incontinent female nursing home residents, to identify potential drug--drug interactions, and to identify the number and categories of drugs taken having the potential to cause urinary incontinence. The medication administration records of 84 female residents were examined. The drugs were categorized by therapeutic classification as designated by the American Hospital Formulary Service. Potential drug--drug interactions were identified using The Hansten Drug Interaction Knowledge Base Program, a microcomputer version of Hansten's (1985) book Drug Interactions. Data were computer-coded and analysed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). A total of 454 drugs was taken by the 84 subjects, with an overall average of 5.40 drugs per person. The most frequently taken drugs were gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system agents, electrolytic, caloric, and water balance drugs, and cardiovascular drugs. Fifty per cent (n = 42) of the subjects were identified as having 119 potential drug-drug interactions. Seventy per cent (n = 59) of the subjects were taking a drug having the potential to cause urinary incontinence. Suggestions for future research are presented.

  12. Body composition comparison in two elite female wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Lussier, L; Knight, J; Bell, G; Lohman, T; Morris, A F

    1983-02-01

    It was the purpose of this study to determine body composition by two methods in two excellent female athletes. One sportswoman (SRH) was national wheelchair marathon champion in 1977 in 3 hours, 40 minutes on the Boston course. She still competes internationally and has won three gold medals and set three world records in the last Olympiad for the handicapped in 1980. The second woman athlete (LSJ) competes in wheelchair basketball and track on a national level. Body density was determined by the standard underwater weighing procedure and residual volume determination. A second method to calculate cellular body mass was the measure of potassium 40 (40K) activity by whole body scintillation counter. The characteristics of these athletes are listed as follows: (formula; see text) The results show that both methods of determining adiposity produce results differing by only one percentage point. It is important to determine body composition in these wheelchair athletes since their cellular body mass is decreased because of their disability.

  13. Concerns and Education Regarding Issues of Weight Control and Female Athletes: Body Image and Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    An examination of the interaction of social and cultural influences on body image development may yield an explanation for the development of eating disorder behavior, especially in understanding the special problems facing women athletes. There appear to be two major sociocultural factors influencing the development of body image in the…

  14. [Anthropometric and physiologic profile of Puerto Rican athletes: female softball].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Rivas, C A; Rivera-Brown, A M

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe and compare various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 12 female athletes, members of the Puerto Rico national softball team. The subjects were divided into three categories according to their game specific requirements (game position): infielders (n = 5), outfielders (n = 4), and pitchers (n = 3). The mean and standard deviations of all the variables in each group was calculated. These athletes demonstrated high levels of body fat and below optimal levels of flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. The results revealed deficiencies in the health related fitness components and in the physical preparation for sports competition. These results also suggest that the subjects are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, sport injuries, and poor sport performance.

  15. The effect of neuromuscular training on the incidence of knee injury in female athletes. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hewett, T E; Lindenfeld, T N; Riccobene, J V; Noyes, F R

    1999-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of neuromuscular training on the incidence of knee injury in female athletes, we monitored two groups of female athletes, one trained before sports participation and the other not trained, and a group of untrained male athletes throughout the high school soccer, volleyball, and basketball seasons. Weekly reports included the number of practice and competition exposures and mechanism of injury. There were 14 serious knee injuries in the 1263 athletes tracked through the study. Ten of 463 untrained female athletes sustained serious knee injuries (8 noncontact), 2 of 366 trained female athletes sustained serious knee injuries (0 noncontact), and 2 of 434 male athletes sustained serious knee injuries (1 noncontact). The knee injury incidence per 1000 athlete-exposures was 0.43 in untrained female athletes, 0.12 in trained female athletes, and 0.09 in male athletes (P = 0.02, chi-square analysis). Untrained female athletes had a 3.6 times higher incidence of knee injury than trained female athletes (P = 0.05) and 4.8 times higher than male athletes (P = 0.03). The incidence of knee injury in trained female athletes was not significantly different from that in untrained male athletes (P = 0.86). The difference in the incidence of noncontact injuries between the female groups was also significant (P = 0.01). This prospective study demonstrated a decreased incidence of knee injury in female athletes after a specific plyometric training program.

  16. Use of the Preparticipation Physical Exam in Screening for the Female Athlete Triad among High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Torre, Dena M.; Snell, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  17. Female Head Athletic Trainers in NCAA Division I (IA Football) Athletics: How They Made It to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorant, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not carry over into positions of high rank. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of female head athletic trainers in…

  18. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…

  19. Left ventricular morphology and function in female athletes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Whyte, G P; George, K; Nevill, A; Shave, R; Sharma, S; McKenna, W J

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of physical training upon cardiac structure and function, and identify physiologic upper limits in female athletes. Meta-analytical techniques were applied to 13 published echocardiographic studies examining cardiac structure and function in female athletes. The study group included 890 athletes and 333 controls. For comparison of sporting discipline, studies were partitioned into 3 categories (endurance, strength/sprint, team). Significant (p < 0.05) effect sizes were observed for all structural measures between athletes and controls. Significant effect size differences existed between sporting groups for LVIDd and LVM only, with endurance and team game athletes demonstrating the largest effect sizes compared to strength trained athletes. No significant effect of training was observed for left ventricular diastolic or systolic function, with the exception of stroke volume where a significant effect size difference was observed between athletes and controls with no observed difference between sporting groups. Maximum reported upper limits for LV wall thickness and LVIDd in female athletes were 12 mm and 66 mm respectively. Chronic exercise training results in cardiac enlargement in female athletes. The nature of physiologic adaptation is similar to that observed in male athletes. LV wall thickness values greater than 12 mm in female athletes should be viewed with caution and indicate a more comprehensive evaluation to establish a physiological or pathological basis for the observed left ventricular enlargement.

  20. Serum ferritin and anemia in trained female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ashenden, M J; Martin, D T; Dobson, G P; Mackintosh, C; Hahn, A G

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether extremely low serum ferritin values in female athletes were associated with indications of iron deficiency anemia and whether serum ferritin values were influenced by the type of training or participants' body size. Hematological data collected during 6 years at the Australian Institute of Sport were reviewed to quantify changes in serum ferritin concentration associated with training and to establish whether decrements in serum ferritin were associated with any change in hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Mean serum ferritin concentrations of 7.5 microg x L(-1) were not associated with any indication of iron-deficiency anemia. Serum ferritin declined by approximately 25% with the onset of rigorous daily training (p < .01) whether training was predominantly weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing. Rowers had significantly higher ferritin concentrations than basketball players of similar stature (p=.02). We conclude that considerable background information such as the stage of training, specific sport, and previous blood results should be sought when interpreting serum ferritin concentrations in female athletes.

  1. Exercise and bone mineral density in mature female athletes.

    PubMed

    Dook, J E; James, C; Henderson, N K; Price, R I

    1997-03-01

    An understanding of the relationship between weight-bearing activity and bone mineral density (BMD) is important in devising strategies to maximize and maintain skeletal strength in the female population, particularly those entering menopause. Three contrasting groups (N = 20) of mature female athletes (42-50 yr) with long-term (> 20 yr) histories of significant training and performance in their chosen sport were studied cross-sectionally. The groups were: (i) high impact sport (netball/basketball; HIGH), (ii) medium impact sport (running/field hockey; MED) and (iii) a nonimpact sport (swimming; NON) and (iv) a nonsport control group (CON; N = 20). Whole body and regional BMD and body composition (fat and lean mass) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Isometric strength of dominant arm flexors and leg extensors was measured by a strain tensiometer. With an alpha level of significance of 0.05, HIGH showed significantly greater whole body and regional leg BMD than NON or CON. MED registered higher values than CON for whole body and regional leg BMD. Only HIGH had significantly greater leg strength than CON. Regional arm BMD was significantly greater in all exercising groups compared with CON, but no significant difference in arm strength was found between any groups. The athletic groups all had significantly lower body fat and higher height-corrected lean mass than CON. Height-corrected lean mass, height and leg extensor strength, but not calcium intake, arm flexor strength or body fat, were significant predictors of whole body and regional arm and leg BMD. Using the significant predictors as covariates, the impact groups (HIGH/MED) had significantly higher whole body BMD than CON. HIGH also had significantly higher whole body BMD than NON and both impact groups were greater than NON in regional leg BMD. Results suggest that females who participate regularly in the premenopausal years in high impact physical activity tend to have higher BMD than

  2. Postactivation potentiation enhances upper- and lower-body athletic performance in collegiate male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Evetovich, Tammy K; Conley, Donovan S; McCawley, Paul F

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postactivation potentiation (PAP)-inducing activities in 4 separate studies examining vertical (VJP) and horizontal (HJP) jump performance, shot put performance (SPP), and sprint performance (SP), in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Study 1: 12 male (mean ± SD; age = 20.2 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; weight = 73.3 ± 6.43 kg) and 8 female (age = 20.1 ± 1.0 years; height = 169.6 ± 5.5 cm; weight = 59.8 ± 7.6 kg) track athletes participated in HJP and VJP testing before and after performing a parallel back squat (PBS) at 85% 1 repetition maximum (RM). Study 2: 10 (6 men and 4 women) shot put throwers (age = 20.6 ± 0.7 years; height = 182.1 ± 9.8 cm; weight = 102.8 ± 23.6 kg) participated in SPP testing for control (C), 3RM bench press, and 3RM PBS protocols. Study 3: 7 football players (age = 20.4 ± 1.6 years; weight = 87.8 ± 8.3 kg; height = 184.3 ± 7.2 cm) participated in SP testing before (PBS1) and after (PBS2) performing a 3RM PBS. Study 4: 11 football players (age = 20.3 ± 1.8 years; height = 180.6 ± 7.5 cm; weight = 86.1 ± 12.8 kg) participated in VJP testing for C and 3RM PBS protocols. Results of study 1: There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in VJP (PRE = 61.9 ± 12.3 cm; POST = 63.6 ± 11.6 cm) and HJP (PRE = 93.7 ± 11.0 cm; POST = 95.9 ± 11.5 cm). Study 2: SPP after PBS (11.67 ± 1.92 m) was not different vs. C (11.77 ± 1.81), but bench press (11.91 ± 1.81 m) was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) than both PBS and C. Study 3: SP time was significantly lower for PBS2 (4.6014 ± 0.17995 seconds) vs. PB1 (4.6557 ± 0.19603 seconds). Study 4: There was no difference in VJP for C (68.35 ± 2.16 cm) vs. PBS (68.12 ± 2.51 cm). Our data show that a 3RM PBS resulted in significant improvements in VJP, HJP, SPP, and SP in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II male and female athletes. Strength and conditioning practitioners

  3. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  4. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  5. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  6. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  7. When Pleasure and Pain Take the Field: The Experience of the Body in Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghidinelli, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the subjective experiences of training and competition at the collegiate level in a small group of former Division I female collegiate athletes. A review of relevant research indicates there is a dearth of qualitative studies on the experiences of female collegiate athletes. The current study explored the experience of pushing…

  8. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in…

  9. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  10. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Faber, J; Sidelmann, J J; Aziz, M; Sjödin, A

    2015-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad), links low energy availability (EA), with menstrual dysfunction (MD), and impaired bone health. The aims of this study were to examine associations between EA/MD and energy metabolism and the prevalence of Triad-associated conditions in endurance athletes. Forty women [26.2 ± 5.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.6 ± 2.0 kg/m(2), body fat 20.0 ± 3.0%], exercising 11.4 ± 4.5 h/week, were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocol included gynecological examination; assessment of bone health; indirect respiratory calorimetry; diet and exercise measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (< 45 kcal/kg FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 ± 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 ± 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.01], as did subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 ± 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 ± 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.05). 63% had low/reduced EA, 25% ED, 60% MD, 45% impaired bone health, and 23% had all three Triad conditions. 53% had low RMR, 25% hypercholesterolemia, and 38% hypoglycemia. Conclusively, athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency. PMID:24888644

  11. Are You Successfully Serving the Female Athletes on Your Campus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Kelly M.

    2009-01-01

    Girls today have never known a time of athletic inequality. That is why it is so important to build a strong collection for this particular patron base so the voices of the past can encourage the goals of present and future athletes. The young girls of today have grown up with a wide range of athletic opportunities and most do not know of the…

  12. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    PubMed

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. PMID:27031318

  13. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    PubMed

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation.

  14. Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.

    PubMed

    Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

    2013-09-01

    As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention

  15. [Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and bone. Abnormal bone metabolism in female elite athletes].

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Recently, female athletes are particularly well, the other hand, many athletes suffer from amenorrhea due to excessive training. Especially, in sports with weight restrictions, they suffer from "Female athlete triad" , eating disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. Amenorrhea is nothing else than a lack of estrogen, action on bone resorption and promote bone formation, by neglect this, it lead to osteoporosis and a stress fracture, and they would often give up their career as elite athletes. So we should consider it as serious sports injury. The problems of amenorrhea is should be recognized as a deficiency of estrogen. A Case of amenorrhea in female athletes, it is necessary to consider the hormone replacement therapy based on the appropriate diagnosis. However, it is important to start the management of body fat and body weight and strength of exercises since adolescent for the prevention the amenorrhea. PMID:20354328

  16. The female athletic role as a status determinant within the social systems of high school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kane, M J

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between female athletic participation and status attainment within the social status systems of high school adolescents. Although earlier research has consistently demonstrated that the athletic role for males is associated with greatest status within the school, findings regarding the status of female athletes have been contradictory: Some studies have found high status rankings for female athletes while others have revealed negative results. It was therefore argued that current research go beyond the general construct of "female athlete" and consider the type of sport with which the adolescent female is associated as a possible status determinant. Employing a sport typology proposed by Metheny (1967), it was predicted that females associated with sex-appropriate or "feminine" sports (e.g., tennis) would receive significantly higher status ratings than those identified with sex-inappropriate or "masculine" sports (e.g., basketball). One hundred and twenty-one male subjects were asked to indicate which female athlete (associated with a sex-appropriate versus a sex-inappropriate sport) they would most like to date, while 111 female subjects were asked to choose which female athlete they would most like to have as a friend. Chi-square analyses revealed that, as predicted, females associated with sex-appropriate sports were given significantly greater status than females identified with sex-inappropriate sports by both male and female subjects. These results suggest that social assessments made about female sport participation within high school status systems remain heavily influenced by traditional beliefs regarding feminine, "ladylike" behavior.

  17. Eating disorders and their putative risk factors among female German professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p < .01). All factors together accounted for 57.3% of variation in disordered eating, with sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability.

  18. Eating disorders and their putative risk factors among female German professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p < .01). All factors together accounted for 57.3% of variation in disordered eating, with sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. PMID:25828261

  19. An Investigation of the Factors that Can Predict Philanthropic Support for Former Female Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that best describe the philanthropic motivations of female student-athletes when considering making financial contributions to their alma mater. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 2,351 alumnae student-athletes which had 347 respondents. The independent variables chosen were…

  20. The Female Athlete Triad. Managing an Acute Risk to Long-Term Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Lynch, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis form an interconnected, potentially fatal triad that is not widely understood. Physician vigilance when treating young female athletes can lead to early recognition and prevention of serious consequences. Physicians must help athletic young women participate in their sports in the healthiest, safest…

  1. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  2. Career and Family Aspirations of Female Athletic Trainers Employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be

  3. Exercise in the older adult: from the sedentary elderly to the masters athlete.

    PubMed

    Concannon, Leah G; Grierson, Matthew J; Harrast, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    The diverse exercise goals of the aging population present several challenges to physicians. Whereas some Masters athletes aim to set personal time records, sedentary elderly persons may look to exercise to help maintain independence and combat functional decline. This review article examines the common cardiovascular and neuromuscular physiological changes associated with aging and how regular exercise is used to improve physiological parameters and functional abilities. Exercise precautions specific to the elderly population are discussed. Exercise recommendations for persons with osteoarthritis and after joint arthroplasty also are presented.

  4. Reducing the risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Barber-Westin, Sue D; Noyes, Frank R; Smith, Stephanie Tutalo; Campbell, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    High school and collegiate female athletes have a significantly increased risk of sustaining a noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury compared with male athletes participating in the same sport. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the risk factors hypothesized to influence this problem, and the neuromuscular training programs designed to correct certain biomechanical problems noted in female athletes. The risk factors include a genetic predisposition for sustaining a knee ligament injury, environmental factors, anatomical indices, hormonal influences, and neuromuscular factors. The greatest amount of research in this area has studied differences between female and male athletes in movement patterns during athletic tasks; muscle strength, activation, and recruitment patterns; and knee joint stiffness under controlled, preplanned, and reactive conditions in the laboratory. Neuromuscular retraining programs have been developed in an attempt to reduce these differences. The successful programs teach athletes to control the upper body, trunk, and lower body position; lower the center of gravity by increasing hip and knee flexion during activities; and develop muscular strength and techniques to land with decreased ground reaction forces. In addition, athletes are taught to preposition the body and lower extremity prior to initial ground contact to obtain the position of greatest knee joint stability and stiffness. Two published programs have significantly reduced the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes participating in basketball, soccer, and volleyball. Other programs were ineffective, had a poor study design, or had an insufficient number of participants, which precluded a true reduction in the risk of this injury. In order to determine which risk factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are significant, future investigations should include larger cohorts of athletes in multiple sports

  5. Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zach, Karie N; Smith Machin, Ariane L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-07-01

    Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation. PMID:21658548

  6. Epidemiology of Basketball, Soccer, and Volleyball Injuries in Middle-School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention's immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported;…

  8. Female Intercollegiate Athlete Alcohol Use: The Impact of Peer Social Networks on the Alcohol Use of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentson, Sally Ingrid Sagen

    2010-01-01

    Using a quantitative, correlational-exploratory design, this study explored the impact of peer social network size and composition on the alcohol use rates of first-year female athletes after 6 weeks of their first year of college, using the National College Health Assessment II and researcher-composed supplemental questions. Additionally, this…

  9. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  10. Conditioning for Thinness. The Dilemma of Eating-Disordered Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overdorf, Virginia G.

    1987-01-01

    The preoccupation of some female sports enthusiasts with thinness is frequently symptomatic of underlaying emotional problems. This article examines the problem and makes suggestions to enable coaches to cope with these athletes. (MT)

  11. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  12. Structural equation modeling of risk factors for the development of eating disorder symptoms in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Jackman, L P; Anderson, D A; Funsch, C L; Rabalais, J Y

    1995-05-01

    Risk factors for the development of eating disorder symptoms in female college athletes were studied using structural equation modeling. Three risk factors: social influence for thinness, athletic performance anxiety, and self-appraisal of athletic achievement, were selected for study. The association of these risk factors and eating disorder symptoms was hypothesized to be mediated by overconcern with body size and shape. The study sample was 98 women recruited from eight sports teams at a major university. Structural equation modeling analysis supported the hypothesized model and cross-validation of the model showed the findings to be stable. The results of this correlational study suggested that eating disorder symptoms in college athletes are significantly influenced by the interaction of sociocultural pressure for thinness, athletic performance anxiety, and negative self-appraisal of athletic achievement. If these risk factors lead to overconcern with body size and shape, then the emergence of an eating disorder is more probable. PMID:7620479

  13. Competition alters the perception of noxious stimuli in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, W F; Bailin, D; Grant, M; Gracely, R H

    1998-05-01

    The ability of athletes to continue to compete despite sustaining painful injury is often interpreted as evidence for the activation of endogenous analgesia mechanisms. However, alterations in perception of noxious stimuli during competition have not yet been systematically investigated. This experiment evaluated experimental pain sensitivity in male and female athletes 2 days before, immediately following, and 2 days after competition. Non-athlete controls were evaluated at the same intervals. Competition dramatically reduced pain report on the cold-pressor test in all athletes. Withdrawal latencies to noxious heat also were altered by competition, with finger withdrawal latency decreasing and arm withdrawal latency increasing in most athletes. No changes in pain report were observed across time in non-athlete controls. Competition induces both hyperalgesic and analgesic states that are dependent on the body region tested and pain assessment methodology used.

  14. Sex-Role Conflict in Female Athletes: A Possible Marker for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzig, Diane L.

    The impact of sex-role conflict among females has been an issue of concern in both the sports arena and the field of alcoholism. This study explored the similarities in sex-role conflict between female athletes and alcoholic women. Subjects were 30 female inpatients of a chemical dependency treatment center; 30 undergraduate students; and 30…

  15. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings.

  16. rs6295 [C]-Allele Protects Against Depressive Mood in Elderly Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Haslacher, Helmuth; Michlmayr, Matthias; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Perkmann, Thomas; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Scheichenberger, Vanessa; Scherzer, Thomas M; Nistler, Sonja; Pilger, Alexander; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Lehrner, Johann; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald F; Winker, Robert

    2015-12-01

    A single nucleotide variant within the promoter of the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5HT1A) receptor, rs6295, is part of a binding site for the transcription factor. We aimed to ascertain whether the rs6295 mediates the effect of exercise on depressive mood in elderly endurance athletes. We prospectively enrolled 55 elderly athletes (marathon runners/bicyclists) and 58 controls. In a controlled, univariate model, an interaction between the [C]-allele and physical activity indicated that only among athletes, the variant resulting in an imperfect NUDR binding site was associated with a lower depression score. Hence, athletes presented with a significantly lower relative risk of achieving a suspicious depression score among carriers of at least one [C]-allele. Our results suggest that the positive effect of physical exercise on depressive mood might be mediated by the 5HT1A receptor and the extent of this protective effect seems to be enhanced by the [C]-allele of the rs6295 variant.

  17. Biomechanical and Performance Differences Between Female Soccer Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rose; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Holleran, Adam; Treadway, Erin; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in women's varsity soccer participation has been accompanied by a lower extremity injury rate that is 2 to 6 times that of their male counterparts. Objective: To define the differences between lower extremity biomechanics (knee abduction and knee flexion measures) and performance (maximal vertical jump height) between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III female soccer athletes during a drop vertical jump. Design: Mixed 2 × 2 design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female collegiate soccer players (Division I: n = 19; Division III: n = 15) participated in the study. The groups were similar in height and mass. Intervention(s): Each subject performed a maximal vertical jump, followed by 3 drop vertical jumps. Main Outcome Measure(s): Kinematics (knee abduction and flexion angles) and kinetics (knee abduction and flexion moments) were measured with a motion analysis system and 2 force platforms during the drop vertical jumps. Results: Knee abduction angular range of motion and knee abduction external moments were not different between groups (P > .05). However, Division I athletes demonstrated decreased knee flexion range of motion (P = .038) and greater peak external knee flexion moment (P = .009) compared with Division III athletes. Division I athletes demonstrated increased vertical jump height compared with Division III (P = .008). Conclusions: Division I athletes demonstrated different sagittal-plane mechanics than Division III athletes, which may facilitate improved performance. The similarities in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors (knee abduction torques and angles) may correlate with the consistent incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury across divisions. PMID:18174935

  18. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed.

  19. Self-reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in norwegian female elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Jannike; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self- reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in female elite athletes and non-athletic controls. A random sample of Norwegian elite athletes from the national teams, aged 13-39 years (n = 186) and a random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 145) in the same age group participated in the study. The athletes represented a junior- or senior team, or a recruiting squad for one of these teams, in one of 46 different sports/events. A higher percentage of athletes self-reported stress fractures (14.0%) compared to those diagnosed with stress fractures (8.1%) (p < 0.001). Six controls self- reported stress fractures, but none of them were diagnosed with stress fractures. These results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity. This finding has important implications for further research on stress fractures in athletes. Key pointsThis study is the first to compare self-reported and diagnosed stress fractures in the total population of elite athletes representing all kinds of sports.The results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity in both athletes and non-athletic controls, and other measurement methods should be considered when evaluating possible stress fractures.Based on our results, stress fractures seem to be a sport-related injury.

  20. Team management of the female athlete triad part 2: optimal treatment and prevention tactics.

    PubMed

    Joy, E; Clark, N; Ireland, M L; Martire, J; Nattiv, A; Varechok, S

    1997-04-01

    Multidisciplinary management of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis) is optimal, but what exactly does it entail? With the primary care physician as the point person, the healthcare team addresses the underlying causes of disordered eating through such measures as drawing up a contract for returning to play, resolving nutrition issues, exploring psychotherapy options, and, sometimes, prescribing antidepressants. Hormone replacement therapy and conservative or orthopedic intervention for stress fractures may also be required. Communication among the members of the treatment team is crucial, and athletic trainers especially can provide valuable input. Prevention strategies need to involve education of coaches, teachers, trainers, parents, and others who work closely with female athletes.

  1. Recognition and rehabilitation of the female athlete triad/tetrad: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Temme, Kate E; Hoch, Anne Z

    2013-01-01

    While the benefits of physical activity are numerous, the female athlete triad poses a significant health risk to young athletes. Emerging research links the triad to endothelial dysfunction--a sentinel event in cardiovascular disease--suggesting that this complex interplay of metabolic and endocrine factors may be described more accurately as a tetrad. Effective treatment of the triad/tetrad requires a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis must be placed on prevention, recognition, and treatment of triad for the promotion of healthy nutritional and activity profiles in female athletes across their lifespans. PMID:23669090

  2. Analysis of body esteem of female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    DiNucci, J M; Finkenberg, M E; McCune, S L; McCune, E D; Mayo, T

    1994-02-01

    Scores on three subscales of the Body Esteem Scale were analyzed for the effect of group participation on body esteem. Intercollegiate women athletes from three sports (basketball, n = 9; volleyball, n = 10; and softball, n = 12) and a control group of 34 women who did not participate in athletics were respondents. Scores on Weight Concern and Physical Condition significantly discriminated between the groups. On Weight Concern the mean of the control group was significantly lower than those of the athletic groups. On Physical Condition the control group mean was significantly lower than that of the basketball group. Other comparisons were not significant.

  3. Bone geometry according to menstrual function in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Peirce, N; Bailey, C A; Summers, G; Cameron, N; Brooke-Wavell, K

    2013-05-01

    Athletes have higher bone mineral density (BMD) relative to nonathletes. In amenorrheic athletes BMD may be compromised by estrogen deficiency, but it is unknown whether this is accompanied by structural differences. We compared femoral neck bone geometry and density of a-/oligomenorrheic athletes (AAs), eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), and eumenorrheic controls (ECs). We recruited 156 women: (68 endurance athletes and 88 controls). Femoral neck BMD, section modulus (Z), and width were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Menstrual function was assessed by questionnaire and classified as EA (≥10 periods/year) or AA (≤9 periods/year): 24 athletes were AA and 44 EA. Femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in EA than AA (8 %, difference) and EC (11 % difference): mean [SE] 1.118 [0.015], 1.023 [0.020] and 0.999 [0.014] g cm(-2), respectively; p < 0.001. Z was significantly higher in EA than EC (11 % difference): EA 667 [19], AA 625 [21], and EC 592 [10] cm(3); p < 0.001. Femoral neck width did not differ between groups. All differences persisted after adjustment for height, age, and body mass. The higher femoral neck Z and BMD in athletes, despite similar width, may indicate that exercise-related bone gains are endosteal rather than periosteal. Athletes with amenorrhea had smaller increments in bone mass rather than structural adaptation. The maintained femoral neck width in controls may be an adaptive mechanism to conserve bone strength in bending despite inactivity-related bone decrement.

  4. Bone geometry according to menstrual function in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Peirce, N; Bailey, C A; Summers, G; Cameron, N; Brooke-Wavell, K

    2013-05-01

    Athletes have higher bone mineral density (BMD) relative to nonathletes. In amenorrheic athletes BMD may be compromised by estrogen deficiency, but it is unknown whether this is accompanied by structural differences. We compared femoral neck bone geometry and density of a-/oligomenorrheic athletes (AAs), eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), and eumenorrheic controls (ECs). We recruited 156 women: (68 endurance athletes and 88 controls). Femoral neck BMD, section modulus (Z), and width were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Menstrual function was assessed by questionnaire and classified as EA (≥10 periods/year) or AA (≤9 periods/year): 24 athletes were AA and 44 EA. Femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in EA than AA (8 %, difference) and EC (11 % difference): mean [SE] 1.118 [0.015], 1.023 [0.020] and 0.999 [0.014] g cm(-2), respectively; p < 0.001. Z was significantly higher in EA than EC (11 % difference): EA 667 [19], AA 625 [21], and EC 592 [10] cm(3); p < 0.001. Femoral neck width did not differ between groups. All differences persisted after adjustment for height, age, and body mass. The higher femoral neck Z and BMD in athletes, despite similar width, may indicate that exercise-related bone gains are endosteal rather than periosteal. Athletes with amenorrhea had smaller increments in bone mass rather than structural adaptation. The maintained femoral neck width in controls may be an adaptive mechanism to conserve bone strength in bending despite inactivity-related bone decrement. PMID:23361333

  5. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20±3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Results: Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports. PMID:24728243

  6. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between 2 groups of female college students: varsity athletes and controls (nonathletes). DESIGN AND SETTING: We obtained descriptive data using an anonymous, self-report survey instrument. The instrument assessed eating habits and behaviors as well as alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors. SUBJECTS: One hundred forty-nine female varsity athletes and 209 female controls (nonathletes) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I universities. MEASUREMENTS: Data collected included weight and desired weight, meal patterns, methods of gaining or losing weight, details of past or current eating problem, 2-week alcohol consumption quantity and frequency (binge drinking), and problem alcohol behaviors. We used chi-square analysis for nominal data and t tests and multivariate analysis of variance for interval data. RESULTS: Compared with athletes, nonathletes ate fewer meals, and more of them reported feeling that they were too heavy and lied about their weight-control practices. Neither group reported high rates of pathologic behaviors such as vomiting. Nearly 18% of athletes and 26% of controls reported a past or current eating disorder. Athletes did not differ from controls in reported 2-week alcohol consumption, including binge drinking (nearly 50% of both groups). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors exist in both athletes and controls but not at different rates. This finding may be a result of coach, athletic trainer, and peer-group counseling at these 2 schools or a general trend for lower rates of unhealthy behaviors among female athletes. PMID:12937474

  7. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between 2 groups of female college students: varsity athletes and controls (nonathletes). Design and Setting: We obtained descriptive data using an anonymous, self-report survey instrument. The instrument assessed eating habits and behaviors as well as alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors. Subjects: One hundred forty-nine female varsity athletes and 209 female controls (nonathletes) from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I universities. Measurements: Data collected included weight and desired weight, meal patterns, methods of gaining or losing weight, details of past or current eating problem, 2-week alcohol consumption quantity and frequency (binge drinking), and problem alcohol behaviors. We used chi-square analysis for nominal data and t tests and multivariate analysis of variance for interval data. Results: Compared with athletes, nonathletes ate fewer meals, and more of them reported feeling that they were too heavy and lied about their weight-control practices. Neither group reported high rates of pathologic behaviors such as vomiting. Nearly 18% of athletes and 26% of controls reported a past or current eating disorder. Athletes did not differ from controls in reported 2-week alcohol consumption, including binge drinking (nearly 50% of both groups). Conclusions: Self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors exist in both athletes and controls but not at different rates. This finding may be a result of coach, athletic trainer, and peer-group counseling at these 2 schools or a general trend for lower rates of unhealthy behaviors among female athletes. PMID:12937474

  8. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea.

  9. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea. PMID:22349258

  10. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  11. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  12. The Female Athlete: Evaluation and Treatment of Sports-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Teitz; Hu; Arendt

    1997-03-01

    Although many of the problems faced by the female athlete affect the male athlete as well, some occur exclusively or more commonly in women. These include spondylolisthesis, stress fractures in the pelvis and hip, and pelvic floor dysfunction. Female athletes are also more likely to have patellofemoral problems, noncontact anterior cruciate ligament tears, and bunions. For many of these conditions, the relative influences of osseous anatomy, ligamentous laxity, and the effect of sex hormones have not yet been established. There are also problems related specifically to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Amenorrhea is present in up to 20% of vigorously exercising women. The term "female athlete triad" has been coined to describe the complex interplay of menstrual irregularity, disordered eating, and premature osteoporosis seen in the female athlete. Many of the concerns related to exercise during pregnancy focus on the safety of the fetus rather than the athlete herself. Musculoskeletal problems in the physically active pregnant woman are related to weight gain, ligamentous relaxation, lordosis, and change in the center of gravity.

  13. Impact of intense training and rapid weight changes on salivary parameters in elite female Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-L; Ko, M-H; Chang, C-K; Chou, K-M; Fang, S-H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the cumulative effects of prolonged intensive training with or without rapid weight changes (RWC) on salivary parameters of elite female Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. Ten elite female Taiwanese TKD athletes (ages: 21.3 ± 1.2 years of age, Ht 164.4 ± 5.6 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. Resting saliva samples were collected at 28-, 14-, 7-, and 1 day before and 1-, 7-, 21 days after a national competition. The levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. In analyzing the anthropometric data, we found that a significant proportion (50%) of elite female TKD athletes had RWC shortly before and after a national competition. The participants were allocated either to the RWC or to the non-RWC group according to their weight change profiles. Our results showed that levels of sIgA and cortisol of athletes with RWC were significantly modulated during the study period. However, athletes without RWC only showed reduced lactoferrin after competition. The results presented here demonstrate that intensive training in combination with RWC affects the mucosal immunity and disrupts the cortisol stress response of elite female TKD athletes.

  14. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  15. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  16. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  17. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  18. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: why are women more susceptible?

    PubMed

    Moeller, J L; Lamb, M M

    1997-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur most frequently in planting and cutting sports such as basketball, soccer, and volleyball. National Collegiate Athletic Association injury data show that female athletes injure the ACL more frequently than their male counterparts do. The greater incidence of ACL injuries in women probably stems from complex, interrelated factors, possibly including hamstring-quadriceps strength imbalances, joint laxity, and the use of ankle braces. Successful treatment often includes surgery.

  20. Preparing a female collegiate athlete for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Leech, Edward

    2003-01-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament injury is common among athletes involved in sports where cutting or sudden changes of position occur. This is a case study of a female collegiate athlete who sustained an anterior cruciate ligament injury, with a small meniscus tear, and decides on a course of surgery. Questions she has about the initial injury, as well as subsequent questions concerning reconstructive surgery using a patellar graft and the course of rehabilitation, are answered. A chart of her rehabilitation protocol is provided.

