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Sample records for elderly female athletes

  1. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A

    2004-08-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning, thereby increasing their risk of bone loss. Although its prevalence is unknown, the Female Athlete Triad is believed to affect many athletes at all ages and all sport competition levels. Even though the Triad affects athletes in all sports, girls and women in sports that emphasize a thin or small body size or shape appear to be most at risk. This article focuses on the risks of the Female Athlete Triad for middle- and high-school-age female athletes as well as the unique issues related to the identification, management, and treatment of the various components of the Triad in this special adolescent subpopulation.

  2. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Hobart, J A; Smucker, D R

    2000-06-01

    The female athlete triad is defined as the combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This disorder often goes unrecognized. The consequences of lost bone mineral density can be devastating for the female athlete. Premature osteoporotic fractures can occur, and lost bone mineral density may never be regained. Early recognition of the female athlete triad can be accomplished by the family physician through risk factor assessment and screening questions. Instituting an appropriate diet and moderating the frequency of exercise may result in the natural return of menses. Hormone replacement therapy should be considered early to prevent the loss of bone density. A collaborative effort among coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and physicians is optimal for the recognition and prevention of the triad. Increased education of parents, coaches and athletes in the health risks of the female athlete triad can prevent a potentially life-threatening illness.

  3. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  4. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  5. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-03

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad.

  6. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  7. Female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Loveless, Meredith B

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) may be the first provider to have the opportunity to recognize and diagnose female athlete triad. This review will help the ob/gyn to understand the female athlete triad and what is new on this topic, how to screen and diagnose the condition and the ob/gyn's role in treatment. Female athlete triad, also known as relative energy deficiency in sports, involves an interrelationship among energy availability, menstrual function and low bone density. When these components are not balanced, the health of the athlete is at risk. By using menstrual cycle as a vital sign, a careful medical history may alert you to this condition. The mainstay of treatment is achieving optimal energy balance and resumption of menses. This may involve dietary invention by increasing caloric intake or activity modification by limiting or restricting participation in sports. A multidisciplinary team, including the ob/gyn, athlete, coach, parents, sport nutritionist and sometimes psychiatrist/psychologist, is optimal for management. Medication may supplement but not replace treating the underlying condition. The female athlete triad is an important disorder to identify, as early diagnosis and intervention may prevent long-term consequences, some of which may not be reversible if not diagnosed and treated.

  8. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Deimel, Jay F; Dunlap, Bradley J

    2012-04-01

    The Female Athlete Triad poses serious health risks, both short and long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within the skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, and central nervous systems. With the surge of females participating in athletics within the past 10 to 15 years, it is both conceivable and likely that the prevalence of this syndrome will continue to grow. Therefore, it is imperative that appropriate screening and diagnostic measures are enacted by a multidisciplinary team of health care providers, counselors, teachers, and dieticians in order to provide the proper care to affected athletes. Initial awareness should take place within the educational confines of elementary and high schools. Screening for female athletes exhibiting risk factors for the triad should also take place at the time of sports physicals. If one component of the triad is identified, the clinician should take the time to effectively workup the other 2. Treatment for each component of the triad includes both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures, with emphasis placed upon increased energy availability and overall improved nutritional health. Using this all-encompassing type of approach, sports medicine practitioners should feel empowered to continue to promote the lifelong well-being of female athletes in the years to come.

  9. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  10. The Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

  11. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein, L A; Thein, J M

    1996-02-01

    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete.

  12. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.

  13. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions.

  14. [Female athlete triad].

    PubMed

    Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-08-05

    The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.

  15. The female athlete triad: special considerations for adolescent female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dewoolkar, Aditya V.; Baker, Nicole; Dodich, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    The number of adolescent girls participating in sports has dramatically increased throughout the last few decades. In the early 1990’s, an association between amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating was recognized and eventually labeled the ‘Female Athlete Triad’. In 1997, the Task Force on Women’s Issues of American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a position statement on this triad of conditions that were becoming increasingly more prevalent amongst female athletes. Initially, the ‘Female Athlete Triad’ was characterized by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, as the number of adolescent female athletes has continued to grow, there has been further research and investigation into this field and the triad has evolved in definition. It is essential for all health care practitioners and other professionals who care for adolescent athletes to be attentive to the clinical signs, detection, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad, as the sequelae can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of a young person both in the short and long-term. PMID:28795004

  16. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... bad" (such as foods containing fat) to serious eating disorders like anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Triad Factor # ... athlete triad often have signs and symptoms of eating disorders, such as: continued dieting in spite of weight ...

  17. Overuse injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ivković, Alan; Franić, Miljenko; Bojanić, Ivan; Pećina, Marko

    2007-12-01

    The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders.

  18. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others.

  19. Gender verification of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elsas, L J; Ljungqvist, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Simpson, J L; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ferris, E; de la Chapelle, A; Ehrhardt, A A

    2000-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially mandated gender verification for female athletes beginning in 1968 and continuing through 1998. The rationale was to prevent masquerading males and women with "unfair, male-like" physical advantage from competing in female-only events. Visual observation and gynecological examination had been tried on a trial basis for two years at some competitions leading up to the 1968 Olympic Games, but these invasive and demeaning processes were jettisoned in favor of laboratory-based genetic tests. Sex chromatin and more recently DNA analyses for Y-specific male material were then required of all female athletes immediately preceding IOC-sanctioned sporting events, and many other international and national competitions following the IOC model. On-site gender verification has since been found to be highly discriminatory, and the cause of emotional trauma and social stigmatization for many females with problems of intersex who have been screened out from competition. Despite compelling evidence for the lack of scientific merit for chromosome-based screening for gender, as well as its functional and ethical inconsistencies, the IOC persisted in its policy for 30 years. The coauthors of this manuscript have worked with some success to rescind this policy through educating athletes and sports governors regarding the psychological and physical nature of sexual differentiation, and the inequities of genetic sex testing. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for abandonment of required genetic screening of women athletes, and by 1992 had adopted a fairer, medically justifiable model for preventing only male "impostors" in international track and field. At the recent recommendation of the IOC Athletes Commission, the Executive Board of the IOC has finally recognized the medical and functional inconsistencies and undue costs of chromosome-based methods. In 1999, the IOC ratified the abandonment of on

  20. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  1. Special nutritional concerns for the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Kathe A

    2006-06-01

    Inadequate dietary intake is the primary nutritional concern of today's female athlete. As these athletes fail to consume enough energy to support the physical demands of training, they become at risk for disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, conditions collectively identified as the female athlete triad. This review addresses nutritional concerns of the female athlete, identification of those at risk, relationship of energy intake to menstrual irregularities, and recently identified chronic diseases associated with the female athlete triad. Strategies are offered to prevent harmful behaviors leading to the comorbidities associated with inadequate dietary intakes.

  2. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  3. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  4. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown.

  5. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed.

  6. The Female Athlete: Conditioning, Competition, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafs, Carl E.; Lyon, M. Joan

    The female athlete--her structural, physiological, and psychological characteristics and capacities-- is the main focus of this book. It is designed to provide persons in positions of leadership in girls' and women's athletics greater insights and understanding regarding the nature of women athletes and to help structure wholesome sports programs…

  7. Bone health and the female athlete triad in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Kathryn E; Misra, Madhusmita

    2011-02-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and lifelong fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical period for bone acquisition. This article discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, effects of physical activity, and nutritional contributions are included, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. We also review prevention and treatment strategies for the female athlete triad (ie, the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) in adolescents and athletic women. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed.

  8. Female athlete triad syndrome in the high school athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Carr, Kathleen E

    2011-08-01

    Female sports participation at the high school level has significantly increased since the 1970s. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the "female athlete triad," which refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Athletes with conditions related to the triad are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease and may not experience all conditions simultaneously. Previous research related to the triad has primarily focused on collegiate and elite athletes. However, mounting evidence demonstrates that the triad is present in the high school population. High school athletes should be assessed for triad components at preparticipation physicals. In addition, parents, coaches, and health care professionals should be educated and informed about the female athlete triad syndrome. In the presence of triad symptoms, further evaluation and treatment by a multidisciplinary team is strongly recommended for the athlete.

  9. Parallels with the Female Athlete Triad in Male Athletes.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Barrack, Michelle T; Nattiv, Aurelia; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Participation in sports offers many health benefits to athletes of both sexes. However, subsets of both female and male athletes are at increased risk of impaired bone health and bone stress injuries. The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is defined as the interrelationship of low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The Triad may result in health consequences, including bone stress injuries. Our review presents evidence that an analogous process may occur in male athletes. Our review of the available literature indicates that a subset of male athletes may experience adverse health issues that parallel those associated with the Triad, including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and low bone mineral density. Consequently, male athletes may be predisposed to developing bone stress injuries, and these injuries can be the first presenting feature of associated Triad conditions. We discuss the evidence for impaired nutrition, hormonal dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in a subset of male athletes, and how these health issues may parallel those of the Triad. With further research into the mechanisms and outcomes of these health concerns in active and athletic men, evidence-based guidelines can be developed that result in best practice.

  10. Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Manore, Melinda M

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and relationship between the disorders of the female athlete triad in collegiate athletes participating in aesthetic, endurance, or team/anaerobic sports. Participants were 425 female collegiate athletes from 7 universities across the United States. Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and musculoskeletal injuries were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (EDI-BD). The percentage of athletes reporting a clinical diagnosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa was 3.3% and 2.3%, respectively; mean ( SD) EAT and EDI-BD scores were 10.6 9.6 and 9.8 7.6, respectively. The percentage of athletes with scores indicating "at-risk" behavior for an eating disorder were 15.2% using the EAT-26 and 32.4% using the EDI-BD. A similar percentage of athletes in aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic sports reported a clinical diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia. However, athletes in aesthetic sports scored higher on the EAT-26 (13.5 10.9) than athletes in endurance (10.0 9.3) or team/anaerobic sports (9.9 9.0, p <.02); and more athletes in aesthetic versus endurance or team/anaerobic sports scored above the EAT-26 cut-off score of 20 (p <.01). Menstrual irregularity was reported by 31% of the athletes not using oral contraceptives, and there were no group differences in the prevalence of self-reported menstrual irregularity. Muscle and bone injuries sustained during the collegiate career were reported by 65.9% and 34.3% of athletes, respectively, and more athletes in aesthetic versus endurance and team/anaerobic sports reported muscle (p =.005) and/or bone injuries (p <.001). Athletes "at risk" for eating disorders more frequently reported menstrual irregularity (p =.004) and sustained more bone injuries (p =.003) during their collegiate career. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating

  11. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  12. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  13. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  14. Concussions More Likely in Female Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163831.html Concussions More Likely in Female Athletes Why remains unclear, ... to be more likely than men to suffer concussions during their careers on the field, a new ...

  15. Female athlete triad and stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Feingold, David; Hame, Sharon L

    2006-10-01

    Stress fractures are a common occurrence in athletes, and the incidence of stress fractures in female Division 1 collegiate athletes is double that of men. Hormonal influences on bone and bone morphology may influence the risk for fracture. A high level of suspicion and special imaging procedures allow for accurate diagnosis of these fractures. In stress fractures that are associated with the female athlete triad, addressing the three aspects of the triad--eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--are critical for successful treatment. Preparticipation screening for the presence of signs of the female athlete triad by monitoring weight, energy level, menstrual cycles, and bone mineral density may help to prevent the occurrence of stress fractures in this population.

  16. The Female Athlete: Key Differences Between Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Corinna C D

    2017-09-01

    Studies have shown female athletes to be subject to different risks than male athletes, even for the same sports and particularly after puberty. The purpose of this article is to identify some of those differences, discuss how treatment for female athletes differs both for healing and prevention, and emphasize key school nurse roles in identifying and responding to female athlete injuries.

  17. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  18. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  19. Panopticonics: The Control and Surveillance of Black Female Athletes in a Collegiate Athletic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes black female student athletes' participation in an elite collegiate athletic program by showing how the program maximizes black females' athletic and academic potential through surveillance, control, and discipline. The program instills in black female athletes a model of womanhood whereby they come to expect and achieve academic and…

  20. Iron status and the female athlete.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P

    2012-06-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency disorder in the world. In the developed world, the greatest prevalence of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs in premenopausal women. Premenopausal women experience ID and IDA due to inadequate consumption of dietary iron coupled with iron losses through physiologic processes such as menstruation. Further, female athletes may experience an elevated risk of ID and IDA, as hepcidin, a peptide hormone that inhibits iron absorption and sequesters iron in the macrophage, may rise in response to physical activity. Declines in physical and cognitive performance have been demonstrated in female athletes with ID and IDA. Performance decrements are attenuated as iron status improves. This review will focus on iron status in female athletes, and will include a review of nutritional countermeasures to prevent ID and IDA.

  1. Gender verification of female Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Barry D; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B; Turner, Patricia L; Woods, Gary L

    2002-10-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Problems include invalid screening tests, failure to understand the problems of intersex, the discriminatory singling out of women based only on laboratory results, and the stigmatization and emotional trauma experienced by individuals screened positive. Genuine sex-impostors have not been uncovered by laboratory-based genetic testing; however, gender verification procedures have resulted in substantial harm to a number of women athletes born with relatively rare genetic abnormalities. Individuals with sex-related genetic abnormalities raised as females have no unfair physical advantage and should not be excluded or stigmatized, including those with 5-alpha-steroid-reductase deficiency, partial or complete androgen insensitivity, and chromosomal mosaicism. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for ending genetic screening of female athletes and in 1992 adopted an approach designed to prevent only male impostors from competing. The IAAF recommended that the "medical delegate" have the ultimate authority in all medical matters, including the authority to arrange for the determination of the gender of the competitor if that approach is judged necessary. The new policy advocated by the IAAF, and conditionally adopted by the International Olympic Committee, protects the rights and privacy of athletes while safeguarding fairness of competition, and the American Medical Association recommends that it become the permanent approach.

  2. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  3. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  4. Prevalence of the female athlete triad in edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Vardar, Erdal; Altun, Gülay Durmus; Kurt, Cem; Oztürk, Levent

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad, which is a clinical condition defined as the simultaneous occurrence of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteopenia and/or osteoporosis in female athletes. A total number of 224 female athletes from Edirne city participated in our study. Eating attitudes test (EAT 40) and a self-administered questionnaire were used to assess disordered eating behavior and menstrual status respectively. The participants having both disordered eating and amenorrhea were performed dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate bone mineral density. Thirty seven subjects (16.8%) had disordered eating behavior and 22 subjects (9.8%) were reported to have amenorrhea. Six athletes (2.7%) met two criteria (disordered eating and amenorrhea) of the triad. Of these, only three athletes met all components of the triad. We have found that the prevalence rate of female athlete triad was 1.36% among young Turkish female athletes. Female athletes have under considerable risk for the disordered eating and amenorrhea components of the triad. Key PointsThe prevalence rate of the occurrence of whole criteria of the female athlete triad was 1.36 % in young Turkish athletes in Edirne.Female athletes who met whole criteria of female athlete triad are more prone to the eating disorders.The occurrence of disordered eating behavior was higher in female athletes according to general population.Amenorrhea prevalence was significantly higher in female athletes who had disordered eating.

  5. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  6. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  7. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  8. The Menstrual Cycle and the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolka, Margaret A.; Stephenson, Lou A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of the menstrual cycle on the performance, heart rate, and body temperature of female athletes are discussed. Biological causes of menstrual problems such as dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea are explained. Research indicates that the higher the level of training achieved, the less effect each cycle phase has on physical performance. (PP)

  9. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  10. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  11. Update on the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Barrack, Michelle T; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Gibbs, Jenna C

    2013-06-01

    Updated prevalence estimates of all 3 components of the Female Athlete Triad, a syndrome characterized by low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is low (0 %-16 %), however, estimates of 1 or 2 concurrent components approach 50 %-60 % among certain athlete groups. Recent research identifies components of the Triad among female adolescent athletes, particularly those participating in leanness sports, such as endurance running. This is alarming, as adolescents require adequate nutrition and normal hormone function to optimize bone mineral gains during this critical developmental period. Current literature highlights new assessments, such as measurements of bone microarchitecture and hormone levels to better evaluate bone strength and the hormonal and metabolic profile of athletes with and at risk for the Triad. Recent data also provides support for additional potential consequences of the Triad, such as endothelial dysfunction and related cardiovascular effects, stress fractures, and musculoskeletal injuries. Additional prospective research is needed to evaluate long-term indicators and consequences of the Triad and identify effective behavioral treatment strategies.

  12. Factors that affect the young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lal, Sophia; Hoch, Anne Z

    2007-08-01

    The past 35 years have seen a tremendous increase in the number of female athletes at all ages and abilities. Recent research has shown a myriad of benefits for girls and women who participate in sports. Physical activity positively influences almost every aspect of a young woman's health, from her physiology to her social interactions and mental health. As the level of girls' participation in sports increases, it is important to examine their risk factors for sports-related injuries.

  13. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  14. "It's Cheesy when They Smile:" What Girl Athletes Prefer in Images of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krane, Vikki; Ross, Sally R.; Miller, Montana; Ganoe, Kristy; Lucas-Carr, Cathryn; Barak, Katie Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research in which we provided an opportunity for female college athletes to construct their own photographic portrayals, this study explored young female athletes' perceptions of the college athlete photographs. Fifty-two girls participated in focus group interviews where they viewed and discussed the images. The young…

  15. "It's Cheesy when They Smile:" What Girl Athletes Prefer in Images of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krane, Vikki; Ross, Sally R.; Miller, Montana; Ganoe, Kristy; Lucas-Carr, Cathryn; Barak, Katie Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research in which we provided an opportunity for female college athletes to construct their own photographic portrayals, this study explored young female athletes' perceptions of the college athlete photographs. Fifty-two girls participated in focus group interviews where they viewed and discussed the images. The young…

  16. Eating disorders in Spanish female athletes.

    PubMed

    Toro, J; Galilea, B; Martinez-Mallén, E; Salamero, M; Capdevila, L; Mari, J; Mayolas, J; Toro, E

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and risk factors for their development in female athletes. Two hundred and eighty-three elite sportswomen, competing in 20 different sports, were administered the EAT, the CETCA (the Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire, based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria), and two other inventories which evaluated 1) the possible influence on eating disorders of exposure of the body in public and 2) pressure from coaches regarding eating habits, weight, physical appearance and performance. More than 11% of subjects had scores above the cut-off point (>30) on the EAT questionnaire, a proportion similar to that found in a general female population in Spain. On the basis of the CETCA score, AN was putatively diagnosed in 2.5% of the sample, and BN in 20.1%. Though some of these cases may have been EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), the proportion of athletes suffering from some kind of eating disorder was five times higher than in the general population (22.6% vs. 4.1%). No differences were found between the sportswomen and the general population in terms of specific risk behaviours and attitudes, but a substantial subgroup of athletes presented two or more of these risk behaviours. Exposure of the body in public seems to be a risk factor for eating disorders in general, and pressure from coaches seems to be a risk factor for bulimia.

  17. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  18. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  19. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  20. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  1. Eating disorders in collegiate female athletes: factors that assist recovery.

    PubMed

    Arthur-Cameselle, Jessyca N; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that assist female athletes' recovery from eating disorders. Forty-seven female collegiate athletes who experienced eating disorders responded to an open-ended question regarding factors that most helped their recovery. The most common factors were the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport, support from others, and shifts in values/beliefs. A unique finding was that the desire to be healthy enough to perform in sport most frequently facilitated recovery. This knowledge can help treatment providers to foster athletes' motivation to recover and distinguishes athletes as a unique treatment population from non-athletes.

  2. Body composition of female wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L; Wallace, J; Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Scott, M; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    Wheelchair users undergo changes in body composition as a result of disability. In this study the distribution of bone mineral, lean and fat mass was assessed in highly-trained female wheelchair athletes and a reference group by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The transferability of anthropometric equations commonly used in female groups was examined in order to establish a suitable field method of body composition assessment. The DXA total-body results indicated no difference between groups, but segmental analyses uncovered regional differences. The wheelchair athletes had greater BMD (p=0.088), more lean mass (p<0.001) and a lower percent fat (p=0.050) in their arms. The reverse was true of the legs (p< or =0.001). The trunk as a whole did not differ between groups. In general, the anthropometric equations showed a lack of transferability to the wheelchair group and tended to underestimate total percent body fat. Anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist girth showed strong correlations with body fat in the wheelchair group (BMI: r=0.90, p=0.001; waist: r=0.83, p=0.001), but weaker results in the reference group. It is recommended that specific anthropometric equations be developed for use in the absence of a 'gold standard' measure of body composition such as DXA.

  3. The experiences of female athletic trainers in the role of the head athletic trainer.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic trainer.

  4. The Experiences of Female Athletic Trainers in the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Burton, Laura; Cotrufo, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Very few women have leadership positions in athletic training (ie, head athletic training positions) in intercollegiate athletics. Research exists on the barriers to attaining the role; however, our understanding about the experiences of those currently engaged in the role is limited. Objective: To examine the experiences of female head athletic trainers as they worked toward and attained the position of head athletic trainer. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Patients or Other Participants: Eight female athletic trainers serving in the role of head athletic trainer participated in our study. The mean age of the participants was 45 ± 12 years, with 5 ± 1.5 years of experience in the role of head athletic trainer and 21 ± 10 years of experience as athletic trainers. Data Collection and Analysis: We conducted phone interviews with the 8 participants following a semistructured format. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed following a general inductive approach as described by Thomas. To establish credibility, we used a peer reviewer, member checks, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Six major themes emerged from our analysis regarding the experiences of female head athletic trainers. Opportunities to become a head athletic trainer, leadership qualities, and unique personal characteristics were discussed as factors leading to the assumption of the role of the head athletic trainer. Where women hold back, family challenges, and organizational barriers speak to the potential obstacles to assuming the role of head athletic trainer. Conclusions: Female head athletic trainers did not seek the role, but through persistence and encouragement, they find themselves assuming the role. Leadership skills were discussed as important for success in the role of head athletic trainer. Life balancing and parenting were identified as barriers to women seeking the role of head athletic

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Collegiate Athletes: Validation of the Athlete Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Kubas, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating than their nonathletic peers, but the psychological antecedents of this dysfunctional behavior in athletes have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to develop an athletics-oriented measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating and to test its initial…

  6. Psychosocial Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Collegiate Athletes: Validation of the Athlete Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Kubas, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    Female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating than their nonathletic peers, but the psychological antecedents of this dysfunctional behavior in athletes have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to develop an athletics-oriented measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating and to test its initial…

  7. Too much of a good thing: female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The history and pathophysiology of the Female Athletic Triad is discussed along with the short-term and long-term complications. The work-up for hormonal abnormalities and specific treatment options are discussed. Also, nutrition and its affect on the Female Athletic Triad is mentioned within the realm of treatment.

  8. Understanding the Lack of Female Leadership in Collegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camarco, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study sought an understanding of the current trends in the lack of females in leadership positions within collegiate athletic departments amongst California Community Colleges. The passage of Title IX created a new funding stream for women's athletics, resulting in male coaches and administrators entering into the female realm, therefore…

  9. Understanding the Lack of Female Leadership in Collegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camarco, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study sought an understanding of the current trends in the lack of females in leadership positions within collegiate athletic departments amongst California Community Colleges. The passage of Title IX created a new funding stream for women's athletics, resulting in male coaches and administrators entering into the female realm, therefore…

  10. The female athlete triad: a case series and narrative overview

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779

  11. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    PubMed

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  12. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  13. "It's cheesy when they smile:" what girl athletes prefer in images of female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Krane, Vikki; Ross, Sally R; Miller, Montana; Ganoe, Kristy; Lucas-Carr, Cathryn; Barak, Katie Sullivan

    2011-12-01

    Building on previous research in which we provided an opportunity for female college athletes to construct their own photographic portrayals, this study explored young female athletes' perceptions of the college athlete photographs. Fifty-two girls participated in focus group interviews where they viewed and discussed the images. The young athletes particularly liked images they perceived to show authentic athletes (e.g, in athletic settings, with appropriate sport attire), images they could relate to due to personal experiences, and images that reflected competent and passionate sportswomen. Images perceived as revealing a lack of motivation, poor sporting attitudes, and nonathletic poses generally were disliked. Images depicting multiple social identities (e.g., an athlete in a dress) were controversial and generated much discussion.

  14. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  15. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  16. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored.

  17. Female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention in athletic training.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Qualitative study. Athletic training education program. A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education-accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic STUDY. The participants responded to a series of questions related to work-life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work-life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work-life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work-life balance strategies, which can be helpful in reducing attrition from the profession.

  18. Female Athletic Training Students' Perceptions of Motherhood and Retention in Athletic Training

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Gavin, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Context: Motherhood appears to be a catalyst in job turnover for female athletic trainers, especially those employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. However, most researchers examining this topic have investigated the perspectives of those who are currently employed rather than those who are preparing to enter the profession. Objective: To evaluate female athletic training students' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 female athletic training students volunteered to participate. They were enrolled in 1 Commission on Accrediting Athletic Training Education–accredited athletic training program and represented 3 levels of academic study. Data Collection and Analysis: The participants responded to a series of questions related to work–life balance and retention in athletic training. Analysis of the data followed a general inductive process. Credibility was established by interpretive member checks and peer review. Results: The first theme, clinical setting, speaks to the belief that work–life balance and retention in athletic training require an employment setting that fosters a family-friendly atmosphere and a work schedule (including travel) that allows for time at home. The second theme, mentorship, reflects the acknowledgment that a female mentor who is successful in balancing the roles of mother and athletic trainer can serve as a role model. The final theme, work–life balance strategies, illustrates the need to have a plan in place to meet the demands of both home and work life. Conclusions: A female athletic trainer who is successfully balancing her career and family responsibilities may be the most helpful factor in retention, especially for female athletic training students. Young professionals need to be educated on the importance of developing successful work–life balance strategies, which can

  19. Female athletes and menstrual disorders: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Lorini, Silvia; Beni, Giada; Dei, Metella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background There is a greater incidence of menstrual disorders in female athletes than in their sedentary counterparts. The menstrual disorder is reported in female athletes suffering from athletic triad syndrome, while few data in those free of this syndrome are available. The study aims to ascertain the presence of menstrual disorders and the eventual relationship with myocardial performance in female athletes practicing different sports. Methods A sample of 64 subjects aged 18.5±2 was selected and divided into 3 groups (37 subjects practicing rhythmic gymnastics, 11 swimmers, and 16 volleyball players). All underwent echocardiography, biompendance analysis, and answered a questionnaire. Results All anthropometrics parameters were normal. Few athletes reported menstrual disorders. No association between the presence of menstrual disorders and BMI. All echo results were within the normal range. Cardiac Mass Index (CMI) was normal for all athletes despite in swimmers significantly higher values (90.64±14.9 g/m2) compared to the volleyball players (78.25±14.0 g/m2; p<.04) and rhythmic gymnasts (77.89±13.4 g/m2; p<.009) were found. Conclusions Despite menstrual disorders are represented among female athletes, the eventual relationship with the sport practiced is not so evident. Questionnaire should be used to identify menstrual disorders in non-elite athletically active females. PMID:27900290

  20. Harassment, sexual abuse, and safety of the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Brackenridge, C

    2000-04-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sports are discussed in relation to how female athletes might improve their personal safety to guard against such practices. The origins of sport research on this theme are traced, and the processes of sexual harassment and abuse are identified. Risk factors for the coach, the athlete, and the sport are presented, and, finally, sources of prevention measures for coaches, athletes, parents, and clubs are provided.