  1. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Its Association With Emotion Regulation in Female College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Wollenberg, Gena; Gates, Gale E

    2016-06-01

    The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted. PMID:26568582

  2. Field dependence-independence of male and female Spanish athletes.

    PubMed

    Caño, J E; Márquez, S

    1995-06-01

    We examined the field dependence-independence of Spanish athletes, 293 men and women (aged 18 to 23 years) active in individual and team sports, and nonathletes. Subjects were tested on the Group Embedded Figures Test. Analysis indicated that men active in team sports were more field-dependent than those non-involved in sports, and that team-sport women exhibited a higher field-dependence than individual-sport athletes or nonathletes of both sexes. Our data reflect a significant interaction between type of sport and sex. PMID:7478872

  3. Influence of ghrelin and adipocytokines on bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes with amenorrhea and eumenorrheic athletes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Melissa; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent female athletes are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) secondary to exercise-induced hypogonadism. Of particular concern is that the adolescent years are also a critical time for bone accrual, and deficits incurred during this period could lead to suboptimal peak bone mass acquisition and subsequent fracture risk in later life. Although weight-bearing exercise is typically associated with an increase in BMD, amenorrheic athletes have lower BMD than eumenorrheic athletes and nonathletic controls as a consequence of low energy availability and subsequent hypogonadism. It is important to recognize that critical interactions exist between net energy availability and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis that are key to the development of a hypogonadal state when energy intake cannot keep pace with expenditure. While the link between energy availability and gonadtotropin pulsatility patterns is well established, the actual metabolic signals that link the two are less clear. Decreased energy availability in athletes is associated with decreases in fat mass, and alterations in adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and fat-regulated hormones (such as ghrelin and peptide YY). These hormones impact the H-P-G axis in animal models, and it is possible that in athletes alterations in fat-related hormones signal the state of energy availability to the hypothalamus and contribute to suppression of gonadotropin pulsatility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and consequent decreased BMD. A better understanding of pathways linking low energy availability with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and low BMD is critical for the development of future therapeutic strategies addressing these issues in amenorrheic athletes. PMID:20956863

  4. The Level of Competition as a Factor for the Development of Eating Disorders in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Christy L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes among 39 female college athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools, 40 from NCAA Division II schools, and 31 nonathletes. Athletes at higher levels of competition showed more signs of pathological eating and were at increased risk of eating disorders. (SLD)

  5. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. Objectives: This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients’ knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Conclusions: Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury. PMID:27218040

  6. Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The sex disparity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk and the subsequent adverse effects on knee joint health, psychosocial well-being, and financial costs incurred have produced a surge in research on risk factors and interventions designed to decrease this disparity and overall incidence. Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase noncontact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Evidence demonstrates that many risk factors are modifiable with intervention programs and that athletic performance measures can be enhanced. No universally accepted ACL injury prevention program currently exists, and injury prevention programs are diverse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs introduced in a warm-up format offer multiple benefits, primarily, improved compliance based on improved practicality of implementation. However, drawbacks of warm-up style formats also exist, most notably that a lack of equipment and resources may preclude measurable improvements in athletic performance that foster improved compliance among participants. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current literature researching possible biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors in noncontact ACL injury in female athletes and the most effective means of implementing critical elements of a program to decrease ACL injury risk in female athletes while improving athletic performance. Hip and hamstring training, core stabilization, plyometrics, balance, agility, neuromuscular training with video and verbal feedback to modify technique, and stretching appear to be essential components of these programs. Further research is critical to determine ideal training program volume, intensity, duration, and frequency.

  7. The New Policy on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes is not about “Sex Testing”

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Patiño, María José; Vilain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) updated their regulations regarding female elite athletes with hyperandrogenism: Females whose testosterone levels crossed into the male range could not compete with other females unless it is shown that they are resistant to the effects of testosterone. Although the new rule is a marked improvement over past attempts to ensure that males were not trying to compete as women in elite competition, there have been several criticisms leveled against the new regulations. Here we offer our reactions to claims that the new regulation promotes a sex-verification test, claims that intersex athletes will automatically be disqualified from competition, and proposals to either divide athletes based on variables beyond sex or completely eliminate sex groupings. Although elite sports can never achieve a perfect, level playing-field, there should be parameters within which athletes must adhere for a given sport. Yet, elite athletes themselves should play a decisive role in what is best for their sport. PMID:23320653

  8. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ayers, J L; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, T G; Adams, K J

    2016-09-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  9. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, JL; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, TG

    2016-01-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed. PMID:27601779

  10. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ayers, J L; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, T G; Adams, K J

    2016-09-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed. PMID:27601779

  11. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, JL; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, TG

    2016-01-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  12. Breathing strategy in master athletes and untrained elderly subjects according to the incremental protocol.

    PubMed

    Deruelle, Fabien; Nourry, Cédric; Mucci, Patrick; Bart, Frédéric; Grosbois, Jean-Marie; Lensel, Ghislaine; Fabre, Claudine

    2006-06-01

    To analyze the influence of step-duration protocol (1 vs. 3 min) on breathing strategy according to the physical fitness of healthy elderly subjects, this study compared the ventilatory responses and exercise tidal flow-volume loops (ETFVL) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT(1) and VT(2)). Nineteen master athletes (mean age (+/- SD), 63.1 +/- 3.2 y; (.)VO(2)(max), 41.5 mL x (min x kg)(-1)) and 8 untrained elderly subjects (age, 65.5 +/- 2.3 y; (.)VO(2)(max), 25.8 mL x (min x kg)(-1)) performed 2 exhaustive exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. In untrained subjects, at VT(1) and VT(2), no significant difference was measured in ventilatory responses and ETFVL between protocols. Master athletes, at VT(2), presented a significantly higher (.)VCO(2) (P < 0.01), ventilation ((.)VE; P < 0.01), breathing frequency (f(b); P < 0.05), tidal volume relative to inspiratory capatcity (V(t)/IC) (P < 0.01),V(t) relative to forced vital capacity (V(t)/FVC; P < 0.05), and lower inspiratory reserve volume relative to FVC (IRV/FVC; P < 0.01) during the 1 min protocol than during the 3 min protocol. Master athletes, at maximal exercise, expressed significantly higher (.)VCO(2) (P < 0.01) and dyspnea (P < 0.05) with the shorter protocol. We concluded that, in untrained subjects, neither incremental exercise test had an impact on respiratory responses during exercise. Nevertheless, in master athletes, breathing strategy seems to be protocol dependent. The short test induced higher mechanical ventilatory constraints and dyspneic feeling than the long protocol, which could be explained by a higher (.)VE itself linked to a greater (.)VCO(2) and a higher blood lactate concentration.

  13. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888

  14. Urinary incontinence in elite female athletes and dancers.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, H H; Clevin, L; Olesen, S; Lose, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was, to determine the frequency of urinary loss in elite women athletes and dancers. Elite athletes in eight different sports, including ballet, filled in an evaluated questionnaire about urinary incontinence while participating in their sport/dancing and during daily life activities. A total of 291 women with a mean age of 22.8 years completed the questionnaire, providing a response rate of 73.9%. Overall, 151 women (51.9%) had experienced urine loss, 125 (43%) while participating in their sport and 123 (42%) during daily life. The proportion of urinary leakage in the different sports was: gymnastics 56%, ballet 43%, aerobics 40%, badminton 31%, volleyball 30%, athletics 25%, handball 21% and basketball 17%. During sport 44% had experienced leakage a few times, 46.4% now and then, and 9.6% frequently. During daily life the figures were: 61.7% a few times, 37.4% now and then, and 0.8% frequently. Of those who leaked during sport, 95.2% experienced urine loss while training versus only 51.2% during competition (P<0.001). The activity most likely to provoke leakage was jumping. Sixty per cent (91/151) occasionally wore pads or panty shields because of urine loss. Urinary leakage is common among elite athletes and dancers, particularly during training, but also during daily life activities.

  15. Reliability and validity of a brief questionnaire to assess calcium intake in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kenneth D; Hunt, Kami Mays; Berg, Melanie Burstyne; Slawson, Deborah A; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; McClanahan, Barbara S; Clemens, Linda H

    2004-04-01

    Calcium intake often is inadequate in female collegiate athletes, increasing the risk for training injuries and future osteoporosis. Thus, a brief and accurate assessment tool to quickly measure calcium intake in athletes is needed. We evaluated the reliability and validity, compared to 6 days of diet records (DRs), of the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), a self-administered calcium checklist. Seventy-six female collegiate athletes (mean age = 18.8 yrs, range= 17- 21; 97 % Caucasian) were recruited from basketball, cross-country, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball teams. Athletes completed a RAM at the start of the training season to assess calcium intake during the past week. Two weeks later, a second RAM was completed to assess reliability, and athletes began 6 days of diet records (DRs) collection. At completion of DRs, athletes completed a final RAM, corresponding to the same time period as DRs, to assess agreement between the 2 instruments. The RAM demonstrated adequate test-retest reliability over 2 weeks (n= 56; Intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and adequate agreement with DRs (n = 34; ICC = 0.41, p = 0.0067). Calcium intake was below recommended levels, and mean estimates did not differ significantly on the RAM (823 +/- 387 mg/d) and DRs (822 +/- 330 mg/d; p = 0.988). Adequacy of calcium intake from both DRs and the RAM was classified as "inadequate" (<1000 mg/d) and "adequate" (> or = 1000 mg/d). Agreement between the RAM and DRs for adequacy classification was fair (ICC= 0.30, p = 0.042), with the RAM identifying 84% of athletes judged to have inadequate calcium intake based on DRs. The RAM briefly and accurately estimates calcium intake in female collegiate athletes compared to DRs.

  16. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    PubMed

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p < 0.01) measured by SEBT. Athletes, however, showed no significant changes after the fatigue protocol. Our results indicates the importance of evaluation and monitoring of dynamic postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  17. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses With Respect to the Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N; Nichols, Jeanne F

    2015-08-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad-a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by referring symptomatic student-athletes to appropriate community resources for evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, communication, and referral behaviors of U.S. high school nurses about the Female Athlete Triad. Participants were a random sample of 370 U.S. high school nurses. The results indicated that only 19% of the nurses were able to identify the three components of the Triad and only 25% reported that they work proactively with coaches to help prevent health issues among their female athletes. Over 95% expressed interest in learning more about the Triad. Implications for educational program design are discussed. PMID:25530174

  18. Moderators and Predictors of Response to Eating Disorder Risk Factor Reduction Programs in Collegiate Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, T.M.; Plasencia, M.; Han, H.; Jackson, H.; Becker, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this paper was to investigate moderators and predictors of response to two programs designed to reduce eating disorder risk factors in collegiate female athletes. This study served as an ancillary study to a parent trial that investigated the feasibility of an athlete modified cognitive dissonance-based program (AM-DBP) and an athlete modified healthy weight intervention program (AM-HWI). Design 157 female collegiate athletes were randomized to either the AM-DBP or the AM-HWI program. Participants completed surveys at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks, and 1 year. Methods After classifying sports as either lean or non-lean, we investigated if sport type acted as a moderator of program response to AM-DBP and AM-HWI using ANOVAs. Next, we examined whether baseline thin-ideal internalization, weight concern, shape concern, bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, and negative affect acted as predictors of changes in bulimic pathology using linear regression models. Results Athletes in non-lean sports who received AM-DBP showed more improvement in negative affect versus non-lean sport athletes in AM-HWI. Higher baseline scores of bulimic pathology predicted greater response in bulimic pathology to both programs at 6-weeks. In contrast, athletes with higher dietary restraint and negative affect baseline scores showed decreased response to both interventions at 6-weeks. Finally, athletes with higher baseline shape concern showed a decreased response to the AM-HWI intervention at the post intervention time point. Conclusion Results from the present study indicate that lean/non-lean sport may not play a strong role in determining response to efficacious programs. Further, factors such as pre-existing bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, negative affect, and shape concern may affect general response to intervention versus specific responses to specific interventions. PMID:25400505

  19. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: We used chi-square 2 × 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. Subjects: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 ± 1.3 years, height = 167.6 ± 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 ± 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. Measurements: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60°/s and 300°/s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. Results: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300°/s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300°/s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

  20. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

  1. The Incidence and Potential Pathomechanics of Patellofemoral Pain in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Goodman, Arlene; Ceasar, Adrick; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Divine, Jon G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and incidence of patellofemoral pain (PFP) in young female athletes and prospectively evaluate measures of frontal plane knee loading during landing to determine their relationship to development of PFP. We hypothesized that increased dynamic knee abduction measured during preseason biomechanical testing would be increased in those who developed PFP relative to teammates who did not develop PFP. Methods Middle and high school female athletes (n=240) were evaluated by a physician for PFP and for landing biomechanics prior to their basketball season. The athletes were monitored for athletic exposures and PFP injury during their competitive seasons. Findings At the beginning of the season, the point prevalence of PFP was 16.3 per 100 athletes. The cumulative incidence risk and rate for the development of new unilateral PFP was 9.66 per 100 athletes and 1.09 per 1000 athletic exposures, respectively. All new PFP developed in middle school athletes who demonstrated mean International Knee Documentation Committee score of 85.6 ± 7.7 at diagnosis. The new PFP group demonstrated increased knee abduction moments at initial contact (95% CI: 0.32 to 4.62 Nm) on the most-symptomatic limb and maximum (95% CI: 1.3 to 10.1 Nm; p=0.02) on the least-symptomatic (or no symptoms) limb relative to the matched control limbs. Knee abduction moments remained increased in the new PFP group when normalized to body mass (p<0.05). Interpretation The increased knee abduction landing mechanics in the new PFP group indicate that frontal plane loads contribute to increased incidence of PFP. PMID:20466469

  2. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries.

  3. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; p<0.001 vs. 128.81±20.84 resp. 147.52±27.72; p<0.001). An increase in endostatin levels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groups<0.001). The extent of endostatin increase was comparable in both groups and sexes and varied between 23-27%. Significance was obscured when the performance was entered as covariate. Acutely induced physical strain leads to an increase in endostatin levels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention.

  4. No kinetic differences during variations of the power clean in inexperienced female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J; Fletcher, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has identified that the second pull phase of the clean generates the greatest power output and that the midthigh variations of the power clean also result in the greatest force and power output in male athletes; however, no research has compared the kinetics of the variations of the power clean in women. The aim of this investigation was to identify any differences between variations of the clean, across a range of loads, in inexperienced female collegiate athletes. Sixteen healthy female collegiate athletes (age 19 ± 2.3 years; height 166.5 ± 3.22 cm; body mass 62.25 ± 4.52 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] power clean 51.5 ± 2.65 kg) performed 3 repetitions of 3 variations (power clean, hang power clean, midthigh power clean) of the power clean at 60, 70, and 80% of their predetermined 1RM power clean, in a randomized and counterbalanced order. A 2-way analysis of variance (3 × 3; load × variation) revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in peak power, peak vertical force (Fz) or rate of force development (RFD) between loads or variations of the power clean. There appears to be no advantage in terms of peak power, Fz, or RFD between variations of the clean, in inexperienced female athletes, it is suggested, therefore, that inexperienced athletes intermittently perform different variations of the clean to ensure all round development and technical competence in each variation of the exercise.

  5. Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…

  6. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, CA, May 2012, and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, IN, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves 3 components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with 1 or more of the 3 Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, California) and second (Indianapolis, Indianna) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad Expert Panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by The Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians, and other health care professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. PMID:24569429

  7. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. PMID:24463911

  8. Stress fractures of the sacrum. An atypical cause of low back pain in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Weiss, C B; Stento, K; Wheeler, D L

    2001-01-01

    Low back pain is a common finding in an athletically active premenopausal female population. We describe an unusual cause of persistent low back/sacroiliac pain: a fatigue-type sacral stress fracture. Plain radiographs, bone scans, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging studies were obtained in the female athletes to determine the nature of the pathologic abnormality. The most significant risk factor for fatigue-type sacral stress fractures was an increase in impact activity due to a more vigorous exercise program. Potential risk factors such as abnormal menstrual history, dietary deficiencies, and low bone mineral density were examined. The clinical course was protracted, with an average 6.6 months of prolonged low back pain before resolution of symptoms. Sacral fatigue-type stress fractures did not preclude the athletes from returning to their previous level of participation once healing had occurred.

  9. Working with Male Athletes: The Experiences of U.S. Female Head Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Abrell, Lura; Wilson, Matthew J.; Lape, Jennifer; Halbrook, Meghan; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, men have dominated the athletic arena; as a result, the number of women in sport management positions has been limited (Cashmore, 2000; Coakley, 2010). Even rarer is the opportunity for female coaches to coach male sport teams. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women who have coached male…

  10. Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…

  11. Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…

  12. [Peculiarities of digital dermatoglyphics and the somatic status in female athletes engaged in fencing].

    PubMed

    Val'kovich, E I; Oleĭnik, E A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the morphogenetic performance of 31 female athlete aged 18-23 years specializing in fencing, compared to women of the same age group not involved in professional sports. The research program included: evaluation of a complex of anthropometric parameters (longitudinal, transverse, circumferential body sizes), somatotype diagnostics using of Heath-Carter method, evaluation of body composition, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of digital dermatoglyphics (pattern type, ridge count, delta index, a combination of phenotypic patterns), determination of sex chromatin content in the epithelial cells of the oral cavity mucous membrane. The study demonstrated that the somatic status of female fencers could be defined as a balanced mesomorphic somatotype with the prevailing mesomorphic vector. The proportion of muscular component in female athletes was higher, while that of the fat mass was lower than the similar parameters in the control group. The athletes were characterized by the peculiarities of dermatoglyphic constitution: high values of delta index and the total ridge count, higher proportion of complex patterns and minimal amount of simple patterns. In female athletes, significantly lower amounts of sex chromatin were demonstrated as compared to those not engaged in sports.

  13. Title IX: Parity of Coaches' Salaries for Male and Female Athletic Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A study by the National Education Association (NEA) of the existing literature, teacher opinion polls, federal legislation and regulations, state salary schedules, and collective bargaining agreements revealed important information concerning the differences in salaries in the late 1970s for coaches of male and female athletic teams in the public…

  14. Personal, Social, and Organizational Factors that Influence Black Female Athletic Administrators' Identity Negotiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Jacqueline; Cunningham, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine factors that influence how Black female athletic administrators negotiate their personal identity. Negotiation of identities is not only about what people say and do, but where and when they do it, as well as with whom they do it. Thus, it is important to identify social, personal, and organizational…

  15. Participation in Athletics and Female Sexual Risk Behavior: The Evaluation of Four Causal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James

    2002-01-01

    Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…

  16. Comparative Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being as Influenced by Sport Experience in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Kenneth J.; Pargman, David

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of sports as a facilitative or debilitating personal developmental experience among female varsity and intramural athletes showed significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the experiences and also between attitudes about social and sport self, and strength of selected personality traits (aggression, dominance,…

  17. An Examination of Psychosocial Correlates of Eating Disorders among Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine J.; Carter, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    With female collegiate athletes, we examined the relationship of eating pathology to body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state. Multivariate analyses revealed that the symptomatic and eating disorder groups were similar on seven of eight weight pressures, three of four mood states, on internalization, and…

  18. Electromyographic analysis of the knee during jump landing in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Yukio; Kobayashi, Risa; Sumida, Sachiko; Tanaka, Kosuke; Yoshida, Nami; Nishiwaki, Gaston Ariel; Tsutsumi, Eriko; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2005-04-01

    Many noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes occur at foot strike during jump landing when the knee is extended. This study was undertaken to determine the activation level of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles electromyographically. Fifteen healthy volunteers (eight women and seven men), all of whom were collegiate basketball players, participated in the study. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the vastus medialis (VM) at a knee flexion angle of 15-45 degrees was significantly higher in women than in men. There was no significant difference in overall mean hamstring activity in men and women over the same knee flexion range. However, when the knee flexion angle was 15 degrees , 20 degrees , and 25 degrees , hamstring activity was significantly lower in female athletes. These results suggest that female athletes have a higher risk of ACL injury during jump landing due to increased anterior tibial translation force with quadriceps muscle activity. Female athletes require greater hamstring activation, and it is suggested that exercising this muscle will increase its activity when the knee is extended, thus preventing ACL injury during actual sport motions.

  19. Low Vitamin D Levels Do Not Predict Hyperglycemia in Elderly Endurance Athletes (but in Controls)

    PubMed Central

    Nistler, Sonja; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Scherzer, Thomas M.; Kundi, Michael; Endler, Georg; Ratzinger, Franz; Pilger, Alexander; Wagner, Oswald F.; Winker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Recent studies revealed a link between hypovitaminosis D3 and the risk for hyperglycemia. Further mechanistic and interventional investigations suggested a common reason for both conditions rather than a causal relationship. Exposure to sunlight is the most relevant source of vitamin D3 (25(OH)D), whereas adipose tissue is able to store relevant amounts of the lipophilic vitamin. Since running/bicycling leads to increased out-door time and alters physiological response mechanisms, it can be hypothesized that the correlation between hypovitaminosis D3 and hyperglycemia might be disturbed in outdoor athletes. Methods 47 elderly marathoners/bicyclists and 47 age/sex matched controls were studied in a longitudinal setting at baseline and after three years. HbA1c as a surrogate for (pre-)diabetic states was quantified via HPLC, 25(OH)D levels were measured by means of chemiluminescent assays. Physical performance was assessed by ergometry. Results When adjusted for seasonal variations, 25(OH)D was significantly higher in athletes than in controls. 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated with triglycerides in both groups, whereas only in controls an association between high BMI or low physical performance with hypovitaminosis D3 had been found. Likewise, the presence of hypovitaminosis D3 at baseline successfully predicted hyperglycemia at the follow up examinations within the control group (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], p < .001, statistically independent from BMI), but not in athletes. Conclusion Our data suggest that mechanisms of HbA1c elevation might differ between athletes and controls. Thus, intense physical activity must be taken into account as a potential pre-analytic confounder when it is aimed to predict metabolic risk by vitamin D3 levels. PMID:27304888

  20. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  1. A review of the female athlete triad (amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disordered eating).

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H

    2002-01-01

    The number of women participating in organized sports has increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The female athlete triad is a condition seen with increasing frequency in young athletes and is characterized by the triad of amenorrhea, disordered eating and osteoporosis. The triad is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and can be associated with significant medical morbidity. It occurs most frequently in sports emphasizing a lean appearance. Early recognition and intervention are essential. In an adolescent athlete, amenorrhea should be considered an indicator of a potential problem and should not simply be attributed to a consequence of training. The athlete should be evaluated for an underlying eating disorder and tested for osteoporosis. Principles of treatment include reducing the intensity of training until menses resume, increasing caloric intake, ensuring adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, encouraging weight-bearing exercise where appropriate, and consideration of hormone replacement therapy. Prevention, through education will help ensure the health and safety of young female athletes. PMID:12467202

  2. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    PubMed Central

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the “knee over toe position” when cutting. PMID:18539658

  3. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement.

    PubMed

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the "knee over toe position" when cutting.

  4. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARUYAMA-NAGAO, ASAKO; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20–22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after. PMID:27347414

  5. Force-production asymmetry in male and female athletes of differing strength levels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Christopher A; Sato, Kimitake; Burnett, Angus; Stone, Michael H

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the existence of bilateral strength and force-production asymmetry and evaluate possible differences based on sex, as well as strength level. Asymmetry was assessed during weight-distribution (WtD) testing, unloaded and lightly loaded static- (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ) testing, and isometric midthigh-pull (IMTP) strength testing. Subjects included 63 athletes (31 male, 32 female) for WtD, SJ, and CMJ tests, while 129 athletes (64 male, 65 female) participated in IMTP testing. Independent-samples t tests were used to determine possible differences in asymmetry magnitude between males and females, as well as between strong and weak athletes. Cohen d effect-size (ES) estimates were also used to estimate difference magnitudes. Statistically different asymmetry levels with moderate to strong ESs were seen between males and females in WtD, 0-kg SJ (peak force [PF]), 20-kg SJ (peak power [PP]), 0-kg CMJ (PF, PP, net impulse), and 20-kg CMJ (PF), but no statistical differences were observed in IMTP variables. Dividing the sample into strong and weak groups produced statistically significant differences with strong ES estimates in IMTP PF and rate of force development, and many ESs in jump symmetry variables increased. The results of this investigation indicate that females may be more prone to producing forces asymmetrically than males during WtD and jumping tasks. Similarly, weaker athletes displayed more asymmetry than stronger athletes. This may indicate that absolute strength may play a larger role in influencing asymmetry magnitude than sex. PMID:25394294

  6. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent fat in female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D; Hildebrandt, Leslie; Miller, Wayne; Hammer, Roger; Spiller, Amanda

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the accuracy of percent body fat (%BF) estimates obtained by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) using the BOD POD Body Composition System compared with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group of female college athletes (n = 80). In addition, %BF estimates by skinfold measures (SF) were also obtained for comparison. A lean subset (n = 39) of the sample was also examined. Mean %BF estimated for the entire sample by ADP (21.2 +/- 5.9%) was significantly greater than that determined by HW (19.4 +/- 6.4%) and SF (18.8 +/- 5.5%). Results from the lean subset also revealed that %BF determined by ADP (17.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly higher than %BF estimates by HW (14.3 +/- 2.8%) and SF (15.2 +/- 3.2%). The regression equation for the entire sample (%BF HW = 0.937%BF ADP - 0.452, r(2) = 0.73, standard error of estimates (SEE) = 3.34) did not differ from the line of identity. In contrast, the line of identity differed significantly from the regression equation for the lean subset of female athletes (%BF HW = 0.48%BF ADP + 6.115, r(2) = 0.41, SEE = 2.18). The results of this investigation indicate that ADP significantly overestimated %BF by 8% in female athletes and by 16% for a leaner subset of the sample compared with HW. It appears that %BF estimates by SF may be more accurate than those obtained by ADP for female college athletes, regardless of body composition. Coaches and trainers evaluating body composition should consider the use of SF before ADP when measuring %BF in female college athletes. Sports scientists should continue to examine the possible gender and body composition bias for ADP.

  7. The Professional Socialization of Collegiate Female Athletic Trainers: Navigating Experiences of Gender Bias

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Borland, John F.; Burton, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Female athletic trainers (ATs) experience gender discrimination in the workplace due to stereotypical gender roles, but limited information is available regarding the topic. Objective To understand the challenges and obstacles faced by young female ATs working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics. Design Exploratory study using semistructured interviews. Setting Division I clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants A total of 14 female ATs were included in the study, using both criterion and snowball- sampling techniques. Their mean age was 27 ± 2 years, with 5 ± 2 years of overall clinical experience. Criteria included employment at the Division I clinical setting, being a full-time assistant AT, and at least 3 years of working experience but no more than 9 years to avoid role continuance. Data Collection and Analysis Analysis of the interview data followed inductive procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Credibility was established by member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review. Results Clear communication with both coaches and players about expectations and philosophies regarding medical care, a supportive head AT in terms of clinical competence, and having and serving as a role model were cited as critical tools to alleviate gender bias in the workplace. Conclusions The female ATs in this study stressed the importance of being assertive with coaches early in the season with regard to the AT's role on the team. They reasoned that these actions brought forth a greater perception of congruity between their roles as ATs and their gender and age. We suggest that female athletic training students seek mentors in their field while they complete their coursework and practicums. The ATs in the current study indicated that a mentor, regardless of sex, helped them feel empowered to navigate the male-centric terrain of athletic departments by encouraging them to be assertive and not second

  8. Obstacles in the optimization of bone health outcomes in the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Ducher, Gaele; Turner, Anne I; Kukuljan, Sonja; Pantano, Kathleen J; Carlson, Jennifer L; Williams, Nancy I; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2011-07-01

    Maintaining low body weight for the sake of performance and aesthetic purposes is a common feature among young girls and women who exercise on a regular basis, including elite, college and high-school athletes, members of fitness centres, and recreational exercisers. High energy expenditure without adequate compensation in energy intake leads to an energy deficiency, which may ultimately affect reproductive function and bone health. The combination of low energy availability, menstrual disturbances and low bone mineral density is referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. Not all athletes seek medical assistance in response to the absence of menstruation for 3 or more months as some believe that long-term amenorrhoea is not harmful. Indeed, many women may not seek medical attention until they sustain a stress fracture. This review investigates current issues, controversies and strategies in the clinical management of bone health concerns related to the female athlete triad. Current recommendations focus on either increasing energy intake or decreasing energy expenditure, as this approach remains the most efficient strategy to prevent further bone health complications. However, convincing the athlete to increase energy availability can be extremely challenging. Oral contraceptive therapy seems to be a common strategy chosen by many physicians to address bone health issues in young women with amenorrhoea, although there is little evidence that this strategy improves bone mineral density in this population. Assessment of bone health itself is difficult due to the limitations of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to estimate bone strength. Understanding how bone strength is affected by low energy availability, weight gain and resumption of menses requires further investigations using 3-dimensional bone imaging techniques in order to improve the clinical management of the female athlete triad.

  9. Obstacles in the optimization of bone health outcomes in the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Ducher, Gaele; Turner, Anne I; Kukuljan, Sonja; Pantano, Kathleen J; Carlson, Jennifer L; Williams, Nancy I; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2011-07-01

    Maintaining low body weight for the sake of performance and aesthetic purposes is a common feature among young girls and women who exercise on a regular basis, including elite, college and high-school athletes, members of fitness centres, and recreational exercisers. High energy expenditure without adequate compensation in energy intake leads to an energy deficiency, which may ultimately affect reproductive function and bone health. The combination of low energy availability, menstrual disturbances and low bone mineral density is referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. Not all athletes seek medical assistance in response to the absence of menstruation for 3 or more months as some believe that long-term amenorrhoea is not harmful. Indeed, many women may not seek medical attention until they sustain a stress fracture. This review investigates current issues, controversies and strategies in the clinical management of bone health concerns related to the female athlete triad. Current recommendations focus on either increasing energy intake or decreasing energy expenditure, as this approach remains the most efficient strategy to prevent further bone health complications. However, convincing the athlete to increase energy availability can be extremely challenging. Oral contraceptive therapy seems to be a common strategy chosen by many physicians to address bone health issues in young women with amenorrhoea, although there is little evidence that this strategy improves bone mineral density in this population. Assessment of bone health itself is difficult due to the limitations of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to estimate bone strength. Understanding how bone strength is affected by low energy availability, weight gain and resumption of menses requires further investigations using 3-dimensional bone imaging techniques in order to improve the clinical management of the female athlete triad. PMID:21688870

  10. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Loucks, Anne B; Manore, Melinda M; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Warren, Michelle P

    2007-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad) refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. With proper nutrition, these same relationships promote robust health. Athletes are distributed along a spectrum between health and disease, and those at the pathological end may not exhibit all these clinical conditions simultaneously. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability appears to be the factor that impairs reproductive and skeletal health in the Triad, and it may be inadvertent, intentional, or psychopathological. Most effects appear to occur below an energy availability of 30 kcal.kg(-1) of fat-free mass per day. Restrictive eating behaviors practiced by girls and women in sports or physical activities that emphasize leanness are of special concern. For prevention and early intervention, education of athletes, parents, coaches, trainers, judges, and administrators is a priority. Athletes should be assessed for the Triad at the preparticipation physical and/or annual health screening exam, and whenever an athlete presents with any of the Triad's clinical conditions. Sport administrators should also consider rule changes to discourage unhealthy weight loss practices. A multidisciplinary treatment team should include a physician or other health-care professional, a registered dietitian, and, for athletes with eating disorders, a mental health practitioner. Additional valuable team members may include a certified athletic trainer, an exercise physiologist, and the athlete's coach, parents and other family members. The first aim of treatment for any Triad component is to increase energy availability by increasing energy intake and/or reducing exercise energy expenditure. Nutrition counseling and monitoring are sufficient

  11. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Loucks, Anne B; Manore, Melinda M; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Warren, Michelle P

    2007-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad) refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. With proper nutrition, these same relationships promote robust health. Athletes are distributed along a spectrum between health and disease, and those at the pathological end may not exhibit all these clinical conditions simultaneously. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability appears to be the factor that impairs reproductive and skeletal health in the Triad, and it may be inadvertent, intentional, or psychopathological. Most effects appear to occur below an energy availability of 30 kcal.kg(-1) of fat-free mass per day. Restrictive eating behaviors practiced by girls and women in sports or physical activities that emphasize leanness are of special concern. For prevention and early intervention, education of athletes, parents, coaches, trainers, judges, and administrators is a priority. Athletes should be assessed for the Triad at the preparticipation physical and/or annual health screening exam, and whenever an athlete presents with any of the Triad's clinical conditions. Sport administrators should also consider rule changes to discourage unhealthy weight loss practices. A multidisciplinary treatment team should include a physician or other health-care professional, a registered dietitian, and, for athletes with eating disorders, a mental health practitioner. Additional valuable team members may include a certified athletic trainer, an exercise physiologist, and the athlete's coach, parents and other family members. The first aim of treatment for any Triad component is to increase energy availability by increasing energy intake and/or reducing exercise energy expenditure. Nutrition counseling and monitoring are sufficient

  12. A Wearable Neuromuscular Device Reduces ACL Injury Risk in Female Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael John; Shaw, Matthew; Maddan, Casey; Campbell, Julie; Davidson, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Female soccer athletes have a three-fold greater risk of sustaining an ACL injury compared with their male counterparts yet only 1 in 5 teams engage in ACL risk reduction programs due to several participation barriers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a wearable neuromuscular (WNM) device on postural control, performance and ACL injury risk in female soccer athletes. Methods: Seventy-nine elite youth and collegiate female soccer athletes (age range: 12-25 y) trained with a WNM device that applied bi-lateral, topical pressure to the medial quadriceps and hamstrings muscles (Topical Gear, Austin, TX). The athletes performed 7-9 weeks of pre-season training with the WNM device consisting of strength and conditioning exercises and on-field team practices (46-64 total hours of exposure). Postural control was measured in 15 athletes with and without the WNM device before and after the training program; and performance was measured in 25 athletes without the WNM device before and after the training program. Postural control was determined from a single-leg landing on a force plate from a horizontal distance normalized to leg length. The athletes were instructed to gain their balance as fast as possible upon landing and remain balanced for 5 seconds. The peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and net center of pressure (COP) velocities and displacement ranges were calculated during 2 seconds of single-leg stance. Performance measures including speed, power and endurance were measured from the 40 yard dash, vertical jump for height and the Beep test, respectively. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were used to compare the postural variables; and t-tests were used to compare the performance tests (p=.05). ACL injury rates, the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one ACL injury were calculated between the WNM intervention group and 11

  13. Coaching behaviors, motivational climate, and psychosocial outcomes among female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J; Wilko, Anna Marie

    2009-11-01

    Based on Harter's (12,13) competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationship of coaches' performance feedback and motivational climate with female athletes' perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Female adolescent soccer players (N = 141) completed measures of relevant constructs toward the latter part of their season. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that athletes' perceptions of greater positive and informational feedback given by coaches in response to successful performance attempts, greater emphasis placed on a mastery climate, and less emphasis placed on a performance climate, were significantly related to greater ability perceptions, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Exploratory analyses also showed that the relationship between feedback and the psychosocial outcomes may vary as a function of the perceived motivational climate. Overall, these results suggest that coaching feedback and motivational climate are important contributors to explaining adolescent females' continued motivation to participate in sport.