  1. Iron status of female collegiate athletes involved in different sports.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Blessing, Daniel; Dunham, Kim; Barksdale, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Iron status was assessed in 70 female athletes aged 18-25 yr participating in collegiate cross-country track, tennis, softball, swimming, soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. No significant differences in mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and ferritin were found among teams. The mean concentrations of each parameter for each of the teams were within the normal ranges. However, several athletes from different sports had suboptimal iron status indexes. Of 17 athletes with a serum ferritin concentration < or = 15 microg/L, 8 (4 freshmen, 2 sophomores, 2 unknown) also exhibited low serum iron concentrations (< 60 microg/dL) and low transferrin saturation (< 16%). Thirteen (6 freshmen, 3 sophomores, 2 juniors, 2 seniors) of 51 (25%) athletes failed to consume two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for iron and exhibited suboptimal serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and/or transferrin saturation. Of nine athletes taking iron supplements, one exhibited suboptimal iron status. In summary, nonanemic iron depletion was present among female collegiate athletes involved in many different sports and in all years of participation (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and senior athletes). Female athletes should continue to be individually and routinely evaluated for nutritional deficiencies throughout their collegiate athletic careers.

  2. The adolescent female athlete: current concepts and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Omar, Hatim; Pratt, Helen D

    2010-06-01

    The adolescent female athlete has become a common part of the sports environment at all levels from childhood play to professional adult sports. This article considers various issues common to this athlete to help clinicians care for their patients. Basic sports physiology is reviewed and then specific conditions are considered, including iron deficiency anemia, stress urinary incontinence, breast issues (ie, pain, asymmetry, galactorrhea, injury), the female athlete triad (ie, menstrual dysfunction, abnormal eating patterns, and osteopenia or osteoporosis), and injuries. Clinical conundrums are considered including the difficulty in caring for a dedicated athlete whose intense love of her sport may lead to menstrual and bone loss complications. The knowledgeable clinician in the twenty-first century can be of considerable help to the female athlete who is at and beyond puberty.

  3. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure in Japanese elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Chino, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) is a common measurement of inspiratory muscle strength, which is often used in a variety of exercises to evaluate the effects of inspiratory muscle training. The characteristics of MIP in elite female athletes remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of MIP at rest in a variety of sport-specific elite female athletes. We also aimed to clarify if there is a sex difference of MIP in elite athletes. We studied 169 Japanese elite female athletes and 301 Japanese elite male athletes. MIP was assessed using a portable autospirometer with a handheld mouth pressure meter. Female athletes who regularly experienced exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue tended to have higher MIP values. The mean absolute MIP value in females was significantly lower than that in males. However, when this value was expressed relative to body mass, this difference disappeared. Our findings provide essential information for prescribed, sport-specific, inspiratory muscle training in elite female athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  5. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  6. Female Athletes' Rankings of Coaching Behavior: A Longitudinal Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Coaching female athletes is as rewarding as it is challenging. These athletes are usually more coachable, intelligent, and mature than males at similar ages. However, they are different in many ways from their male counterparts. For example, Drobnick (2012) and Merchant (2012) have emphasized women's communication styles as seeking feelings more…

  7. Comparison of Bod Pod and DXA in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Tasha P; Fafara, Laura; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the reliability and validity of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) compared with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Hologic QDR 4500A (Waltham, MA) in female collegiate athletes. Forty-seven females representing various Division II collegiate sports and 24 controls participated in the current study. All women underwent both methods of testing within a 30-min period. Comparison of means indicated that the ADP and DXA are not different when measuring body fat (BF%) in the athletes (ADP = 22.5 +/- 5.5%, DXA = 22.0 +/- 4.7%P = 1.0). Furthermore, this study determined that ADP is a reliable measure of body fat (BF%; r = 0.96, P < 0.001; 0.97, P < 0.001) in collegiate female athletes and nonathletes, respectively. The results from this study indicate that ADP is a valid measure of body composition in female athletes and nonathletes when compared with DXA.

  8. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  9. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  10. Eating Disorders among Adolescent Female Athletes: Influence of Athletic Participation and Sport Team Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)

  11. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  12. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  13. Menstrual irregularity and musculoskeletal injury in female high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Carr, Kathleen E; Loud, Keith J; McGuine, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. High schools. The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006-2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. The prevalences of M I and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1 %, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥ 22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted.

  14. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  15. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dadgostar, Haleh; Razi, Mohammad; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Alenabi, Talia; Dahaghin, Saeideh

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate) returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5). Seventy one (9.0%) individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5%) had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85), weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82), endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84), late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51), and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69). Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature that the prevalence

  16. Long term consequences of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2013-06-01

    In the past 40 years, female sports participation, particularly at the high school level, has significantly increased. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Triad symptoms are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease; all of the components of the triad may not be affected simultaneously. The female athlete triad was first identified in 1992. Since that time, a vast amount of research related to the identification, management and prevention of this condition has been published. More recently, research related to the long term effects of triad components has come into light. Women who were diagnosed with female athlete triad syndrome as adolescents and young adults in the 1990s are now in their 30s and 40s; negative long term effects of the female athlete triad, such as low bone mineral density, are now starting to manifest. Women of all ages should be assessed for triad components during routine annual physical examinations; appropriate measures to treat any current triad components should be implemented. In addition, women in their 30s, 40s and early 50s should be screened for a history of the female athlete triad. Multidisciplinary management of these conditions is strongly recommended.

  17. Bone density in eumenorrheic female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Risser, W L; Lee, E J; LeBlanc, A; Poindexter, H B; Risser, J M; Schneider, V

    1990-10-01

    Information is limited on the effect of exercise on bone density in young eumenorrheic athletes. We studied 12 Caucasian intercollegiate volleyball players (V), nine basketball players (B), ten swimmers (S), and 13 non-athletes (N) with bone density measurements by photon absorptiometry of their calcaneus and lumbar spine (L2-L4). The effect of athletic status on bone density was analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance, with height and weight as covariates. The bone densities reported below are mean +/- SE, adjusted for the covariates; units = g.cm-2, P less than 0.005. The swimmers had a significantly lower mean density in the lumbar spine than all other groups; the non-athletes' mean density was also lower than that of volleyball players (V = 1.31 +/- 0.03, B = 1.26 +/- 0.04, N = 1.18 +/- 0.03, S = 1.05 +/- 0.03). The volleyball and basketball players' mean calcaneal densities were greater than those of the swimmers and non-athletes (V = 0.530 +/- 0.017, B = 0.564 +/- 0.023, N = 0.438 +/- 0.018, S = 0.375 +/- 0.019). The higher bone densities for athletes in vertical weight-bearing activities are consistent with some but not all published data. The swimmers' low bone density in the lumbar spine, less than published values for amenorrheic runners, was unexpected.

  18. Use of the preparticipation physical exam in screening for the female athlete triad among high school athletes.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, Dena M; Snell, B J

    2005-12-01

    The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preparticipation history and physical forms in high school athletic programs to screen for the triad, and to determine the prevalence of educational programs related to the female athlete triad. Results suggest that a majority of high school athletic programs are not adequately screening girls for the components of the triad, and schools lack educational programs targeting athletes and coaches. School nurses have the potential to play a vital role in the prevention and early identification of the triad through a preparticipation physical exam that specifically screens female athletes and in the implementation of educational programs for athletes and coaches regarding the disorders of the female athlete triad.

  19. Bone Health in Adolescent Athletes with a Focus on Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is a negative predictor of osteoporosis and life-long fracture risk. Because osteoporosis is such a prevalent disease with life-threatening consequences later in life, it is important to try to maximize PBM. Adolescence is a critical time for bone acquisition. This review discusses some of the differences in male and female skeletal development and modifiable factors that enhance bone accrual in this age group, particularly in athletes. Hormonal influences, physical activity effects, and nutritional contributions are presented, with a focus on the adolescent athlete. Emphasis is placed on the importance of appropriate energy availability in this age group. The Female Athlete Triad (the inter-relationship of decreased energy availability, menstrual irregularity, and low bone density) is an important issue for adolescent, athletic women, and is therefore reviewed, including prevention and treatment strategies. Recommendations for maximizing bone density in both male and female adolescents are discussed. PMID:21378496

  20. Bone mineral density in collegiate female athletes: comparisons among sports.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Between-groups design. University health care system. All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 +/- 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 +/- 0.055 g.cm (-2)) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 +/- 0.086 g.cm (-2)) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and sport type with regard to her bone health.

  1. Helping Teenage Girls Avoid the Female Athlete Triad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilardi, Deb

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…

  2. Helping Teenage Girls Avoid the Female Athlete Triad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilardi, Deb

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school nurses can advocate for adolescent female students and help them avoid the female athlete triad that includes disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The article focuses on consequences of the triad, how to uncover the symptoms, working to improve public support, and creating a successful program through partnership.…

  3. Anorexia, bulimia, and the female athlete triad: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Felicia A; Warren, Michelle P

    2010-03-01

    The female athlete triad is an increasingly prevalent condition involving disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. An athlete can suffer from all 3 components of the triad, or just 1 or 2 of the individual conditions. The main element underlying all the aspects of the triad is an adaptation to a negative caloric balance. Screening for these disorders should be an important component of an athlete's care. Prevention and treatment should involve a team approach, including a physician, a nutritionist, and a mental health provider.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  5. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  6. The female athlete triad among elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Quah, Ye Vian; Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Lai Oon; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Women participating in a wide range of competitive sports are at higher risk of developing eating disorders, menstrual irregularities and osteoporosis, which are generally referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female athlete triad and factors associated with this condition among athletes participating in different sports. A total of 67 elite female athletes aged between 13-30 years participated in the study and were subdivided into the 'leanness' and 'non-leanness' groups. Eating disorders were assessed using a body image figure rating and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) with body dissatisfaction (BD), drive for thinness (DT), bulimia (B) and perfectionism (P) subscales. Menstrual irregularity was assessed with a self-reported menstrual history questionnaire. Bone quality was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device at one-third distal radius. Prevalence of the female athlete triad was low (1.9%), but the prevalence for individual triad component was high, especially in the leanness group. The prevalence of subjects who were at risk of menstrual irregularity, poor bone quality and eating disorders were 47.6%, 13.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the leanness group; and 14.3%, 8.3% and 89.2%, respectively, in the non-leanness group. Since the components of the triad are interrelated, identification of athletes at risk of having any one component of the triad, especially those participating in sports that emphasise a lean physique, is an important aid for further diagnosis.

  7. The female athlete triad. A growing health concern.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Michelle L Cameron

    2003-01-01

    The number of female athletes participating at the high school, collegiate, and elite levels has increased nearly 10-fold since the passage of Title IX. President Nixon signed title IX into law in 1972. It required that all schools receiving federal funding provide equal opportunities for men and women. With this large increase in high-level female athletes comes a special set of medical and orthopaedic issues. One of the most important is the female athlete triad. The triad consists of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and premature osteoporosis. Currently, this problem is largely unrecognized. The purpose of this article is to help to educate orthopaedic nurses about this important issue so that we can detect the triad early and help address this growing national health issue.

  8. Hip strength in collegiate female athletes with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Cichanowski, Heather R; Schmitt, John S; Johnson, Rob J; Niemuth, Paul E

    2007-08-01

    Decreased hip strength has been theorized to contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to test for strength differences of six hip muscle groups in collegiate female athletes diagnosed with unilateral patellofemoral pain compared with the unaffected leg and noninjured sport-matched controls. At four Division III schools, all collegiate female athletes experiencing unilateral patellofemoral pain were recruited during the 2004-2005 academic school year. The athletes were diagnosed with patellofemoral pain by sports medicine-trained family physicians or orthopedic surgeons. Hip strength of six different muscle groups was tested using a handheld dynamometer. The highest value of two trials was used, and strength values were normalized to body weight. The measurements from the injured leg were compared with the uninvolved leg and also with uninjured control subjects matched for sport. Thirteen athletes were diagnosed with unilateral patellofemoral pain. The injured-side hip abductor (P = 0.003) and external rotator muscle groups (P = 0.049) were significantly weaker than the noninjured sides. There were no significant differences in the other hip muscles tested. In addition, the injured legs were significantly weaker in five of the six hip muscle groups compared with the control group. The results of this study show that hip abductors and external rotators were significantly weaker between the injured and unaffected legs of the injured athletes. In addition, injured collegiate female athletes exhibited global hip weakness compared with age- and sport-matched asymptomatic controls. Screening for hip muscle weakness and adding strengthening exercises to the affected hip muscles may be important factors in managing female athletes with patellofemoral pain.

  9. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete

    PubMed Central

    Silvers, Holly Jacinda; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2007-01-01

    The relationships of gender, age and training to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are pivotal to developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme to decrease ACL injuries in female athletes. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme may have direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries in female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiological and biomechanical studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention for decreasing ACL injuries in this high‐risk population. PMID:17609222

  10. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes.

  11. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  12. Challenges Confronting Female Intercollegiate Athletic Directors of NCAA Member Institutions by Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarterman, Jerome; DuPree, Aimee D.; Willis, Kimberly Pettaway

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the major challenges confronting female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs of NCAA member institutions. A 34-item questionnaire was mailed to 169 female intercollegiate athletic directors and directors of women's intercollegiate athletics programs. Of the 169 directors…

  13. 2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth; De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon; Barrack, Michelle; Burke, Louise; Drinkwater, Barbara; Lebrun, Connie; Loucks, Anne B; Mountjoy, Margo; Nichols, Jeanne; Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot

    2014-01-01

    The female athlete triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three triad components, and early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious end points that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement presents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, CA) and second (Indianapolis, IN) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. This consensus statement was intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the female athlete triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts.

  14. Sunscreen use and availability among female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Lauren E; Adams, Brian B

    2012-11-01

    Each year more than 250,000 athletes participate on National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) teams. The majority of outdoor NCAA athletes, however, do not use sunscreen on a daily basis. Previous research notes that sunscreen availability represents the main barrier to use among collegiate athletes. We sought to explore the effect of sunscreen availability on its application among outdoor collegiate athletes. Participants (n = 83) on NCAA Division IA female golf teams were randomized to form treatment and control groups. Treatment group players placed study-supplemented sunscreen in their golf bags and locker rooms during the study period. Both groups completed self-administered surveys at the beginning and end of the 4-week investigation. The athletes for whom sunscreen was placed in the locker room and bags exhibited a statistically greater use of sunscreen at the end of the study compared with the control group (P = .01). Provision of readily available sunscreen in the locker room resulted in an average of 1.13 more days per week of sunscreen use, after adjustment for baseline use (P = .008). In addition, players with ready access to sunscreen during competitions increased their reapplication, although not significantly, by nearly 20% (P = .10). Sunscreen reapplication during practice did not change for either group. Future investigations should target a larger population of both male and female outdoor collegiate athletes. The application of sunscreen increased significantly when athletes had easy access to sunscreen during practice and competition. These findings highlight a major opportunity to improve sun-protective behaviors among this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk of Disordered Eating Among Division I Female College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Elizabeth K; Chin, Alexandra D; Tacke, Jennifer A; Bunn, Jennifer A

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of disordered eating (DE) among female athletes in lean and non-lean sports using the ATHLETE survey. The ATHLETE survey is divided into six different constructs, and a high score indicates a high risk for DE. Eighty-three varsity female athletes from eight Campbell University sports teams completed the survey and a medical history form anonymously. The sports were divided into sports that traditionally have a high risk for DE (lean sports) and those with a low risk (non-lean sports). The lean sports included: cheerleading, cross country/track and field, swimming, and volleyball. The non-lean sports included: basketball, golf, soccer, and softball. The total mean score of the ATHLETE survey for the lean sports was 100.1 ± 17.4, compared to the non-lean sports scoring 90.1 ± 16.9, p = 0.011. The two constructs that showed significant difference between lean and non-lean sports were Social Pressure on Body Shape (lean: 12.2 ± 3.9, non-lean: 9.4 ± 4.6, p = 0.005) and Team Trust (lean: 7.4 ± 3.3, non-lean: 5.6 ± 2.2, p = 0.004). The results indicate that lean sports exhibited a higher risk for development of DE compared to athletes participating in non-lean sports. It appears that the primary influence of DE in these female athletes came from external social pressures that may therefore dictate their exercise and nutritional habits.

  16. Risk of Disordered Eating Among Division I Female College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    WELLS, ELIZABETH K.; CHIN, ALEXANDRA D.; TACKE, JENNIFER A.; BUNN, JENNIFER A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of disordered eating (DE) among female athletes in lean and non-lean sports using the ATHLETE survey. The ATHLETE survey is divided into six different constructs, and a high score indicates a high risk for DE. Eighty-three varsity female athletes from eight Campbell University sports teams completed the survey and a medical history form anonymously. The sports were divided into sports that traditionally have a high risk for DE (lean sports) and those with a low risk (non-lean sports). The lean sports included: cheerleading, cross country/track and field, swimming, and volleyball. The non-lean sports included: basketball, golf, soccer, and softball. The total mean score of the ATHLETE survey for the lean sports was 100.1 ± 17.4, compared to the non-lean sports scoring 90.1 ± 16.9, p = 0.011. The two constructs that showed significant difference between lean and non-lean sports were Social Pressure on Body Shape (lean: 12.2 ± 3.9, non-lean: 9.4 ± 4.6, p = 0.005) and Team Trust (lean: 7.4 ± 3.3, non-lean: 5.6 ± 2.2, p = 0.004). The results indicate that lean sports exhibited a higher risk for development of DE compared to athletes participating in non-lean sports. It appears that the primary influence of DE in these female athletes came from external social pressures that may therefore dictate their exercise and nutritional habits. PMID:27293502

  17. The female athlete triad: components, nutrition issues, and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M; Kam, Lynn Ciadella; Loucks, Anne B

    2007-01-01

    This paper, which was part of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) 2007 Nutritional Consensus Conference, briefly reviews the components of the female athlete triad (Triad): energy availability, menstrual status, and bone health. Each component of the Triad spans a continuum from health to disease, and female athletes can have symptoms related to each component of the Triad to different degrees. Low energy availability is the primary factor that impairs menstrual dysfunction and bone health in the Triad. We discuss nutritional issues associated with the Triad, focusing on intakes of macronutrients needed for good health, and stress fractures, the most common injury associated with the Triad. Finally, we briefly discuss screening and treatment for the Triad and the occurrence of the Triad in men.

  18. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group. PMID:26722341

  19. Appropriate and Inappropriate Practices for Coaching Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity; Sims, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This article is intended to provide coaches, parents/guardians and school administrators with specific guidelines that identify coaching practices that are in the best interests of the adolescent female athlete (appropriate) and those that are counterproductive or even harmful (inappropriate). These guidelines can be used as a self-assessment for…

  20. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  1. Barriers Encountered by Black Female Athletic Administrators and Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abney, Robertha; Richey, Dorothy

    1991-01-01

    Describes barriers encountered by Black women in sports and presents strategies to help them confront career obstacles while obtaining and remaining in athletic and administrative positions. Obstacles include inadequate salary, lack of support, being female and/or Black, low administrator expectations, and lack of cultural and social outlets. (SM)

  2. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  3. Competitive Trait Anxiety in Male and Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David W.; Cunningham, Herb

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of competitive trait anxiety (CTA) among university male and female varsity athletes supports the proposed relationship of fear of failure and of evaluation to CTA, but suggests that the pattern of this relationship varies across age, gender, sport, and other variables. (JD)

  4. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in female adolescent athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Rosa Maria Eid; Santos, Fernanda Malheiro; Kulic, Marco Antonio; De Souza Lima, Maria Paula C; Pardini, Selma Ribeiro; Mori, Matsuyoshi; de Souza Vitalle, Maria Sylvia

    2013-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in female adolescent athletes and non-athletes and to examine the association between signs and symptoms of TMD in female adolescents in different Tanner stages. The subjects were 89 female basketball and handball players ages 10-18 years and 72 female non-athlete adolescents ages 10-19 years selected from the Department of Pediatrics (School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo) as a control group. A survey was used to assess the signs and symptoms of TMD. According to the answers on the survey the adolescents were classified in two categories: no signs or symptoms present (score A-absent), at least one sign or symptom present (score P-present). The ones who got score "P" were submitted to a standardized functional examination of the masticatory system by four previously calibrated examiners. Pubertal status was assessed based on physical examination by physicians from our Division. The adolescents were classified according to Tanner stages into three subgroups: subgroup 1 (before the growth spurt), subgroup 2 (growth spurt period), subgroup 3 (end of growth spurt). Significant differences between athletes and non-athletes were assessed for categorical variables (Chi-square and Fisher's exact test) and for continuous variables (Mann-Whitney test). The level of significance used was 5%. There was significant agreement between raters, kappa-values (0.621-1.000) and ICC values (0.757-0.899). There was no significant difference between the athletes and non-athletes in exhibiting at least one sign or symptom of TMD (p=0.301). When comparing the adolescents who presented at least one symptom of TMD to the different subgroups of Tanner stages no statistically significant differences were found (p=0.124). The lack of significant differences among female adolescent athletes and non-athletes and among the subgroups of Tanner stages may suggests that although contact sports

  5. Arthroscopic Hip Surgery in the Elite Athlete: Comparison of Female and Male Competitive Athletes.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kotaro R; Matsuda, Shuichi; Safran, Marc R

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have published the results of hip arthroscopic surgery in elite athletes and none studying a significant number of elite female athletes. (1) To compare sex-based differences in the ability to return to prior competitive sports activity after arthroscopic hip surgery. (2) To compare sex-based differences in the type of sports activity, diagnosis, and treatment in athletes requiring hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on all elite athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopic surgery between 2007 and 2014 were included. Athletes with a Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) score of over 6 were identified. The preoperative evaluation included a medical history, history of sports activity, and hip-specific outcome scores (Modified Harris Hip Score [MHHS] and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 [iHOT-33]). Surgical findings and time to return to competitive sports were documented. Of 547 hips in 484 consecutive patients, 98 elite athletes (49 female) with a mean follow-up of 18.9 ± 12.8 months were identified. Eighty patients desired to return to their original competitive activity: 38 were female (42 hips; mean age, 21.5 ± 3.9 years), and 42 were male (54 hips; mean age, 20.5 ± 1.9 years). Moreover, 84.2% of female athletes and 83.3% of male athletes were able to return to the same level of competition at a mean of 8.3 ± 3.0 and 8.8 ± 2.9 months, respectively. Significant improvements between preoperative and postoperative outcome scores were seen in both groups (all P < .0001). Female athletes had more pincer femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) ( P = .0004) and instability ( P < .0001). Conversely, male athletes were diagnosed more commonly with combined FAI ( P < .0001), demonstrated greater acetabular cartilage damage ( P = .0004), and required microfracture more often ( P = .0014). Female athletes competed more frequently in flexibility (4/38, 11%; P = .047) and endurance (9/38, 24%) sports, while male athletes

  6. Endurance training, overtraining and baroreflex sensitivity in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We examined heavy training-induced changes in baroreflex sensitivity, plasma volume and resting heart rate and blood pressure variability in female endurance athletes. Nine athletes (experimental training group, ETG) increased intense training (70-90% VO2max) volume by 130% and low-intensity training (< 70% Vo2max) volume by 100% during 6-9 weeks, whereas the corresponding increases in six control athletes (CG) were 5% and 10% respectively. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the ETG and CG did not change, but in five ETG athletes VO2max decreased from 53.0 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SEM) (CI 46.8-59.2) ml kg-1 min-1 to 50.2 +/- 2.3 (43.8-56.6) ml kg-1 min-1 (P < 0.01), indicating overtraining. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) measured using the phenylephrine technique and blood pressure variability (BPV) did not change, but the low-frequency power of the R-R interval variability increased in the ETG (P < 0.05). The relative change in plasma volume was 7% in the ETG and 3% in the CG. The changes in BRS did not correlate with the changes in plasma volume, heart rate variability and BPV. We conclude that heavy endurance training and overtraining did not change baroreflex sensitivity or BPV but significantly increased the low-frequency power of the R-R interval variability during supine rest in female athletes as a marker of increased cardiac sympathetic modulation.

  7. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors.

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Collegiate Female Athletes: Comparisons Among Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Lanay M; Fornetti, Willa; Pivarnik, James M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Some female athletes may have decreased bone mineral density (BMD), which puts them at higher risk for stress fractures and future osteoporosis. Objective: To compare site-specific BMD among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity female athletes and to determine predictor variables of BMD measurements. Design: Between-groups design. Setting: University health care system. Patients or Other Participants: All women varsity athletes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Of 12 sports, we obtained complete data from 99 women (mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years) representing gymnastics, softball, cross-country, track, field hockey, soccer, crew, and swimming/diving. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was weighed, measured, and questioned about her menstrual status. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, we measured total-body BMD and region-of-interest scores for lumbar spine, pelvis, and average leg (average from right and left leg measurements) BMD. Using analyses of covariance, we compared BMD measurements among sports at each site while controlling for menstrual status and mass, and we performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine significant predictors of BMD at each site. Results: Twenty-three athletes were oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic. Runners had the lowest total-body (1.079 ± 0.055 g·cm −2) and site-specific ( P < .01) BMD values for every site except average leg score when compared with gymnasts and softball players. Swimmers and divers had significantly lower average leg BMD (1.117 ± 0.086 g·cm −2) than athletes in every other sport except runners and rowers ( P < .01). Regression analysis revealed only mass and sport as significant predictors of total-body BMD. Conclusions: Runners and swimmers and divers demonstrated some deficits in site-specific BMD values when compared with athletes in other sports. When treating a female varsity athlete, athletic trainers should consider her mass and

  10. Treatment strategies for the female athlete triad in the adolescent athlete: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill; Hammer, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously. Because of the complex nature of the Triad, treatment is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a physician, psychologist or psychiatrist, nutritionist or dietitian, physical therapist, athletic trainer, coach, family members, and most importantly, the patient. A thorough physical examination by a primary care physician is essential to identify all organs/systems that may be impacted by Triad-related conditions. Laboratory tests, assessment of bone density, nutritional assessment, and behavior health evaluation guide the management of the female athlete with Triad-related conditions. Treatment of the Triad includes adequate caloric consumption to restore a positive energy balance; this is often the first step in successful management of the Triad. In addition, determining the cause of menstrual dysfunction (MD) and resumption of menses is very important. Nonpharmacologic interventions are the first choice; pharmacologic treatment for MD is reserved only for those patients with symptoms of estrogen deficiency or infertility. Lastly, adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is critical for lifelong bone health. For this review, a comprehensive search of relevant databases from the earliest dates to July 2016 was performed. Keywords

  11. Altered adrenal steroid metabolism underlying hypercortisolism in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, C; Hirschberg, A L; Carlström, K; von Schoultz, B

    1995-06-01

    To explore possible changes in adrenal steroid metabolism and androgenic-anabolic status in female endurance athletes as a mechanism for their hypercortisolism. Adrenal steroids and androgenic-anabolic factors were studied during basal conditions and in response to ACTH stimulation related to menstrual status. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Thirteen female elite middle to long distance runners (six eumenorrheic, seven oligoamenorrheic) and seven regularly menstruating controls. Blood samples were collected before and after an injection of 250 micrograms IV synthetic ACTH 1-24. Body weight, height, and body fat were measured. Basal serum concentrations of cortisol, androstenedione (A), DHEA, DHEAS, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), T, steroid-binding proteins, and insulin-like growth factor I and ACTH-induced response (area under the curve) of cortisol, DHEA, and 17-OHP. Oligoamenorrheic athletes had higher basal cortisol and A concentrations compared with healthy controls, whereas basal levels of DHEA and DHEAS were normal. Important findings in the oligoamenorrheic athletes were a significantly lower ratio between the ACTH-induced increments of DHEA and 17-OHP and an increased ratio between basal A and DHEAS. Insulin-like growth factor I was correlated negatively to sex hormone-binding globulin and to the amount of body fat in the combined material. The results indicate a redistribution of adrenal steroid metabolism in favor of glucocorticoid production in female endurance athletes. We suggest that hypercortisolism in female endurance athletes is a physiological adaptation to maintain adequate blood glucose levels during a condition of energy deficiency.