  14. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  15. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  16. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOWER EXTREMITY CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN STRENGTH & SAGITTAL PLANE LANDING KINEMATICS IN FEMALE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Kivlan, Ben; Scibek, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Female athletes continue to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments at a greater rate than males in comparable sports. During landing activities, females exhibit several different kinematic and kinetic traits when compared to their male counterparts including decreased knee flexion angles as well as decreased lower extremity (LE) strength. While open kinetic chain strength measures have not been related to landing kinematics, given the closer replication of movement patterns that occur during closed kinetic chain (CKC) activity, it is possible that lower extremity strength if measured in this fashion will be related to landing kinematics. Purpose: To determine if unilateral isometric CKC lower extremity (LE) strength was related to sagittal plane tibiofemoral kinematics during a single leg landing task in competitive female athletes. We hypothesized females who demonstrated lesser CKC LE strength would exhibit decreased sagittal plane angles during landing. Methods: 20 competitive female athletes (age = 16.0 ± 1.8 yrs; height = 166.5 ± 8.3 cm; weight = 59.7 ± 10.2 kg) completed CKC LE strength testing followed by 5 unilateral drop landings on the dominant LE during one test session at an outpatient physical therapy clinic. Closed kinetic chain LE strength was measured on a computerized leg press with an integrated load cell while sagittal plane tibiofemoral kinematics were quantified with an electrogoniometer. Results: No significant relationships between absolute or normalized isometric CKC strength and sagittal plane landing kinematics were identified. Conclusions: Closed kinetic chain lower extremity isometric strength tested at 25 degrees of knee flexion is not related to sagittal plane landing kinematics in adolescent competitive female athletes. Levels of Evidence: Analytic, Observational PMID:21655453

  18. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  19. Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Practices of Young Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiita, Barbara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A research study compared the relationship of nutrition knowledge to eating practices and attitudes of female high school and college runners. Results showed that runners with greater nutrition knowledge made better food choices and ate more healthfully. This article looks at the runners' misconceptions and makes recommendations for nutrition…

  20. Will Female Kicker's Legal Victory Reshape Gender Roles in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes implications of a $2-million judgment awarded to a female football player by a federal jury who found that Duke University (North Carolina) engaged in illegal discrimination by keeping her off its football team. Considers the tradition of football as a decidedly male activity, Title IX requirements, and the large degree of variance in…

  1. A Psycho-Social Study of Outstanding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Eva K.

    This study is an ex post facto analysis of the life histories of 24 Olympic female champions which attempts to determine events and variables in the psychological and social driving forces behind outstanding achievement in sports. The data was gathered by (a) personal interviews, (b) the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and (c) a data…

  2. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  3. Pre-participation gynecological evaluation of female athletes: a new proposal

    PubMed Central

    Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Zucchi, Eliana Viana Monteiro; de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Guindalini, Camila Santa Cruz; Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino; Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin de Jármy Di; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Cohen, Moisés; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose the inclusion of a gynecological investigation during the evaluation of athletes before competitions, using a specific instrument called the Pre-participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE). Methods The study assessed 148 athletes, mean age of 15.4±2.0 years, who engaged in eight different sports modalities, and who responded to a questionnaire named Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE), to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (for urinary loss), and to the Eating Attitudes Test (for eating disorders). Results Fifty percent of the participants reported irregular menstrual intervals, 23.0% did not know about sexually transmitted diseases, and 72.4% denied having, at least, an annual gynecological appointment. The study identified 18.2% who had urinary loss, and 15% presented with an increased risk of eating disorders. Moreover, 89.9% were not familiar with the occurrence of urinary incontinence in athletes and did not know that they were susceptible to the female athlete triad. A total of 87.1% of them stated that would not mention these issues to their coaches even if this would improve their health or performance. Conclusion The Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination can be considered an easy-to-apply instrument that allowed the diagnosis of alterations often underestimated by the athletes themselves. After its application, the alterations were identified, and determined the athletes’ referral to appropriate evaluation and treatment. PMID:25628197

  4. Comparison of Static and Dynamic Balance in Female Collegiate Soccer, Basketball, and Gymnastics Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bressel, Eadric; Yonker, Joshua C; Kras, John; Heath, Edward M

    2007-01-01

    Context: How athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: To compare static and dynamic balance among collegiate athletes competing or training in soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. Design: A quasi-experimental, between-groups design. Independent variables included limb (dominant and nondominant) and sport played. Setting: A university athletic training facility. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female volunteers who competed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer (n = 11), basketball (n = 11), or gymnastics (n = 12). Intervention(s): To assess static balance, participants performed 3 stance variations (double leg, single leg, and tandem leg) on 2 surfaces (stiff and compliant). For assessment of dynamic balance, participants performed multidirectional maximal single-leg reaches from a unilateral base of support. Main Outcome Measure(s): Errors from the Balance Error Scoring System and normalized leg reach distances from the Star Excursion Balance Test were used to assess static and dynamic balance, respectively. Results: Balance Error Scoring System error scores for the gymnastics group were 55% lower than for the basketball group (P = .01), and Star Excursion Balance Test scores were 7% higher in the soccer group than the basketball group (P = .04). Conclusions: Gymnasts and soccer players did not differ in terms of static and dynamic balance. In contrast, basketball players displayed inferior static balance compared with gymnasts and inferior dynamic balance compared with soccer players. PMID:17597942

  5. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group. PMID:25951882

  6. The effect of ice ingestion on female athletes performing intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthew Robert; Landers, Grant Justin

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the benefits of pre-cooling prior to exercise in the heat for male athletes, but at this time no research has investigated female athletes. The aim of the following study was to test the effects of pre-cooling on female repeat sprint performance in hot, humid conditions; namely is ice ingestion effective in reducing core temperature (Tc) and does this reduced Tc lead to improved repeat sprint performance in female athletes? Nine female team sport athletes with mean age (21.0 ± 1.2 y), height (169.8 ± 4.1 cm) and body mass (62.3 ± 5.0 kg) participated in this study. Participants completed 72 min of an intermittent sprint protocol (ISP) consisting of 2 × 36 min halves in hot, humid conditions (33.1 ± 0.1 °C, 60.3 ± 1.5% RH) on a cycle ergometer. This was preceded by 30 min of either ice ingestion (ICE) or water consumption (CON) in a randomised order. At the end of the pre-cooling period, Tc significantly decreased following ICE (-0.7 ± 0.3 °C) compared to CON (-0.1 ± 0.2 °C; p = 0.001). Tc also remained lower in ICE compared to CON during the ISP (p = 0.001). Ratings of perceived thermal sensation were lower in ICE compared to CON (p = 0.032) at the beginning (p = 0.022) and mid-point (p = 0.035) of the second half. No differences in work, mean power, peak power, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate or sweat loss between conditions were recorded (p > 0.05). Ice ingestion significantly reduced female Tc prior to intermittent exercise in the heat and reduced thermal sensation; however, this did not coincide with improved performance.

  7. The Effect of Coach Expectations on Female Athletes' Motivation to Play: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buning, Megan Matthews

    2013-01-01

    This concurrent, embedded mixed methods study used predominantly quantitative analyses to examine coach expectations and behaviors on female athletes' intrinsic motivation to play softball. Qualitative methods in the form of structured, open-ended questions were used to enhance the data by examining athletes' perceptions of coaching…

  8. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  9. The management of sport-related concussion: considerations for male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Elbin, R J; Crutcher, Bryan; Burkhart, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Sport-related concussion continues to be a centerpiece of attention in the field of sports medicine. The benefit to using neurocognitive testing when managing concussion will be documented in this review. In addition to providing critical objective information on the neurocognitive status of the concussed athlete, research data will be provided on the pre- and post-concussion neurocognitive profiles of concussed male and female athletes. Specifically, an overview of research will be presented on the epidemiology of male and female concussion rates, as well as concussion outcomes including symptoms and cognitive function post-injury. Finally, a clinician's perspective on managing sports-related concussion will be presented focusing on three factors regarding sex differences: risk factors, clinical presentation, and management. PMID:24323339

  10. Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Karkazis, Katrina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Davis, Georgiann; Camporesi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, more than a decade after the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) abandoned sex testing, they devised new policies in response to the IAAF's treatment of Caster Semenya, the South African runner whose sex was challenged because of her spectacular win and powerful physique that fueled an international frenzy questioning her sex and legitimacy to compete as female. These policies claim that atypically high levels of endogenous testosterone in women (caused by various medical conditions) create an unfair advantage and must be regulated. Against the backdrop of Semenya's case and the scientific and historical complexity of "gender verification" in elite sports, we question the new policies on three grounds: (1) the underlying scientific assumptions; (2) the policymaking process; and (3) the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes. We find the policies in each of these domains significantly flawed and therefore argue they should be withdrawn. PMID:22694023

  11. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  12. Prediction of Vertical Jump Height from Anthropometric Factors in Male and Female Martial Arts Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Methods: Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m2. Waist–hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Results: Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P < 0.001). The effect of gender is significant (P < 0.001): on average, males jumped 26% higher than females did. Conclusion: Vertical jump height of martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power. PMID:23785254

  13. Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia in a Female Collegiate Soccer Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kendra; Powers, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness among health care providers caring for an active population to an uncommon genetic mutation that increases the risk for a potentially fatal venous thromboembolism. Background: A 19-year-old previously healthy female collegiate soccer athlete complained of coughing and progressively decreased exercise tolerance, which were attributed to a recent illness and lack of sleep. Later that evening, she complained of dyspnea and pleuritic pain and was referred to the emergency department. Bilateral pulmonary emboli were identified with computed tomography, and a hypercoagulable panel revealed that the patient was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation. Differential Diagnosis: Pneumonia, pneumothorax, pericarditis, pleuritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pulmonary embolism. Treatment: Intravenous heparin therapy was initiated immediately in the emergency department. This was followed by inpatient anticoagulant therapy for 5 days and outpatient anticoagulant therapy for an additional 12 months. During this time, the patient was unable to participate in soccer drills or return to competition and was limited to conditioning activities due to the risk of increased bleeding time. Uniqueness: Documented cases of pulmonary embolism in a young athletic population are rare and are usually associated with genetic risk factors. Factor V Leiden is a relatively uncommon genetic mutation that dramatically increases the risk for venous thromboembolism. Although the fatality rate in this population is low, fatality is preventable if the condition is recognized early and managed properly. Conclusions: Athletes should be encouraged to communicate with their athletic trainers regarding any changes in health status or medication usage. When an athlete presents with nonspecific symptoms such as dyspnea and chest pain, athletic trainers should consider the possibility of pulmonary embolism. A high degree of suspicion results in early diagnosis and

  14. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  15. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  16. Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

  18. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  19. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis function in young female athletes: implications and recommendations for management.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Diane E J

    2005-01-01

    Young women have become increasingly active in athletics during the 20th century. Those involved in sports that emphasize lean body type are at high risk for the development of menstrual dysfunction, including amenorrhea. This is mediated by an alteration in function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, with loss of normal secretion of luteinizing hormone, and subsequent lack of estrogen production. Disruption of the HPO axis appears to be dependent on the body's recognition of an energy imbalance, which may be due to a lack of compensatory caloric intake in the face of significant energy expenditure. Other pituitary hormones, such as triiodothyronine, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 may also be affected. These metabolic changes have an impact on bone mineralization during a critical period in the development of bone mass. Recognition by physicians of the so-called 'female athlete triad', consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, may allow therapeutic intervention. Diagnosis of eating disorders and decreased bone mineral density can have significant impact on the health of the young athlete. Treatment is aimed at restoring normal menstrual function by increasing caloric intake to balance the increased energy demands of athletic participation. Concurrent treatment of the hypoestrogenemic state using estrogen replacement is controversial, but may aid in alleviating further loss of bone mass.

  20. Are female athletes at increased risk for disordered eating and its complications?

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Soares, Eliane de Abreu; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to make a systematic review and describe and confront recent studies that compare the presence of disordered eating and its complications in young female athletes and controls subjects - PubMed, Scielo, Medline, ScienceDirect, WILEY InterScience, Lilacs and Cochrane were the databases used for this review. Out of 169 studies 22 were selected and 11,000 women from 68 sports were studied. The short version of the EAT was the most common instrument used to track disordered eating. Results showed that 55% found no significant difference in the percentage of disordered eating between athletes and controls. Also a higher percentage of studies reported higher frequency of menstrual dysfunction in athletes than controls and finally 50% of the studies found incidence of low bone mass in controls. Not all the studies that investigated all the conditions in the triad, but the authors concluded that it seemed that athletes were in more severe stage of this disorder. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a definitive conclusion about the groups and at highest risk for disordered eating and its complications remains to be elucidated. PMID:20709126

  1. A pilot intervention to increase calcium intake in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S; Ward, Kenneth D; Klesges, Robert C; Vukadinovich, Christopher M

    2004-02-01

    Calcium intake in adolescent and young adult female athletes often is inadequate to optimize peak bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if calcium supplementation in eumenorrheic female collegiate athletes increases intake to recommended levels and promotes increases in bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-eight eumenorrheic female athletes from several college teams (15 soccer, 7 cross-country, 8 indoor track, and 18 basketball) were randomized at the beginning of a competitive season to receive either an oral calcium supplement (1000 mg calcium citrate/400 I.U. Vitamin D) or placebo daily throughout the training season (16 weeks). Self-reported daily pill intake was obtained every 2 weeks to assess adherence. Calcium intake was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment Method, and total body and leg BMD was measured at pre-, mid-, and postseason using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Hologic QDR-2000). Pre-season calcium intake was lower than national recommendations for this age group (12), averaging 842 mg/d (SD = 719) and was lower in the placebo group compared to the supplemented group (649 +/- 268 vs. 1071 +/- 986 mg/d, respectively; p = .064). Adherence to supplementation was good, averaging 70% across the training season. Supplementation boosted total calcium intake to a mean of 1397 +/- 411 mg/d, which is consistent with recommended levels for this group (37). Supplementation did not influence BMD change during this 16-week intervention. Across teams, a small increase of 0.8% was observed in leg BMD. Change in total body BMD was modified by team, with a significant increase of 1.5% observed in basketball players. These results indicate that providing calcium supplements of 1000 mg/d is adequate to boost total intake to recommended levels during athletic training. Longer intervention trials are required to determine whether calcium supplementation has a positive effect on BMD.

  2. Iron status in female athletes participating in team ball-sports.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R

    2010-01-15

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (< 30 ng mL(-1)) and it was lowest in handball players. Higher than normal ferritin levels were seen in 12.5% of the subjects. We saw a significant difference in ferritin levels of basketball and handball players (p = 0.047). We conclude that the intake of calorie and iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.

  3. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  4. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake. PMID:22645172

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete. Potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Huston, L J; Greenfield, M L; Wojtys, E M

    2000-03-01

    In the general population, an estimated one in 3000 individuals sustains an anterior cruciate ligament injury per year in the United States, corresponding to an overall injury rate of approximately 100,000 injuries annually. This national estimate is low for women because anterior cruciate ligament injury rates are reported to be two to eight times higher in women than in men participating in the same sports, presenting a sizable health problem. With the growing participation of women in athletics and the debilitating nature of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, a better understanding of mechanisms of injury in women sustaining anterior cruciate ligament injuries is essential. Published studies strongly support noncontact mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament tears in women, which make these injuries even more perplexing. Speculation on the possible etiology of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in women has centered on anatomic differences, joint laxity, hormones, and training techniques. Investigators have not agreed on causal factors for this injury, but they have started to profile the type of athlete who is at risk. In the current study the most recent scientific studies of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors thought to be contributing to the high rate of female anterior cruciate ligament injuries will be reviewed, important differences will be highlighted, and recommendations proposed to alleviate or minimize these risk factors among female athletes will be reported where appropriate.

  6. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter. PMID:24611342

  7. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  8. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter.

  9. Team management of the female athlete triad: part 1: what to look for, what to ask.

    PubMed

    Joy, E; Clark, N; Ireland, M L; Martire, J; Nattiv, A; Varechok, S

    1997-03-01

    The female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis affects many active women and girls, especially those in sports that emphasize appearance or leanness. Because of the athlete's psychological defense mechanisms and the stigma surrounding disordered eating, physicians may need to ask targeted questions about nutrition habits when assessing a patient who has a stress fracture or amenorrhea, or during preparticipation exams. Carefully worded questions can help. Physical signs and symptoms include unexplained recurrent or stress fracture, dry hair, low body temperature, lanugo, and fatigue. Targeted lab tests to assess nutritional and hormonal status are essential in making a diagnosis that will steer treatment, as are optimal radiologic tests like dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessing bone density.

  10. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jenny J; Mullen, Jenny E; Berglund Lindgren, Emma; Ericsson, Magnus; Ekström, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2014-01-01

    The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study, we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls. The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 and 45. HC were used by 32% of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17. Subjects using HC excreted 40% less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005) but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 29% higher in the HC group (p = 0.016). In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete's steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of HC on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of HC should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  11. Stress fracture injury in female endurance athletes in the United Kingdom: A 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, R L; Brooke-Wavell, K; Summers, G D; Cameron, N; Peirce, N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of stress fracture (SF) incidence are limited in number and geographical location; this study determined the incidence of SF injury in female endurance athletes based in the United Kingdom. A total of 70 athletes aged between 18 and 45 years were recruited and prospectively monitored for 12 months. Questionnaires at baseline and 12 months assessed SF, menstrual and training history, eating psychopathology, and compulsive exercise. Peak lower leg muscle strength was assessed in both legs using an isometric muscle rig. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, hip, and radius was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Among the 61 athletes who completed the 12-month monitoring, two sustained a SF diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, giving an incidence rate (95% confidence intervals) of 3.3 (0.8, 13.1) % of the study population sustaining a SF over 12 months. The SF cases were 800 m runners aged 19 and 22 years, training on average 14.2 h a week, eumenorrheic with no history of menstrual dysfunction. Case 1 had a higher than average energy intake and low eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise scores, while the reverse was true in case 2. BMD in both cases was similar to mean values in the non-SF group. The incidence of SF in our female endurance athlete population based in the United Kingdom was 3.3%, which is lower than previously reported. Further work is needed to confirm the current incidence of SF and evaluate the associated risk factors. PMID:25892560

  12. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  13. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully. PMID:27030632

  14. Lower Limb Kinematics and Dynamic Postural Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Murphy, Katie; Prendiville, Anna; Sweeny, Lauren; Patterson, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Context: Deficits in lower limb kinematics and postural stability are predisposing factors to the development of knee ligamentous injury. The extent to which these deficits are present after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is still largely unknown. The primary hypothesis of the present study was that female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction and who have returned to sport participation would exhibit deficits in dynamic postural stability as well as deficiencies in hip- and knee-joint kinematics when compared with an age-, activity-, and sex-matched uninjured control group. Objective: To investigate dynamic postural stability as quantified by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles in female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen female athletes who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 17 age- and sex-matched uninjured controls. Intervention(s): Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s): Reach distances for each directional component were quantified and expressed as a percentage of leg length. Simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles were recorded using a motion-analysis system. Results: The ACL-R group had decreased reach distances on the posterior-medial (P < .01) and posterior-lateral (P < .01) directional components of the SEBT. During performance of the directional components of the SEBT, ACL-R participants demonstrated altered hip-joint frontal-, sagittal-, and transverse-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05), as well as altered knee-joint sagittal-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05). Conclusions: Deficits in dynamic postural stability and concomitant altered hip- and knee-joint kinematics are present after ACL

  15. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes.

  16. Effects of dietary intervention in young female athletes with menstrual disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of three months of dietary intervention on menstrual cycle in young female athletes with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea. Methods From forty-five female professional athletes with menstrual irregularity that were recruited thirty-one, aged 18.1 ± 2.6 years, completed the study and were analyzed. Hyperprolactinemia, thyroid dysfunction, primary ovarian failure and hyperandrogenism were excluded in the study participants. The subjects started intense training at the age of 11.2 ± 3.5 years and continued during next 6.8 ± 3.3 years. Energy and nutrients intake, total energy expenditure, energy availability and body composition as well as serum concentrations of LH, FSH, 17 – beta estradiol and progesterone were measured at the beginning of the study and after three months of individualized dietary intervention. Results Following three months of dietary intervention significant increase in energy intake (2354 ± 539 vs. 258 8 ± 557 kcal, P = 0.004) and energy availability (28.3 ± 9.2 vs. 35.8 ± 12.3 kcal/kg FFM/d, P = 0.011) was observed as well as improved energy balance (−288 ± 477 vs. -51 ± 224 kcal/d, P = 0.002). Though no changes in BMI and body composition were noted but significant rise in LH concentrations (3.04 ± 1.63 vs. 4.59 ± 2.53 mIU/ml, P = 0.009) and LH to FSH ratio (0.84 ± 0.56 vs. 0.96 ± 0.52, P = 0.001) was achieved, but no restoration of menstrual cyclicity. Conclusions This report provides further support for the role of energy deficiency in menstrual disorders among young female athletes and the benefits of an adequate energy intake and energy availability on hormones concentration. Continuation controlled dietary intervention is needed to assess the extent to which long-term improvement in the nutritional status results in improvements in the hormonal status of female athletes, to an extent that

  17. Comparison of pulmonary function amongst Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi female athletes.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, S C; Kain, T C

    1997-01-01

    Lung functions were studied in contemporary healthy Indian female athletes of Ladakhi, Delhi, Vanvasi and Siddi origin training for running events of varying distances. The aim of the study was to compare the lung function in females belonging to these four groups to examine lung function in relation to ethnic and environmental factors. Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in Ist second (FEV1), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), and Inspiratory Capacity (IC) were recorded using conventional closed circuit spirometry. Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) was estimated by collecting expired air during deep and rapid breathing in a 100 liters meterological balloon for a period of 15 seconds and measuring its volume. It was found that Ladakhi females were having significantly higher VC, FVC and FEV1 values than their counterparts. However, there was no significant difference in MVV amongst Delhi, Siddi and Vanvasi young females. The average MVV of Ladakhi females was only significantly higher than Siddi females (P < 0.05).

  18. Health Risk Behaviors of Female Student-Athletes and the Relationship to Social Support and Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvigson, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Although many student-athletes find participation in college sports rewarding, there are many who experience difficulties. Student-athletes face the same concerns that nonathletes do which include becoming independent, coping with uncertainty, finding a clear purpose, and clarifying values (Astin, 1977; Chickering, 1969; Farnsworth, 1966;…

  19. Evaluation of Postural Asymmetry and Gross Joint Mobility in Elite Female Volleyball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vařeková, Renata; Vařeka, Ivan; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate marked postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes. Sixty-two Czech and Slovak elite female volleyball athletes (age 20.7±2.03 years, body mass 71.1±6.18 kg, body height 1.804±.0618 m, BMI 21.8±1.78) were examined by an experienced rehabilitation physician. The set of tests included the frontal posture gross examination, the forward bending test from the standing position and the deep squat test. The spiking hand and the presence of any lower extremity injury were estimated by interview. The proportion test, Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (p<0.05). Fifty subjects (80.6%) exhibited “typical” frontal plane posture in which the acromion, scapula and the iliac crest were in a higher position on the left side than on the right, significantly more frequently than all the other patterns (proportion test, p<0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of the subjects with the “LLL pattern” preferred the right arm for spiking (proportion test, p<0.0001). Forty-one subjects (66%) exhibited hypermobility in the forward bending test, significantly more frequently than twenty-one subjects (34%) with normal results (proportion test, p=0.0003). Thirty-four subjects (55%) did not succeed in the deep squat test and hypermobility in the forward bending test paradoxically prevailed in them significantly (proportion test, p=0.004). Restriction in the deep squat test was not linked to obesity, age (t-test, p=0.081) nor knee (proportion test, p=0.85) and ankle injury (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.36) in the past. Significant prevalence of hypermobility in the forward bending test was not surprising because of general body composition and the performance of regular stretching exercises in elite female volleyball athletes. On the other hand, surprisingly, more than half of the subjects did not succeed in the deep squat test. The cause of poor results in the deep squat test

  20. Evaluation of postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Vařeková, Renata; Vařeka, Ivan; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate marked postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes. Sixty-two Czech and Slovak elite female volleyball athletes (age 20.7±2.03 years, body mass 71.1±6.18 kg, body height 1.804±.0618 m, BMI 21.8±1.78) were examined by an experienced rehabilitation physician. The set of tests included the frontal posture gross examination, the forward bending test from the standing position and the deep squat test. The spiking hand and the presence of any lower extremity injury were estimated by interview. The proportion test, Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (p<0.05). Fifty subjects (80.6%) exhibited "typical" frontal plane posture in which the acromion, scapula and the iliac crest were in a higher position on the left side than on the right, significantly more frequently than all the other patterns (proportion test, p<0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of the subjects with the "LLL pattern" preferred the right arm for spiking (proportion test, p<0.0001). Forty-one subjects (66%) exhibited hypermobility in the forward bending test, significantly more frequently than twenty-one subjects (34%) with normal results (proportion test, p=0.0003). Thirty-four subjects (55%) did not succeed in the deep squat test and hypermobility in the forward bending test paradoxically prevailed in them significantly (proportion test, p=0.004). Restriction in the deep squat test was not linked to obesity, age (t-test, p=0.081) nor knee (proportion test, p=0.85) and ankle injury (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.36) in the past. Significant prevalence of hypermobility in the forward bending test was not surprising because of general body composition and the performance of regular stretching exercises in elite female volleyball athletes. On the other hand, surprisingly, more than half of the subjects did not succeed in the deep squat test. The cause of poor results in the deep squat test could be due

  1. Neuromuscular Changes in Female Collegiate Athletes Resulting From a Plyometric Jump-Training Program.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.; Short, Nancy I.; Neal, Kristina L.; Hoewischer, Paul E.; Pixley, Jennifer J.

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess performance changes induced by a 6- week plyometric jump-training program. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a quasiexperimental design to compare groups formed on the basis of team membership. Testing was conducted in an athletic training research laboratory, both before and after a 6-week period of preseason basketball conditioning. SUBJECTS: Nineteen female collegiate basketball players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I program (8 subjects) and a National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division II program (11 subjects) who had no history of anterior cruciate ligament injury and who had no history of any lower extremity injury during the preceding 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: The variables of primary interest were hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic peak torque. Of secondary interest were 5 variables derived from step-down and lunging maneuvers performed on a computerized forceplate system and 4 variables derived from tracking the position of the body core during performance of a T-pattern agility drill with a computerized infrared tracking system. RESULTS: A significant group x trial interaction was found for hamstrings peak torque at 60 degrees.s(-1) (F(1,17) = 9.16, P =.008.), and the proportion of total variance attributable to the treatment effect produced by the jump-training program was relatively large (eta(2) =.35, omega(2) =.30). None of the other variables demonstrated statistically significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our primary results support plyometric jump training as a strategy for improving neuromuscular attributes that are believed to reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female college basketball players. They also provide the basis for reasonable isokinetic strength goals.

  2. Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Petushek, Erich; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the within-session and between-session reliability of knee kinematics and kinetics in a vertical drop jump task among elite female handball and football athletes. Specifically, we aimed to quantify the within-session waveform consistency and between-session consistency of the subject ranking for a variety of knee kinematics and kinetics. Forty-one elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes were tested in two sessions. The reliability of three-dimensional knee biomechanical measurements was quantified by the intra-class correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and typical error. All the selected discrete variables achieved excellent within-session reliability (ICC>0.87). The typical error of valgus angles, internal rotation angles, and internal rotation moment was constant throughout the whole stance phase. For between-session reliability, the selected discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.69), except peak internal rotation moment (ICC=0.40). All between-session rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.90. Most of the discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability in both within-session and between-session analysis. Moreover, moderate to strong between-session consistency of subject rankings was found, implying that the measurements assessed during the vertical drop jump demonstrate sufficient reliability to be used in both single-session and multiple-session studies. PMID:27131197

  3. Factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in male and female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Hardy, Kristina K; Crosby, Ross D; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka

    2013-06-01

    The study explored the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among 1637 university students. Participants were divided into male (n=432) and female (n=544) competitive athletes, and male (n=229) and female (n=429) comparison groups comprised of individuals who had not engaged in competitive sports for at least one year. All groups were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the published factor structure in this population, and then exploratory FA (EFA). A three-factor solution was the best fit for three out of four groups, with a two-factor solution providing best fit for the male comparison group. The first factor for all groups resembled a combined Shape and Weight Concern subscale. The factor structure among male and female competitive athletes was remarkably similar; however, non-competitive athletic/low activity males appear qualitatively different from other groups. PMID:23453695

  4. The effect of zinc supplementation on the urinary excretion of elements in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Eskici, Gunay; Gunay, Mehmet; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how oral zinc supplementation to elite athletes affects the element changes in the urine. The study registered 10 female athletes who were on the women's volleyball team of Gazi University Sports Club and whose mean age, weight, and height were 14.2±0.42 years, 59.8±7.79kg and 173.6±6.15 cm. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. The athletes who continued their daily routine training sessions (6 days/week) were supplemented with 220mg/day oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks. In order to induce exhaustion, the subjects were put to a 20-meter shuttle run test before and after supplementation. A total, 7 times urine samples were collected follows as pre and post exercise before the start of the experiment and at the end (4 times), at the end of first, second and third week (3 times). Urinary levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium (mg/dl), as well as zinc, copper, and selenium (μg/dl) were analyzed in the atomic emission device (ICP-MS). Arithmetic means and standard errors of the data were calculated. Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine differences between weeks. Values for which p<0,05 were considered significant. When compared to resting values, urinary excretion of copper and selenium decreased in exercise (p<0,05), but increased with zinc supplementation (p<0,05). Pre- and post-supplementation exercise resulted in reduced urinary zinc excretion (p<0,05). Zinc supplementation increased urinary zinc excretion in one-week intervals over the course of 4 weeks (p<0,05), and reduced selenium levels (p<0,05). When zinc is supplemented to athletes, the relation between the duration and dose of supplementation is important. The results of the study indicated that zinc does not have any negative effect on the urinary excretion of the concerned elements. It can thus be concluded that athletes may benefit from zinc support.

  5. The effect of zinc supplementation on the urinary excretion of elements in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Eskici, Gunay; Gunay, Mehmet; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to find out how oral zinc supplementation to elite athletes affects the element changes in the urine. The study registered 10 female athletes who were on the women's volleyball team of Gazi University Sports Club and whose mean age, weight, and height were 14.2±0.42 years, 59.8±7.79kg and 173.6±6.15 cm. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. The athletes who continued their daily routine training sessions (6 days/week) were supplemented with 220mg/day oral zinc sulfate for 4 weeks. In order to induce exhaustion, the subjects were put to a 20-meter shuttle run test before and after supplementation. A total, 7 times urine samples were collected follows as pre and post exercise before the start of the experiment and at the end (4 times), at the end of first, second and third week (3 times). Urinary levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium (mg/dl), as well as zinc, copper, and selenium (μg/dl) were analyzed in the atomic emission device (ICP-MS). Arithmetic means and standard errors of the data were calculated. Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine differences between weeks. Values for which p<0,05 were considered significant. When compared to resting values, urinary excretion of copper and selenium decreased in exercise (p<0,05), but increased with zinc supplementation (p<0,05). Pre- and post-supplementation exercise resulted in reduced urinary zinc excretion (p<0,05). Zinc supplementation increased urinary zinc excretion in one-week intervals over the course of 4 weeks (p<0,05), and reduced selenium levels (p<0,05). When zinc is supplemented to athletes, the relation between the duration and dose of supplementation is important. The results of the study indicated that zinc does not have any negative effect on the urinary excretion of the concerned elements. It can thus be concluded that athletes may benefit from zinc support. PMID:26826808

  6. Body composition changes among female NCAA division 1 athletes across the competitive season and over a multiyear time frame.

    PubMed

    Stanforth, Philip R; Crim, Brittany N; Stanforth, Dixie; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    Body composition can affect athletic performance. Numerous studies have documented changes in body composition in female collegiate athletes from pre- to postseason; however, longitudinal studies examining changes across years are scarce. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to assess longitudinal body composition changes among female collegiate athletes across 3 years. Two hundred twelve female athletes from basketball (BB; n = 38), soccer (SOC; n = 47), swimming (SW; n = 52), track (sprinters and jumpers; TR; n = 49), and volleyball (VB; n = 26) with an initial mean age of 19.2 ± 1.2 years, height of 172.4 ± 8.9 cm, and total mass of 66.9 ± 9.0 kg had body composition assessments using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry pre- and postseason over 3 years. A restricted maximum-likelihood linear mixed model regression analysis examined body composition differences by sport and year. Changes (p < 0.05) over 3 years included the following: Lean mass increased in VB from year 1 to 2 (0.7 kg), year 2 to 3 (1.1 kg), and year 1 to 3 (1.8 kg) and in SW from year 1 to 3 (0.6 kg); and percent body fat (%BF) increased in BB from year 1 to 3 (1.7%). There were no changes in SOC or TR. These results indicate that during their college careers, female collegiate athletes can be expected to maintain their %BF and athletes in sports like SW and VB can anticipate an increase in lean mass, but the increases may be less than many athletes, coaches, and trainers envision.

  7. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.

  8. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations. PMID:24620037

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: Part 2, a meta-analysis of neuromuscular interventions aimed at injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D

    2006-03-01

    Female athletes have a 4 to 6 times higher incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury than do male athletes participating in the same landing and pivoting sports. This greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury, coupled with a geometric increase in participation (doubling each decade), has led to a significant rise in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. The gender gap in anterior cruciate ligament injury, combined with evidence that the underpinnings of this serious health problem are neuromuscular in nature, leads to the development of neuromuscular interventions designed to prevent injury. A systematic review of the published literature yielded 6 published interventions targeted toward anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention in female athletes. Four of 6 significantly reduced knee injury incidence, and 3 of 6 significantly reduced anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes. A meta-analysis of these 6 studies demonstrates a significant effect of neuromuscular training programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence in female athletes (test for overall effect, Z = 4.31, P < .0001). Examination of the similarities and differences between the training regimens gives insight into the development of more effective and efficient interventions. The purpose of this "Current Concepts" review is to highlight the relative effectiveness of these interventions in reducing anterior cruciate ligament injury rates and to evaluate the common training components between the training studies. In addition, the level of rigor of these interventions, the costs and the difficulty of implementation, the compliance with these interventions, and the performance benefits are discussed. This review summarizes conclusions based on evidence from the common components of the various interventions to discuss their potential to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury risk and assess their potential for combined use in more effective

  10. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  11. Contribution of strength characteristics to change of direction and agility performance in female basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Nimphius, Sophia; Hart, Nicolas H; Specos, Christina; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newton, Robert U

    2014-09-01

    Research has often examined the relationship between 1 or 2 measures of strength and change of direction (COD) ability reporting inconsistent relationships to performance. These inconsistencies may be the result of the strength assessment used and the assumption that 1 measure of strength can represent all "types" of strength required during a COD task. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between several lower-body strength and power measures, COD, and agility performance. Twelve (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat, isometric midthigh pull, eccentric and concentric only back squat, and a countermovement jump, followed by 2 COD tests (505 and T-test) and a reactive agility test. Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression analysis were performed on all variables. The percentage contribution of each strength measure to an athletes total strength score was also determined. Our results demonstrated that both COD tests were significantly correlated to maximal dynamic, isometric, concentric, and eccentric strength (r = -0.79 to -0.89), with eccentric strength identified as the sole predictor of COD performance. Agility performance did not correlate with any measure of strength (r = -0.08 to -0.36), whereas lower-body power demonstrated no correlation to either agility or COD performance (r = -0.19 to -0.46). These findings demonstrate the importance of multiple strength components for COD ability, highlighting eccentric strength as a deterministic factor of COD performance. Coaches should aim to develop a well-rounded strength base in athletes; ensuring eccentric strength is developed as effectively as the often-emphasized concentric or overall dynamic strength capacity.