  12. Comparison of disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation difficulties between female college athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Gena; Shriver, Lenka H; Gates, Gail E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of disordered eating between female college athletes and non-athletes and explore emotion regulation as a potential mediator of the link between participation in athletics and disordered eating symptoms. Data for this cross-sectional study came from 527 college students in a mid-western state of the USA in fall of 2013 (376 non-athletes and 151 athletes). Disordered eating symptoms and emotion regulation were assessed utilizing the Eating Attitudes Test and the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale in a survey-based format. The prevalence of disordered eating was higher in non-athletes (16.5%, vs. 6.6%; X(2)=62.8; p<.05). Non-athletes reported more signs and symptoms of disordered eating than athletes (p<.01). A linear regression approach indicated a statistically significant indirect effect (0.63, CI95=0.18, 1.20) of athletic-status on disordered eating via emotion regulation; however, this effect did not reach practical significance. Our findings show that female athletes in our sample were somewhat protected from disordered eating compared to non-athletes, but the mechanism of this relationship is unclear. A further in-depth examination of other factors, such as self-esteem and body satisfaction, that may have contributed to this finding is warranted utilizing a large sample of female college students and athletes representing a variety of sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  14. Tailoring the Preparticipation Exam to Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mimi D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the basics of the preparticipation exam, focusing on aspects specific to females, such as menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and orthopedic problems such as scoliosis and patellofemoral pain. Health history questionnaire and other parts of the exam are included in six tables. (SM)

  15. Fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Marković, Goran; Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Trninić, Slavko

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes and to determine which physical, physiological and motor characteristics differentiate mostly the successful from the less successful fighters. Thirteen national taekwondo champions were divided into two groups according to their senior international competitive achievements. Physiological characteristics, including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), were assessed during a continuous progressive treadmill test. The measured motor abilities included explosive and elastic leg strength, maximal strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic alactic power, agility and flexibility. Differences between the successful and less successful athletes were determined using independent t-test. Even though the differences were not statistically significant, the successful athletes had somewhat less fat (2.3%) and were taller by 5.8 cm. The successful athletes achieved significantly higher maximum running speed (15.8 +/- 0.5 versus 14.9 +/- 0. 7 km h(-1); p < 0.05), their ventilatory anaerobic threshold was significantly higher (41.4 +/- 4.1 versus 37.6 +/- 2.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1); p < 0.05) at a significantly lower heart rate (166.8 +/- 6.8 versus 171.0 +/- 8.2 beats min(-1); p < 0.05) than in the less successful athletes. Significant differences were also found in three tests of explosive power (p < 0.05), anaerobic alactic power (p < 0.01), and lateral agility (p < 0.05). The performance of taekwondo female athletes primarily depends on the anaerobic alactic power, explosive power expressed in the stretch-shortening cycle movements, agility and aerobic power.

  16. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. PREVALENCE OF THE FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD IN HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES AND SEDENTARY STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Anne Z; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Moraski, LuAnn; Carrera, Guillermo F.; Wilson, Charles R.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Schimke, Jane E.; Gutterman, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad (low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density) in high school varsity athletes in a variety of sports compared with sedentary students/controls. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic medical center in the Midwest. Participants Eighty varsity athletes and eighty sedentary students/controls volunteered for this study. Intervention Subjects completed questionnaires, had their blood drawn and underwent bone mineral density testing. Main Outcome Measures Each participant completed screening questionnaires assessing eating behavior, menstrual status and physical activity. Each subject completed a 3-day food diary. Serum hormonal, TSH and prolactin levels were determined. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results Low energy availability was present in similar numbers of athletes (36%) and sedentary/control subjects (39%; p=0.74). Athletes suffered more menstrual abnormalities (54%) compared with sedentary students/controls (21%) (p=<0.001). DXA revealed that 16% of the athletes and 30% of the sedentary/controls had low BMD (p=0.03). Risk factors for reduced BMD include sedentary control student, low BMI and increased caffeine consumption. Conclusions A substantial number of high school athletes (78%) and a surprising number of sedentary students (65%) suffer from one or more components of the triad. Given the high prevalence of triad characteristics in both groups, education in the formative elementary school years has the potential to prevent several of the components in both groups, therefore, improving health and averting long-term complications. PMID:19741317

  18. Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Thralls, Katie J; Nichols, Jeanne F; Barrack, Michelle T; Kern, Mark; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman's rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW >85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

  19. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents.

  20. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Korotkova, Tatiana A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Stewart, Dennis R

    2011-01-19

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC) and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strength in animal models. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears - basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball - were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05. 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL). The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL) and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL) and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL) and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL); these differences were not significant (P = 0.53). Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC) differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2.80 ng/mL), and those not using hormonal contraceptives (6.99 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). There is a positive correlation between serum progesterone and SRC and an attenuation of SRC with hormonal contraceptive use. Our results underscore the significant role that hormonal

  1. A Study of the Experiences of Black College Female Student Athletes at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Noel Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather descriptive data on the experiences of Black female student athletes. A better understanding of the experiences of Black female student athletes as students, as athletes, and as developing young women may help student affairs practitioners better understand their collegiate experience; provide them with…

  2. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tools to Detect Eating Disorders in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alyssa J; Erickson, Casey D; Tierney, Dayna K; Houston, Megan N; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2016-12-01

    Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders in female athletes are a commonly underdiagnosed condition. Better screening tools for eating disorders in athletic females could help increase diagnosis and help athletes get the treatment they need. Focused Clinical Question: Should screening tools be used to detect eating disorders in female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies that included information regarding the sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for eating disorders in female athletes. The search returned 5 possible articles related to the clinical question; 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (2 cross-sectional studies, 1 cohort study) and were included. All 3 studies reported sensitivity and specificity for the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire version 2, the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire version 2, and the Physiologic Screening Test to Detect Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes. All 3 studies found that the respective screening tool was able to accurately identify female athletes with eating disorders; however, the screening tools varied in sensitivity and specificity values. Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence to support the use of screening tools to detect eating disorders in female athletes. Screening tools with higher sensitivity and specificity have demonstrated a successful outcome of determining athletes with eating disorders or at risk for developing an eating disorder. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade A evidence available to demonstrate that screening tools accurately detect female athletes at risk for eating disorders.

  3. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  4. A Study of the Experiences of Black College Female Student Athletes at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Noel Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather descriptive data on the experiences of Black female student athletes. A better understanding of the experiences of Black female student athletes as students, as athletes, and as developing young women may help student affairs practitioners better understand their collegiate experience; provide them with…

  5. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  6. Degenerative rotator cuff tear in an elderly athlete: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of rotator cuff tear increases with age. Degenerative rotator cuff tears are commonly seen in athletes above 40 years. These athletes are commonly involved in overhead activities. Repetitive microtrauma is a more important factor in rotator cuff degeneration than acute trauma. Conservative treatment is the mainstay treatment for these injuries. A case report of an elderly athlete who sailed competitively is presented. The clinical and radiographic presentations, management and rehabilitation of degenerative rotator cuff tears are discussed. ImagesFigure 1

  7. Concurrent Verbal Encouragement and Wingate Anaerobic Cycle Test Performance in Females: Athletes vs. Non-Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bullinger, Dyana L; Hearon, Christopher M; Gaines, Stacey A; Daniel, Michael L

    To examine the effect of concurrent verbal encouragement on the performance of the WAnT in female athletes vs. female non-athletes. College-age female subjects were recruited where ten of the subjects were intercollegiate athletes (ATH, n1 =10) and the nine were non-athletes (NON, n2 =9). The WAnT was novel to all subjects and the subjects were blinded to the study's purpose. Prior to the experimental trials, subjects were measured for body composition and performed a familiarity WAnT trial without verbal encouragement. Subjects then performed the WAnT twice, once with concurrent verbal encouragement (VE) and once without (NVE), in a balanced cross-over design. Peak (PP) and mean power (MP), and total work (TW) were compared between ATH and NON across VE and NVE using an ANOVA (1 between, 1 within), α=0.05. ATH and NON did not differ (p>0.05) in age or body composition with the exception of fat-free mass which differed significantly (ATH=53.7±6.6, NON=46.1±5.7 kg) (p<0.05). A significant (p<0.05) main effect for ATH/NON was observed where ATH outperformed NON when pooled across VE/NVE trials for PP (ATH=13.0±1.4, NON=11.3±1.7 W·kg(-1)), MP (ATH=7.7±1.1, NON=6.7±0.9 W·kg-1) and TW (ATH=232±35, NON=201±26 J·kg(-1)). When pooled across all subjects (ATH and NON), the VE/NVE trials did not differ (p>0.05) for PP (VE=12.4±1.7, NVE=12.0±1.9 W·kg(-1)), MP (VE=7.3±1.1, NVE=7.2±1.2 W·kg(-1)) and TW (VE=219±33, NVE=215±35 J·kg(-1)). The ATH/NON interaction with VE/NVE was not significant (p>0.05). Concurrent verbal encouragement does not affect performance on the WAnT in females, nor does it affect WAnT performance in female athletes and non-athletes differently.

  8. Concerns and Education Regarding Issues of Weight Control and Female Athletes: Body Image and Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    An examination of the interaction of social and cultural influences on body image development may yield an explanation for the development of eating disorder behavior, especially in understanding the special problems facing women athletes. There appear to be two major sociocultural factors influencing the development of body image in the…

  9. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete.

  10. Body composition comparison in two elite female wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Lussier, L; Knight, J; Bell, G; Lohman, T; Morris, A F

    1983-02-01

    It was the purpose of this study to determine body composition by two methods in two excellent female athletes. One sportswoman (SRH) was national wheelchair marathon champion in 1977 in 3 hours, 40 minutes on the Boston course. She still competes internationally and has won three gold medals and set three world records in the last Olympiad for the handicapped in 1980. The second woman athlete (LSJ) competes in wheelchair basketball and track on a national level. Body density was determined by the standard underwater weighing procedure and residual volume determination. A second method to calculate cellular body mass was the measure of potassium 40 (40K) activity by whole body scintillation counter. The characteristics of these athletes are listed as follows: (formula; see text) The results show that both methods of determining adiposity produce results differing by only one percentage point. It is important to determine body composition in these wheelchair athletes since their cellular body mass is decreased because of their disability.

  11. Association of the Female Athlete Triad Risk Assessment Stratification to the Development of Bone Stress Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Carlson, Jennifer L; Chang, Audrey; Sainani, Kristin L; Shultz, Rebecca; Kim, Jae Hyung; Cutti, Phil; Golden, Neville H; Fredericson, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The female athlete triad (referred to as the triad) contributes to adverse health outcomes, including bone stress injuries (BSIs), in female athletes. Guidelines were published in 2014 for clinical management of athletes affected by the triad. This study aimed to (1) classify athletes from a collegiate population of 16 sports into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories using the Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment score and (2) evaluate the predictive value of the risk categories for subsequent BSIs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 323 athletes completed both electronic preparticipation physical examination and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Of these, 239 athletes with known oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea status were assigned to a low-, moderate-, or high-risk category. Chart review was used to identify athletes who sustained a subsequent BSI during collegiate sports participation; the injury required a physician diagnosis and imaging confirmation. Of 239 athletes, 61 (25.5%) were classified into moderate-risk and 9 (3.8%) into high-risk categories. Sports with the highest proportion of athletes assigned to the moderate- and high-risk categories included gymnastics (56.3%), lacrosse (50%), cross-country (48.9%), swimming/diving (42.9%), sailing (33%), and volleyball (33%). Twenty-five athletes (10.5%) assigned to risk categories sustained ≥1 BSI. Cross-country runners contributed the majority of BSIs (16; 64%). After adjusting for age and participation in cross-country, we found that moderate-risk athletes were twice as likely as low-risk athletes to sustain a BSI (risk ratio [RR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-5.5) and high-risk athletes were nearly 4 times as likely (RR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.8-8.0). When examining the 6 individual components of the triad risk assessment score, both the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea score ( P = .0069) and the prior stress fracture/reaction score ( P = .0315) were identified as independent

  12. The female athlete triad: what's a doctor to do?

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Constance Marie

    2007-12-01

    Sports medicine physicians often encounter athletes with at least one component of the Female Athlete Triad-disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and altered bone mineral density. Recognizing these conditions early is critical because prolonged exposure can lead to serious, potentially irreversible, health consequences. Knowledge of the pathophysiology, detection, and treatment of these problems has evolved significantly. This review focuses on the newer scientific findings in this important area of women's health. There remains a distinct lack of prospective epidemiologic data assessing prevalence and causes, and outcome studies on the efficacy of prevention and treatment of the Triad disorders. Nevertheless, the underlying message remains that participation in sports and physical activity benefits the long-term health of girls and women, and should be encouraged.

  13. [Anthropometric and physiologic profile of Puerto Rican athletes: female softball].

    PubMed

    Rivera, M A; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Rivas, C A; Rivera-Brown, A M

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe and compare various anthropometric, body composition, cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics of 12 female athletes, members of the Puerto Rico national softball team. The subjects were divided into three categories according to their game specific requirements (game position): infielders (n = 5), outfielders (n = 4), and pitchers (n = 3). The mean and standard deviations of all the variables in each group was calculated. These athletes demonstrated high levels of body fat and below optimal levels of flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. The results revealed deficiencies in the health related fitness components and in the physical preparation for sports competition. These results also suggest that the subjects are at risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, sport injuries, and poor sport performance.

  14. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  15. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  16. Social physique anxiety and eating attitudes in female athletic and non-athletic groups.

    PubMed

    Haase, A M; Prapavessis, H

    2001-12-01

    One purpose of the present study was to compare Social Physique Anxiety (SPA) scores among four different female groups (physique-salient (PS) athletes-aerobics competitors and divers, n = 63; weight-restricted athletes-rowers, n = 60; non-physique-salient (NPS) athletes--soccer, n = 75; and non-athlete students, n = 53). A second purpose of the study was to examine relations between SPA and disturbed eating attitudes among these four groups. Participants completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979). With respect to purpose one, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPA (i.e., 9-item single factor model of the SPAS) as the dependent measure, failed to reach significance (F (3,184) = 1.61, p> .05). With respect to purpose two, significant relations were found between SPA and EAT scores for all four groups. Inferential comparison of the bivariate correlations (Fisher's Z transformations), however, showed no significant differences between groups. In addition, a moderated regression analysis was computed using EAT scores as the dependent measure. The variables were entered in the following order: SPA, followed by dummy vectors for each sport-type category, and then the interaction term between SPA and the dummy vectors. Results showed that there was no significant interaction effect. Thus, these analyses, taken together. suggest that the type of sport activity does not serve to moderate relations between SPA and disordered eating. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Iron status in female endurance athletes and in non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Malczewska, J; Raczynski, G; Stupnicki, R

    2000-09-01

    Iron status was studied in 126 female endurance athletes and 52 control subjects, all aged 16-20 years. The study aimed at identifying factors responsible for iron deficiency. Twenty-six percent of athletes and 50% of controls had latent iron-deficiency without anemia symptoms. A too low intake of iron (especially heme iron: 0.3 mg daily), and of nutrients influencing iron metabolism, were identified as main causes of iron deficiency in control subjects. In athletes, whose iron intake was sufficient (14.6 mg), the principal cause of iron deficiency were blood losses due to menstruation. High level of physical activity, expressed as training volume and experience, did not adversely affect iron stores, as these were higher than in control subjects and the incidence of iron deficiency was much lower than in the control group. It was concluded that an increased intake of iron and of dietary factors involved in iron metabolism prevented possible exercise-induced losses of iron in young athletes.

  18. Relationships between sprinting, agility, and jump ability in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D; McGuigan, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between various field tests in female athletes. Altogether, 83 high school soccer, 51 college soccer, and 79 college lacrosse athletes completed tests for linear sprinting, countermovement jump, and agility in a single session. Linear sprints (9.1, 18.3, 27.4, and 36.6 m) and agility tests (Illinois and pro-agility) were evaluated using infrared timing gates, while countermovement jump height was assessed using an electronic timing mat. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were used to determine the strength and directionality of the relationship between tests and coefficients of determination (r2) were used to examine the amount of explained variance between tests. All of the performance scores were statistically correlated with each other; however, the coefficients of determination were low, moderate, and high depending on the test pairing. Linear sprint split times were strongly correlated with each other (r= 0.775 to 0.991). The relationship between countermovement jump height and linear sprinting was stronger with the longer distances (27.4 and 36.6 m) than with the shorter distances (9.1 and 18.3 m), and showed a stronger relationship within the college athletes (r= -0.658 to -0.788) than high school soccer players (r= -0.491 to -0.580). The Illinois and pro-agility tests were correlated (r > or = 0.600) with each other as well as with linear sprint times. The results of this study indicate that linear sprinting, agility, and vertical jumping are independent locomotor skills and suggest a variety of tests ought to be included in an assessment protocol for high school and college female athletes.

  19. Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Joseph W; Grossbard, Joel R; Hummer, Justin F

    2009-01-01

    This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes and non-athletes. Gender-specific perceptions among male and female athletes exceeded actual self-reported use, and perceived marijuana use among male athletes was strongly associated with personal use. The findings demonstrate the salience of group-specific marijuana norms and present implications for normative feedback interventions among college athletes.

  20. Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Joseph W.; Grossbard, Joel R.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2014-01-01

    This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes and non-athletes. Gender-specific perceptions among male and female athletes exceeded actual self-reported use, and perceived marijuana use among male athletes was strongly associated with personal use. The findings demonstrate the salience of group-specific marijuana norms and present implications for normative feedback interventions among college athletes. PMID:25414566

  1. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Non-Athletes following a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    PubMed

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda; Gaeini, Abbas Ali

    2015-11-20

    Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue have been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and non-athletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 non-athletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (Star Excursion Balance Test) in eight directions at baseline; then they performed a 20- minute fatigue protocol following which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e. after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e. immediately before the post-SEBT). Female non-athlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posterormedial, and posterior directions (p < 0.01) measured by SEBT. Athletes, however, showed no significant changes after the fatigue protocol. Our results indicates the importance of evaluation and monitoring of dynamic postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the three directions of medial, posterormedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  2. Female Head Athletic Trainers in NCAA Division I (IA Football) Athletics: How They Made It to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorant, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not carry over into positions of high rank. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of female head athletic trainers in…

  3. Use of the Preparticipation Physical Exam in Screening for the Female Athlete Triad among High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Torre, Dena M.; Snell, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  4. Female Head Athletic Trainers in NCAA Division I (IA Football) Athletics: How They Made It to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorant, JoAnne

    2012-01-01

    The profession of athletic training has opened its doors to women, who now slightly outnumber men in the profession (Shingles, 2001; WATC, 1997, 2005). Unfortunately, this representation does not carry over into positions of high rank. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lived experiences of female head athletic trainers in…

  5. Use of the Preparticipation Physical Exam in Screening for the Female Athlete Triad among High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Torre, Dena M.; Snell, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    The female athlete triad comprises 3 individual but interrelated conditions associated with athletic training: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Each condition is of medical concern, but when found within the triad, they can have serious medical consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  6. Division I athletes' attitudes toward and preferences for male and female strength and conditioning coaches.

    PubMed

    Magnusen, Marshall J; Rhea, Deborah J

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether male and female Division I team sport athletes prefer same-sex or opposite-sex strength and conditioning coaches. Participants included 476 (male = 275, female = 201) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football, soccer, and volleyball athletes; the men were from football programs and the women were from soccer and volleyball programs. The Attitudes of Athletes toward Male versus Female Coaches Questionnaire was used to assess the attitudes and feelings of male and female athletes toward the gender of their strength coach (29). The results of a 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance (athlete gender x coach gender) revealed that the male athletes (all football players) were less comfortable with a female strength coach in all regards and preferred to have a male strength coach (p < 0.05). Female athletes did not have a gender preference, nor did they have any negative attitudes toward a strength coach. The women would be productive training with any qualified strength coach, whereas the men would prefer working with a male strength coach no matter how qualified the female coach might be. As a result of this study, one suggestion is for male athletes to be exposed to female strength coaches much earlier in their sport experience. This might help reduce gender bias later in their athletic careers.

  7. Susceptibility to Eating Disorders Among Collegiate Female Student–Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McLester, Cherilyn N.; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student–athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. Results: A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. Conclusions: These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student–athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern. PMID:24762233

  8. Susceptibility to eating disorders among collegiate female student-athletes.

    PubMed

    McLester, Cherilyn N; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student-athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student-athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern.

  9. Relationship of jumping and agility performance in female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jacque L; Schilling, Brian K; Falvo, Michael J; Weiss, Lawrence W; Creasy, Andrea K; Fry, Andrew C

    2007-11-01

    Court sports often require more frequent changes of direction (COD) than field sports. Most court sports require 180 degrees turns over a small distance, so COD in such sports might be best evaluated with an agility test involving short sprints and sharp turns. The purposes of this study were to (a) quantify vertical and horizontal force during a COD task, (b) identify possible predictors of court-sport-specific agility performance, and (c) examine performance difference between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III athletes. Twenty-nine collegiate female volleyball players completed a novel agility test, countermovement (CM) and drop jump tests, and an isometric leg extensor test. The number of athletes by division was as follows: I (n = 9), II (n = 11), and III (n = 9). The agility test consisted of 4 5-meter sprints with 3 180 degrees turns, including 1 on a multiaxial force platform so that the kinetic properties of the COD could be identified. One-way analysis of variance revealed that Division I athletes had significantly greater countermovement jump heights than Division III, and the effect size comparisons (Cohen's d) showed large-magnitude differences between Division I and both Divisions II and III for jump height. No other differences in performance variables were noted between divisions, although effect sizes reached moderate values for some comparisons. Regression analysis revealed that CM displacement was a significant predictor of agility performance, explaining approximately 34% of the variance. Vertical force was found to account for much of the total force exerted during the contact phase of the COD task, suggesting that performance in the vertical domain may limit the COD task used herein. This study indicates that individuals with greater CM performance also have quicker agility times and suggests that training predominantly in the vertical domain may also yield improvements in certain types of agility performance

  10. Navigating the thin-ideal in an athletic world: influence of coach communication on female athletes' body image and health choices.

    PubMed

    Beckner, Brittany N; Record, Rachael A

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how interpersonal communication between coaches and female athletes influences the female athletes' perceptions of body image and health choices. Much of the current literature has focused on the fact that female athletes are at risk for disordered eating and a distorted body image due to susceptibility to the feminine "thin-ideal" while maintaining the fitness levels necessary to compete in their sport. However, very little research has examined how interpersonal interaction plays a role in female athletes' body image perceptions and health behaviors. Utilizing the Communication Theory of Identity (CTI) as a lens to examine communication between female athletes and their coaches, the researchers analyzed transcripts from in-depth interviews with 28 female athletes and identified themes within the personal, relational, enacted, and communal layers of identity. Coach communication with their female athletes was found to be influential to the athletes' body images and health choices.

  11. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…

  12. Sedentary Time in Male and Female Masters and Recreational Athletes Aged 55 and Older.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Heather; Dogra, Shilpa

    2017-05-22

    The purpose of this study was to quantify sedentary time among recreational and Masters (competitive) athletes aged 55 and older. A cross-sectional survey including questions on demographics, sport participation, as well as a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Measure of Older Adult's Sedentary Time questionnaire was administered (n=203). Male Masters athletes reported more time spent in vigorous intensity physical activity and less TV time than recreational athletes. Among females, being a Masters athlete was associated with being more sedentary than being a recreational athlete, while among males, being a recreational athlete was associated with being more sedentary. The intensity and duration that older Masters and recreational athletes spent in their sport was inversely associated with the amount of sedentary time accumulated. Future research using inclinometers is needed to further elucidate sedentary time in older male and female athletes.

  13. Perceptions of the sport psychologist by female university athletes.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J E; Bull, S J

    1999-03-01

    In this study we explored the existence of a favourable attitude towards sport psychologists by female athletes in relation to other sport-oriented and mental health professionals. Ninety female student athletes made judgements of similarity between 11 practitioner terms using the triad method. A rank-order task was also completed, where the 11 professionals were ranked on three expertise variables in sporting, mental and physical issues. The results were analysed using (1) the metric scaling procedure of correspondence analysis, (2) cultural consensus analysis and (3) PROperty FITting analysis. A two-dimensional solution provided the best interpretation of the similarity judgements. The correspondence analysis configuration positioned the sport psychologist centrally between a sport-oriented pair and the cluster of mental health professionals. Participants reported adequate consensus on all three expertise variables, which is consistent with the assumptions of Cultural Consensus Theory. Consistent with earlier research, the three variables were salient in the participants' similarity judgements of sport and mental health professionals. Our results suggest the existence of a more favourable perception of the sport psychologist and a distancing from a direct association with mental health practitioners. However, the centrality of the term may indicate a more cloudy distinction as to where the sport psychologist exists in relation to other professionals.

  14. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    PubMed

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dietary intakes and eating habits of college athletes: are female college athletes following the current sports nutrition standards?