  12. Control of dynamic foot-ground interactions in male and female soccer athletes: Females exhibit reduced dexterity and higher limb stiffness during landing

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Mark A.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Gregor, Robert J.; Powers, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling dynamic interactions between the lower limb and ground is important for skilled locomotion and may influence injury risk in athletes. It is well known that female athletes sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears at higher rates than male athletes, and exhibit lower extremity biomechanics thought to increase injury risk during sport maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower extremity dexterity (LED) – the ability to dynamically control endpoint force magnitude and direction as quantified by compressing an unstable spring with the lower limb at submaximal forces – is a potential contributing factor to the “at-risk” movement behavior exhibited by female athletes. We tested this hypothesis by comparing LED-test performance and single-limb drop jump biomechanics between 14 female and 14 male high school soccer players. We found that female athletes exhibited reduced LED-test performance (p=0.001) and higher limb stiffness during landing (p=0.008) calculated on average within 51 ms of foot contact. Females also exhibited higher coactivation at the ankle (p=0.001) and knee (p=0.02) before landing. No sex differences in sagittal plane joint angles and center of mass velocity at foot contact were observed. Collectively, our results raise the possibility that the higher leg stiffness observed in females during landing is an anticipatory behavior due in part to reduced lower extremity dexterity. The reduced lower extremity dexterity and compensatory stiffening strategy may contribute to the heightened risk of ACL injury in this population. PMID:24275440

  13. The influence of sport goggles on visual target detection in female intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Danielle C; Clark, Joseph F; Smith, J Carson

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sport goggles on visual target detection in female intercollegiate athletes. Participants were randomly divided into three groups that varied in goggle use (G) or no goggle use (NG) over a total of three 1-min trials during a visual target detection task. The NG-NG-NG group did not wear goggles for any of the trials, whereas the NG-G-NG group wore goggles for the second trial only, and the G-NG-G group wore goggles for the first and third trials. The task consisted of illuminated targets arranged in five concentric rings from central to peripheral visual angles. The effects of sport goggles on response time to detect targets were most evident in the peripheral rings. Those who did not wear sport goggles showed improved performance from the first to second trials. This improvement was impaired, however, in those who wore sport goggles. Moreover, there was a reversal of the performance improvements achieved without goggles in those who wore goggles on the third trial. Together, these findings suggest the sport goggles not only impaired the expected initial performance but also impaired visual target detection after performance improvements were seen. These findings suggest sport goggles may impair detection of peripheral visual stimuli in athletes.

  14. The effect of a competitive season on the body composition of university female athletes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G O; Nebelsick-Gullett, L J; Thorland, W G; Housh, T J

    1989-12-01

    Fifty-six NCAA Division I female athletes (age +/- SD = 19.82 +/- 0.59 years) from the swimming (SW), track (TR), volleyball (VB), gymnastics (GYM) and basketball (BB) teams were measured preseason and postseason to determine the effects of a season's training on their body composition. Body density (BD), relative fat (RF), fat-weight (FW), and fat-free weight (FFW) were obtained via hydrostatic weighing. The TR and GYM athletes showed significant increases and the VB players significant decreases in BD and FFW across season, respectively. No significant changes were found for the SW and BB teams. Preseason comparisons showed greater BD for TR than for BB, VB or SW. The GYM and VB had lower BD values than SW. Fat-free weight was higher in BB and VB teams, while TR and SW teams had greater FFW than GM. The BB, VB and SW teams had greater preseason FW than the TR and GYM groups. Postseason comparisons showed greater BD in TR and GYM than in the other three groups. Although FW differences were consistent with preseason data, all groups differed significantly in FFW with BB players having the greatest amount followed by VB, SW, TR and GYM.

  15. Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were assessed pre/post-treatment, and 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Results (analyzed sample N = 157) indicated that both interventions reduced thin-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, bulimic pathology, shape and weight concern, and negative affect at 6 weeks, and bulimic pathology, shape concern, and negative affect at 1 year. Unexpectedly we observed an increase in students spontaneously seeking medical consultation for the triad. Qualitative results suggested that AM-HWI may be more preferred by athletes. PMID:22019502

  16. Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were assessed pre/post-treatment, and 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Results (analyzed sample, N=157) indicated that both interventions reduced thin-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, bulimic pathology, shape and weight concern, and negative affect at 6 weeks, and bulimic pathology, shape concern, and negative affect at 1 year. Unexpectedly we observed an increase in students spontaneously seeking medical consultation for the triad. Qualitative results suggested that AM-HWI may be more preferred by athletes. PMID:22019502

  17. A Mediation Analysis of the ATHENA Intervention for Female Athletes: Prevention of Athletic-Enhancing Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ranby, Krista W; Aiken, Leona S; Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; McGinnis, Wendy; Goldberg, Linn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explain, through mediation analyses, the mechanisms by which ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives), a primary prevention and health promotion intervention designed to deter unhealthy body shaping behaviors among female high school athletes, produced immediate changes in intentions for unhealthy weight loss and steroid/creatine use, and to examine the link to long-term follow-up intentions and behaviors. Methods In a randomized trial of 1668 athletes, intervention participants completed coach-led peer-facilitated sessions during their sport season. Participants provided pre-test, immediate post-test, and 9-month follow-up assessments. Results ATHENA decreased intentions for steroid/creatine use and intentions for unhealthy weight loss behaviors at post-test. These effects were most strongly mediated by social norms and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Low post-test intentions were maintained 9 months later and predicted subsequent behavior. Conclusions ATHENA successfully modified mediators that in turn related to athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices. Mediation analyses aid in the understanding of health promotion interventions and inform program development. PMID:19386771

  18. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.

  19. Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…

  20. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  1. Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-01-01

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength. PMID:25031675

  2. Do Old Ladies Make World History?: Student Perceptions of Elder Female Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbum, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the views of his undergraduate students regarding elder female agency and their answers to the question: "Do old ladies make world history?" Because his undergraduate students mostly view the past in terms of the Great Man theory of history, which holds that those who make history are necessarily great, and…

  3. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. Objective To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Design Qualitative study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Data Collection and Analysis Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Results Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Conclusions Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity. PMID:26067427

  4. Landing Error Scoring System Differences Between Single-Sport and Multi-Sport Female High School–Aged Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in

  5. Relationship of C-reactive protein and bone mineral density in community-dwelling elderly females.

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kalpana; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Tran, The-Huy; Asuncion, Merlyn; Norris, Keith

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in bone remodeling. We hypothesized that higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly females. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: 2,807 females 65 years and older. RESULTS: CRP was associated with BMD in the bivariate sis (p<0.001) but not in the multivariate analysis (p=0.23) Age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and immobility were independently associated with BMD. CONCLUSIONS: CRP may be useful in screening for osteoporosis among community-dwelling elderly females. However, CRP appears to act as a surrogate for other factorsdirectly associated with osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:15779496

  6. Femoral neck stress fracture in a female athlete: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Daniel; Pajaczkowski, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic rehabilitation of a master's-level athlete with proximal femoral stress fracture and provide a brief discussion of stress fracture pathology. Clinical Features A 41-year-old female master's-level endurance athlete presented with chronic groin pain later diagnosed and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging as a stress fracture of the femoral neck. After diagnosis, the patient was referred to a doctor of chiropractic at week 1 of the non–weight-bearing physical rehabilitation process. At that time, the patient presented with sharp and constant groin pain rated 6/10 on a numeric rating scale. Intervention and Outcome This patient avoided weight-bearing activity for 8 weeks while cross-training and was able to return to her sport after this period. The patient was progressed through a series of non–weight-bearing strengthening exercises for the lower extremity. Myofascial release therapy was performed on the gluteal, hip flexor, and groin muscle groups to improve range of motion. Motion palpation testing the lumbar and sacroiliac joints was performed during each session, and manipulative therapy was performed when necessary. The patient was seen once a week for 8 weeks. Reevaluation was performed at week 8; at that time, the patient reported no groin pain (0/10). The patient was discharged from care and referred back to the supervising physician for clearance to return to sporting activities. One month after discharge, she reported that she was pain free and had fully returned to sport activities. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the importance of a through clinical history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging in the accurate diagnosis of a patient with chronic groin pain and that chiropractic care can contribute to rehabilitation programs for these injuries. PMID:23843760

  7. Effects of Static Stretching on Squat Performance in Division I Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    HEISEY, CLARE F.; KINGSLEY, J. DEREK

    2016-01-01

    Static stretching was once recognized as a method of preparation for physical activity that would inhibit performance and increase risk of injury. However, a growing body of research suggests that static stretching may not have an inhibitory effect. Regardless, the data have not examined gender differences or the fatigue index (FI) and flexibility effects of static stretching on the back squat over multiple sets. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a static-stretch condition (SC) and control condition (CC) on flexibility and the FI of Division I female athletes during 4 sets of the back squat. Eighteen subjects (mean ± SD; age 20 ± 1 yrs; height 164.5 ± 14.6 cm; mass 74.1 ± 26.8 kg; waist circumference 73.2 ± 5.4 cm) participated in 3 testing days over the course of 3 weeks. Each subject’s 1RM back squat was assessed during the first day of testing and verified during the second. On the third testing day, subjects assigned to the SC held 3 lower-body stretches twice for 30 second intervals and those assigned to the CC rested during the corresponding 7 minutes and 50 second time period. The subjects also performed a fatiguing squat protocol consisting of 4 sets of maximum repetitions on the third day of testing. A significant (p=0.04) interaction was noted for flexibility. No significant interaction (p=0.41) was observed between the FI of the CC (41.8 ± 24.1%) or the SC (27.6 ± 45.2%). These results indicate that static stretching does not have a significant effect on multiple sets of the back squat. Therefore, coaches may allow their athletes to engage in static stretching prior to resistance exercise ad libitum. PMID:27766127

  8. Functional dimorphism and characteristics of maximal hand grip force in top level female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine functional dimorphism (F(max)Nd/DoHG(iso)) and model characteristics at maximal isometric hand grip force (F(max)HG(iso)) in top level female athletes. 275 top level female athletes were tested from Taekwondo, Synchronised Swimming, Track and field, Table tennis, Volleyball, Karate, Skiing, Handball, well-trained students (students of the Academy for Criminalistic and Police studies - ACPS) and Control group. In order to assess the F(max)HG(iso), we used standardised equipment, i.e., a sliding device that measures isometric finger flexor force, with a tensiometric probe fixed inside the device. The average values of F(max)HG(iso) and relative force measured by allometric and classic method for dominant and non-dominant hand grip for the total sample were 381.87 +/- 60.28, 344.63 +/- 55.60 N; 24.06 +/- 3.50, 21.72 +/- 3.28 N/BM0.667; 0.62 +/- 0.10, 0.56 +/- 0.09 N/BM. The average value of F(max)Nd/DoHG(iso) was 0.9030 +/- 0.0797. General Significant difference was established between subsamples for the measurement characteristics at the level of Wilks' Lambda 0.476, F = 3.276, p = 0.000. Maximal average value F(max)HG(iso) for non-dominant and dominant hand is found in Karate (372.04 +/- 46.71, 407.04 +/- 71.31 N) and minimal in Table tennis (282.00 +/- 56.00, 304.00 +/- 58.51 N). The minimal index value of F(max)Nd/DoHG(iso) was found in Control group 0.8771 +/- 0.0877. Considering defined classification of F(max)Nd/ DoHG(iso), we classified the examinees from different sports in 4 groups: dominant symmetry of functional hand grip relations (Skiing > 0.9595); symmetry (Table tennis and Taekwondo 0.9288 to 0.9594); average (Karate, Volleyball, ACPS, Track and field 0.8980 to 0.9287); asymmetry (Control, Synchronised swimming and Handball 0.8674 to 0.8979). The results obtained can be used to determine criteria decisions from the aspect of diagnostic procedures, metric aspect, medical aspect. PMID:23390816

  9. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance. PMID:26448737

  10. The influence of a foot orthotic on lower extremity transverse plane kinematics in collegiate female athletes with pes planus.

    PubMed

    Christopher, R Carcia; Drouin, Joshua M; Houglum, Peggy A

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes remain prevalent. Athletes with excessive foot pronation have been identified to be at greater risk for non-contact ACL injury. Excessive foot pronation has been linked to increased medial tibial rotation. Increased medial tibial rotation heightens ACL strain and has been observed at or near the time of ACL injury. Foot orthotics have been shown to decrease medial tibial rotation during walking and running tasks. The effect of a foot orthotic on activities that simulate a non-contact ACL injury mechanism (i.e. landing) however is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a foot orthotic was capable of altering transverse plane lower extremity kinematics in female athletes during landing. Twenty uninjured collegiate female athletes participating in the sports of basketball, soccer or volleyball with pes planus volunteered. Utilizing a repeated measures counterbalanced design, subjects completed two landing tasks with and without a foot orthotic using standardized footwear. The prefabricated orthotic had a rigid shell and a 6 extrinsic rear-foot varus post. Dependent measures included initial contact angle, peak angle, excursion and time to peak angle for both the tibia and femur. Statistical analysis suggested that the selected foot orthosis had little influence over lower extremity transverse plane kinematics. Several factors including: the limitation of a static measure to predict dynamic movement, inter-subject variability and the physical characteristics of the orthotic device likely account for the results. Future research should examine the influence of different types of foot orthotics not only on lower extremity kinematics but also tibiofemoral kinetics. Key PointsLower extremity transverse plane kinematics in female athletes during a landing task exhibit substantial variability.A rigid prefabricated foot orthotic does not significantly alter transverse

  11. Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vijayabanu, B; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Dhivya, K

    2015-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies. There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM.

  12. Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vijayabanu, B.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Dhivya, K.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies. There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM. PMID:26538963

  13. Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vijayabanu, B; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Dhivya, K

    2015-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies. There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM. PMID:26538963

  14. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.

  15. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ2 =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ2 =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ2 =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  16. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training. PMID:26925183

  17. Methodological factors and the prediction of body fat in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Lohman, T G; Pollock, M L; Slaughter, M H; Brandon, L J; Boileau, R A

    1984-01-01

    The effect of skinfold caliper, investigator technique, and various skinfold prediction equations on estimates of body fatness was investigated using college-age female basketball players. Four skinfold calipers, four investigators, and five prediction equations from the literature were selected for study. Skinfolds were obtained on 16 athletes for each of five sites by all four investigators using each caliper. Triceps and subscapular skinfolds showed less variation among investigators (mean differences of 1-4 mm) as compared to suprailiac, abdomen, and thigh skinfolds (mean differences of up to 5-6 mm). Differences among investigators were less using the Harpenden and Holtain than for the Lange and Adipometer calipers. All three sources of variation--caliper, investigator, and prediction equation--contributed significantly to the variability in estimates of mean fat content of this sample, which ranged from 14.1-28.1% depending on which of the 80 caliper-investigator-prediction equation combinations (four calipers, four investigators, and five equations) was used. Using any one prediction equation, the range in mean percent fat due to the 16 caliper-investigator combinations was 7%. The results illustrate the need for standardization of skinfold sites, caliper, and prediction equations for reliable estimation of body composition in a specific population.

  18. Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; Grogan, Claire; Perry, Mark; Pedlar, Charles; Cooke, Karl; Morrissey, Dylan; Dimitriou, Lygeri

    2010-10-01

    Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no significant relationships between BMD and the possible associations. Menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and low BMD were coexistent in 15.9% of athletes. Longitudinal analysis identified a positive association between the BMD reduction at the lumbar spine and training volume (p=.026). This study confirms the presence of aspects of the female athlete triad in elite female endurance athletes and notes a substantial prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis. Normal menstrual status was not significantly associated with normal BMD, and it is the authors' practice that all elite female endurance athletes undergo dual-X-ray absorptiometry screening. The association between increased training volume, trend for menstrual dysfunction, and increased loss of lumbar BMD may support the concept that negative energy balance contributes to bone loss in athletes. PMID:20975110

  19. Salivary hormone and immune responses to three resistance exercise schemes in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João A; Crewther, Blair T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Viveiros, Luís; de Rose, Dante; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the salivary hormone and immune responses of elite female athletes to 3 different resistance exercise schemes. Fourteen female basketball players each performed an endurance scheme (ES-4 sets of 12 reps, 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load, 1-minute rest periods), a strength-hypertrophy scheme (SHS-1 set of 5RM, 1 set of 4RM, 1 set of 3RM, 1 set of 2RM, and 1set of 1RM with 3-minute rest periods, followed by 3 sets of 10RM with 2-minute rest periods) and a power scheme (PS-3 sets of 10 reps, 50% 1RM load, 3-minute rest periods) using the same exercises (bench press, squat, and biceps curl). Saliva samples were collected at 07:30 hours, pre-exercise (Pre) at 09:30 hours, postexercise (Post), and at 17:30 hours. Matching samples were also taken on a nonexercising control day. The samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol (C), and immunoglobulin A concentrations. The total volume of load lifted differed among the 3 schemes (SHS > ES > PS, p < 0.05). Postexercise C concentrations increased after all schemes, compared to control values (p < 0.05). In the SHS, the postexercise C response was also greater than pre-exercise data (p < 0.05). The current findings confirm that high-volume resistance exercise schemes can stimulate greater C secretion because of higher metabolic demand. In terms of practical applications, acute changes in C may be used to evaluate the metabolic demands of different resistance exercise schemes, or as a tool for monitoring training strain.

  20. Anthropometric estimations of percent body fat in NCAA Division I female athletes: a 4-compartment model validation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Smith, Abbie E; Lockwood, Chris M; Walter, Ashley A; Cramer, Joel T; Beck, Travis W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2009-07-01

    Anthropometric equations, based on 2-compartment models, have been routinely used to estimate body composition in female college athletes; however, these equations are not without error. In an attempt to decrease the error associated with anthropometric equations, updated equations were developed using multiple-compartment models, although the validity of these equations has not yet been established. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the validity of the updated anthropometric equations and compare them with previously validated generalized equations for estimating percent fat (%fat) in female athletes. Twenty-nine white female NCAA Division I athletes (20 +/- 1 years) volunteered to have their %fat estimated using anthropometric measurements. Skinfold equations included generalized and updated equations and a height and weight-based equation. %fat values were compared with a criterion 4-compartment model. All equations produced low total error (TE) (< or =3.38%fat) and SEE values (< or =2.97%fat) and high r values (r > or = 0.78). The 2 updated skinfold equations produced the highest constant error (CE) values, but the tightest limits of agreement (< or = -1.58 +/- 4.86%fat; CE +/- 2SD) compared with the 3 generalized Jackson et al. equations (< or =0.92 +/- 5.34%fat), whereas the limits of agreement for the height and weight-based equation (+/- 6.00%fat) were the widest. Compared with the updated skinfold equations, the generalized Jackson et al. skinfold equations produced nearly identical TE values. Results suggest that the updated skinfold equations are valid but not superior to the generalized Jackson et al. equations, and the height and weight-based equation of Fornetti et al. is not recommended due to the large individual error in this population. Additionally, more than 3 skinfold sites did not improve %fat values. Therefore, the Jackson et al. sum of 3 skinfold equation is the suggested skinfold equation in the white female NCAA

  1. Psychological correlates of performance in female athletes during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Matthews, Tracey D; Murray, Mimi; Van Raalte, Judy; Jensen, Barbara E

    2010-03-01

    Examination of the relationship between performance testing and psychological measures before and after a 12-week strength and conditioning program was the study's purpose. Female NCAA Division-III soccer (n = 28), field hockey (n = 28), and softball (n = 19) athletes completed pre- and post-testing held 12 weeks apart. On day 1, athletes completed informed consent, 3 psychological measures (Profile of Mood States [POMS], Physical Self Perception Profile [PSPP], and Athlete's Self Perception of Physical Abilities [ASPPA]), and 2 strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] bench, 1RM back squat). Day 2 consisted of the 30-yd sprint, pro agility run (PRO), vertical jump (VJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). All sports improved (p < 0.01) in 1RM bench and squat and reported increases in perceived Physical Strength on the PSPP (p < 0.01). Soccer athletes improved (p < 0.01) in VJ, SLJ, and PRO (p < 0.05). No differences were found in POMS scores. The POMS scores indicated that the athletes were not overtrained or experiencing staleness. A series of correlations showed relationships between physical and psychological measures. Specifically, Physical Strength was correlated with 1RM upper-body (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Physical Strength was correlated with ASPPA ratings of upper-body (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Sport Competence correlated with ASPPA ratings of power (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and PRO (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). The study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.

  2. Generalized Joint Laxity Associated With Increased Medial Foot Loading in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barber Foss, Kim D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-01-01

    Context: The relationship between generalized joint laxity and plantar pressure distribution of the foot and the potential implications for lower extremity injury have not been studied. Objective: To determine the relationship between generalized joint laxity and dynamic plantar pressure distribution. We hypothesized that individuals with greater generalized joint laxity, or hypermobility, would have greater dynamic medial midfoot pressure and loading during walking than nonhypermobile individuals. Design: Case control. Setting: Institutional biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 112 female soccer players between 11 and 21 years of age. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI; range, 0–9) and was categorized as having either high (BHJMI score ≥4) or low (BHJMI score <4) generalized joint laxity. Peak pressure and maximum force were calculated from a dynamic, barefoot plantar pressure distribution system. Results: Peak pressure and maximum force were greater in the 27 participants categorized as having high generalized joint laxity than in the 85 participants categorized as having low generalized joint laxity. The midfoot region exhibited greater loading in participants with high generalized joint laxity than in the other participants. We found an effect of BHJMI classification in the medial midfoot; peak pressure in the dominant (F1,109  =  11.262, P  =  .001) and nondominant (F1,109  =  14.32, P < .001) sides and maximum force in the dominant (F1,109  =  7.88, P  =  .006) and nondominant (F1,109  =  9.18, P  =  .003) sides were greater in the high generalized joint laxity group than in the low generalized joint laxity group. Conclusions: Athletes classified as having high generalized joint laxity demonstrated increased midfoot loading. Delineation of risk factors for medial collapse of the foot

  3. Physical Activity, Disordered Eating Risk, and Anthropometric Measurement: A Comparison of College Female Athletes and Non Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinauskas, Brenda M.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Aeby, Victor G.; Bruening, Christi C.

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for women in sport have expanded, whereas the media-driven ideal female continues to have a slender body. To attain the body that society has promoted, college-age females are vulnerable to psychological disordered eating risk. This study examines relationships among physical activity, body composition, and psychological eating…

  4. Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

  5. Sexy versus Strong: What Girls and Women Think of Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has investigated girls' and college women's reactions to non-objectified media images of women, including those that depict women in instrumental activities like playing a sport. This study examined open-ended responses to images of performance athletes, sexualized athletes, and sexualized models. Participants were 258 adolescent…

  6. Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Markesha McWilliams

    2013-01-01

    Transitions are defined as "any event or non-event that results in changed relationships, routines, assumptions, and roles" (Goodman, Schlossberg, & Anderson, 2006, p. 33). A particular transition unique to student-athletes in comparison to other college students is the end of their collegiate athletic eligibility. The purpose of…

  7. Natural selection for genetic variants in sport: the role of Y chromosome genes in elite female athletes with 46,XY DSD.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Bavington, L Dawn

    2014-12-01

    At present, it is widely assumed that hyperandrogenism in female athletes confers an unfair competitive advantage. This view is perpetuated in current regulations governing eligibility of female athletes with hyperandrogenism to compete, which identify testosterone levels in the male range as the critical factor. Detailed evidence is presented here for the first time that genes for stature (and possibly other genes) on the Y chromosome are responsible for the increased frequency of 46,XY disorder of sex development (46,XY DSD) among elite female athletes identified by eligibility tests. In many cases, androgens are non-functional or, alternatively, absent and therefore testosterone cannot be responsible for their athletic success. Genetic variation has a major role in the selection of individuals for training and success in competition; however, this variation is not grounds for determining who should compete in athletic events. There is no convincing evidence to support the view that hyperandrogenism is associated with performance advantage in female athletes. Current time-consuming regulations may lead to the unwelcome resurgence of innuendo in the media and coercion of female athletes into accepting gonadectomy and other treatments to which they might otherwise not have been subjected. These regulations should be withdrawn on the grounds that they are not supported scientifically, are discriminatory towards women and place some female athletes at risk of unnecessary and potentially harmful investigations. Improved understanding about genetic factors that lead to selection in sport should offer reassurance that women with hyperandrogenism possess no physical attribute relevant to athletic performance that is neither attainable, nor present in other women.

  8. Sex differences on use of associative and dissociative cognitive strategies among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Roberta Antonini; Seiler, Roland

    2005-10-01

    This study assessed whether men and women differed in using associative and dissociative cognitive strategies during athletic performance. Athletes (31 men, M age = 23.2 yr., SD = 3.9 and 29 women, M age = 22.9 yr., SD = 4.3) who practiced endurance activities (running, swimming, and cycling) were considered high-level performers because they participated in national or international competition. The athletes were interviewed, and Schomer's 1986 method of measurement was used to evaluate and quantify two cognitive strategies. Most specifically, categories of association concerned the way the athlete paid close attention to bodily signals, and categories of dissociation described how the athlete shunned sensory inputs. Analysis of variance and the t test showed that women tend to be more dissociative than men and men more associative than women. The results suggest that pain perception in these sports may be a function of sex. PMID:16383077

  9. Risk of Marijuana Use in Male and Female College Student Athletes and Nonathletes*

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Jennifer F.; Yusko, David A.; Farris, Samantha G.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A large minority of collegiate athletes report past-year marijuana use even though there is a significant possibility of experiencing negative athlete-specific consequences related to performance, eligibility, and scholarship. The present study examined risk factors that can drive or curb marijuana use in college athletes and nonathletes. Method: Logistic regressions, performed separately for men and for women, assessed the relationship of past-year marijuana use to sensation seeking, negative mood, perceptions of peer marijuana use, motivations for marijuana use, and stress related to body image and academics in athletes (233 men, 156 women) and nonathletes (184 men, 313 women). Risk factors also were compared for male past-year marijuana users who reported using (n = 26) or not using (n = 61) the substance during their competitive season. Results: For athletes and nonathletes of both genders, being White, being past-year cigarette smokers, having higher sensation-seeking scores, and having exaggerated perceptions of student use norms were associated with past-year marijuana use. Enhancement motivations for use were higher among athletes compared with their same-gender nonathlete peers. In women, but not in men, greater body image stress and lower academic stress were associated with past-year marijuana use. Male athletes who continued using marijuana into their competitive season demonstrated a qualitatively different risk profile compared with athlete past-year users who reported no in-season use, including greater coping motivations for marijuana use. Conclusions: This preliminary study suggests that although the overall risk profile of college athletes and nonathletes is similar, athletes appear to be particularly motivated to use marijuana because of its enhancement or pleasurable properties. PMID:21683040

  10. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition.

  11. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  12. A 3-month intervention of Dance Dance Revolution improves interference control in elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lan-Ya; Hung, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-04-01

    Exercise regimens suitable to the elderly remain under investigated; therefore, this study examined the effects of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) on cognitive control in elderly females. Twenty-six healthy elderly females leading a sedentary lifestyle were assigned to a DDR, brisk walking, or control group. Participants in the DDR and brisk walking groups engaged in moderate physical exercise three times per week for 3 months, whereas the control group maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Each participant performed a flanker task before and after the intervention. The results revealed that both DDR and brisk walking shortened reaction time, N2 latency, and P3 latency relative to those of the control group. These findings suggest that DDR intervention is as effective as that of brisk walking in improving inhibitory control for elderly people. Therefore, DDR can be used as a viable alternative exercise to enhance cognitive function for the elderly and motivate individuals who are less willing to be active. PMID:25595954

  13. A 3-month intervention of Dance Dance Revolution improves interference control in elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lan-Ya; Hung, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-04-01

    Exercise regimens suitable to the elderly remain under investigated; therefore, this study examined the effects of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) on cognitive control in elderly females. Twenty-six healthy elderly females leading a sedentary lifestyle were assigned to a DDR, brisk walking, or control group. Participants in the DDR and brisk walking groups engaged in moderate physical exercise three times per week for 3 months, whereas the control group maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Each participant performed a flanker task before and after the intervention. The results revealed that both DDR and brisk walking shortened reaction time, N2 latency, and P3 latency relative to those of the control group. These findings suggest that DDR intervention is as effective as that of brisk walking in improving inhibitory control for elderly people. Therefore, DDR can be used as a viable alternative exercise to enhance cognitive function for the elderly and motivate individuals who are less willing to be active.

  14. Nutrition and eating in female college athletes: a survey of coaches.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Ogles, Benjamin M; Gold, Ellsa; Marsden, Kimberlyann; Johnson, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to gather information from coaches regarding their monitoring/management of athlete eating and weight, knowledge of nutritional health issues, availability of prevention/intervention services for athletes at their school, experience with athletes exhibiting symptoms of eating and body image disturbances, and their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. A total of 303 coaches (51% response rate) involved in six sports (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, basketball, softball, track, and volleyball) at all levels of collegiate competition (NCAA Divisions I, II, III, and NAIA) completed a 40-item survey. Gender was found to be related to differential responding on only one of the 40 items, while sport and level of competition were related to responses on multiple items. Gymnastics coaches and NCAA Division I coaches differed significantly from coaches of other sports and divisions in that they reported more monitoring/management behaviors, had more experience with athletes exhibiting eating disturbances, and had more resources available for preventing and treating athletes with eating disorders. Gymnastics coaches also differed from other coaches on a number of items related to their attitudes toward eating and weight in the sport. Many coaches have encountered disturbed eating among their athletes, and some of their coaching attitudes and behaviors may inadvertently increase the risk for such disturbances. Implications for clinical and sport psychologists providing prevention or intervention services to intercollegiate athletes are discussed.

  15. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  16. Kinematic, Dynamic and EMG Analysis of Drop Jumps in Female Elite Triple Jump Athletes.

    PubMed

    Čoh, Milan; Matjačić, Zlatko; Peharec, Stanislav; Bačić, Petar; Rausavjević, Nikola; Maćkala, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was a biodynamic analysis of the kinematic, dynamic and EMG parameters of two types of drop jumps (heights of 25 cm and 45 cm). The sample of measured subjects included four female elite triple jump athletes, with their best results varying from 13.33 to 15.06 meters. The kinematic and dynamic parameters were calculated with the use of a bipedal tensiometric force plate, which was synchronized with nine CCD cameras. A 16-channel electromyography (BTS Pocket, Myolab) was used to analyze the EMG activation of the following muscles: m. erector spinae, m. gluteus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, m. soleus and m. gastrocnemius medialis. In the drop jump from a 25 cm height, the measured subjects achieved the following results: height of jump 43.37 ± 5.39 cm and ground reaction force 2770 ± 411 N. In comparison, results for the drop jump from a 45 cm height were: height of jump 45.22 ± 4.65 cm and ground reaction force 2947 ± 366 N. Vertical velocity of the take-off in the 25 cm drop jump was 2.77 ± 0.19 ms(-1) and in the 45 cm drop jump it was 2.86 ± 0.15 ms(-1). Observation of the EMG activation revealed the proximal to distal principle of muscle activation at work in both types of drop jumps. In the first phase of the concentric phase the most active muscles were m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris. The greatest activity of m. gastrocnemius medialis and m. soleus was noticed in the last third of the take-off action. Significantly high EMG activation of m. vastus medialis and m. vastus lateralis was already shown in the flight phase prior to the feet making contact with the ground. PMID:26434025

  17. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements. PMID:27329516

  18. Current perspectives on the etiology and manifestation of the “silent” component of the Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) represents a syndrome of three interrelated conditions that originate from chronically inadequate energy intake to compensate for energy expenditure; this environment results in insufficient stored energy to maintain physiological processes, a condition known as low energy availability. The physiological adaptations associated with low energy availability, in turn, contribute to menstrual cycle disturbances. The downstream effects of both low energy availability and suppressed estrogen concentrations synergistically impair bone health, leading to low bone mineral density, compromised bone structure and microarchitecture, and ultimately, a decrease in bone strength. Unlike the other components of the Triad, poor bone health often does not have overt symptoms, and therefore develops silently, unbeknownst to the athlete. Compromised bone health among female athletes increases the risk of fracture throughout the lifespan, highlighting the long-term health consequences of the Triad. The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of Triad research related to the third component of the Triad, ie, poor bone health, in an effort to summarize what we know, what we are learning, and what remains unknown. PMID:24833922

  19. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support. PMID:24648651

  20. Neuromuscular Training Improves Performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test in Young Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    FILIPA, ALYSON; BYRNES, ROBYN; PATERNO, MARK V.; MYER, GREGORY D.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Controlled cohort repeated-measures experimental design. OBJECTIVES To determine if a neuromuscular training program (NMTP) focused on core stability and lower extremity strength would affect performance on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). We hypothesized that NMTP would improve SEBT performance in the experimental group and there would be no side-to-side differences in either group. BACKGROUND The SEBT is a functional screening tool that is used to assess dynamic stability, monitor rehabilitation progress, assess deficits following an injury, and identify athletes at high risk for lower extremity injury. The SEBT requires lower extremity coordination, balance, flexibility, and strength. METHODS Twenty uninjured female soccer players (13 experimental, 7 control) participated. Players trained together as a team, so group allocation was not randomized. The SEBT was administered prior to and following 8 weeks of NMTP in the experimental group and 8 weeks of no NMTP in the control group. A 3-way mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of group (experimental versus control), training (pretraining versus posttraining), and limb (right versus left). RESULTS After participation in a NMTP, subjects demonstrated a significant improvement in the SEBT composite score (mean ± SD) on the right limb (pretraining, 96.4% ± 11.7%; posttraining, 104.6% ± 6.1%; P = .03) and the left limb (pretraining, 96.9% ± 10.1%; posttraining, 103.4% ± 8.0%; P = .04). The control group had no change on the SEBT composite score for the right (pretraining, 95.7% ± 5.2%; posttraining, 94.4% ± 5.2%; P = .15) or the left (97.4% ± 7.2%; 93.6% ± 5.0%; P = .09) limb. Further analysis identified significant improvement for the SEBT in the posterolateral direction on both the right (P = .008) and left (P = .040) limb and the posteromedial direction of the left limb (P = .028) in the experimental group. CONCLUSION Female soccer players demonstrated an improved

  1. Weight-bearing exercise and markers of bone turnover in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Creighton, D L; Morgan, A L; Boardley, D; Brolinson, P G

    2001-02-01

    Weight-bearing activity provides an osteogenic stimulus, while effects of swimming on bone are unclear. We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in female athletes (n = 41, age 20.7 yr) comparing three impact groups, high impact (High, basketball and volleyball, n = 14), medium impact (Med, soccer and track, n = 13), and nonimpact (Non, swimming, n = 7), with sedentary age-matched controls (Con, n = 7). BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), Ward's triangle, and trochanter (TR); bone resorption estimated from urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx); and bone formation determined from serum osteocalcin. Adjusted BMD (g/cm; covariates: body mass index, weight, and calcium and calorie intake) was greater at the FN and TR in the High group (1.27 +/- 0.03 and 1.05 +/- 0.03) than in the Non (1.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.86 +/- 0.04) and Con (1.03 +/- 0.05 and 0.85 +/- 0.05) groups and greater at the TR in the Med group (1.01 +/- 0.03) than in the Non (0.86 +/- 0.04) and Con (0.85 +/- 0.05) groups. Total body BMD was higher in the High group (4.9 +/- 0.12) than in the Med (4.5 +/- 0.12), Non (4.2 +/- 0.14), and Con (4.1 +/- 0.17) groups and greater in the Med group than in the Non and Con groups. Bone formation was lower in the Non group (19.8 +/- 2.6) than in the High (30.6 +/- 3.0) and Med (32.9 +/- 1.9, P < or = 0.05) groups. No differences in a marker of bone resorption (NTx) were noted. This indicates that women who participate in impact sports such as volleyball and basketball had higher BMDs and bone formation values than female swimmers. PMID:11160054

  2. Weight-bearing exercise and markers of bone turnover in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Creighton, D L; Morgan, A L; Boardley, D; Brolinson, P G

    2001-02-01

    Weight-bearing activity provides an osteogenic stimulus, while effects of swimming on bone are unclear. We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in female athletes (n = 41, age 20.7 yr) comparing three impact groups, high impact (High, basketball and volleyball, n = 14), medium impact (Med, soccer and track, n = 13), and nonimpact (Non, swimming, n = 7), with sedentary age-matched controls (Con, n = 7). BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), Ward's triangle, and trochanter (TR); bone resorption estimated from urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx); and bone formation determined from serum osteocalcin. Adjusted BMD (g/cm; covariates: body mass index, weight, and calcium and calorie intake) was greater at the FN and TR in the High group (1.27 +/- 0.03 and 1.05 +/- 0.03) than in the Non (1.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.86 +/- 0.04) and Con (1.03 +/- 0.05 and 0.85 +/- 0.05) groups and greater at the TR in the Med group (1.01 +/- 0.03) than in the Non (0.86 +/- 0.04) and Con (0.85 +/- 0.05) groups. Total body BMD was higher in the High group (4.9 +/- 0.12) than in the Med (4.5 +/- 0.12), Non (4.2 +/- 0.14), and Con (4.1 +/- 0.17) groups and greater in the Med group than in the Non and Con groups. Bone formation was lower in the Non group (19.8 +/- 2.6) than in the High (30.6 +/- 3.0) and Med (32.9 +/- 1.9, P < or = 0.05) groups. No differences in a marker of bone resorption (NTx) were noted. This indicates that women who participate in impact sports such as volleyball and basketball had higher BMDs and bone formation values than female swimmers.