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Betts, Nancy M; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May 2010. Participants completed anthropometric measurements and dietary assessment using a 3-day food record, a 24-hour recall, and a nutrition questionnaire. t tests indicated the energy and carbohydrate intakes were below the minimum recommended amount (p<.001), with only 9% of the participants meeting their energy needs. Seventy-five percent of the participants failed to consume the minimum amount of carbohydrates that is required to support training. The majority of the participants reported no regular breakfast, 36% consumed<5 meals/day, and only 16% monitored their hydration status. Effective nutrition interventions are needed to improve dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes.

  16. Are former female elite athletes more likely to experience urinary incontinence later in life than non-athletes?

    PubMed

    Bø, K; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether former female elite athletes are more likely to experience urinary incontinence (UI) later in life than non-athletes and to assess possible risk factors for UI in athletes. Three hundred and thirty-one former elite athletes (response rate 81%) and 640 controls replied to a postal questionnaire including validated questions on UI. While competing in sport, 10.9% and 2.7% of the former elite athletes reported stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urge incontinence, respectively. Presently, 36.5% of the former elite athletes and 36.9% of the controls reported SUI. 9.1% and 9.4% reported urge incontinence. Among former elite athletes, those with two or three children were more likely than nulliparous women to have UI now. Also, among former athletes, UI was more common in women with vs those without UI while competing (odds ratio 8.57, 95% confidence interval: 3.55-20.71). Age, menopause and being regularly physically active now were not associated with UI in either group. Based on this study, the prevalence of UI does not seem to be higher in former athletes than in controls. However, the results indicate that UI early in life, as reported during elite sport, is a strong predictor of UI later in life.

  17. Postactivation potentiation enhances upper- and lower-body athletic performance in collegiate male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Evetovich, Tammy K; Conley, Donovan S; McCawley, Paul F

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of postactivation potentiation (PAP)-inducing activities in 4 separate studies examining vertical (VJP) and horizontal (HJP) jump performance, shot put performance (SPP), and sprint performance (SP), in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Study 1: 12 male (mean ± SD; age = 20.2 ± 2.0 years; height = 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; weight = 73.3 ± 6.43 kg) and 8 female (age = 20.1 ± 1.0 years; height = 169.6 ± 5.5 cm; weight = 59.8 ± 7.6 kg) track athletes participated in HJP and VJP testing before and after performing a parallel back squat (PBS) at 85% 1 repetition maximum (RM). Study 2: 10 (6 men and 4 women) shot put throwers (age = 20.6 ± 0.7 years; height = 182.1 ± 9.8 cm; weight = 102.8 ± 23.6 kg) participated in SPP testing for control (C), 3RM bench press, and 3RM PBS protocols. Study 3: 7 football players (age = 20.4 ± 1.6 years; weight = 87.8 ± 8.3 kg; height = 184.3 ± 7.2 cm) participated in SP testing before (PBS1) and after (PBS2) performing a 3RM PBS. Study 4: 11 football players (age = 20.3 ± 1.8 years; height = 180.6 ± 7.5 cm; weight = 86.1 ± 12.8 kg) participated in VJP testing for C and 3RM PBS protocols. Results of study 1: There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in VJP (PRE = 61.9 ± 12.3 cm; POST = 63.6 ± 11.6 cm) and HJP (PRE = 93.7 ± 11.0 cm; POST = 95.9 ± 11.5 cm). Study 2: SPP after PBS (11.67 ± 1.92 m) was not different vs. C (11.77 ± 1.81), but bench press (11.91 ± 1.81 m) was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) than both PBS and C. Study 3: SP time was significantly lower for PBS2 (4.6014 ± 0.17995 seconds) vs. PB1 (4.6557 ± 0.19603 seconds). Study 4: There was no difference in VJP for C (68.35 ± 2.16 cm) vs. PBS (68.12 ± 2.51 cm). Our data show that a 3RM PBS resulted in significant improvements in VJP, HJP, SPP, and SP in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II male and female athletes. Strength and conditioning practitioners

  18. The female athlete triad: an emerging role for physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Paula E

    2003-10-01

    Over the last thirty years, participation by girls and women in organized athletics has increased dramatically. This presents unique challenges in the area of sports medicine, orthopaedics, and pediatrics. While the benefits of participation in sports and exercise vastly outweigh the risks of permanent injury, an evolving concern is the number of stress fractures in active women. The female athlete triad ("triad") describes the coexistence of 3 distinct medical conditions that may occur in athletic girls and women. Originally, the triad included eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Presently, it includes eating disorders/disordered eating behavior, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia). Briefly, when coupled with inadequate nutrition, the high caloric expenditure of exercise training resultsin a sustained negative caloric balance or low energy availability, which is exquisitely sensed by the hypothalamus, initiating a complex neuroendocrine adaptive cascade. This cascade is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, such that estrogen levels are decreased, resulting in reproductive dysfunction that may include amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or anovulation. Low estrogen in otherwise young healthy women, like menopause, is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures. The triad is not an inevitable consequence of participation in sports or physical activity at any level, however, exercise may contribute to the disruption of caloric balance. The triad is a complex disorder that requires intervention by a multidisciplinary team. Physical therapists bring a unique expertise to the team. The present review summarizes each component of the triad, component linkage, and the role of physical therapy in prevention, assessment, and intervention.

  19. When Pleasure and Pain Take the Field: The Experience of the Body in Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghidinelli, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the subjective experiences of training and competition at the collegiate level in a small group of former Division I female collegiate athletes. A review of relevant research indicates there is a dearth of qualitative studies on the experiences of female collegiate athletes. The current study explored the experience of pushing…

  20. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  1. When Pleasure and Pain Take the Field: The Experience of the Body in Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghidinelli, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the subjective experiences of training and competition at the collegiate level in a small group of former Division I female collegiate athletes. A review of relevant research indicates there is a dearth of qualitative studies on the experiences of female collegiate athletes. The current study explored the experience of pushing…

  2. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  3. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  4. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  5. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  6. Enhancing Appearance and Sports Performance: Are Female Collegiate Athletes Behaving More like Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan M.; Gorrow, Teena R.; Schneider, Sidney R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Participants: Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Method: Participants completed a questionnaire about…

  7. Sex Role Orientations of Male and Female Collegiate Athletes from Selected Individual and Team Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrisberg, Craig A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Uses the Bem Sex Role Inventory to compare the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes. Results indicate no significant differences for team sports players, but higher femininity scores for females in individual sports. (FMW)

  8. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  9. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  10. Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Cauci, Sabina; Buligan, Cinzia; Marangone, Micaela; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes. Oxidative stress was evaluated by free oxygen radical test (FORT) assessing blood hydroperoxides and free oxygen radical defense (FORD) assay evaluating antioxidant capacity in OC users (n = 42) compared to non-OC users. Elevated oxidative stress levels (≥310 FORT units) were found in 92.9 % of OC users and in 23.5 % of non-OC users (crude OR = 42, 95 % CI 12-149, p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 60, 95 % CI 11-322, p < 0.001). Continuous values of hydroperoxides were twofold higher in OC users versus non-OC users (median 484 versus 270 FORT units, p < 0.001) and were inversely related to FORD units in OC users (p = 0.01). Hydroperoxides were not associated with weekly hours of exercise. In OC users, lifestyle/alimentary habits were not correlated to hydroperoxides. In non-OC users only, hydroperoxide values were positively correlated with weight and BMI and inversely correlated with chocolate and fish consumption. The markedly elevated oxidative stress we revealed in OC-user athletes could be detrimental to physical activity and elevate cardiovascular risk (as thromboembolism). Further research is needed to extend our results, to clarify the biochemical pathways leading to increased hydroperoxides (mainly lipid peroxides) and reduced antioxidant defense, and to elucidate the potential effects on athletic performance. OC use should be considered when developing gender-focused strategies against oxidative stress.

  11. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  12. Assessment of pelvic floor muscle pressure in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Borin, Lílian Cristina Marques da Silva; Nunes, Fabiana Roberta; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the pressure of the pelvic floor muscles in female athletes and the associated signs and symptoms of stress urinary incontinence. A prospective observational study. An academic institution, primary level of clinical care. Forty women between 18 and 30 years of age divided into 4 groups: 10 volleyball players, 10 handball players, 10 basketball players, and 10 nonathletes. The measurement of intracavity pressure was performed with use of a perineometer. The volunteers were instructed to perform 3 maximum isometric contractions of the perineum, held for 4 seconds. Data regarding specific training and urinary symptoms were collected through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance, with a significance level of 5%. The Spearman correlation was used to verify the degree of association between variables related to training, urinary symptoms, and perineal pressure. The average (standard deviation) perineal pressure for nonathletes was 6.73 ± 1.91 mm Hg. The average perineal pressure for handball players was 5.55 ± 1.43 mm Hg; for volleyball players, 4.36 ± 1.43 mm Hg; and for basketball players, 3.65 ± 1.35 mm Hg. Statistically significant differences were found in the perineal pressure of volleyball (P = .009) and basketball players (P = .039) compared with nonathletes. The number of games per year, strength training, and on-court workout correlated significantly with perineal pressure (Spearman correlation coefficient [Rs] of -0.512 for the 3 variables). Urine leakage through effort and nocturia correlated moderately with perineal pressure (Rs of -0.51 and -0.54, respectively). A strong correlation was found between urinary frequency and perineal pressure (Rs of -0.85). Analysis of these data suggests that perineal pressure is decreased in female athletes compared with nonathlete women. A lower perineal pressure correlates with increased symptoms of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor dysfunction. Copyright © 2013

  13. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training for preventing anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Slauterbeck, James R

    2007-01-01

    Female athletes are four to six times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Since the enactment of Title IX, male athletic participation at the high school level has remained steady (3.8 million), whereas female athletic participation has increased tenfold (from 0.3 to 3.0 million). Geometric growth in athletic participation and the higher injury rate in female athletes have led to gender inequity in ACL injury rates. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms such as during landing from a jump or while making a lateral pivot. Dynamic knee instability, caused by ligament dominance (decreased dynamic neuromuscular control of the joint), quadriceps dominance (decreased hamstring strength and recruitment), and leg dominance (side-to-side differences in strength and coordination) may be responsible for gender inequity in ACL injury rates.

  14. Biomechanical and performance differences between female soccer athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rose; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Holleran, Adam; Treadway, Erin; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase in women's varsity soccer participation has been accompanied by a lower extremity injury rate that is 2 to 6 times that of their male counterparts. To define the differences between lower extremity biomechanics (knee abduction and knee flexion measures) and performance (maximal vertical jump height) between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III female soccer athletes during a drop vertical jump. Mixed 2 x 2 design. Research laboratory. Thirty-four female collegiate soccer players (Division I: n = 19; Division III: n = 15) participated in the study. The groups were similar in height and mass. Each subject performed a maximal vertical jump, followed by 3 drop vertical jumps. Kinematics (knee abduction and flexion angles) and kinetics (knee abduction and flexion moments) were measured with a motion analysis system and 2 force platforms during the drop vertical jumps. Knee abduction angular range of motion and knee abduction external moments were not different between groups (P > .05). However, Division I athletes demonstrated decreased knee flexion range of motion (P = .038) and greater peak external knee flexion moment (P = .009) compared with Division III athletes. Division I athletes demonstrated increased vertical jump height compared with Division III (P = .008). Division I athletes demonstrated different sagittal-plane mechanics than Division III athletes, which may facilitate improved performance. The similarities in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors (knee abduction torques and angles) may correlate with the consistent incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury across divisions.

  15. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Faber, J; Sidelmann, J J; Aziz, M; Sjödin, A

    2015-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad), links low energy availability (EA), with menstrual dysfunction (MD), and impaired bone health. The aims of this study were to examine associations between EA/MD and energy metabolism and the prevalence of Triad-associated conditions in endurance athletes. Forty women [26.2 ± 5.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.6 ± 2.0 kg/m(2), body fat 20.0 ± 3.0%], exercising 11.4 ± 4.5 h/week, were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocol included gynecological examination; assessment of bone health; indirect respiratory calorimetry; diet and exercise measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (< 45 kcal/kg FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 ± 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 ± 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.01], as did subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 ± 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 ± 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.05). 63% had low/reduced EA, 25% ED, 60% MD, 45% impaired bone health, and 23% had all three Triad conditions. 53% had low RMR, 25% hypercholesterolemia, and 38% hypoglycemia. Conclusively, athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes - is iron status affected by regular sporting activity?

    PubMed

    Sandström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats; Rödjer, Stig

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among a group of female athletes and compare with an age-matched group of female nonathletes. To study lifestyle factors that could play a role in the development of ID and IDA and compare these factors between the groups. A controlled clinical trial. A senior high school for athletes in Gothenburg, Sweden. All female athletes at a senior high school for top-level athletes were offered to take part. Fifty-seven female athletes accepted to participate in the study. The control group consisted of a random sample of 130 age-matched nonathlete students; 92 accepted to participate in the study. Intervention was not an actual part of this study but those with ID and IDA were treated with iron by the regular school doctor. Iron deficiency anemia and ID were determined by levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. The main result of the study is the finding that ID and IDA are common among young adolescent female athletes and that there was no difference between female athletes and nonathletes. In the athlete group, 30 of 57 individuals (52%) had ID compared with 43 of 92 individuals (48%) in the nonathlete group (P > 0.3). Comparisons of the 2 groups showed no significant difference in hemoglobin (P > 0.30). In total, we found that 5 of 57 athletes (8.6%) had IDA compared with 3 of 92 nonathletes (3.3%), the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.24). The main finding of this study is that ID and IDA are common among female adolescents but not more common among athletes than nonathletes. The results are despite factors that should favor a better iron status in the athlete group, such as better iron intake and less menstrual bleeding. Other factors that might have an impact on iron balance, must therefore be considered.