  3. The 2015 Pediatric Endocrine Society Ethics Symposium: Controversies Regarding 'Gender Verification' of Elite Female Athletes - Sex Testing to Hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Jill L; Genel, Myron

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Pediatric Endocrine Society's Ethics Symposium held in April 2015 at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies is provided by the panel moderators with a summary of efforts by international athletic governing bodies over several decades to 'verify' the eligibility of athletes to compete in female only events, culminating in the hyperandrogenism policies that were the focus of the panel debate. This history was extensively reviewed in the symposium's opening presentation by Alan Rogol, in collaboration with Lindsay Pieper. Two sharply divergent views were then conveyed. David Allen's, in support, is provided in his article which follows. The opposing case, provided by Katrina Karkazis, is extensively summarized herein and reflected in her Science essay with Rebecca Jordan-Young which appeared shortly after the meeting. The subsequent ruling by the international Court of Arbitration for Sport to suspend the hyperandrogenism rule is noted with some speculation regarding the implications if it is upheld. PMID:26918844

  4. Hyperandrogenism in female athletes with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a distinct phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Asma; Kashyap, Rahul; Lteif, Aida N

    2015-01-01

    positively associated with serum glucose (adjusted r2=0.102; P=0.01) as well as with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry spine score (adjusted r2=0.191; P=0.04) in the entire cohort. Conclusion In a small cohort of female athletes with hyperandrogenism, a distinct reproductive hormone profile consisting of higher LH to FHS ratio may be associated with adverse metabolic health markers but improved skeletal health. PMID:25610004

  5. Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life and Knee Function After Knee Injury in Young Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Winterstein, Andrew P.; Carr, Kathleen; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent literature has called for greater attention to evidence-based practice in sports medicine with the documentation of overall status and impairments following injury. The prospective documentation of impairments associated with knee injuries in female athletes regarding their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and knee function (KF) of high school and collegiate athletes is limited. Assessing the effect knee injuries have on young female athletes may allow clinicians to better understand the perspectives of the athletes who sustain these injuries. Purpose: To document the changes over 12 months in self-reported HRQoL and KF in young females who have sustained a knee injury. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A convenience sample of 242 females (mean age, 17.4 ± 2.4 years) who injured their knee participating in sport or recreational activities was utilized. Injuries were categorized as anterior cruciate ligament tears (ACL), anterior knee pain (AKP), patellar instability (PAT), meniscus tear (MNT), iliotibial band syndrome (ITB), collateral ligament sprain (COL), and other (OTH). HRQoL was assessed with the Short Form–12 v 2.0 survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). KF was assessed with the 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee survey (IKDC). Dependent variables included the paired differences in the 2000 IKDC as well as SF-12 composite scores from preinjury through 12 months postdiagnosis. Paired differences were assessed with repeated-measures analyses of variance (P ≤ .05). Results: IKDC scores were lower through 12 months for ACL, AKP, and PAT; through 6 months for MNT; and through 3 months for COL and OTH. HRQoL PCS and MCS scores were lower through 3 to 12 months depending on the type of injury classification. Conclusion: Knee injuries can negatively affect KF and HRQoL for up to 12 months in young females. Sports medicine providers need to be aware of these

  6. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  7. A review of the effect of swim training and nutrition on bone mineral density in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present paper reviews the physiological adaptation to swim training and dietary supplementation relating to bone mineral density (BMD) in female swimmers. Swim training still seems to have conflicting effects on bone health maintenance in athletes. [Methods] This review article focuses on swim training combined with dietary supplementation with respect to BMD in female athletes. [Results] Upon review of previous studies, it became obvious that the majority of studies did not collect physical activity data on the swimmers outside of their swimming activities. These activities may have some influence on the BMD of swimmers and therefore, future studies need to examine additional physical activity history data as well as swim training. This additional information may help to explain why swimmers' BMD tends to be lower than the BMD of control individuals in many studies. Moreover, dietary supplementation such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D also affect bone health in swimmers, and it is extremely important to evaluate BMD in the context of dietary supplementation. [Conclusion] A review of the literature suggests that exercise intervention studies, including longitudinal and randomized control trials, need to attempt to introduce various exercise programs to female swimmers in order to determine the optimal exercise prescription for bone health. PMID:27274459

  8. Instruction and Jump-Landing Kinematics in College-Aged Female Athletes Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Etnoyer, Jena; Cortes, Nelson; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Onate, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Instruction can be used to alter the biomechanical movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: To determine the effects of instruction through combination (self and expert) feedback or self-feedback on lower extremity kinematics during the box–drop-jump task, running–stop-jump task, and sidestep-cutting maneuver over time in college-aged female athletes. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-three physically active women (age = 21.47 ± 1.55 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.08 m, mass = 63.78 ± 12.00 kg) with no history of ACL or lower extremity injuries or surgery in the 2 months before the study were assigned randomly to 3 groups: self-feedback (SE), combination feedback (CB), or control (CT). Intervention(s): Participants performed a box–drop-jump task for the pretest and then received feedback about their landing mechanics. After the intervention, they performed an immediate posttest of the box–drop-jump task and a running–stop-jump transfer test. Participants returned 1 month later for a retention test of each task and a sidestep-cutting maneuver. Kinematic data were collected with an 8-camera system sampled at 500 Hz. Main Outcome Measure(s): The independent variables were feedback group (3), test time (3), and task (3). The dependent variables were knee- and hip-flexion, knee-valgus, and hip- abduction kinematics at initial contact and at peak knee flexion. Results: For the box–drop-jump task, knee- and hip-flexion angles at initial contact were greater at the posttest than at the retention test (P < .001). At peak knee flexion, hip flexion was greater at the posttest than at the pretest (P = .003) and was greater at the retention test than at the pretest (P = .04); knee valgus was greater at the retention test than at the pretest (P = .03) and posttest (P = .02). Peak knee flexion was greater for the CB than the SE group (P = .03

  9. Age at first oral contraceptive use as a major determinant of vertebral bone mass in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hartard, Manfred; Kleinmond, Christine; Kirchbichler, Alexander; Jeschke, Dieter; Wiseman, Michael; Weissenbacher, Ernst Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter; Erben, Reinhold G

    2004-10-01

    It was the aim of this retrospective analysis to examine the influence of low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and of the spine in young female endurance athletes. Data on training intensity, dietary intake, menarche, menstrual cycle disorders, years of OC use, and age at first OC use were determined by a self-report questionnaire. Only athletes performing regular endurance exercise for more than 3 years with more than 3 h of exercise per week were included in this study and underwent a clinical assessment including measurement of weight, height, spine, and hip BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and collection of a blood sample. The data from 75 regularly exercising endurance athletes aged 18-35 years (26.5 +/- 4.8 years) were initially included in this analysis. Six athletes were later excluded due to oligo-/amenorrhea. Subjects were allocated into the OC group when they reported OC use for more than 3 years in women younger than 22 years of age, or when they reported OC use for more than 50% of the time after menarche in women aged 22-35 years. There were no differences in age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, menarche, training intensity, age at start of training, or any serum parameters between OC users (n = 31) and control subjects (n = 38). However, OC users had 7.9% lower spine BMD and 8.8% lower proximal femur BMD (P < 0.01 for both sites). When the relationship between BMD of the spine and OC use was further analyzed by a stepwise model of multiple regression analysis using OC years, age at OC initiation, BMI, and menarche as independent variables, age at first OC use was found to be the best predictor of vertebral BMD, while the only significant predictor of femoral neck BMD was BMI. We conclude that OC use is associated with decreased BMD of the spine and the femoral neck in female endurance athletes, and that early age at initiation of OC use may be an important risk factor

  10. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMOTO, DAI; MYER, GREGORY D.; BUSH, HEATHER M.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip–focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip–focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip–focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip–focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  11. Evidence for a Non-Genomic Action of Testosterone in Skeletal Muscle Which may Improve Athletic Performance: Implications for the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Jessica R.; Fletcher, Deborah K.; McGuigan, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This review will focus on the proposed second mode of testosterone action (now termed non-genomic) that appears to occur independently of the traditional transcriptional mechanism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells which may enhance skeletal muscle contractile properties. This mechanism of testosterone action differs from the traditional pathway, originating at the cell membrane, having a rapid onset of action, requiring second messengers to execute its effects and is insensitive to inhibitors of traditional androgen receptor action, transcription and protein synthesis. Importantly, unlike the traditional action of testosterone in skeletal muscle, this non-genomic pathway is shown to have a direct acute effect on calcium-dependent components important for the contractile process. The changes within the contractile apparatus may enhance the ability of the muscle to produce explosive power during athletic performance. Rapid increases in Inositol triphosphate mass and calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum have been reported in rodent skeletal muscle cells, and a rapid androgen (dihydrotestosterone)-induced increase in peak force production has been recorded in intact rodent skeletal muscle fibre bundles while showing increases in the activity of the Ras/MAP/ERK mediated pathway. Because the non-genomic action of testosterone is enhanced during increases in exposure to testosterone and is acute in its action, implications for athletic performance are likely greater in females than males due to natural fluctuations in circulating testosterone levels during the female menstrual cycle, reproductive pathology, and changes induced by hormonal contraceptive methods. Research should be undertaken in humans to confirm a pathway for non-genomic testosterone action in human skeletal muscle. Specifically, relationships between testosterone fluctuations and physiological changes within skeletal muscle cells and whole muscle exercise performance need to be examined. Key

  12. Changes in Body Composition and Strength of Female Athletes on Two Different Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyster, Nancy

    Thirty-one championship caliber women athletes participating on varsity teams at Ohio State University were trained using two different conditioning programs, in an attempt to determine the physiological outcomes of weight training versus cardiovascular-oriented conditioning. Fourteen tennis players followed a program of high-resistance weight…

  13. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players During an Athletic Season

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Johanna M.; Druvenga, Beth; Ferguson, Brittany A.; Houston, Megan N.; Hoch, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Context  Clinicians are urged to document patient-based outcomes during rehabilitation to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the patient's perspective. It is unclear how scores on patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) vary over the course of an athletic season because of normal athletic participation. Objective  Our primary purpose was to evaluate the effect of administration time point on HRQOL during an athletic season. Secondary purposes were to determine test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores of 3 PROs commonly used in clinical practice and if a relationship exists between generic and region-specific outcome instruments. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Athletic facility. Patients or Other Participants  Twenty-three collegiate soccer athletes (11 men, 12 women). Main Outcome Measure(s)  At 5 time points over a spring season, we administered the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (DPA), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Sport, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Results  Time effects were observed for the DPA (P = .011) and KOOS Quality of Life subscale (P = .027). However, the differences between individual time points did not surpass the minimal detectable change for the DPA, and no post hoc analyses were significant for the KOOS-Quality of Life subscale. Test-retest reliability was moderate for the KOOS-Pain subscale (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.71) and good for the remaining KOOS subscales, DPA, and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Sport (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.79). The DPA and KOOS-Sport subscale demonstrated a significant moderate relationship (P = .018). Conclusions  Athletic participation during a nontraditional, spring soccer season did not affect HRQOL. All 3 PROs were reliable and could be used clinically to monitor changes in health status throughout an athletic season. Our results demonstrate that significant deviations in scores

  14. Impact of oral contraceptive use and menstrual phases on patellar tendon morphology, biochemical composition, and biomechanical properties in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette; Couppe, Christian; Hansen, Christina S E; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kovanen, Vuokko; Larsen, Jytte O; Aagaard, Per; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sex differences exist with regards to ligament and tendon injuries. Lower collagen synthesis has been observed in exercising women vs. men, and in users of oral contraceptives (OC) vs. nonusers, but it is unknown if OC will influence tendon biomechanics of women undergoing regular training. Thirty female athletes (handball players, 18-30 yr) were recruited: 15 long-term users of OC (7.0 ± 0.6 yr) and 15 nonusers (>5 yr). Synchronized values of patellar tendon elongation (obtained by ultrasonography) and tendon force were sampled during ramped isometric knee extensor maximum voluntary contraction to estimate mechanical tendon properties. Furthermore, tendon cross-sectional area and length were measured from MRI images, and tendon biopsies were obtained for analysis of tendon fibril characteristics and collagen cross-linking. Overall, no difference in tendon biomechanical properties, tendon fibril characteristics, or collagen cross-linking was observed between the OC users and nonusers, or between the different phases of the menstrual cycle. In athletes, tendon cross-sectional area in the preferred jumping leg tended to be larger than that in the contralateral leg (P = 0.09), and a greater absolute (P = 0.01) and normalized tendon stiffness (P = 0.02), as well as a lower strain (P = 0.04), were observed in the jumping leg compared with the contralateral leg. The results indicate that long-term OC use or menstrual phases does not influence structure or mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in female team handball athletes. PMID:23429870

  15. The incidence of injury in Texas high school basketball. A prospective study among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Messina, D F; Farney, W C; DeLee, J C

    1999-01-01

    Recent publications have reported differences in the incidence, rate, risk, and type of sports injury among men and women. We undertook a prospective study to determine the incidence of injury among high school basketball players and to examine the differences in injury type, incidence, rate, and risk between male and female athletes. During a single basketball season, an injury survey of girls' varsity teams at 100 class 4A and 5A high schools in Texas was conducted. These data were previously reported. We surveyed the same 100 high schools during a subsequent season to gather injury data from the boys' varsity teams. The athletic trainer collected data on each reportable injury and reported the data weekly to the University Interscholastic League. A reportable injury was defined as one that occurred during a practice or a game, resulted in missed practice or game time, required physician consultation, or involved the head or the face. The boys' and girls' data were compared and statistically analyzed. The rate of injury was 0.56 among the boys and 0.49 among the girls. The risk of injury per hour of exposure was not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, the most common injuries were sprains, and the most commonly injured area was the ankle, followed by the knee. Female athletes had a significantly higher rate of knee injuries including a 3.79 times greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. For both sexes, the risk of injury during a game was significantly higher than during practice.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCE DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if heel height alters vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Background: Increased vGRF during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Methods: Fifty collegiate females performed two single‐limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a athletic shoe. Using a force plate, peak vGRF at landing was examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Results: Forward hop task‐ Peak vGRF (normalized for body mass) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 2.613±0.498, 2.616±0.497 and 2.495±0.518% BW, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.927). Jump‐landing task‐ No significant differences were found in peak vGRF (p=.192) between any of the heel lift conditions. Conclusions: The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters peak vGRF upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a jumping maneuver. PMID:23439490

  17. Cold-induced vasodilatation of finger and maximal oxygen consumption of young female athletes born in Hokkaido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Koya

    1990-03-01

    To determine whether there is a direct correlation between endurance capacity and cold tolerance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), we measured these factors in 14 young female athletes born in Hokkaido, Japan's northernmost island. We determined the VO2max by a standard incremental test on a cycle ergometer and measured the oxygen consumption (VO2) by means of the Douglas-bag method. We determined the CIVD reaction by measuring the skin temperature of the left middle finger during immersion in cold water at 0°C for 20 min. The athletes showed significant positive correlations between VO2max, expressed as l/min, and CIVD as well as other peripheral cold tolerance indexes (resistance index against frostbite and CIVD index). The body weight VO2max (VO2max/kg body weight) failed to correlate significantly with either the CIVD or with other cold tolerance indexes. These results suggest that CIVD in females may depend on factors other than those determined in this study, in addition to the functional spread of the vascular beds in peripheral tissues, including striated muscle; it is known that the size and the vascular bed in this tissue are affected by exercise training and that this results in the elevation of VO2max and VO2max/kg body weight.

  18. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Timothy R; Ruud, Jason D; McGowan, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Attaching chains to barbells to increase strength and power has become popular for athletes; however, little scientific evidence supports this practice. The present purpose was to compare chain training to traditional training for the bench press. Women collegiate athletes in volleyball and basketball (N = 19) participated in a 16-session bench press program. They were matched into either a Traditional or a Chain training group by 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The Traditional group performed the bench press with conventional equipment, while the Chain group trained with attached chains (5% of weight). Analysis showed a significant increase in 1RM for both groups over 16 sessions, Traditional +11.8% and Chain +17.4%. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant, but suggests the women who trained with attached chains improved their bench press more than the Traditional group.

  19. Balance performance in male and female collegiate basketball athletes: influence of testing surface.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Matthew J; Ebersole, Kyle T; Martindale, Alan R; Price, Jimmy W; Broglio, Steven P

    2010-08-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a simple and cost-effective balance test. Information on SEBT performance in athletic populations and under varying testing surfaces is needed to fully elucidate the clinical and training utility of this task. The purpose of this study was to examine SEBT performance in division I, collegiate basketball athletes (men = 9, women = 7) and in a healthy nonathlete control group (men = 7, women = 9). Each participant performed the SEBT with their dominant and nondominant limbs on stable and unstable testing surfaces while reaching in the anterior, medial, and posterior directions. No significant differences resulted between the dominant and nondominant limbs (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found between the basketball and control groups in all directions (p < 0.01) and the average reach score (p < 0.01) with the control group reaching 6-7% farther than the basketball group. A significant main effect for gender (collapsed across group and limb) was present in the posterior direction (p = 0.02). The SEBT performance in the medial and posterior directions and the average score were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced during testing on the unstable surface. These results suggest that athletic status may be a factor to consider when interpreting SEBT reach performance. Future research should examine the influence of SEBT testing in other athletic populations. Further, use of an unstable surface provided a greater challenge to balance. Additional research may provide insight into the role of using an unstable surface with the SEBT as part of an injury risk assessment and its use in identifying limb differences between injured and uninjured limbs.

  20. ACE and ACTN3 genes polymorphisms among female Hungarian athletes in the aspect of sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Bosnyák, E; Trájer, E; Udvardy, A; Komka, Z; Protzner, A; Kováts, T; Györe, I; Tóth, M; Pucsok, J; Szmodis, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the importance of two sport-associated gene polymorphisms, alpha-actinin-3 R577X (ACTN3) and angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D (ACE), among Hungarian athletes in different sports. The examination was carried out only on women (n = 100). Sport-specific groups were formed in order to guarantee the most homogeneous clusters. Human genomic DNA was isolated from blood, and genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To measure the differences between the participating groups, Chi-squared test was performed using Statistica 9.0 for Windows® (significance level: p < 0.05). In comparing the ACE I/D allele frequencies, significant difference was detected between water polo (I = 61.11%; D = 38.89%) and combat sports (I = 35.71%, D = 64.29%) athletes (p < 0.03). There was no statistical difference when ACE I/D alleles in combat sports and kayaking/rowing (p > 0.05) were compared. A similarity was detectable in the I allele frequencies of the water polo (61.11%) and kayaking/rowing (56.67%) groups. The ACTN3 R/X polymorphism showed no differences in comparison with the sport groups. R allele frequencies were higher in every group compared to the X allele. The potential significance of the ACE I allele in sports of an aerobic nature was not clearly confirmed among Hungarian athletes. PMID:26690037

  1. Body Composition, Hemodynamic and Biochemical Parameters in Young Female Normal-Weight Oligo-amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; de Lourdes Eguiguren, Maria; Eysenbach, Lindsey; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low-weight hypogonadal conditions such as anorexia nervosa are associated with marked changes in body composition, hemodynamic and hematological parameters, and liver enzymes. The impact of athletic activity in normal-weight adolescents with/without amenorrhea on these parameters has not been assessed. Our aim was to examine these parameters in normal-weight athletes and non-athletes and determine any associations of body composition, oligo-amenorrhea and exercise intensity. Methods We assessed vital signs, complete blood counts, liver enzymes, and regional body composition in 43 oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OAA), 24 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 23 non-athletes 14-21 years of age. Results BMI was lower in OAA than EA. Systolic and pulse pressure, and temperature were lowest in OAA. Blood counts did not differ among groups. AST was higher in both groups of athletes, while ALT was higher in OAA than EA and non-athletes. Total and regional fat was lower in OAA than other groups, positively associated with heart rate and inversely with liver enzymes. Conclusions Athletic activity is associated with higher AST, whereas menstrual dysfunction is associated with lower total and regional fat and higher ALT. Higher liver enzymes are associated with reductions in total and regional fat. PMID:25376841

  2. Comparison of Blue-Yellow Opponent Color Contrast Sensitivity Function between Female Badminton Players and Non-athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mirzajani, Ali; Hatami, Maryam; Musavian, Razieh; Abbasi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the chromatic contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the blue-yellow opponent channel (BYOC) between female badminton players and non-athlete controls. Methods We recruited 40 young females (18-25 years old) who played badminton for at least 5 consecutive years as the test group, and 30 age-matched female controls who had no history of regular physical activity. The Pattern Generator™ system was used to test the CSF for the BYOC which was performed at three spatial frequencies (SFs) of 2 cycles per degree (cpd), 5 cpd, and 25 cpd. Results Comparison of BYOC thresholds showed significantly better results in the test group for all three SFs (P<0.001). Band pass shift (better CSF in the middle SF) was seen in the test group. The control group had low pass (better CSF in the low SF). Ocular motility (heterophoria, fusional convergence and divergence at far and near distances, and near point of convergence) was better in the test group, but the inter-group difference was not significant. Conclusions The BYOC threshold results for badminton players indicated a better visual performance which may be a result of enhanced performance of the parallel processing of the parvocellular and magnocellular systems. This may be inherent and/or acquired in badminton players. In addition, badminton players appear to have developed sensory-motor programmed activities. Testing the CSF for BYOC may be useful for athlete selection in different levels and/or used as a criterion for screening players in the field of badminton. PMID:23802052

  3. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53), contracted MS (MD=162.7N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53) and MAS (MD=422.1N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.23) than males. MAS increased linearly with the external load in both genders with males demonstrating a significantly higher slope (p=0.019) than females. The observed differences outlined above may contribute to the higher knee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males.

  4. Shear modulus estimation on vastus intermedius of elderly and young females over the entire range of isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Li, Tian-Jie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI), one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7 ± 4.9 yr) and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6 ± 5.0 yr). The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999) over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state) to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p > 0.1). However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (p < 0.001), especially at the relatively higher contraction levels. The results expanded our knowledge on the mechanical property of the elderly's skeletal muscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly's muscle diseases.

  5. The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between intersegmental coordination and gait speed in elderly females. Gait measurements were performed in 91 community-dwelling elderly females over 60 years old. Foot, shank, and thigh sagittal motions were assessed. Intersegmental coordination was analyzed using the mean value of the continuous relative phase (mCRP) during four phases of the gait cycle to investigate phase differences in foot-shank and shank-thigh motions during a normal gait. The results showed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.53) and cadence (r=-0.54) and a positive correlation with age (r=0.25). In contrast, shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had positive correlations with gait speed (r=0.37) and cadence (r=0.56). Moreover, partial correlation, controlling age, height, and weight, revealed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.52) and cadence (r=-0.54). Shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had a positive correlation with gait speed (r=0.28) and cadence (r=0.51). These findings imply that the foot-shank and shank-thigh coordination patterns at late stance relate to gait speed, and uncoordinated lower limb motion is believed to be associated with the age-related decline in cadence. PMID:27477700

  6. Acute exercise performed close to the anaerobic threshold improves cognitive performance in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Córdova, C; Silva, V C; Moraes, C F; Simões, H G; Nóbrega, O T

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of acute exercise performed at different intensities in relation to the anaerobic threshold (AT) on abilities requiring control of executive functions or alertness in physically active elderly females. Forty-eight physically active elderly females (63.8 +/- 4.6 years old) were assigned to one of four groups by drawing lots: control group without exercise or trial groups with exercise performed at 60, 90, or 110% of AT (watts) and submitted to 5 cognitive tests before and after exercise. Following cognitive pretesting, an incremental cycle ergometer test was conducted to determine AT using a fixed blood lactate concentration of 3.5 mmol/L as cutoff. Acute exercise executed at 90% of AT resulted in significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA) improvement in the performance of executive functions when compared to control in 3 of 5 tests (verbal fluency, Tower of Hanoi test (number of movements), and Trail Making test B). Exercising at 60% of AT did not improve results of any tests for executive functions, whereas exercise executed at 110% of AT only improved the performance in one of these tests (verbal fluency) compared to control. Women from all trial groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in the Simple Response Time (alertness) test (P = 0.001). Thus, physical exercise performed close to AT is more effective to improve cognitive processing of older women even if conducted acutely, and using a customized exercise prescription based on the anaerobic threshold should optimize the beneficial effects. PMID:19377796

  7. The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between intersegmental coordination and gait speed in elderly females. Gait measurements were performed in 91 community-dwelling elderly females over 60 years old. Foot, shank, and thigh sagittal motions were assessed. Intersegmental coordination was analyzed using the mean value of the continuous relative phase (mCRP) during four phases of the gait cycle to investigate phase differences in foot-shank and shank-thigh motions during a normal gait. The results showed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.53) and cadence (r=-0.54) and a positive correlation with age (r=0.25). In contrast, shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had positive correlations with gait speed (r=0.37) and cadence (r=0.56). Moreover, partial correlation, controlling age, height, and weight, revealed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.52) and cadence (r=-0.54). Shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had a positive correlation with gait speed (r=0.28) and cadence (r=0.51). These findings imply that the foot-shank and shank-thigh coordination patterns at late stance relate to gait speed, and uncoordinated lower limb motion is believed to be associated with the age-related decline in cadence.

  8. Effect of chronic knee osteoarthritis on flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon-Gyu; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly women with chronic knee osteoarthritis and determined whether the flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in such cases. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis and 13 healthy young females voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three postural positions in 15 s: trunk flexion, complete trunk flexion, and trunk extension, each for 5 s. While these positions were held, muscle activation of the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. The flexion-relaxation rate was determined by dividing the values for trunk extension by those of complete trunk flexion and by dividing the values for trunk flexion by those of complete trunk flexion. [Results] According to our results, the flexion-relaxation phenomenon was different between healthy young and elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. Specifically, there was a difference in the left thoracic erector spinae muscle, but not in the left and right lumbar erector spinae or right thoracic spinae muscle. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that the erector spinae muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27512244

  9. Lower limb kinematic alterations during drop vertical jumps in female athletes who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Sweeney, Lauren; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Murphy, Katie; Patterson, Matt; Prendiville, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) female athletes exhibit altered lower limb kinematic profiles during jump landing when compared to a non-injured age, sex, and activity matched control group. Fourteen ACL-R and 14 non-injured control subjects performed 3 vertical drop jump (DVJ) trials. Lower limb kinematics were recorded at 200 Hz. Peak and time-averaged angular displacements were quantified and utilized for between-group analysis. The ACL-R group displayed altered hip joint frontal and transverse plane kinematic alterations, and knee joint frontal and sagittal plane kinematic alterations. Specifically the ACL-R group displayed an increased adducted (p < 0.05) and internally rotated (p < 0.05) hip joint position, both peak and time-averaged, following landing. The ACL-R group also displayed a decreased adducted (p < 0.05) and flexed (p < 0.05) position of the knee joint following landing. The observed aberrant lower limb kinematics could pre-dispose ACL-R athletes to potential future knee joint injuries. Further studies are required to determine in a prospective manner whether such deficits increase the incidence of recurrent ACL injury, and whether specific sensorimotor protocols following ACL reconstruction can minimize these kinematic deficits.

  10. The effect of assisted and resisted sprint training on acceleration and velocity in Division IA female soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Upton, David E

    2011-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of a 4-week, 12-session training program using resisted sprint training (RST), assisted sprint training (AST), and traditional sprint training (TST) on maximal velocity and acceleration in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA female soccer athletes (n = 27). The subjects, using their respective training modality, completed 10 maximal effort sprints of 20 yd (18.3 m) followed by a 20-yd (18.3 m) deceleration to jog. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) 3-way interactions (time × distance × group) and 2-way interactions (time × group), respectively, for both velocity and acceleration. Paired t-tests demonstrated that maximum 40-yd (36.6-m) velocity increased significantly in both the AST (p < 0.001) and RST (p < 0.05) groups, with no change in the TST group. Five-yard (4.6-m), 15-yd (13.7 m), 5- to 15-yd (4.6- to 13.7-m) acceleration increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the AST group and did not change in the RST and TST groups. Fifteen- to 25-yd (13.7- to 22.9-m) acceleration increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the RST group, decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the AST group, and was unchanged in the TST group. Twenty-five to 40-yd (22.9- to 36.6-m) acceleration increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the RST group and remained unchanged in the AST and TST groups. It is purposed that the increased 5-yd (4.6-m) and 15-yd (13.7-m) accelerations were the result of enhanced neuromuscular facilitation in response to the 12-session supramaximal training protocol. Accordingly, it is suggested that athletes participating in short distance acceleration events (i.e., ≤15 yd; ≤13.7 m) use AST protocols, whereas athletes participating in events that require greater maximum velocity (i.e., >15 yd; > 13.7 m) should use resisted sprint training protocols.

  11. The relationships among bone health, insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex hormones in adolescent female athletes.

    PubMed

    Gruodyte, Rita; Jürimäe, Jaak; Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and estradiol in pubertal female athletes. The participants were 170 healthy adolescent girls (13-15 years) who participated in competitive extramural athletic programs, i.e., sports games (n = 49), track sprinting (n = 24), rhythmic gymnastics (n = 23), swimming (n = 24) and cross-country skiing (n = 17). The control group (n = 33) consisted of girls who took part only in compulsory physical education classes at school. The whole-body BMD and femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and BMC were measured using DXA, and the volumetric BMD was calculated. Venous blood samples to determine the concentration of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and estradiol were drawn after an overnight fasting. After adjusting for age, body height and body mass, the relationships among BMD variables, IGF-1 and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio remained significant only in the rhythmic gymnast group. BMDs at the femoral neck and lumbar spine were also related to estradiol levels (r = 0.45-0.60; p < 0.05) only in the rhythmic gymnast group. No relationships were found among the measured BMD, IGF axis and estradiol in other athletic groups. Only BMC at the femoral neck remained associated with the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in the rhythmic gymnast group after adjusting for age, body height and body mass. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that IGF-1 and estradiol together explained 42.6% (R(2) x 100) of total variance in the femoral neck BMD and IGF-1 alone 35.4% (R(2) x 100) of the total variance in the femoral neck BMC only in the rhythmic gymnast group. We conclude that femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD correlated with IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and estradiol in rhythmic gymnasts. No relationships were found between bone parameters and the hormones used in other athletic groups.

  12. Changes in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels during heptathlon race in professional female athletes.

    PubMed

    Samia, Badiea Ali Abdel; Youssef, Gehan Ahmed

    2014-06-28

    Acute strenuous exercise can induce a state of oxidative stress affecting the involved muscles. Heptathlon is a multi-event exercise of two days duration and can be considered an acute, intensive endurance exercise. The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to heptathlon events day by day and to determine the impact of this type of exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers. The study subjects included eight heptathlon athletes who participated in the National First Class Republic competition in Egypt (October 19-21, 2011). Blood samples were collected at rest after exercise for two successive days and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA). Morning urine samples were collected one hour after exercise for each day and were analyzed for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in both plasma MDA and urine 8-OHdG levels after exercise regardless of the day. We concluded that exercise generates higher MDA levels compared to DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in athletes with antioxidant supplementation.

  13. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  14. Effects of 28-Day Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Isokinetic Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Female Masters Athletes.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E; Kavouras, Stavros A; DiBrezzo, Ro; Turner, Ronna; Baum, Jamie I; Stone, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation increases exercise performance due to increases in the intramuscular lactate buffer, carnosine. Females are more sensitive to these increases and results are further pronounced in trained individuals. Baseline intramuscular carnosine levels also naturally decrease with age; therefore, trained older females may experience augmented benefits from BA supplementation. However, the ability of BA to increase lower-body isokinetic strength (ISO) in female masters athletes (MA) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on ISO, handgrip strength (HG), and body composition in female MA cyclists. Twenty-two subjects participated in this double-blind randomized study. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups (placebo [PLA] = 8 g dextrose; BA = 800 mg + 8 g dextrose) and supplemented 4 times per day for 28 days. ISO, HG, and body composition were evaluated at baseline and at the same day/time each week over the 28-day intervention. No differences existed between groups at baseline or at the 7, 14, and 21 days time points for any variables (p > 0.05). When evaluating ISO (isokinetic) after 28 days, total work performed during the final third of the assessment (24.0 vs. -16.8% change) in flexion and average peak torque (5.4 vs. 2.9% change) in extension were significantly increased from baseline in BA compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). No differences existed for HG or body composition after supplementation. Twenty-eight days of BA supplementation increased peak torque and work completed, indicating BA improves lower-body exercise performance in female MA.

  15. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sommerfield, Lesley M; McAnulty, Steven R; McBride, Jeffrey M; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Austin, Melanie D; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D; Calhoun, Mason C; Young, Juliane O; Haines, Traci L; Utter, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition.

  16. Elderly Female Rhesus Macaques Preserve Lung Alveoli With Estrogen/Progesterone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Herring, Matt J; Avdalovic, Mark V; Lasley, Bill; Putney, Lei F; Hyde, Dallas M

    2016-07-01

    The aging lung is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where females have been reported to be more susceptible than males. The changes in reproductive hormones due to aging may directly or indirectly affect lung structure and function and little is known on the mechanism of these changes. Twenty female rhesus macaques were divided into four groups. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed on eight animals with three receiving estrogen/progesterone therapy (HRT) and five animals given implants containing vehicle. The remaining 12 animals represented control groups of ages 10-14 years (n = 6) and ages 20-24 (n = 6). A design-based stereological method was employed to estimate the number of alveoli in the right middle lung lobe along with hormone analysis for possible correlation. A significant decrease was found in the number of alveoli in the vehicle OVX animals compared to intact younger adult females (P < 0.001). A significant increase in alveoli between OVX vehicle animals and those on HRT was also found (P < 0.0001). There was difference in the number of alveoli between younger adult animals and animals on HRT. The loss of ovaries and hormones had a significant effect on alveolar lung morphology. This result mimics what is seen in the aging process and could contribute to gender differences reported in the elderly. Hormone replacement, as reported here, could possibly slow the loss of alveoli due to the aging process or aid in alveolar regeneration through direct or indirect mechanisms. Anat Rec, 299:973-978, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27084043

  17. Elderly Female Rhesus Macaques Preserve Lung Alveoli With Estrogen/Progesterone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Herring, Matt J; Avdalovic, Mark V; Lasley, Bill; Putney, Lei F; Hyde, Dallas M

    2016-07-01

    The aging lung is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where females have been reported to be more susceptible than males. The changes in reproductive hormones due to aging may directly or indirectly affect lung structure and function and little is known on the mechanism of these changes. Twenty female rhesus macaques were divided into four groups. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed on eight animals with three receiving estrogen/progesterone therapy (HRT) and five animals given implants containing vehicle. The remaining 12 animals represented control groups of ages 10-14 years (n = 6) and ages 20-24 (n = 6). A design-based stereological method was employed to estimate the number of alveoli in the right middle lung lobe along with hormone analysis for possible correlation. A significant decrease was found in the number of alveoli in the vehicle OVX animals compared to intact younger adult females (P < 0.001). A significant increase in alveoli between OVX vehicle animals and those on HRT was also found (P < 0.0001). There was difference in the number of alveoli between younger adult animals and animals on HRT. The loss of ovaries and hormones had a significant effect on alveolar lung morphology. This result mimics what is seen in the aging process and could contribute to gender differences reported in the elderly. Hormone replacement, as reported here, could possibly slow the loss of alveoli due to the aging process or aid in alveolar regeneration through direct or indirect mechanisms. Anat Rec, 299:973-978, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Women in Athletic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sandra L.; Gilmour, Suzanne L.; Kinsella, Mary P.

    2005-01-01

    Despite significant increased participation opportunities for girls and women in sport following the passage of Title IX, women remain underrepresented in athletic leadership roles. Thirty eight female and 158 male high school athletic directors responded to a 19-item Athletic Director Survey (ADS) designed to elicit information on the following:…

  19. Sprint profile of professional female soccer players during competitive matches: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) study.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sprint profiles of professional female soccer players and evaluate how various speed thresholds impact those outcomes. Seventy-one professional players competing in full matches were assessed repeatedly during 12 regular season matches using a Global Positioning System (GPS). Locomotion ≥18 km · h⁻¹ was defined as sprinting and each event was classified into: Zone 1: 18.0-20.9 km· h⁻¹; Zone 2: 21.0-22.9 km · h⁻¹; Zone 3: 23.0-24.9 km · h⁻¹ and Zone 4: >25 km · h⁻¹. Outcomes included: duration (s), distance (m), maximum speed (km · h⁻¹), duration since previous sprint (min) and proportion of total sprint distance. In total 5,019 events were analysed from 139 player-matches. Mean sprint duration, distance, maximum speed and time between sprints were 2.3 ± 1.5 s, 15.1 ± 9.4 m, 21.8 ± 2.3 km· h⁻¹, and 2.5 ± 2.5 min, respectively. Mean sprint distances were 657 ± 157, 447 ± 185, and 545 ± 217 m for forwards, midfielders and defenders, respectively (P ≤ 0.046). Midfielders had shorter sprint duration (P = 0.023), distance (P ≤ 0.003) and maximum speed (P < 0.001), whereas forwards performed more sprints per match (43 ± 10) than midfielders (31 ± 11) and defenders (36 ± 12) (P ≤ 0.016). Forty-five percent, 29%, 15%, and 11% of sprints occurred in sprint Zones 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This group of professional female soccer players covered 5.3 ± 2.0% of total distance ≥18 km · h⁻¹ with positional differences and percent decrements distinct from other previously identified elite players. These data should guide the development of high intensity and sprint thresholds for elite-standard female soccer players.

  20. Examination of the psychometric properties of the perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire-2 in a sample of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Newton, M; Duda, J L; Yin, Z

    2000-04-01

    We undertook two studies to determine the validity and reliability of the revised Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2). In Study 1, 201 female athletes (mean age 16.4 years) were administered the initial version of the PMCSQ-2 and a measure of reported tension and pressure experienced in sport. Exploratory principal component analysis suggested that the PMCSQ-2 contained two higher-order scales (Task-Involving and Ego-Involving climates), each with three subscales (Task: Cooperative Learning, Effort/ Improvement, Important Role; Ego: Intra-Team Member Rivalry, Unequal Recognition, Punishment for Mistakes). In Study 2, 385 female volleyball players (mean age 15.2 years) completed the PMCSQ-2, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and a measure of Team Satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to six competing models. The oblique six-factor model and oblique hierarchical model provided comparable fit to the data. Acceptable fit was reached based on model respecification. Across Studies 1 and 2, internal consistency was found to be acceptable for the higher-order scales and subscales (with the exception of the Intra-Team Member Rivalry subscale). We found evidence for the concurrent validity of the instrument.

  1. Comparison of the Traditional, Swing, and Chicken Wing Volleyball Blocking Techniques in NCAA Division I Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Taubi J.; Johnson, Wayne A.; Myrer, J. William; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    In volleyball, blocking is highly correlated with team success. The identification of specific techniques that produce a more successful block would be helpful knowledge for coaches and players. This study compared the traditional, swing, and “chicken wing” blocking techniques in combination with the running step footwork pattern in order to determine which technique enabled athletes to perform a more effective block. High-speed videography (7 cameras, Vicon Motion Analysis System) was used to capture the blocking movements of thirteen female NCAA Division I athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.19 years, height = 1.82 ± 0.08 m, mass = 70.63 ± 7.96 kg, and years of participation at the collegiate level = 2.23 ± 1.17 years). Each player was familiar with each blocking technique. Reflective markers were placed on the players and in randomized order the players performed 3 blocking trials of each technique. The following dependent variables were assessed: The time it took the athletes to get off the ground and get their hands above (vertically) the net was calculated. The distance the hand reached over the net or hand penetration (displacement between the net and finger in the anterior and vertical planes) was also measured. Lastly, jump height was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were done (α = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the main effect for time to get off the ground (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the time to get the hands above the net (p < 0.05). The swing block was best for jump height (p <.001) and hand penetration (p < 0.05). These results can help coaches and players decide which blocking technique will benefit them most as a blocking team and as individual blockers. Key points The swing blocking technique resulted in greater jump heights and increased hand penetration, relative to the traditional and chicken wing blocking techniques. The chicken wing blocking technique resulted in greater jump

  2. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength

  3. Response and Tolerance of Female and/or Elderly PMHS to Lateral Impact.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren K; Miller, Carl S; Madura, Nathaniel H; Reed, Matthew P; Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2014-11-01

    Eight whole fresh-frozen cadavers (6 female, 2 male) that were elderly and/or female were laterally impacted using UMTRI's dual-sled side-impact test facility. Cadavers were not excluded on the basis of old age or bone diseases that affect tolerance. A thinly padded, multi-segment impactor was used that independently measured force histories applied to the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, greater trochanter, iliac wing, and femur of each PMHS. Impactor plates were adjusted vertically and laterally toward the subject so that contact with body regions occurred simultaneously and so that each segment contacted the same region on every subject. This configuration minimized the effects of body shape on load sharing between regions. Prior to all tests, cadavers were CT scanned to check for pre-existing skeletal injuries. Cadavers were excluded if they had preexisting rib fractures or had undergone CPR. Cadavers were instrumented with strain gages at the posterolateral, lateral, and anterolateral portions of the struck-side ribs, and chestbands were positioned on the upper and lower thorax. Cadavers were first impacted at 3 m/s. If two or fewer rib fractures occurred, as determined using strain gage data and a post-test CT scan, a second impact was performed at 6 m/s on the contralateral side of the body. Five of the eight 3-m/s tests produced AIS 3+ level injuries. All three of the 6-m/s tests produced AIS 3+ injury. Response corridors were developed for each body region using the Maltese alignment method with impulse-momentum normalization. Corridors describing upper and lower thorax deflection were generated from chestband data. An injury risk curve developed from the deflections associated with AIS 3+ injury associates a 50% probability of AIS 3+ rib fracture with 25.6% half-thorax deflection for the population used in this study.

  4. Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome in an Elderly Female with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakali, Stamatia

    2016-01-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS), or tracheobronchomegaly, is a rare clinical and radiologic condition characterized by pronounced tracheobronchial dilation and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Tracheobronchomegaly presents when the defect extends to the central bronchi. MKS can be diagnosed in adult women when the transverse and sagittal diameters of the trachea, right mainstem bronchus, and left mainstem bronchus exceed 21, 23, 19.8, and 17.4 mm, respectively. Its diagnosis is based on chest radiograph and chest computed tomography (CT). Patients, usually middle-aged men, may be asymptomatic or present with clinical manifestations ranging from minimal symptoms with preserved lung function to severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) typically reveal a restrictive pattern. This report presents an elderly woman with previously diagnosed pulmonary fibrosis with symptoms of increased sputum production and haemoptysis. High-resolution chest CT showed tracheal and main stem bronchi dilatation along with bronchial diverticulosis. PFTs indicated a restrictive pattern characteristic of the underlying pulmonary fibrosis. The patient is the oldest, referred to the female gender, at presentation of MKS hitherto reported. This case highlights the need to include MKS in the differential diagnosis of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, even in older subjects. PMID:27597867

  5. Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome in an Elderly Female with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakali, Stamatia

    2016-01-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS), or tracheobronchomegaly, is a rare clinical and radiologic condition characterized by pronounced tracheobronchial dilation and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Tracheobronchomegaly presents when the defect extends to the central bronchi. MKS can be diagnosed in adult women when the transverse and sagittal diameters of the trachea, right mainstem bronchus, and left mainstem bronchus exceed 21, 23, 19.8, and 17.4 mm, respectively. Its diagnosis is based on chest radiograph and chest computed tomography (CT). Patients, usually middle-aged men, may be asymptomatic or present with clinical manifestations ranging from minimal symptoms with preserved lung function to severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) typically reveal a restrictive pattern. This report presents an elderly woman with previously diagnosed pulmonary fibrosis with symptoms of increased sputum production and haemoptysis. High-resolution chest CT showed tracheal and main stem bronchi dilatation along with bronchial diverticulosis. PFTs indicated a restrictive pattern characteristic of the underlying pulmonary fibrosis. The patient is the oldest, referred to the female gender, at presentation of MKS hitherto reported. This case highlights the need to include MKS in the differential diagnosis of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, even in older subjects.

  6. Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome in an Elderly Female with Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Boglou, Panagiotis; Papanas, Nikolaos; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Bakali, Stamatia; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

    2016-01-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS), or tracheobronchomegaly, is a rare clinical and radiologic condition characterized by pronounced tracheobronchial dilation and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Tracheobronchomegaly presents when the defect extends to the central bronchi. MKS can be diagnosed in adult women when the transverse and sagittal diameters of the trachea, right mainstem bronchus, and left mainstem bronchus exceed 21, 23, 19.8, and 17.4 mm, respectively. Its diagnosis is based on chest radiograph and chest computed tomography (CT). Patients, usually middle-aged men, may be asymptomatic or present with clinical manifestations ranging from minimal symptoms with preserved lung function to severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) typically reveal a restrictive pattern. This report presents an elderly woman with previously diagnosed pulmonary fibrosis with symptoms of increased sputum production and haemoptysis. High-resolution chest CT showed tracheal and main stem bronchi dilatation along with bronchial diverticulosis. PFTs indicated a restrictive pattern characteristic of the underlying pulmonary fibrosis. The patient is the oldest, referred to the female gender, at presentation of MKS hitherto reported. This case highlights the need to include MKS in the differential diagnosis of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, even in older subjects. PMID:27597867

  7. A case of Helicobactor pylori negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma in an elderly female, successfully treated with rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Naba Raj; Aryal, Madan Raj; Khal, Ravi Shahu; Alweis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 91 Final Diagnosis: Low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma Symptoms: Recurrent epigastric and right upper quadrant dyscomfort Medication: Rituximab Clinical Procedure: esophagogastroduodenoscopy • gastric biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma can occur in any extranodal organ or tissue, stomach being the common site. Most of the gastric MALT lymphomas are related to chronic H. pylori infection. H. pylori negative gastric MALT lymphoma is relatively uncommon and usually treated with a short course of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of an elderly female with H. pylori negative, low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma that was successfully treated with a short course of rituximab. Conclusions: This case report emphasizes that rituximab monotherapy can be an effective treatment for H. pylori negative low grade gastric MALT lymphoma especially in an elderly patient where surgery or radiotherapy may not be appropriate. PMID:24250832

  8. Motion characteristics of youth women soccer matches: female athletes in motion (FAiM) study.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the locomotor characteristics for youth female soccer matches. 89 female soccer players (U-15-U-17) were assessed during a youth national championship or a talent identification camp using a Global Positioning System. Positional and age-group comparisons of locomotor characteristics were made for complete games, each half, differences between halves as well as sprint profiles using an ANCOVA adjusting for the differences in game or half durations, respectively. Midfielders covered greater distances (8 449 ± 170 m) than defenders (7 779 ± 114 m), mostly from more low- (2 553 ± 99 m vs. 2 151 ± 66 m) and moderate-speed running (1 389 ± 78 m vs. 1 142 ± 52 m). Forwards had more sprint distances (275 ± 42 m), sprints (15 ± 2) and greater maximum speed (26.7 ± 0.6 km · h(-1)) than midfielders (131 ± 24 m, 8 ± 1, 24.7 ± 0.4 km · h(-1), respectively). There was a tendency for increased distances within most velocity bands, workrate and sprints with increasing age. There was a greater increase in walking and jogging between the first and second half for forwards than defenders and midfielders. Youth female soccer players covered 6 500-9 000 m during matches with positional distinctions that are comparable to elite-standard women. These data provide novel insight into the physical demands of female youth soccer and should be used to establish appropriate age-group and positional strategies for training and development.

  9. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec.

  10. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec. PMID:25830145

  11. Femoral Bone Marrow Insulin Sensitivity Is Increased by Resistance Training in Elderly Female Offspring of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, Ville; Bucci, Marco; Lipponen, Heta; Kiviranta, Riku; Sandboge, Samuel; Raiko, Juho; Koskinen, Suvi; Koskensalo, Kalle; Eriksson, Johan G.; Parkkola, Riitta; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow insulin sensitivity may be an important factor for bone health in addition to bone mineral density especially in insulin resistant conditions. First we aimed to study if prenatal maternal obesity plays a role in determining bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring. Secondly we studied if a four-month individualized resistance training intervention increases bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring and whether this possible positive outcome is regulated by the offspring’s mother’s obesity status. 37 frail elderly females (mean age 71.9 ± 3.1 years) of which 20 were offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers (OLM, maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) and 17 were offspring of obese/overweight mothers (OOM, maternal BMI ≥ 28.1 kg/m2) were studied before and after a four-month individualized resistance training intervention. Nine age- and sex-matched non-frail controls (maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) were studied at baseline. Femoral bone marrow (FBM) and vertebral bone marrow (VBM) insulin sensitivity were measured using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computer tomography under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We found that bone marrow insulin sensitivity was not related to maternal obesity status but FBM insulin sensitivity correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity (R = 0.487, p = 0.001). A four-month resistance training intervention increased FBM insulin sensitivity by 47% (p = 0.006) only in OOM, while VBM insulin sensitivity remained unchanged regardless of the maternal obesity status. In conclusion, FBM and VBM glucose metabolism reacts differently to a four-month resistance training intervention in elderly women according to their maternal obesity status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01931540 PMID:27669153

  12. The use and misuse of sex chromatin screening for 'gender identification' of female athletes.

    PubMed

    de la Chapelle, A

    1986-10-10

    According to the rules of sports organizations such as the International Olympic Committee, competitors registered as females must undergo a "gender verification" test that consists of screening with sex chromatin, followed by further tests in those with an abnormal or inconclusive result. The aims of the gender verification test have not been published but presumably they are to exclude from women's sports events males or other individuals whose muscle strength or body build gives them an unfair advantage over their competitors. It is shown herein that the sex chromatin screening method reveals only a small proportion of such individuals. Moreover, women with certain congenital chromosome abnormalities and other abnormal conditions without increased muscle strength are found to have "abnormal" sex chromatin. Thus, the present screening method is both inaccurate and discriminatory. It is proposed that the aims of gender identification should be defined and methods chosen that achieve the desired result. PMID:3761498

  13. Sport commitment among competitive female athletes: test of an expanded model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we examined an expanded model of sport commitment by adding two determinants (perceived costs and perceived competence) and behavioural commitment as a consequence of psychological commitment, as well as identifying psychological commitment as a mediator of relationships between determinants and behavioural commitment. Competitive female gymnasts (N = 304, age 8-18 years) completed relevant measures while coaches rated each gymnast's training behaviours as an indicator of behavioural commitment. Path analysis revealed that the best fitting model was one in which original determinants (enjoyment, involvement opportunities, investments, attractive alternatives) and an added determinant (perceived costs) predicted psychological commitment, in addition to investments and perceived costs directly predicting behavioural commitment. These results provide further, but partial, support for the sport commitment model and also suggest that additional determinants and behavioural consequences be considered in future research.

  14. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  15. Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, Lygeri; Weiler, Richard; Lloyd-Smith, Rebecca; Turner, Antony; Heath, Luke; James, Nic; Reid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine bone mineral density (BMD) and the associations among BMD, menstrual history, disordered eating (DE), training history, intentional weight loss (IWL) and rib pain for the first time in female lightweight rowers. Setting 9 lightweight rowing clubs, UK. Participants 29 Caucasian female lightweight rowers volunteered. 21 (12 active, 9 retired) completed the study. Inclusion criteria: female lightweight rowers aged over 18 years. Exclusion criteria: participants with a history of bone disease, used medications known to influence BMD or if they were pregnant, lactating or postmenopausal. Main outcome measures Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total body (TB) composition and BMD at the spine, femoral neck (FN), radius and TB. DE, oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea years; rib pain and training history. Results DE was reported in six of the rowers. The active with DE started rowing younger (p<0.05) than those without, and their amount of IWL was associated with Eating Attitudes Test-26 score (p<0.05). Some participants reported a history of oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea 17 (76%) and/or rib pain 7 (32%) with those with rib pain having lower spine and TB Z-scores (p<0.05) than those without. Those with oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea had lower spine Z-scores (p<0.01) than those without. Twelve participants had low BMD; three at spine; one at FN; and eight at radius. Thirteen per cent of mean total training hours (18.6±9.1 h/week) were spent strength training (2.4±2.2 h/week). Conclusions Upper body exercises incorporating multidimensional high peak bone strain were not reported and may need to be considered in their strength training to improve radial BMD. Results suggest IWL and high-level training at a young age increases the likelihood of DE and there may be a lack of quality nutritional support for these athletes. Thus, multidisciplinary sport science support should be offered at a young age and perhaps also to consider changing the weight rules

  16. [Elder].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented. PMID:27603886

  17. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Athlete's Foot KidsHealth > For Kids > Athlete's Foot Print A A ... a public shower. Why Is It Called Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often ...

  18. Response of parathyroid hormone to anaerobic exercise in adolescent female athletes.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Washino, K; Nagashima, M; Iwata, H

    1998-02-01

    It has been shown that moderate exercise suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, while strenuous exercise is apt to induce continuous secretion, which has a negative effect on bone mineral densities (BMD). The present study investigated a typical response of PTH to brief exercise. The study group comprised six adolescent female basketball players whose BMD were within normal limits. Maximal anaerobic power by three-step cycling was loaded on each subject. The first blood sample was drawn 30 min prior to testing test, the second was immediately following, the third was 15 min after, and the fourth was 30 min after. The proportional change in plasma volume was -11.5% immediately following (P < 0.05), +2.1% 15 min after, and +5.5% at 30 min after exercise (P < 0.05). The expected value was calculated on the assumption of no effect, except changes in plasma volume, by exercise. The measured values of PTH and calcium (Ca) immediately after exercise were lower than each of the expected values (P < 0.05 for both). At 15 min after, there was no significant difference between expected and measured values of PTH, Ca and magnesium (Mg), respectively. At 30 min after, the measured value of Ca and Mg was higher than each expected value (P < 0.05 for both). It was concluded that PTH secretion is suppressed transiently immediately after maximal anaerobic exercise and is then stimulated during the recovery time in normal BMD subjects.

  19. Development and Validation of a Clinic-Based Prediction Tool to Identify Female Athletes at High Risk for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Khoury, Jane; Succop, Paul; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective measures of high knee abduction moment (KAM) during landing identify female athletes at high risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Laboratory-based measurements demonstrate 90% accuracy in prediction of high KAM. Clinic-based prediction algorithms that employ correlates derived from laboratory-based measurements also demonstrate high accuracy for prediction of high KAM mechanics during landing. Hypotheses Clinic-based measures derived from highly predictive laboratory-based models are valid for the accurate prediction of high KAM status, and simultaneous measurements using laboratory-based and clinic-based techniques highly correlate. Study Design Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods One hundred female athletes (basketball, soccer, volleyball players) were tested using laboratory-based measures to confirm the validity of identified laboratory-based correlate variables to clinic-based measures included in a prediction algorithm to determine high KAM status. To analyze selected clinic-based surrogate predictors, another cohort of 20 female athletes was simultaneously tested with both clinic-based and laboratory-based measures. Results The prediction model (odds ratio: 95% confidence interval), derived from laboratory-based surrogates including (1) knee valgus motion (1.59: 1.17-2.16 cm), (2) knee flexion range of motion (0.94: 0.89°-1.00°), (3) body mass (0.98: 0.94-1.03 kg), (4) tibia length (1.55: 1.20-2.07 cm), and (5) quadriceps-to-hamstrings ratio (1.70: 0.48%-6.0%), predicted high KAM status with 84% sensitivity and 67% specificity (P < .001). Clinic-based techniques that used a calibrated physician’s scale, a standard measuring tape, standard camcorder, ImageJ software, and an isokinetic dynamometer showed high correlation (knee valgus motion, r = .87; knee flexion range of motion, r = .95; and tibia length, r = .98) to simultaneous laboratory-based measurements. Body mass and quadriceps-to-hamstrings ratio

  20. A comparison of the effects of measured, predicted, estimated and constant residual volumes on the body density of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Withers, R T; Ball, C T

    1988-02-01

    The body density (BD), and hence the relative body fat (% BF) was measured for 182 female athletes. The residual volume (RV) was determined both before and after the underwater weighing by a multiple breath helium dilution technique with the subject immersed to neck level. The absolute mean difference (lXdl) and SEE between the two RV trials were 63 and 75 ml, respectively. These increased to values ranging 144-685 and 187-252 ml, respectively, when the mean of the two RV trials for each subject was compared with the RVs predicted via regression equations, estimated from the vital capacity (VC) and assumed to be a constant of 1000 ml. A similar trend resulted from variation of only the RV in the BD formula for each subject. The two RV trials resulted in an lXdl and SEE of .00121 (.5% BF) and .00141 g.cm-3 (.6% BF), respectively, but these increased to values ranging .00283 (1.3% BF) -.01291 (5.7% BF) and .00362 (1.6% BF) -.00527 g.cm-3 (2.5% BF), respectively, for predicted, estimated and assumed constant RVs. In all cases, the lowest lXdl and SEE were associated with the RVs predicted by a multiple regression equation (R = .725; SEE = 187 ml) which was generated on our sample while the largest lXdl values were registered by the other regression equations. These data emphasize that the use of predicted, estimated and constant RVs result in substantial errors in BD and % BF compared with those when the RV is measured.

  1. The effect of diet on vitamin E intake and oxidative stress in response to acute exercise in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sacheck, J M; Decker, E A; Clarkson, P M

    2000-09-01

    Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant found in foods, and its bioavailability is affected by the presence of dietary fats. Athletes often consume lowfat diets and may be more susceptible to the oxidative stress produced by exercise due to the low availability of vitamin E. In this study, the effects of a low-fat diet on vitamin E intake and oxidative stress markers were assessed in collegiate female rowers. All subjects habitually consumed either a low-fat (LF; <40 g fat x day(-1)) or a high-fat (HF; >60 g fat x day(-1) diet. Subjects ran downhill for 45 min at 75% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected immediately pre- and post-exercise, and at 6, 24, and 48 h post-exercise. Subjects in the LF group consumed significantly less vitamin E (2.9 mg vitamin E x day(-1)) than advised by the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA; 8.0 mg vitamin E x day(-1)) and than those in the HF group (9.8 mg vitamin E x day(-1); P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of vitamin E, malondialdehyde, and conjugated dienes were not significantly different between LF and HF before or after exercise. Creatine kinase became significantly elevated above baseline at 6 h and 24 h post-exercise in both groups (P<0.05). We can conclude from these data that although the subjects in the LF group were not consuming the recommended amount of vitamin E in their diets, their vitamin E intake appears to be sufficient to protect against the oxidative stress produced by this moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:11072772

  2. Influence of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Inflammation and Muscle Soreness Endued by Exercise in Iranian Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Barani, Azam; Taghiyar, Maryam; Shiranian, Afshin; Hajishafiee, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger rhizomes (rich in gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone) have been used in Asia for the treatment of asthma, diabetes, and pain, and have shown potent anti-inflammatory attributes. Common spices such as Cinnamon (including cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehydeis) are used in food and many studies have focused on its anti-inflammatory components. Intense exercise can result in an inflammatory response to cell damage and also muscle soreness. The efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as anti-inflammatory agents and their effectiveness in reducing muscle soreness has been investigated in limited studies on humans. Therefore, we have studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on inflammation and muscle soreness in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy, trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the six-week investigation and randomly categorized into three groups (cinnamon, ginger or placebo) and received 3 g of ginger, cinnamon or placebo powder each day, depending on the group they belonged to. The IL-6 level and Likert Scale of Muscle Soreness were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the six-week intervention. There were no significant changes in the IL-6 cinnamon and ginger group when compared with the placebo group, whereas, there was a significant fall in muscle soreness in the cinnamon group and placebo (P < 0.1) and ginger group and placebo (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups. PMID:23717759

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF HEEL HEIGHT ON SAGITTAL PLANE KNEE KINEMATICS DURING LANDING TASKS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND ATHLETIC COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.; Phelps, Amy L.; Martin, RobRoy L.; Burrows, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if heel height alters sagittal plane knee kinematics when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Background: Knee angles close to extension during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Methods: Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a sneaker. Using an electrogoniometer, sagittal plane kinematics (initial contact [KAIC], peak flexion [KAPeak], and rate of excursion [RE]) were examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Results: Forward hop task- KAIC with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 8.88±6.5, 9.38±5.8 and 11.28±7.0, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p<.001) and 12 and 24 mm lifts (p=.003), but not between the 0 and 12 mm conditions (p=.423). KAPeak with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 47.08±10.9, 48.18±10.3 and 48.88±9.7, respectively. A significant difference was noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (p=.004), but not between the 0 and 12 mm or 12 and 24 mm conditions (p=.071 and p=.282, respectively). The RE decreased significantly from 2128/sec±52 with the 12 mm lift to 1958/sec±55 with the 24 mm lift (p=.004). RE did not differ from 0 to 12 or 0 to 24 mm lift conditions (p=.351 and p=.086, respectively). Jump-landing task- No significant differences were found in KAIC (p=.531), KAPeak (p=.741), or the RE (p=.190) between any of the heel lift conditions. Conclusions: The addition of a 24 mm heel lift to the bottom of a sneaker significantly alters sagittal plane knee kinematics upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a drop jump. PMID:21904697

  4. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants. PMID:25212095

  5. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  6. Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p < 0.001), T1 to T3 (10.07%, p = 0.005), and T2 to T3 (3.38%, p < 0.001). One-leg hop test for the right and left legs also showed significantly higher values in WBVG from T1 to T2 (10.12%, p < 0.001 and 9.63%, p = 0.002, respectively) and T1 to T3 (14.17%, p = 0.001 and 15.17%, p = 0.004, respectively). Lateral deviation of the center of pressure in the closed eyes test decreased significantly in WBVG for both right and left leg, from T1 to T2 (-22.20%, p = 0.043 and -34.77%, p < 0.001, respectively) and from T1 to T3 (-33.14%, p = 0.027 and -33.58%, p = 0.043, respectively) compared with the CG. In conclusion, our results show that a 15-week whole-body vibration training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players.

  7. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program.

  8. Effect of 8 weeks of pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength in male and female collegiate taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983

  9. Exhaustive endurance training for 6-9 weeks did not induce changes in intrinsic heart rate and cardiac autonomic modulation in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the effects of progressively increased training load and overtraining on resting and intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM), and their relationships to performance variables. Nine athletes (ETG) increased training volume at 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 130% (p<0.01) and training volume at <70% VO2max by 100% (p < 0.01) during 6-9 weeks. The corresponding increases in six female control athletes (CG) were 5 and 10%. Pharmacological blocking through atropine and propranolol and the Rosenblueth and Simeone model were used to calculate the sympathovagal balance index (Abal) and to measure IHR. The results were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. VO2max, IHR and Abal did not change. Resting heart rate had a tendency to decrease in the ETG and increase in the CG during the training period (interaction p < 0.01). Five ETG athletes demonstrated overtraining state (OA subgroup). Their VO2max (mean+/-SEM) decreased from 53.0+/-2.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 50.2+/-2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (p < 0.01), but no changes in resting HR, IHR and Abal were found. A significant correlation between the baseline values of VO2max and the parasympathetic activity index was found (r=-0.59, p < 0.05). In conclusion, progressively increased training load and overtraining did not induce significant changes in intrinsic heart rate or cardiac autonomic modulation in female endurance athletes. Resting heart rate rather decreased with heavy endurance training and overtraining. High maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with high cardiac parasympathetic modulation. PMID:9877144

  10. Gender verification in sports by PCR amplification of SRY and DYZ1 Y chromosome specific sequences: presence of DYZ1 repeat in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, A; García de Herreros, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform genetic sex typing during the Barcelona Olympic Games using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of Y chromosome specific sequences. METHODS: The assay consisted of the amplification of a specific sequence corresponding to the repeat DYZ1 element from buccal smears samples of 2406 female competitors. Positive samples were reanalysed for the presence of another Y chromosome specific gene, SRY. RESULTS: The expression of these two elements did not always correlate; six samples were found where the presence of DYZ1 but not SRY was detected. This presence of DYZ1 sequence in female athletes is higher than in unselected females, where no DYZ1 amplification was observed in any of the 1629 samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Amplification of DYZ1 repeat should not be used as the only index for determining genetic sex, at least in sporting events. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9015592

  11. Effect of attending to a ball during a side-cut maneuver on lower extremity biomechanics in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fedie, Rebecca; Carlstedt, Kristen; Willson, John D; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2010-09-01

    Many sports associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury require athletes attend to a ball during participation. We investigated effects of attending to a ball on lower extremity mechanics during a side-cut maneuver and if these effects are consistent for males and females. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and joint moments were measured during side-cut maneuvers in 19 male and 19 female National Collegiate Athletic Association division III basketball players. Participants also experienced two side-cut conditions that required attention to a ball. Our results did not indicate that the effect of attention varies with gender. However, during side-cut conditions while attending to a ball, internal knee adductor moment was 20% greater (p = 0.03) and peak knee flexion angle was 4 degrees larger (p < 0.01). Females demonstrated 5 degrees less hip flexion (p = 0.046), 12 degrees less knee flexion (p < 0.01), and 4 degrees more knee abduction (p = 0.026) at initial contact during all side-cut conditions than males. Attention to a ball may affect lower extremity mechanics relevant to ACL injury. The validity of laboratory studies of lower extremity mechanics for sports that include attention to a ball may be increased if participants are required to attend to a ball during the task.

  12. A musculoskeletal modeling approach for estimating anterior cruciate ligament strains and knee anterior-posterior shear forces in stop-jumps performed by young recreational female athletes.

    PubMed

    Kar, Julia; Quesada, Peter M

    2013-02-01

    The central goal of this study was to contribute to the advancements being made in determining the underlying causes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. ACL injuries are frequently incurred by recreational and professional young female athletes during non-contact impact activities in sports like volleyball and basketball. This musculoskeletal-neuromuscular study investigated stop-jumps and factors related to ACL injury like knee valgus and internal-external moment loads, knee anterior-posterior (AP) shear forces, ACL strains and internal forces. Motion capture data was obtained from the landing phase of stop-jumps performed by eleven young recreational female athletes and electromyography (EMG) data collected from quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnimius muscles which were then compared to numerically estimated activations. Numerical simulation tools used were Inverse Kinematics, Computed Muscle Control and Forward Dynamics and the knee modeled as a six degree of freedom joint. Results showed averaged peak strains of 12.2 ± 4.1% in the right and 11.9 ± 3.0% in the left ACL. Averaged peak knee AP shear forces were 482.3 ± 65.7 N for the right and 430.0 ± 52.4 N for the left knees, approximately equal to 0.7-0.8 times body weight across both knees. A lack of symmetry was observed between the knees for valgus angles (p < 0.04), valgus moments (p < 0.001) and muscle activations (p < 0.001), all of which can be detrimental to ACL stability during impact activities. Comparisons between recorded EMG data and estimated muscle activations show the relation between electrical signal and muscle depolarization. In summary, this study outlines a musculoskeletal simulation approach that provides numerical estimations for a number of variables associated with ACL injuries in female athletes performing stop-jumps.

  13. The Attribution of Universal or Personal Helplessness in Nondepressed and Depressed Elderly Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert J.

    The potential for feelings of hopelessness and depression in the aged is well documented. Although studies have examined the role of perceived control in ameliorating depression in the institutionalized elderly, no research has actually measured the perceived causal attributions among depressed, hopeless and/or institutionalized elderly…

  14. Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ashwin L.; Asif, Irfan M.; Drezner, Jonathan A.; Toresdahl, Brett G.; Harmon, Kimberly G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has recently highlighted mental health concerns in student athletes, though the incidence of suicide among NCAA athletes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of suicide among NCAA athletes. Hypothesis: The incidence of suicide in NCAA athletes differs by sex, race, sport, and division. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: NCAA Memorial Resolutions list and published NCAA demographic data were used to identify student-athlete deaths and total participant seasons from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012. Deaths were analyzed by age, sex, race, division, and sport. Results: Over the 9-year study period, 35 cases of suicide were identified from a review of 477 student-athlete deaths during 3,773,309 individual participant seasons. The overall suicide rate was 0.93/100,000 per year. Suicide represented 7.3% (35/477) of all-cause mortality among NCAA student athletes. The annual incidence of suicide in male athletes was 1.35/100,000 and in female athletes was 0.37/100,000 (relative risk [RR], 3.7; P < 0.01). The incidence in African American athletes was 1.22/100,000 and in white athletes was 0.87/100,000 (RR, 1.4; P = 0.45). The highest rate of suicide occurred in men’s football (2.25/100,000), and football athletes had a relative risk of 2.2 (P = 0.03) of committing suicide compared with other male, nonfootball athletes. Conclusion: The suicide rate in NCAA athletes appears to be lower than that of the general and collegiate population of similar age. NCAA male athletes have a significantly higher rate of suicide compared with female athletes, and football athletes appear to be at greatest risk. Clinical Relevance: Suicide represents a preventable cause of death, and development of effective prevention programs is recommended. PMID:26502423

  15. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly.We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index.The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435).Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  16. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  17. Bone Mineral Content and Density Among Female NCAA Division I Athletes Across the Competitive Season and Over a Multi-Year Time Frame.

    PubMed

    Stanforth, Dixie; Lu, Tao; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Crim, Brittany N; Stanforth, Philip R

    2016-10-01

    Stanforth, D, Lu, T, Stults-Kolehmainen, MA, Crim, BN, and Stanforth, PR. Bone mineral content and density among female NCAA Division I athletes across the competitive season and over a multi-year time frame. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2828-2838, 2016-Longitudinal and cross-sectional bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) comparisons were made among impact and nonimpact sports. Female collegiate athletes, 18-23 years of age, from basketball (BB; n = 38), soccer (SOC; n = 47), swimming (SW; n = 52), track sprinters and jumpers (TR; n = 49), and volleyball (VB; n = 26) had BMC/BMD measures preseason and postseason over 3 years. Control groups of 85 college females, 18-24 years of age, who completed 2 tests 1-3 years apart and of 170 college females, 18-20 years of age, were used for the longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, respectively. A restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model regression analysis with a compound symmetric heterogeneous variance-covariance matrix structure was used for all analyses (p ≤ 0.05). Increases from year-1 preseason to year-3 postseason included the following: total BMC (3.3%), total BMD (1.4%), and spine BMD (4.5%) for BB; total BMC (1.5%) and leg BMD (1.2%) for SOC; arm (1.8%), leg (1.9%), and total BMD (5.7%) for SW; total BMC (2.0%), arm (1.7%), leg (2.3%), pelvis (3.4%), spine (6.0%), and total BMD (2.3%) for TR; and arm (4.1%), leg (2.0%), pelvis (2.0%), spine (2.0%), and total BMD (2.7%) for VB. Comparisons among sports determined that BB had higher BMC and BMD values than all other sports for all variables except spine and total BMD; BB, SOC, TR, and VB had higher total BMC (11-29%), leg BMD (13-20%), and total BMD (9-15%) than SW and CON, and there were few differences among SOC, TR, and VB. In conclusion, small, significant increases in many BMC and BMD measures occur during female athlete's collegiate careers. The BMC and BMD differences between impact and nonimpact sports are large compared

  18. A meta-analysis of the effect of neuromuscular training on the prevention of the anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Lim, Bee Oh; Ha, Mina; Lee, Soo Won; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo

    2010-06-01

    Female athletes are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than their male counterparts, presumably because of anatomical, hormonal, and neuromuscular differences. Of these three, only the neuromuscular component can be modified by preventive exercise. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a neuromuscular protocol on the prevention of ACL injury by performing meta-analysis, and to identify essential factors by subgroup analysis. An extensive literature review was conducted to identify relevant studies, and eventually, only seven randomized controlled trials or prospective cohort studies were included in the analysis. The odds ratios (OR) and the confidence interval (CI) for the overall effects of training and of potentially contributory factors were estimated. The OR and the 95% CI for the overall effect of the preventive training were 0.40 and [0.27, 0.60], respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that an age under 18, soccer rather than handball, pre- and in-season training rather than either pre- or in-season training, and the plyometrics and strengthening components rather than balancing were significant. Meta-analysis showed that pre- and in-season neuromuscular training with an emphasis on plyometrics and strengthening exercises was effective at preventing ACL injury in female athletes, especially in those under 18 years of age. Further study is required to develop a relevant training program protocol of appropriate intensity.

  19. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  20. [Support provided by third parties and the reaction of close female caregivers in the care of elderly persons with loss of autonomy].

    PubMed

    Demers, A; Lavoie, J P; Drapeau, A

    1992-01-01

    This article is about the relation between, on the one hand, support provided by third parties and, on the other, the burden and the depression experienced by the main female supporters who care for the elderly suffering from physical or cognitive problems. The authors examine the hypothesis that social support is not homogeneous across the board and that the different types of support are likely to have different effects on elders with adverse reactions to the caring process. Data originates from a study that was conducted in the Montréal area in 1990 with 159 female supporters living with an elder requiring care who requested support services from formal and informal networks. Hierarchical regression analyses show that the variables in connection with care dispensed by the network play a limited role in attempting to explain the depression and burden levels. Furthermore, these analyses confirm the hypothesis of the variables' narrow range of influence.

  1. Dietary Intervention Restored Menses in Female Athletes with Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction with Limited Impact on Bone and Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Guebels, Charlotte P.; Maddalozzo, Gianni F.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) is associated with low energy availability (EA), decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day) intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8) with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers), muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS), and energy intake (EI)/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records) were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen); n = 10) were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12), EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17) and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14) were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles); one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1); low hip (ExMD = 2)) than those with ExMD for <8 months; for 2 ExMD the intervention improved spinal BMD. POMS fatigue scores were 15% lower in ExMD vs. Eumen (p = 0.17); POMS depression scores improved by 8% in ExMD (p = 0.12). EI, EA, and EB were similar between groups, but the intervention (+360 kcal/day) improved energy status enough to reverse ExMD despite no statistically significant changes in EI. Similar baseline EA and EB between groups suggests that some ExMD athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations. PMID:25090245

  2. The effect of whole-body vibration training and conventional strength training on performance measures in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Parker, Barry M; Cortes, Nelson

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower body strength and power. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III softball athletes (n = 9) completed the 9-week protocol as part of their off-season strength and conditioning program. The athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Week 1, pretesting included 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squat, standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ). Phase I training (weeks 2-4) consisted of either WBV training (group 1) or conventional strength training (CST, group 2). The primary programmatic difference between WBV and CST was the inclusion of WBV sets after squat sets. Posttesting (3RM squat, SLJ, VCMJ) occurred at week 5. Phase II training (weeks 6-8) consisted of either WBV training (group 2) or CST (group 1). Posttesting was repeated at week 9 after the completion of phase II. Three 2 × 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were computed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups or between groups and testing period for the SLJ, VCMJ, and estimated 1RM back squat. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed in SLJ, VCMJ, and back squat from pretest to posttest 1. Back squat increased (p < 0.05) from posttest 1 to posttest 2. All the athletes experienced significantly greater (p < 0.05) percent changes from pretest to posttest 1 for SLJ and VCMJ. These results indicate that the inclusion of WBV as part of an off-season strength and conditioning program has no apparent benefit over CST methods for collegiate softball players.

  3. Influence of Regional Difference in Bone Mineral Density on Hip Fracture Site in Elderly Females by Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z L; Li, P F; Pang, Z H; Zheng, X H; Huang, F; Xu, H H; Li, Q L

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture is a kind of osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients. Its important monitoring indicator is to measure bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. The stress characteristics and material distribution in different parts of the bones can be well simulated by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Our previous studies have demonstrated a linear positive correlation between clinical BMD and the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur. However, the correlation between the density variation between intertrochanteric region and collum femoris region of the model and the fracture site has not been studied yet. The present study intends to investigate whether the regional difference in the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur can be used to predict hip fracture site in elderly females. The CT data of both hip joints were collected from 16 cases of elderly female patients with hip fractures. Mimics 15.01 software was used to reconstruct the model of proximal femur on the healthy side. Ten kinds of material properties were assigned. In Abaqus 6.12 software, the collum femoris region and intertrochanteric region were, respectively, drawn for calculating the corresponding regional density of the model, followed by prediction of hip fracture site and final comparison with factual fracture site. The intertrochanteric region/collum femoris region density was [(1.20 ± 0.02) × 10(6)] on the fracture site and [(1.22 ± 0.03) × 10(6)] on the non-fracture site, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Among 16 established models of proximal femur on the healthy side, 14 models were consistent with the actual fracture sites, one model was inconsistent, and one model was unpredictable, with the coincidence rate of 87.5 %. The intertrochanteric region or collum femoris region with lower BMD is more prone to hip fracture of the type on the corresponding site. PMID:27352330

  4. A Predictive Model to Estimate Knee-Abduction Moment: Implications for Development of a Clinically Applicable Patellofemoral Pain Screening Tool in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Foss, Kim D. Barber; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Paterno, Mark V.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prospective measures of high external knee-abduction moment (KAM) during landing identify female athletes at increased risk of patellofemoral pain (PFP). A clinically applicable screening protocol is needed. Objective: To identify biomechanical laboratory measures that would accurately quantify KAM loads during landing that predict increased risk of PFP in female athletes and clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures of increased KAM status for use in a clinical PFP injury-risk prediction algorithm. We hypothesized that we could identify clinical correlates that combine to accurately determine increased KAM associated with an increased risk of developing PFP. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Biomechanical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Adolescent female basketball and soccer players (n = 698) from a single-county public school district. Main Outcome Measure(s): We conducted tests of anthropometrics, maturation, laxity, flexibility, strength, and landing biomechanics before each competitive season. Pearson correlation and linear and logistic regression modeling were used to examine high KAM (>15.4 Nm) compared with normal KAM as a surrogate for PFP injury risk. Results: The multivariable logistic regression model that used the variables peak knee-abduction angle, center-of-mass height, and hip rotational moment excursion predicted KAM associated with PFP risk (>15.4 NM of KAM) with 92% sensitivity and 74% specificity and a C statistic of 0.93. The multivariate linear regression model that included the same predictors accounted for 70% of the variance in KAM. We identified clinical correlates to laboratory measures that combined to predict high KAM with 92% sensitivity and 47% specificity. The clinical prediction algorithm, including knee-valgus motion (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.63), center-of-mass height (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.26), and hamstrings strength/body fat percentage (OR

  5. Intersession and Intrasession Reliability and Validity of the My Jump App for Measuring Different Jump Actions in Trained Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Fuentes, Francisco; Gallardo-Fuentes, Jorge; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas, Rodrigo; Banzer, Winfried; Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-07-01

    Gallardo-Fuentes, F, Gallardo-Fuentes, J, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Martínez, C, Caniuqueo, A, Cañas, R, Banzer, W, Loturco, I, Nakamura, FY, and Izquierdo, M. Intersession and intrasession reliability and validity of the My Jump app for measuring different jump actions in trained male and female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2049-2056, 2016-The purpose of this study was to analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of the iPhone app named My Jump for measuring jump height in 40-cm drop jumps (DJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and squat jumps (SJs). To do this, 21 male and female athletes (age, 22.1 ± 3.6 years) completed 5 maximal DJs, CMJs, and SJs on 2 separate days, which were evaluated using a contact platform and the app My Jump, developed to calculate jump height from flight time using the high-speed video recording facility on the iPhone. A total of 630 jumps were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (r), Cronbach's alpha (α), and coefficient of variation (CV). There was almost perfect agreement between the measurement instruments for all jump height values (ICC = 0.97-0.99), with no differences between the instruments (p > 0.05; mean difference of 0.2 cm). Almost perfect correlation was observed between the measurement instruments for SJs, CMJs, and DJs (r = 0.96-0.99). My Jump showed very good within-subject reliability (α = 0.94-0.99; CV = 3.8-7.6) and interday reliability (r = 0.86-0.95) for SJs, CMJs, and DJs in all subjects. Therefore, the iPhone app named My Jump provides reliable intersession and intrasession data, as well as valid measurements for maximal jump height during fast (i.e., DJs) and slow (i.e., CMJs) stretch-shortening cycle muscle actions, and during concentric-only explosive muscle actions (i.e., SJs), in both male and female athletes in comparison with a professional contact platform. PMID:27328276

  6. Characteristics of and outcomes for elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: differences between females and males

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Nguyen Dang; Karlson, Björn Wilgot; Karlsson, Thomas; Herlitz, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study analyzed age-adjusted sex differences among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients aged 75 years and above with regard to 7-year mortality (primary end point) and the frequency of angiograms and admission to the coronary care unit (CCU) as well as 1-year mortality (secondary end points). Methods A retrospective cohort study comprised 1,414 AMI patients (748 females and 666 males) aged at least 75 years, who were admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, during two periods (2001/2002 and 2007). All comparisons between female and male patients were age adjusted. Results Females were older and their previous history included fewer AMIs, coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, and renal diseases, but more frequent incidence of hypertension. On the contrary, males had higher age-adjusted 7-year mortality in relation to females (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16 with corresponding 95% confidence interval [95% CI 1.03, 1.31], P=0.02). Admission to the CCU was more frequent among males than females (odds ratio [OR] 1.38 [95% CI 1.11, 1.72], P=0.004). There was a nonsignificant trend toward more coronary angiographies performed among males (OR 1.34 [95% CI 1.00, 1.79], P=0.05), as well as a nonsignificant trend toward higher 1-year mortality (HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.99, 1.39], P=0.06). Conclusion In an AMI population aged 75 years and above, males had higher age-adjusted 7-year mortality and higher rate of admission to the CCU than females. One-year mortality did not differ significantly between the sexes, nor did the frequency of performed coronary angiograms. PMID:27703339

  7. Differential profile of ultrasound findings associated with malignancy in mixed and solid thyroid nodules in an elderly female population.

    PubMed

    Vera, María Inés; Meroño, Tomás; Urrutia, María Agustina; Parisi, Carina; Morosan, Yanina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Brites, Fernando; Grisendi, Silvio; Serrano, María Sol; Luciani, Wilfredo; Serrano, Leonardo; Zuk, Carlos; De Barrio, Guillermo; Cejas, Claudia; Faingold, María Cristina; Brenta, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25-6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules. PMID:25050189

  8. Differential Profile of Ultrasound Findings Associated with Malignancy in Mixed and Solid Thyroid Nodules in an Elderly Female Population

    PubMed Central

    Vera, María Inés; Urrutia, María Agustina; Parisi, Carina; Morosan, Yanina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Brites, Fernando; Grisendi, Silvio; Serrano, María Sol; Luciani, Wilfredo; Serrano, Leonardo; Zuk, Carlos; De Barrio, Guillermo; Cejas, Claudia; Faingold, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25–6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules. PMID:25050189

  9. Differential profile of ultrasound findings associated with malignancy in mixed and solid thyroid nodules in an elderly female population.

    PubMed

    Vera, María Inés; Meroño, Tomás; Urrutia, María Agustina; Parisi, Carina; Morosan, Yanina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Brites, Fernando; Grisendi, Silvio; Serrano, María Sol; Luciani, Wilfredo; Serrano, Leonardo; Zuk, Carlos; De Barrio, Guillermo; Cejas, Claudia; Faingold, María Cristina; Brenta, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years) referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP)/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69 ± 8 years), the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56). While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P < 0.05). The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25-6.10), P: 0.012). Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules.

  10. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Bush, Heather M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip-focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip-focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip-focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip-focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656

  11. The Effects of Cryotherapy and PNF Stretching Techniques on Hip Extensor Flexibility in Elderly Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Beth S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study determined whether three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility maneuvers (to increase hamstring length) were as effective in 31 older females as in younger subjects. Cryotherapy intervention was also employed. Results indicated contract-relax and slow-reversal-hold-relax procedures were superior to static stretching;…

  12. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent body fat in collegiate track and field female athletes: a comparison of four methods.

    PubMed

    Bentzur, Keren M; Kravitz, Len; Lockner, Donna W

    2008-11-01

    This investigation examined the accuracy of the BOD POD on a group of Division I collegiate track and field female athletes (N = 30). Hydrostatic weighing (HW) was used as the gold standard method. Body density (Db) values obtained from the BOD POD (Db BP) were compared with those determined by HW (Db HW). Both Db values were converted to percent body fat (%BF) using the Siri equation for comparison. Percent body fat values obtained from the BOD POD (BF BP) were also compared with those obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, BF DXA) and skinfold (SF, BF SF). The validity of the BOD POD was assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the relationship between the methods was examined through Pearson correlation. Average Db BP was 0.00890 g x cm(-3) lower (p < 0.05) than Db HW, resulting in a significant overestimation of %BF (p < 0.05) by the BOD POD. Values for BFDXA and BFBP also differed significantly (p < 0.05). On the other hand, BFSF and BF BP were not significantly different. The correlation between percent body fat values obtained from HW (BFHW) and BF BP was good (r = 0.88, SEE = 2.30) as well as between BF SF and BF BP (r = 0.85, SEE = 2.05). Conversely, the correlation between BFDXA and BF BP was poor (r = 0.25, SEE = 5.73). The strong correlation between BF BP and BF HW presented here suggests that the BOD POD has the potential to be used as a body composition analysis tool for female athletes. The advantages of the BOD POD over HW encourage further investigation of this instrument. However, the fact that the BOD POD and SF results did not differ significantly might suggest that the SF could be used in its place until a better rate of accuracy for this instrument is established.

  13. Comparative changes in radial-bone density of elderly female lacto-ovovegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reed, J A; Anderson, J J; Tylavsky, F A; Gallagher, P N

    1994-05-01

    A 5-y prospective study of the changes in radial-bone mineral density (BMD) of elderly white women (mean age, 81 y) living in four residential communities, including 49 Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovovegetarians and 140 omnivores, was undertaken to determine the potential effects of usual dietary calcium in preventing the loss of BMD, measured by single-photon absorptiometry, at two radial sites. Changes in BMD and other variables from baseline (1983) to follow-up (1988) were: 1) mean calcium intakes in 1988 of 996 mg/d for omnivores and 733 mg/d for lacto-ovovegetarians changed little from 1983, 2) all women lost BMD (P < 0.05) over the 5 y period, 3) the annual BMD loss rates were approximately 1% at each site, 4) BMD loss was independent of calcium intake, 5) BMD loss rates were similar in both lacto-ovovegetarians and omnivores, and 6) the greater the loss of lean body mass, the greater the BMD loss (P < 0.05).

  14. Plasma ghrelin levels in healthy elderly volunteers: the levels of acylated ghrelin in elderly females correlate positively with serum IGF-I levels and bowel movement frequency and negatively with systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Akamizu, T; Murayama, T; Teramukai, S; Miura, K; Bando, I; Irako, T; Iwakura, H; Ariyasu, H; Hosoda, H; Tada, H; Matsuyama, A; Kojima, S; Wada, T; Wakatsuki, Y; Matsubayashi, K; Kawakita, T; Shimizu, A; Fukushima, M; Yokode, M; Kangawa, K

    2006-02-01

    Aging is associated with a decrease in growth hormone (GH) secretion, appetite and energy intake. As ghrelin stimulates both GH secretion and appetite, reductions in ghrelin levels may be involved in the reductions in GH secretion and appetite observed in the elderly. However, only preliminary studies have been performed on the role of ghrelin in elderly subjects. In this study, we sought to clarify the physiologic implications of the age-related alterations in ghrelin secretion by determining plasma ghrelin levels and other clinical parameters in healthy elderly subjects. Subjects were > or = 65 years old, corresponding to the SENIEUR protocol, had not had a resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract and had not been treated with hormones. One hundred and five volunteers (49 men and 56 women) were admitted to this study (73.4 +/- 6.3 years old). Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in elderly female subjects positively correlated with serum IGF-I levels and bowel movement frequency and negatively with systolic blood pressure. In elderly men, desacyl ghrelin levels correlated only weakly with bowel movement frequency. These findings suggest that the plasma levels of the acylated form of ghrelin may influence the age-related alterations in GH/IGF-I regulation, blood pressure and bowel motility. These observational associations warrant further experimental studies to clarify the physiologic significance of these effects.

  15. A giant gas-filled abdominal mass in an elderly female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hoi Man Deon; Lee, Fung Yee Janet; Lo, Anthony; Li, Chak Man Jimmy

    2011-08-21

    We report an extremely rare case of gas-filled abdominal mass caused by an ovarian teratoma fistulating to the sigmoid colon. The patient was an 85-year-old female, who presented with severe abdominal distension. Urgent computed tomography scan showed a huge abdominal mass with air fluid level and fecal matter inside. Communication between the mass and the sigmoid colon was suspected. She underwent emergency laparotomy. The mass was resected with the involved segment of colon. Pathology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.

  16. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A rare presentation in an elderly female

    PubMed Central

    Vijayabanu, B.; Sreeja, C.; Bharath, N.; Aesha, I.; Kannan, V. Sadesh; Devi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are rare benign neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, comprising 3–6% of all odontogenic tumors. They are slow growing, non-metastasizing, often asymptomatic with local aggressiveness due to its infiltrative nature and hence high recurrence rate, with a high incidence of occurrence in the mandible. Most frequently occurs in second to third decade of life, seldom occurs beyond these age groups. Hereby, we present a case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla in a 65-year-old female managed by partial maxillectomy. PMID:26538962

  17. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A rare presentation in an elderly female.

    PubMed

    Vijayabanu, B; Sreeja, C; Bharath, N; Aesha, I; Kannan, V Sadesh; Devi, M

    2015-08-01

    Odontogenic myxomas are rare benign neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, comprising 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. They are slow growing, non-metastasizing, often asymptomatic with local aggressiveness due to its infiltrative nature and hence high recurrence rate, with a high incidence of occurrence in the mandible. Most frequently occurs in second to third decade of life, seldom occurs beyond these age groups. Hereby, we present a case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla in a 65-year-old female managed by partial maxillectomy. PMID:26538962

  18. Competitive anxiety in expert female athletes: sources and intensity of anxiety in National Team and First Division Spanish basketball players.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Félix; Sánchez, Rosaura

    2009-10-01

    State and trait anxiety levels in elite Spanish women basketball players were investigated and possible differences in sources of anxiety identified, comparing National Team and First Division players. 84 players participated (13 National Team members, 71 First Division players). A quantitative/qualitative design was used. Results indicated that National Team members had lower State and Trait Anxiety scores than did the First Division players and both groups had lower scores than established population norms. Playing time was significantly related to State and Trait Anxiety for both groups of players and those who had more minutes of playing time had lower scores. Qualitative analyses indicated that the primary sources of anxiety reported by these athletes related to personal issues pertaining to feeling physically and mentally unprepared for practice and games.

  19. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  20. Neuroendocrine mechanisms in athletes.

    PubMed

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Athletic activity may be associated with alterations in various neuroendocrine axes depending on the state of energy availability. In addition, genetic factors and an underlying predilection for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may predispose some athletes to develop functional hypothalamic amenorrhea earlier than other athletes. In conditions of low energy availability associated with athletic activity, changes that occur in various neuroendocrine axes are primarily adaptive, and aim to either conserve energy for the most essential functions, or allow the body to draw on its reserves to meet energy needs. These hormonal changes, however, then lead to changes in body composition and bone metabolism. Impaired bone accrual in younger athletes and low bone density in older athletes constitutes the major pathologic consequence of neuroendocrine changes associated with low energy availability. The female athlete triad of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone density is prevalent in certain kinds of sports and activities, particularly endurance sports, gymnastics, and ballet. It is essential to screen for this condition in athletes at every preparticipation physical and during office visits, and to put in place an effective treatment team to manage the triad early, in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25248600

  1. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Learn About Feet » Foot Health Information Athlete's Foot What is Athlete's Foot? Athlete's foot is a skin disease caused by a fungus, ... fungus growth. Not all fungus conditions are athlete's foot. Other conditions, such as disturbances of the sweat ...

  2. Impact of maximum speed on sprint performance during high-level youth female field hockey matches: female athletes in motion (FAiM) study.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maximum sprint speed on peak and mean sprint speed during youth female field hockey matches. Two high-level female field hockey teams (U-17, n = 24, and U-21, n = 20) were monitored during a 4-game international test series using global position system technology and tested for maximum sprint speed. Dependent variables were compared using a 3-factor ANOVA (age group, position, and speed classification); effect sizes (Cohen d) and confidence limits were also calculated. Maximum sprint speed was similar between age groups and positions, with faster players having greater speed than slower players (29.3 ± 0.4 vs 27.2 ± 1.1 km/h). Overall, peak match speed in youth female field hockey players reaches approximately 90% of maximum sprint speed. Absolute peak match speed and mean sprint speed during matches were similar among the age groups (except match 1) and positions (except match 2); however, peak match speed was greater for faster players in matches 3 and 4. No differences were observed in the relative proportion for mean sprint speeds for age groups or positions, but slower players consistently displayed similar relative mean sprint speeds by using a greater proportion of their maximum sprint speed.

  3. The Effect of Pelvic Muscle Exercises on Urinary Incontinency and Self-Esteem of Elderly Females With Stress Urinary Incontinency, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. Material and Method: In this interventional study, 50 old females aged 60-74 years were chosen among the members of Jahandidegan center, and they were asked to sign the informed consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire. Then, Quid questionnaire was used for choosing the type of incontinence in the elderly females. Next, the participants completed the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires. Then, they were randomly assigned to case and control groups. Each participant took part in 8 training classes. Finally, the subjects filled the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires before and 2 months after the intervention. Result: The results is shown that after the intervention, ICIQ score has a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). Also, after the treatment, self-esteem average scores of studied unit indicated a significant statistical difference in experimental group. In other words, the training sessions improved the score of self-esteem in the experimental group (P<0.001) versus control group (P=0.08). Conclusion: Pelvic muscle exercises were an empowerment mechanism for incontinent women in improving their quality of life and self-esteem, so recommended that such these exercising programs be used in elderly health care centers as a factor to improve health promotion of elderlies ’that are suffering from urinary incontinence. PMID:25716389

  4. Nutrition for Women Athletes. Commonly Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, N. Peggy

    1987-01-01

    Information on the nutritional needs of female athletes is presented. Among the topics discussed are proper eating habits, carbohydrate loading, amenorrhea, osteoporosis, anemia, vitamins, and minerals. (MT)

  5. Differential diagnosis and treatment of iliotibial band pain secondary to a hypomobile cuboid in a 24-year-old female tri-athlete.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Kristina; Patla, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to relate an episode of movement impairment at the cuboid calcaneal articulation leading to symptoms of iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. An explanation of the etiology and clinical diagnosis in relation to the differential diagnosis, treatment techniques, and patient outcomes are described. The 24-year-old female tri-athlete reported pain at Gerdy's tubercle and lateral femoral condyle areas occurring within 2 miles of a run. VAS score was 6/10 for the running activity and the lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) score was 93% (74/80). Over the previous 2 years, the ITB symptoms had failed to resolve with extensive conservative treatment at the knee. On weight bearing, the patient demonstrated pain free limitation of active midtarsal pronation more than supination, which correlated with a decrease in passive internal rotation of the cuboid. Symptoms resolved after one cuboid whip manipulation and the patient was able to run pain free. Post-manipulation treatment consisted of two more sessions, which included motor retraining for weight bearing active midtarsal pronation and supination. LEFS was 100% (80/80) and VAS 0/10 with running greater than 10 miles. While causality cannot be inferred from a single case, this report may foster further investigation regarding the differential diagnosis and treatment of a hypomobile cuboid.

  6. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r(2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r(2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions.

  7. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls. PMID:22614913

  8. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.

  9. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  10. Athlete's Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of tinea, athlete's foot. The Basics on Tinea Infections Tinea (pronounced: TIH-nee-uh) is the medical name ... or scalp, including athlete's foot, jock itch , and ringworm (despite its name, ringworm is not a worm). ...

  11. An Analysis of Individual Stretching Programs of Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate individual stretching programs of intercollegiate athletes, 238 athletes (164 male, 74 female) in ten sports were surveyed about their stretching practices. Almost all of the athletes stretched, but to varying degrees. Muscle groups stretched by the fewest athletes were the adductors, plantar flexors, hips, and neck. (Author/MT)

  12. Ventilatory endurance in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, B J; Stager, J M

    1981-01-01

    Do the ventilatory muscles (VM) of normal persons become fatigued while high ventilation is maintained during strenuous exercise? If so, then one effect of the intense training performed by endurance athletes should be an increase in VM endurance. To investigate this possibility, eight female endurance-athletes and eight female non-athletes were compared in studies of both short-term and long-term maximal ventilation. The two groups were matched for age, body size, and vital capacity. While athletes and non-athletes had similar short-term maximal ventilation (12-s MVV), the athletes displayed greater ventilatory endurance on two-long-term breathing tests. In the first, ventilation was increased 30 1/min every 4 min. Before exhaustion, athletes reached a ventilation that was a significantly greater fraction of their 12-s MVV (75% vs 67%, P less than 0.01), than did non-athletes. Although the energy cost (VO2) of submaximal levels of ventilation was identical in the two groups, athletes reached a significantly greater peak VO2 during this progressive test (P less than 0.05). In the second test of ventilatory endurance, 80% of the 12-s MVV was sustained until exhaustion. Endurance times averaged 11 min for athletes and 3 min for non-athletes (P less than 0.01). While these results do not rule out the possibility of genetic predisposition to high VM endurance in athletes, they are consistent with the possibility that VM training may occur in normal persons during forms of endurance exercise training.

  13. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    PubMed Central

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an

  14. Student-Athletes' Misperceptions of Male and Female Peer Drinking Norms: A Multi-Site Investigation of the "Reign of Error"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, H. Wesley; Craig, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Data from student-athletes at 15 colleges and universities (N = 4,258) document extensive misperceptions of peer drinking norms and their association with personal quantity of alcohol consumed. Regardless of actual drinking norms at each school, student-athletes commonly overestimated the alcohol consumption norms (both quantity and frequency…

  15. The contribution of step characteristics to sprint running performance in high-level male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Debaere, Sofie; Jonkers, Ilse; Delecluse, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between step length and step rate and its effect on sprint performance in male and female sprinters during initial acceleration (IA) (0-10 m), transition phase (TP) (10-30 m), and at maximal speed (MS). Ten high-level male and female sprinters ran 2 all-out 60-m sprints. Force-time characteristics of start action were recorded by means of instrumented starting blocks. Running speed and acceleration were recorded using a laser system (ULS), whereas step length and step rate were measured for each step (Optojump). Step length was normalized for leg length. Explosive strength of the lower limb muscles was quantified using vertical jump performance, showing a 24.6% higher score in men compared with women. During the 3 phases of sprinting, step rate remained constant and did not differ significantly between men (IA: 4.37 ± 0.21 Hz, TP: 4.47 ± 0.25 Hz, MS: 4.43 ± 0.18 Hz) and women (IA: 4.23 ± 0.18 Hz, TP: 4.34 ± 0.18 Hz, MS: 4.28 ± 0.17 Hz). The data analysis indicates that step characteristics interact differently in men and women across phases. Men do not take full advantage of their higher explosive strength to develop step length and speed during IA, because normalized step length differed only slightly (-4.09%) between men (1.70 ± 0.21) and women (1.66 ± 0.13). However, men outscored women clearly in acceleration (+34.5%) during the TP because they were capable of developing higher step lengths (2.04 ± 0.12 m in men vs. 1.85 ± 0.07 m in women), even when normalized for leg length (2.65 ± 0.12 in men vs. 2.47 ± 0.22 in women). At MS, it was concluded that men and women pursue an optimal balance between step rate and step length because a high negative correlation was found in both sexes (r = -0.94 and r = -0.77). Therefore, training approach needs to be customized to gender-related differences in step length-rate interaction.

  16. Athletes as health testing examinees.

    PubMed

    Miwa, T; Miura, K; Miyakawa, S; Narayama, S; Hirano, H; Kanai, K

    1993-04-01

    Health-testing examination data of 91 male and 54 female athletes were studied, together with age-matched controls, on serum biochemistry, ECG findings, hematology, and some data on gynecological physiology. Analysis of serum biochemical values revealed statistically significant differences in 14 of 18 routine test items as compared with the age-matched controls. In ECG findings, the combination of bradycardia and left ventricular hypertrophy was most frequently found in male athletes, whereas that of bradycardia and sinus arrhythmia was observed predominantly in female athletes. The incidence of anemia and menstrual dysfunction was higher in female athletes than in controls, especially in the basketball team. In the same team, a high rate of deviant ECG records and a different distribution of the age at menarche were also observed.

  17. Analysis of Training Load and Competition During the PhD Course of a 3000-m Steeplechase Female Master Athlete: An Autobiography

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Elisa; Fulle, Stefania; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The first author, Elisa Gabrielli, has been a distance runner for many years, and then at a particular point in her career, she decided to move over to the 3000-m steeplechase. She was attracted by this discipline as she believed that it would be the appropriate discipline for her, due to the challenge it provided her, and the necessary knowledge and awareness she had through her studies. For reasons that are discussed in this report, the 3000-m steeplechase is a race that is more difficult to interpret and manage biomechanically and physiologically than most others. Combining this with her PhD allowed her to use a multidisciplinary approach to review the competitive experience gained in this discipline. During this period, she indeed not only deepened the technical aspects of her training, but also those that underlie this discipline, through her knowledge of sport, with particular reference to the female athlete. Through her technical research, she was able to take ‘snapshots’ of what could happen from the physiological point of view. With satisfaction, she improved her performance in the 3000-m race and in the 3000-m steeplechase. How? In particular, she worked on her running technique through specific exercises. She worked on de-contraction and posture, while saving energy consumption. She worked on the control of her breathing, and she took into account her prevailing heart rate. This was all in combination with the consumption of specific nutrients, as she tried to manage the production of lactate with the training of the red muscle fibres that are rich in mitochondria. Finally, she tried to improve her perception of strenuous work, by training at high altitude. This allowed her not only to improve her physical performance, but especially to improve her mind-set, which allowed her to be more confident in herself and her abilities. PMID:26913156

  18. Analysis of Training Load and Competition During the PhD Course of a 3000-m Steeplechase Female Master Athlete: An Autobiography.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Elisa; Fulle, Stefania; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Pietrangelo, Tiziana

    2015-09-11

    The first author, Elisa Gabrielli, has been a distance runner for many years, and then at a particular point in her career, she decided to move over to the 3000-m steeplechase. She was attracted by this discipline as she believed that it would be the appropriate discipline for her, due to the challenge it provided her, and the necessary knowledge and awareness she had through her studies. For reasons that are discussed in this report, the 3000-m steeplechase is a race that is more difficult to interpret and manage biomechanically and physiologically than most others. Combining this with her PhD allowed her to use a multidisciplinary approach to review the competitive experience gained in this discipline. During this period, she indeed not only deepened the technical aspects of her training, but also those that underlie this discipline, through her knowledge of sport, with particular reference to the female athlete. Through her technical research, she was able to take 'snapshots' of what could happen from the physiological point of view. With satisfaction, she improved her performance in the 3000-m race and in the 3000-m steeplechase. How? In particular, she worked on her running technique through specific exercises. She worked on de-contraction and posture, while saving energy consumption. She worked on the control of her breathing, and she took into account her prevailing heart rate. This was all in combination with the consumption of specific nutrients, as she tried to manage the production of lactate with the training of the red muscle fibres that are rich in mitochondria. Finally, she tried to improve her perception of strenuous work, by training at high altitude. This allowed her not only to improve her physical performance, but especially to improve her mind-set, which allowed her to be more confident in herself and her abilities. PMID:26913156

  19. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  20. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  1. Findings from the preparticipation athletic examination and athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Pendergrast, R A; Seymore, C; Gaillard, G; Donner, J

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the findings from a standardized preparticipation athletic examination, the sport played, and athletic injuries requiring treatment by a physician and/or requiring the athlete to miss one or more games. Of public high school students receiving a preparticipation athletic examination during the 1989-1990 academic year, 674 (56%) either completed a telephone interview or returned a mailed questionnaire at the end of the academic year. The sample consisted of 408 (60.5%) blacks and 243 (36.1%) whites; 470 (69.7%) of the subjects were males. The subjects ranged in age from 13 to 20 years (mean +/- SD, 16.1 +/- 1.2 years), and participated in at least 10 school sports. Injuries were reported by 29.5% of the athletes. The highest proportion of athletes injured occurred among male football (36.3%), female basketball (33.3%), male baseball (19.4%), male soccer (17.2%), and female track and field (15.8%) participants. Responses by the athletes and their parents on the standardized health history were significantly associated with injuries in several specific areas. Knee injuries were associated with previous knee injuries, knee surgery, and history of injuries requiring medical treatment. Ankle injuries were associated with previous ankle injuries and previous injuries requiring medical treatment. Both arm and other leg injuries were associated with previous fractures. Male athletes with either abnormal knee or ankle findings from the physical examination were more likely to injure the knee or ankle, respectively. However, the sensitivities and positive predictive values of these relationships are weak. These data suggest that the preparticipation athletic examination may not predict certain athletic injuries and that additional prevention efforts for specific body areas of injury are needed in certain sports.

  2. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  3. Competitive athletic participation, thigh muscle strength, and bone density in elite senior athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (age: 72.6 ± 6.4 years, height: 168.7 ± 8.6 cm, mass: 72.6 ± 13.5 kg, 57 male:47 female) and 79 healthy controls (age: 75.4 ± 5.6 years, height: 170.8 ± 25.5 cm, mass: 79.5 ± 11.7 kg, 46 male:33 female) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque were measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in 4 steps (α = 0.10) to examine the contribution of (a) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake; (b) group (elite senior athlete, control); (c) knee extension peak torque; and (d) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p = 0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors.

  4. Steroid abuse in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Honour, J W

    1997-06-01

    Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

  5. How Did They Get Here, and Why Do They Stay? A Phenomenological Study of Female Athletics Directors at Selected NCAA Division III Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Molly Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the educational, professional, and personal experiences of seven women who currently serve as NCAA Division III athletics directors. While previous literature has examined the experiences of women in Divisions I and II, very little has focused specifically on those in Division III, even though more women serve as…

  6. An Examination of the Career Development and Decision-Making Process of Female Division I Student-Athletes Attending a Mississippi Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The career development and decision-making process of student-athletes has been found to be a complex process (Brown, Glastetter-Fender, & Shelton, 2000; Lally & Kerr, 2005; and Sandstedt, Cox, Martens, Ward, Webber, & Ivey, 2004). Intertwined with issues not found within the general student population career development and decision-making…

  7. Athlete's foot

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea pedis; Fungal infection - feet; Tinea of the foot; Infection - fungal - feet; Ringworm - foot ... Athlete's foot is the most common type of tinea infection. The fungus or yeast thrives in warm, ...

  8. Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…

  9. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  10. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Kristine A.; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M.; Ridpath, B. David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). Objective: To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: E-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. Results: With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P < .01 for all comparisons). Age and total score were related (P < .01). A difference was seen in the ATLGB scores between ATs who were aware of LGB student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P < .001). Conclusions: Many ATs hold positive attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes. PMID:21214353

  11. 34 CFR 668.47 - Report on athletic program participation rates and financial support data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section is a participant, including a student on a team the institution designates or defines as junior.... (7) The ratio of athletically related student aid awarded male athletes to athletically related student aid awarded female athletes. (8) The total amount of recruiting expenses incurred, aggregately...

  12. 34 CFR 668.47 - Report on athletic program participation rates and financial support data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section is a participant, including a student on a team the institution designates or defines as junior.... (7) The ratio of athletically related student aid awarded male athletes to athletically related student aid awarded female athletes. (8) The total amount of recruiting expenses incurred, aggregately...

  13. 34 CFR 668.47 - Report on athletic program participation rates and financial support data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section is a participant, including a student on a team the institution designates or defines as junior.... (7) The ratio of athletically related student aid awarded male athletes to athletically related student aid awarded female athletes. (8) The total amount of recruiting expenses incurred, aggregately...

  14. 34 CFR 668.47 - Report on athletic program participation rates and financial support data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section is a participant, including a student on a team the institution designates or defines as junior.... (7) The ratio of athletically related student aid awarded male athletes to athletically related student aid awarded female athletes. (8) The total amount of recruiting expenses incurred, aggregately...

  15. Level of optimism and health behavior in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lipowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Persons with an optimistic attitude do not give up despite obstacles and failures. Optimistic athletes compete more out of hope for success than out of fear of defeat. The purpose of my research was to determine if optimism also promotes good health behavior in athletes. Material/Methods In order to measure the role of optimism in shaping the health behavior of athletes, I examined a group of women (N=147) and men (N=385) who were currently in training for athletic competition. The control group consisted of women (N=262) and men (N=435) who were not and had never been competitive athletes. The “O-P” Attitude Questionnaire was used to measure optimism, while health behavior was measured with the Juczynski Health Behavior Inventory, which measures proper nutrition habits, preventive behavior, positive attitude, and healthy practices. Results The level of pessimism in these athletes was average. The female athletes were less pessimistic than the female controls. A similar, highly significant difference occurred between the male athletes and non-athletes. Gender did not differentiate the level of optimism in either group. Among the women, optimism correlated with healthy practices, such as daily sleep and recreation habits, or physical activity. The greater the pessimism increased, positive attitudes declined in the female controls, the female athletes, and the male controls. Conclusions The athletes displayed greater optimism than the controls. Among the women, optimism correlated with good health practices. PMID:22207118

  16. Whole-Body Electromyostimulation to Fight Osteopenia in Elderly Females: The Randomized Controlled Training and Electrostimulation Trial (TEST-III).

    PubMed

    von Stengel, Simon; Bebenek, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; Kemmler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be effective in increasing muscle strength and mass in elderly women. Because of the interaction of muscles and bones, these adaptions might be related to changes in bone parameters. 76 community-living osteopenic women 70 years and older were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n = 38) or a control group (CG: n = 38). The WB-EMS group performed 3 sessions every 14 days for one year while the CG performed gymnastics containing identical exercises without EMS. Primary study endpoints were bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (thip) as assessed by DXA. After 54 weeks of intervention, borderline nonsignificant intergroup differences were determined for LS-BMD (WB-EMS: 0.6 ± 2.5% versus CG -0.7 ± 2.5%, P = .051) but not for thip-BMD (WB-EMS: -1.1 ± 1.9% versus CG: -0.8 ± 2.3%, P = .771). With respect to secondary endpoints, there was a gain in lean body mass (LBM) of 1.5% (P = .006) and an increase in grip strength of 8.4% (P = .000) in the WB-EMS group compared to CG. WB-EMS effects on bone are less pronounced than previously reported effects on muscle mass. However, for subjects unable or unwilling to perform intense exercise programs, WB-EMS may be an option for maintaining BMD at the LS.

  17. Acute Monocytic Leukemia Masquerading Behçet's Disease-Like Illness at Onset in an Elderly Female

    PubMed Central

    Koba, Shigeru; Sekioka, Toshio; Takeda, Sorou; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Nishimura, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized with fever and high C-reactive protein. She developed palatal herpangina-like aphthous ulcers, localized intestinal wall thickening, terminal ileum ulcers, and an erythematous acneiform rash; thus Behçet's disease-like illness was suspected. Significant peripheral blood acute monocytosis developed during her hospitalization and acute monocytic leukemia (FAB M5b) with normal karyotype was diagnosed. By immunostaining, the infiltrating cells in the skin and the terminal ileum were identified as monocytic leukemic cells. This case exhibited a unique initial presentation of Behçet's disease-like illness associated with acute monocytic leukemia.

  18. Acute Monocytic Leukemia Masquerading Behçet's Disease-Like Illness at Onset in an Elderly Female.

    PubMed

    Koba, Shigeru; Sekioka, Toshio; Takeda, Sorou; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Nishimura, Keisuke; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized with fever and high C-reactive protein. She developed palatal herpangina-like aphthous ulcers, localized intestinal wall thickening, terminal ileum ulcers, and an erythematous acneiform rash; thus Behçet's disease-like illness was suspected. Significant peripheral blood acute monocytosis developed during her hospitalization and acute monocytic leukemia (FAB M5b) with normal karyotype was diagnosed. By immunostaining, the infiltrating cells in the skin and the terminal ileum were identified as monocytic leukemic cells. This case exhibited a unique initial presentation of Behçet's disease-like illness associated with acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:27610252

  19. Acute Monocytic Leukemia Masquerading Behçet's Disease-Like Illness at Onset in an Elderly Female

    PubMed Central

    Koba, Shigeru; Sekioka, Toshio; Takeda, Sorou; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Nishimura, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized with fever and high C-reactive protein. She developed palatal herpangina-like aphthous ulcers, localized intestinal wall thickening, terminal ileum ulcers, and an erythematous acneiform rash; thus Behçet's disease-like illness was suspected. Significant peripheral blood acute monocytosis developed during her hospitalization and acute monocytic leukemia (FAB M5b) with normal karyotype was diagnosed. By immunostaining, the infiltrating cells in the skin and the terminal ileum were identified as monocytic leukemic cells. This case exhibited a unique initial presentation of Behçet's disease-like illness associated with acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:27610252

  20. Nonoperative Treatment Approach to Knee Osteoarthritis in the Master Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Huleatt, Joel B.; Campbell, Kevin J.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Middle-age and elderly participants in athletic activities frequently encounter the chronic disabling process of osteoarthritis. Knowledge of the treatment of knee osteoarthritis is needed to keep the master athlete active. Objective: This article reviews the current scientific evidence regarding recommendations for the maturing athlete, specifically discussing the strengths and weaknesses of dietary and lifestyle modifications, physical therapy, bracing, supplements, pharmacotherapies, and biologics in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: These treatment modalities can help keep the aging athlete active, which in itself plays an important role in reducing the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24427443

  1. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  2. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  3. Athletic footwear.

    PubMed

    Smith, L S; Bunch, R

    1986-10-01

    The development of technical athletic footwear is based on two interrelated principles: injury prevention and enhanced performance. Most athletes are interested in and will benefit from shoes that prevent injuries. On the other hand, in many situations, competitive or elite athletes might be willing to accept the increased injury risk if the shoe can enhance performance. For these performance athletes, injury prevention may be a less important consideration. Emphasis can be placed on ultra-lightweight shoes which maximize energy return and do not restrict the desirable motions of the individual sport. Every sport demands a specific shoe. The process of new shoe development is similar to those categories already described: an understanding of the sport's biomechanics; an evaluation of the sport's injury patterns; prototype construction; wear-testing to insure fit, comfort, and playability; and manufacturing. Sports with large numbers of participants get the most attention, but lesser known sports demand the same detailed development. Softball, field hockey, boxing, and wrestling are, to name a few, sports which require specialty footwear. As our understanding improves in each sport, footwear technology and construction will follow.

  4. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  5. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  6. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  7. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  8. Osteoarthritis in Young, Active, and Athletic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825

  9. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females. PMID:25226321

  10. Elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D: 4D ratios than those of nonathlete controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Su, Borcherng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lai, Su-Ling; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chi, Chung-Pu; Chang, Ching-Chyuan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2015-03-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger (index finger) to the fourth finger (ring finger) (2D:4D ratio) is a putative marker for prenatal hormones. Physiological research has suggested a low 2D:4D ratio correlates with high athletic ability. Athletes of specific sports (e.g., American football) have lower 2D:4D ratios than those of nonathletes, whereas athletes of some sports (e.g., rowing, gymnastics, and soccer) do not. This study investigated the 2D:4D ratios among collegiate tennis athletes, elite collegiate tennis athletes, and nonelite collegiate tennis athletes and compared them with nonathletes of both sexes. The participants included 43 elite collegiate tennis athletes (Level I intercollegiate athletes in Taiwan; 27 males and 16 females), 107 nonelite collegiate tennis athletes (Level II athletes; 55 males and 52 females), and 166 nonathlete college students (80 males and 86 females). The principle findings suggest that (a) regardless of sex, collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (b) elite collegiate tennis athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; (c) among females but not males, athletes and nonelite athletes have lower 2D:4D values than those of nonathletes; and (d) males have lower 2D:4D values than those of females.

  11. The Anemias of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)

  12. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  13. Precompetition anxiety in Chinese athletes.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, R J; Liu, J

    1999-02-01

    Precompetition anxiety and self-confidence were investigated in a sample of 132 male and 103 female Shanghai college athletes. The participants were administered the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 of Martens, et al. 30 to 40 min. before competing in important track and field events or basketball games. Analysis by independent t tests showed that there were no sex differences in scores on the Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, or Self-confidence subscales; however, compared to those in team sports (basketball), athletes competing individually (track and field) scored significantly higher on the Somatic Anxiety subscale and significantly lower on the Self-confidence subscale. Comparisons with data from comparable North American samples indicated that Chinese athletes reported lower scores on Cognitive Anxiety and Somatic Anxiety but similar scores on Self-confidence.

  14. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    PubMed

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  15. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    PubMed

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence. PMID:26898045

  16. Athletic Trainers as HIV/AIDS Educators for Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, B P; Pujol, T J

    1994-06-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to spread among the population at large. The age group 20 through 29 is the fastest growing demographic group in terms of AIDS diagnosis. This study examined a specific subgroup of that population: male and female college athletes. Subjects were 821 scholarship basketball players from 53 NCAA institutions across the nation. A survey instrument required respondents to identify common sources of HIV/AIDS information and preferred instructional formats for HIV/AIDS education. Mass media (92.4%), parents (62.2%), and teammates/peers (54.8%) were most commonly identified. Athletic trainers and team physicians were identified by 32.2% and 43.4% of the sample, respectively. The athletes indicated preference for video presentations (66.5%), small group discussions (58.8%), and question and answer sessions with expert panels (52.4%) as the most preferred instructional formats. Athletic trainers and team physicians can use the information presented in this paper to enhance their important roles in HIV/AIDS education for student athletes.

  17. Locomotor, Heart-Rate, and Metabolic Power Characteristics of Youth Women's Field Hockey: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescovi, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the locomotor, heart-rate, and metabolic power characteristics of high-level youth female field hockey matches. Method: Players from the U21 and U17 Canadian women's national teams were monitored during a 4-match test series using Global Positioning System technology. Position (forward,…

  18. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females. PMID:23033755

  19. Sex differences in relative age effects among Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect (RAE), a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese female athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 1,335 female athletes were evaluated from six sports: softball, soccer, volleyball, basketball, badminton, and track and field (long distance), and compared with male athletes. All athletes played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. Distribution of the birth dates in each female sport showed a significant RAE only in volleyball. For males, significant RAEs were observed in baseball, soccer, and track and field. Findings suggest that the determinants of RAEs in sports may differ between males and females.

  20. Body composition of elite American athletes.

    PubMed

    Fleck, S J

    1983-01-01

    Five hundred twenty-eight male athletes participating in 26 Olympic events and 298 female athletes participating in 15 Olympic events underwent determination of body fat percentage (% fat) and lean body mass (LBM) via hydrostatic weighing and/or anthropometric methods. All groups of athletes were below the average values for % fat of college age men and women of 15% and 25%, respectively. In general, athletes involved in a sport where their body weight is supported, such as canoe and kayak (males, 13.0 +/- 2.5%; females, 22.2 +/- 4.6%) and swimming (males, 12.4 +/- 3.7%; females 19.5 +/- 2.8%), tended to have higher % fat values. Athletes involved in sports where a weight class has to be made to compete, such as boxing (males, 6.9 +/- 1.6%) and wrestling (male, Junior World Freestyle 7.9 +/- 2.7%), events such as the 100, 200, and 400 meters in athletes (male 100 and 200 meters, 6.5 +/- 1.2%; female 100, 200 and 400 meters, 13.7 +/- 3.6%) that are very anaerobic in nature and extremely aerobic events such as the marathon (males, 6.4 +/- 1.3%) demonstrated lower % fat values. Athletes involved in sports where body size is a definite advantage, such as basketball (males, 84.1 +/- 6.2 kg; females, 55.3 +/- 4.9 kg) and volleyball (males, 75.0 +/- 6.6 kg; females, 58.4 +/- 4.5 kg) tended to have a larger LBM.

  1. Direction-specific diaphyseal geometry and mineral mass distribution of tibia and fibula: a pQCT study of female athletes representing different exercise loading types.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Nikander, R; Heinonen, A; Suominen, H; Sievänen, H

    2010-06-01

    Bones adapt to prevalent loading, which comprises mainly forces caused by muscle contractions. Therefore, we hypothesized that similar associations would be observed between neuromuscular performance and rigidity of bones located in the same body segment. These associations were assessed among 221 premenopausal women representing athletes in high-impact, odd-impact, high-magnitude, repetitive low-impact, and repetitive nonimpact sports and physically active referents aged 17-40 years. The whole group mean age and body mass were 23 (5) and 63 (9) kg, respectively. Bone cross sections at the tibial and fibular mid-diaphysis were assessed with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Density-weighted polar section modulus (SSI) and minimal and maximal cross-sectional moments of inertia (Imin, Imax) were analyzed. Bone morphology was described as the Imax/Imin ratio. Neuromuscular performance was assessed by maximal power during countermovement jump (CMJ). Tibial SSI was 31% higher in the high-impact, 19% in the odd-impact, and 30% in the repetitive low-impact groups compared with the reference group (P < 0.005). Only the high-impact group differed from the referents in fibular SSI (17%, P < 0.005). Tibial morphology differed between groups (P = 0.001), but fibular morphology did not (P = 0.247). The bone-by-group interaction was highly significant (P < 0.001). After controlling for height, weight, and age, the CMJ peak power correlated moderately with tibial SSI (r = 0.31, P < 0.001) but not with fibular SSI (r = 0.069, P = 0.313). In conclusion, observed differences in the association between neuromuscular performance and tibial and fibular traits suggest that the tibia and fibula experience different loading environments despite their anatomical vicinity.

  2. Cyclic ovarian function in recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Broocks, A; Pirke, K M; Schweiger, U; Tuschl, R J; Laessle, R G; Strowitzki, T; Hörl, E; Hörl, T; Haas, W; Jeschke, D

    1990-05-01

    In 17 female recreational athletes, ovarian function was monitored using daily hormone measurements and serial ultrasound determinations. Whereas 11 out of 13 women of a control group showed estradiol (E2) maxima beyond 470 pmol/l, progesterone (P4) maxima of 19 nmol/l or more, and a luteal phase length of 9 days or more, only 10 out of 17 athletes satisfied these criteria. Six athletes showed disturbed follicular development, and one athlete showed luteal phase disturbance. Both athletes with disturbed menstrual function (n = 7) and athletes fulfilling the above-mentioned minimal criteria (n = 10) had lower E2 concentrations in all phases of the menstrual cycle (P less than 0.05). P4 concentrations were significantly decreased in the group with disturbed menstrual function (P less than 0.05). Maximal aerobic capacity in the two athlete groups was similar. Neither athlete group showed the expected increase in caloric intake compared with the sedentary controls. It is concluded that recreational running is associated with altered ovarian function. Inadequate nutritional adaptation may be a contributing factor.

  3. Role of exercise stress test in master athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pigozzi, F; Spataro, A; Alabiso, A; Parisi, A; Rizzo, M; Fagnani, F; Di, S; Massazza, G; Maffulli, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of cardiovascular screening in minimising the risk of athletic field deaths in master athletes is not known. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of ST segment depression during a stress test in asymptomatic apparently healthy elderly athletes. Methods: A total of 113 male subjects aged over 60 were studied (79 trained and 34 sedentary); 88 of them (62 trained and 26 sedentary) were followed up for four years (mean 2.16 years for athletes, 1.26 years for sedentary subjects), with a resting 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG), symptom limited exercise ECG on a cycle ergometer, echocardiography, and 24 hour ECG Holter monitoring. Results: A significant ST segment depression at peak exercise was detected in one athlete at the first evaluation. A further case was seen during the follow up period in a previously "negative" athlete. Both were asymptomatic, and single photon emission tomography and/or stress echocardiography were negative for myocardial ischaemia. The athletes remained symptom-free during the period of the study. One athlete died during the follow up for coronary artery disease: he showed polymorphous ventricular tachycardia during both the exercise test and Holter monitoring, but no significant ST segment depression. Conclusions: The finding of false positive ST segment depression in elderly athletes, although still not fully understood, may be related to the physiological cardiac remodelling induced by regular training. Thus athletes with exercise induced ST segment depression, with no associated symptoms and/or complex ventricular arrhythmias, and no adverse findings at second level cardiological testing, should be considered free from coronary disease and safe to continue athletic training. PMID:16046336

  4. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  5. Collegiate Athletics Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Highlights 15 trends/events in black college athletics, including championship coaches, Black Coaches Association, eligibility issues, disclosure of athlete graduation rates, athletics resource allocation, early adoption of professional athlete status, success of the Women's National Basketball Association, lack of black access to certain sports,…

  6. Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups.

  7. Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups. PMID:20149143

  8. [Self-evaluation of health state in athletes].

    PubMed

    Razinkin, S M; Kotenko, K V; Fomkin, P A; Artamonova, I A; Shpakov, A V; Ivanova, I I; Danilova, D P

    2013-01-01

    The article covers scientific basis and elaboration of system concerning self-evaluation of athletes' health state. The study comprised 2 steps. During the first step, a group of 62 athletes (45 males and 17 females) performed methods of self-evaluation of health state through a list of changes, tests and stress testing. The second step included processing and generalization of the data obtained and specification of an integral scale of self-evaluation of athletes health state. PMID:24340765

  9. Sex Differences and the Incidence of Concussions Among Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Swanik, C Buz; Sachs, Michael L.

    2003-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare sex differences regarding the incidence of concussions among collegiate athletes during the 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000 seasons. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cohort study of collegiate athletes using the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System; certified athletic trainers recorded data during the 1997-2000 academic years. SUBJECTS: Collegiate athletes participating in men's and women's soccer, lacrosse, basketball, softball, baseball, and gymnastics. MEASUREMENTS: Certified athletic trainers from participating NCAA institutions recorded weekly injury and athlete-exposure data from the first day of preseason practice to the final postseason game. Injury rates and incidence density ratios were computed. Incidence density ratio is an estimate of the relative risk based on injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures. RESULTS: Of 14 591 reported injuries, 5.9% were classified as concussions. During the 3-year study, female athletes sustained 167 (3.6%) concussions during practices and 304 (9.5%) concussions during games, compared with male athletes, who sustained 148 (5.2%) concussions during practices and 254 (6.4%) concussions during games. Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between male and female soccer players (chi(2)(1) = 12.99, P =.05) and basketball players (chi(2)(1) = 5.14, P =.05). CONCLUSIONS: Female athletes sustained a higher percentage of concussions during games than male athletes. Of all the sports, women's soccer and men's lacrosse were found to have the highest injury rate of concussions. Incidence density ratio was greatest for male and female soccer players.

  10. [Secondary impingement syndrome in athletes].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J; Castro, W H; Sons, H U

    1990-12-01

    Dysfunction of the shoulder joint is based not only on anatomic conditions. The consideration of the special kinesiology of the shoulder helps to understand the shoulder pathology. This mainly applies to young "overhead athletes" like swimmers, handball-, basketball-, volleyball-, and racketplayers. These disciplines cause stress on the anterior joint structures (capsule, ligaments, labrum, subscapularis tendon) and lead to anterior instability. This includes anterior subluxation or even dislocation. Finally, an impingement syndrome with the typical symptoms can frequently result from these conditions. The impingement-syndrome of the elderly must be considered as a primary disease, whereas the young overhead athlete suffers from the impingement syndrome as a secondary disease and does not take the first place in therapy. The first step in therapy should to be treat the muscular imbalance of the shoulder. To gain a regular pattern of motion the rotator cuff must be strengthened. This regimen is likely to be successful in 80-90% of the cases. If the conservative therapy fails the surgical treatment may come into consideration. Arthroscopic surgery has the advantage not to affect the proprioceptivity. To retain the previous level of performance an adequate rehabilitation programme is essential for the athlete.

  11. Velocity thresholds for women's soccer matches: sex specificity dictates high-speed running and sprinting thresholds - Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Vescovi, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    There is no methodological standardization of velocity thresholds for the quantification of distances covered in various locomotor activities for women's soccer matches, especially for high-speed running and sprinting. Applying velocity thresholds used for motion analysis of men's soccer has likely created skewed observations about high-intensity movement demands for the women's game because these thresholds do not accurately reflect the capabilities of elite female players. Subsequently, a cohesive view of the locomotor characteristics of women's soccer does not yet exist. The aim of this commentary is to provide suggestions for standardizing high-speed running and sprint velocity thresholds specific to women's soccer. The authors also comment on using generic vs individualized thresholds, as well as age-related considerations, to establish velocity thresholds.

  12. The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem W; Outlaw, Jordan; Williams, Laura; Campbell, Bill; Foster, Cliffa A; Smith-Ryan, Abbie; Urbina, Stacie; Hayward, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Two of the most popular forms of protein on the market are whey and casein. Both proteins are derived from milk but each protein differs in absorption rate and bioavailability, thus it is possible that each type of protein may contribute differently to the adaptations elicited through resistance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of ingestion of two types of protein in conjunction with a controlled resistance training program in collegiate female basketball players. Sixteen NCAA Division III female basketball players were matched according to body mass and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to consume 24 g whey protein (WP) (N = 8, 20.0 ± 1.9 years, 1.58 ± 0.27 m, 66. 0 ± 4.9 kg, 27.0 ± 4.9 %BF) or 24 g casein protein (CP) (N = 8, 21.0 ± 2.8 years, 1.53 ± 0.29 m, 68.0 ± 2.9 kg, 25.0 ± 5.7 %BF) immediately pre- and post-exercise for eight weeks. Subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week undulating periodized training program. At 0 and 8 weeks, subjects underwent DXA body composition analysis, and at 0 and 8 weeks underwent one repetition maximum (1RM) strength, muscle endurance, vertical jump, 5-10-5 agility run, and broad jump testing sessions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, and presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 60 days. No significant group x time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in any variable (p > 0.05). A significant time effect was observed for body fat (WP: -2.0 ± 1.1 %BF; CP: -1.0 ± 1.6 %BF, p < 0.001), lean mass (WP: 1.5 ± 1.0 kg; CP: 1. 4 ± 1.0 kg, p < 0.001), fat mass (WP: -1.3 ± 1.2 kg; CP: -0.6 ± 1.4 kg, p < 0.001), leg press 1RM (WP: 88.7 ± 43.9 kg; CP: 90.0 ± 48.5 kg, p < 0.001), bench press 1RM (WP: 7.5 ± 4.6 kg; CP: 4.3 ± 4.5 kg, p = 0.01), vertical jump (WP: 4.1 ± 1.8 cm; CP: 3.5 ± 7.6 cm, p < 0.001), 5-10-5 (WP: -0.3 ± 0.2 sec; CP: -0.09 ± 0.42 sec, p < 0.001), and broad jump (WP: 10.4 ± 6

  13. Low bone mineral density is two to three times more prevalent in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes: a comprehensive controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Torstveit, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Wark, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare bone mineral density (BMD), investigate factors associated with BMD, and examine the prevalence of low BMD in athletes and non-athletic controls. Methods: The study included a questionnaire (part I), measurement of BMD (part II), and a clinical interview (part III). All Norwegian female athletes on national teams (n = 938) and an aged matched random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 900) were invited to participate. The questionnaire was completed by 88% of athletes and 70% of controls. A random sample of these athletes (n = 300) and controls (n = 300) was invited to participate in parts II and III. All parts were completed by 186 athletes (62%) and 145 controls (48%). Results: Mean (standard deviation) total body (TB) BMD was higher (p<0.001) in athletes (1.21 (0.09) g/cm2) than in controls (1.18 (0.08) g/cm2), and higher (p<0.001) in high impact (HI) sports athletes than in medium impact (MI) and low impact (LI) sports athletes. In athletes, body weight and impact loading sports were positively associated, and percent body fat and eating disorders were negatively associated with TB BMD. Body weight and weight bearing activities were positively associated and menstrual dysfunction was negatively associated with TB BMD in controls. A higher percentage of controls (28.3%) than athletes (10.7%) had low BMD (p<0.001). Conclusion: Female elite athletes have 3–20% higher BMD than non-athletic controls and HI sports athletes have 3–22% higher BMD compared with MI and LI sports athletes. Low BMD is two to three times more common in non-athletic premenopausal women than in elite athletes. PMID:15849292

  14. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES IN COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIPS.

    PubMed

    Hülya Aşçı, F; Kelecek, Selen; AltintaŞ, Atahan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between athletes' personality characteristics and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 84 female (M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 2.8) and 129 male (M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 3.3) elite youth athletes competing at least for 7 yr. participated in this study. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (short version) and the Quality of Relationships Inventory were administered to all participants. Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed which of the five personality factors predicted scores for the different subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory (Depth, Support, and Conflict). Results indicated that depth of relationship was not predicted by personality factors. On the other hand, neuroticism and extraversion were significant predictors of support dimension of relationship. Analysis indicated that conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of conflict. In conclusion, athletes' personality characteristics may be important in determining the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  15. Game On: Past Year Gambling, Gambling-Related Problems, and Fantasy Sports Gambling Among College Athletes and Non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females.

  16. Gender Equity in Two-Year Athletic Departments: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staurowsky, Ellen J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the role that female athletes at the community college level played, it is interesting to note that there is little in the way of a comprehensive history of women's college sports at two-year institutions. To situate the current state of gender equity in athletic programs in two-year institutions in context, this article presents a brief…

  17. The Future of Women's Athletics: Entertainment or Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Roberta J.

    A well-rounded program of extramural opportunities for females which provides experience between the intramural model and the existing male intercollegiate models is presently nonexistent. Five possible alternatives to guide the future of athletics are suggested: (a) women could demand access to the existing model of male athletics; (b) women…

  18. Intercollegiate Athletic Participation and Freshman-Year Cognitive Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, Ernest T.

    1995-01-01

    Controlling for precollege aptitude and other influences, a study (n=2,416) found that male intercollegiate football and basketball players demonstrated net freshmen-year declines in reading and mathematics, while nonathletes and athletes in other sports showed modest net gains. Female athletes made smaller net gains in reading than nonathletes,…

  19. More Hurdles to Clear: Women and Girls in Competitive Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This publication reviews the history of women and girls in athletics, assesses the current status of female participation in high school and college competitive athletics, and summarizes recent policy interpretations by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The historical review…

  20. Ligamentous laxity in secondary school athletes.

    PubMed

    Grana, W A; Moretz, J A

    1978-10-27

    An increase in ligamentous laxity has been said to predispose athletes to injury of the joint. To evaluate the usefulness of testing ligamentous laxity to predict a predisposition to injury in secondary school athletes, 166 male football players, 84 female basketball players, and 32 male basketball players were tested. The results were compared with those for 167 males and 223 females in high school but not involved in interscholastic sports. No correlation could be found between ligamentous laxity and the occurrence or type of injury.