  17. Sexual harassment and eating disorders in female elite athletes - a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Fasting, K; Brackenridge, C; Torstveit, M K; Berglund, B

    2003-10-01

    The aims were to examine the percentage of female elite athletes and controls reporting sexual harassment and abuse (SHAB), and whether a higher percentage of female athletes with eating disorders (ED) had experienced SHAB. A questionnaire was administered to the total population of female elite athletes (n = 660) and controls (n = 780) aged 15-39 years. Sexual harassment and abuse were measured through 11 questions, ranging from light to severe SHAB. In addition, questions about dietary-, menstrual- and training-history and the Eating Disorder Inventory were included. The response rate was 88% for athletes and 71% for controls. Athletes (n = 121) and controls (n = 81) classified as "at risk" for ED and non-ED controls participated in a clinical interview. A higher percentage of controls compared with athletes reported experiences of SHAB in general (59% vs. 51%, P < 0.001). A lower percentage of athletes had experienced SHAB inside sports than outside sport (28% vs. 39%, P < 0.001). A higher percentage of ED athletes than non-ED athletes had experienced SHAB (66% vs. 48%, P < 0.01), both inside sport and outside sport. In spite of the fact that a higher percentage of controls compared with athletes had experienced SHAB, it is necessary to formulate clear guidelines, set up educational workshops and implement intervention programs for both ED and SHAB in sport.

  18. Physical performance characteristics in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III champion female lacrosse athletes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Neese, Kate L; Ross, Ryan E; Kang, Jie; Magrelli, Jason F; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences between starters and nonstarters and between different playing positions in collegiate female lacrosse athletes. Twenty-two subjects playing on a two-time defending National Champion National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female lacrosse team volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were examined during the preseason period and participated in a total of 5 testing sessions, separated by at least 72 hours. Subjects were tested on their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (bench press and squat), vertical jump, Wingate anaerobic power test (WAnT), 30-second sprint using a nonmotorized treadmill, maximal aerobic capacity, 40-yd sprint, T-drill, and pro-agility test. No significant differences were observed between starters and nonstarters in any performance variable. Anthropometric analysis revealed that attackers were 15.7% (p < 0.05) heavier than midfielders. A significant difference (10.3%) between defenders and midfielders was seen in 1RM squat, while no other strength differences were noted. Attackers were more powerful in the WAnT (both peak and mean power) than both defenders (19.6 and 13.4%, respectively) and midfielders (21.2 and 13.4%, respectively). No significant differences were noted between the groups in any speed or agility measure. Although physical performance characteristics were not different between starters and nonstarters, results indicate that attackers are heavier and more powerful than the other positions and midfielders appear to be weaker in lower-body strength relative to the other positions in lacrosse.

  19. Tibial acceleration profiles during the menstrual cycle in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Bryant, Adam L; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Fluctuating levels of endogenous estrogen are thought to have an adverse effect on lower limb biomechanics, given the observed higher rate of ACL injury at certain phases of the menstrual cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fluctuating endogenous estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle on acceleration transients at the proximal tibia in young physically active females. Eleven females aged 16-18 years participated in this study and were compared to a male control group. Female subjects were tested at each of the four phases of the menstrual cycle: menses, follicular, ovulation and luteal. On each test occasion, acceleration transients at the proximal tibia were measured while subjects performed an abrupt deceleration task (simulated netball landing). No significant differences were found between the different phases of the menstrual cycle for peak tibial acceleration (PTA; P = 0.57), and time to zero tibial acceleration (TZTA; P = 0.59). However, there was a significant difference for time to peak tibial acceleration (TPTA) between menstruation and follicular (P = 0.04), menstruation and ovulation (P = 0.001), menstruation and luteal phase (P = 0.002), and follicular phase and ovulation (P = 0.007). In the male control group, no significant between-test session differences were observed for PTA (P = 0.48), TZTA (P = 0.08) and TPTA (P = 0.29). While there were no significant between-group differences for PTA (P = 0.21) and TZTA (P = 0.48), significant between-group differences were observed for TPTA (P = 0.001). The results of this project strongly suggest that serum estrogen fluctuations have an effect on tibial acceleration profiles in young female athletes during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  20. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    PubMed

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation.

  1. Prevalence of Disordered-Eating Behaviors in Undergraduate Female Collegiate Athletes and Nonathletes

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F; Alexander, Laura E

    2005-01-01

    Context: As the number of female college students participating in athletics has grown dramatically in the last few decades, sports medicine health care providers have become more aware of the unique health concerns of athletic women. These concerns include disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis: the female athlete triad. Disordered eating appears to be central in the triad, and the literature has conflicting data regarding the influence of athletic participation on disordered-eating behaviors. Objective: To compare disordered-eating symptoms between collegiate athletes (in lean and non-lean sports) and nonathletes. Design: A volunteer, cross-sectional cohort study of female students during the 2002–2003 academic year. Setting: A National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution. Patients or Other Participants: Undergraduate females, including 84 collegiate athletes and 62 nonathletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Symptoms associated with disordered eating were assessed using the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, a self-report measure of 91 items, and self-reported weight and menstrual function. Results: The athletes had significantly lower scores in body dissatisfaction (P = .01) and ineffectiveness (P = .002). No difference in mean body weight was noted between the 2 groups, but the nonathlete group had a significantly lower desired body weight (P = .004). Lean-sport athletes had a higher score on body dissatisfaction (P = .008) and lower actual (P = .024) and desired body weight (P = .002) than non–lean-sport athletes. A total of 7.1% of the collegiate athletes and 12.9% of the nonathletes were classified as having a high risk for disordered eating. Within the athlete sample, the high-risk group included 2.9% of the non–lean-sport athletes and 25% of the lean-sport athletes. Conclusions: In our study, female athletes did not exhibit more disordered-eating symptoms than women who did not participate in collegiate sports. However, our data

  2. Exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

    PubMed

    Reinking, Mark F

    2006-09-01

    Exercise-related leg pain is a common complaint among athletes, but there is little evidence regarding risk factors for this condition in female collegiate athletes. To examine prospectively the effect of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the development of exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Subjects were 76 female collegiate athletes participating in fall season sports, including cross-country running, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball. Athletes were seen for a pre-season examination that included measures of height, weight, foot pronation, and calf muscle length as well as a questionnaire for disordered eating behaviors. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight (kg/m(2)). Those athletes who developed exercise-related leg pain during the season were seen for follow-up. All athletes who developed the condition and a matched group without such leg pain underwent bone mineral density and body composition testing. Statistical analyses of differences and relationships were conducted. Of the 76 athletes, 58 (76%) reported a history of exercise-related leg pain, and 20 (26%) reported occurrence of exercise-related leg pain during the season. A history of this condition was strongly associated with its occurrence during the season (odds ratio, 13.2). Exercise-related leg pain was most common among field hockey and cross-country athletes and least common among soccer players. There were no differences between athletes with and without such leg pain regarding age, muscle length, self-reported eating behaviors, body mass index, menstrual function, or bone mineral density. Athletes with exercise-related leg pain had significantly (P < .05) greater navicular drop compared with those without. Exercise-related leg pain was common among this group of female athletes. The results suggest that there are certain factors, including foot pronation, sport, and a history of this condition, that are

  3. Female athlete triad and its components: toward improved screening and management.

    PubMed

    Javed, Asma; Tebben, Peter J; Fischer, Philip R; Lteif, Aida N

    2013-09-01

    As female athletic participation has increased, the positive effects of exercise on health have become evident. However, with this growth in sports activity, a set of health problems unique to the female athlete has emerged. The female athlete triad as first described in 1992 by the American College of Sports Medicine consisted of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis; the definition was updated in 2007 to include a spectrum of dysfunction related to energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. For this review, a comprehensive search of databases-MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus, from earliest inclusive dates to January 2013-was conducted by an experienced librarian with input from the authors. Controlled vocabulary supplemented with keywords such as female athlete triad, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, fracture, osteopenia, osteoporosis, bone disease, anorexia, bulimia, disordered eating, low energy availability was used to search for articles on female athlete triad. Articles addressing the prevalence, screening, and management of the female athlete triad were selected for inclusion in the review. This article reviews the current definitions of the triad components, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommended screening and management guidelines. The lack of efficacy of current screening of athletes is highlighted. Low energy availablity, from either dietary restriction or increased expenditure, plays a pivotal role in development of the triad. Athletes involved in "lean sports" (those that emphasize weight categories or aesthetics, such as ballet, gymnastics, or endurance running) are at highest risk. Treatment is centered on restoring energy availability to reverse adverse changes in the metabolic milieu. Prevention and early recognition of triad disorders are crucial to ensure timely intervention

  4. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Takahiro; Hikosaka, Sayo; Shimabukuro, Yuka; Murase, Maho; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yuzawa, Yukio; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Yamada, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Background Maintenance of low serum urate levels is important for the management of gout. Achieving the recommended serum urate levels of less than 6.0 mg/dL is difficult in elderly (65 years of age or older) patients with renal impairment. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat are used for this purpose. Although febuxostat had been shown to be efficacious in elderly patients, its safety and efficacy in elderly female patients with hyperuricemia remain unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients. Methods We studied a retrospective cohort study. The study included elderly Japanese patients (65 years of age or older) who were treated with febuxostat at Fujita Health University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The treatment goal was defined as achievement of serum urate levels of 6.0 mg/dL or lower within 16 weeks; this was the primary endpoint in the present study. Adverse events of febuxostat were defined as more than twofold increases in Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events scores from baseline. Results We evaluated 82 patients treated with febuxostat during the observation period and classified them into male (n=53) and female (n=29) groups. The mean time to achievement of the treatment goal was significantly shorter in the female group (53 days) than in the male group (71 days). There were no significant differences in adverse events between the 2 groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the efficacy of febuxostat in elderly female patients is superior to that in elderly male patients and that the safety is equivalent. PMID:25214776

  5. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Takahiro; Hikosaka, Sayo; Shimabukuro, Yuka; Murase, Maho; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yuzawa, Yukio; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Yamada, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of low serum urate levels is important for the management of gout. Achieving the recommended serum urate levels of less than 6.0 mg/dL is difficult in elderly (65 years of age or older) patients with renal impairment. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat are used for this purpose. Although febuxostat had been shown to be efficacious in elderly patients, its safety and efficacy in elderly female patients with hyperuricemia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients. We studied a retrospective cohort study. The study included elderly Japanese patients (65 years of age or older) who were treated with febuxostat at Fujita Health University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The treatment goal was defined as achievement of serum urate levels of 6.0 mg/dL or lower within 16 weeks; this was the primary endpoint in the present study. Adverse events of febuxostat were defined as more than twofold increases in Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events scores from baseline. We evaluated 82 patients treated with febuxostat during the observation period and classified them into male (n=53) and female (n=29) groups. The mean time to achievement of the treatment goal was significantly shorter in the female group (53 days) than in the male group (71 days). There were no significant differences in adverse events between the 2 groups. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of febuxostat in elderly female patients is superior to that in elderly male patients and that the safety is equivalent.

  6. Perceptions of body weight and nutritional practices among male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie J; Goldufsky, Tatum M; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender differences related to body weight perceptions, nutritional practices, and ideal weight difference (IWD). An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. Mean ± SD female and male IWD was -6.8 ± 8.8 and 1.3 ± 12.3 lbs, respectively (p < .001). Significant differences in level of agreement regarding perceived body weight effects on performance and dietary practices existed between genders. Significant gender differences may exist regarding body weight perceptions and nutritional practices among collegiate athletes. Deliverance of gender-specific educational information about proper nutritional practices is warranted. To properly tailor interventions to specific sports, research with larger sample sizes is needed.

  7. Gender differences in high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, and communication about the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.

  8. Female athlete's heart: Systolic and diastolic function related to circulatory dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hedman, K; Tamás, É; Henriksson, J; Bjarnegård, N; Brudin, L; Nylander, E

    2015-06-01

    There are relatively few studies on female athletes examining cardiac size and function and how these measures relate to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). When determining sports eligibility, it is important to know what physiological adaptations and characteristics may be expected in female athletes, taking body and cardiac size into account. The purposes of this study were (a) to compare right and left heart dimensions and function in female endurance athletes (ATH) and in non-athletic female controls of similar age (CON); and (b) to explore how these measures related to VO2max. Forty-six ATH and 48 CON underwent a maximal bicycle exercise test and an echocardiographic examination at rest, including standard and color tissue Doppler investigation. All heart dimensions indexed for body size were larger in ATH (all P < 0.01). The diastolic mitral E/A ratio was 27% higher in ATH (P < 0.001) while systolic left and right atrio-ventricular longitudinal displacement was 7% (P = 0.002) and 15% (P < 0.001) larger in ATH, respectively. Half (50.3%) of the variability in VO2max could be explained by left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Our results could be useful in evaluating female endurance athletes with suspected cardiac disease and contribute to understanding differences between female athletes and non-athletes.

  9. Policies on screening female athletes for iron deficiency in NCAA division I-A institutions.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Brandy S; Rosenbloom, Christine A; Skinner, Robert; Summers, Stephanie H

    2003-09-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the United States. This condition has been reported to affect 60% of female athletes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emphasize screening for anemia in women of childbearing age. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A schools that implement screening for iron deficiency in female athletes as well as the screening policies for those who do. A link to an online survey was sent to 94 NCAA Division I-A schools to determine current practices concerning screening and treating female athletes for iron deficiency. There was a 58% response rate. Frequencies for each response were computed. Forty-three percent of responding institutions report screening female athletes for iron deficiency. This study suggests that screening for iron deficiency in female athletes at NCAA Division I-A schools is not a routine procedure and, for those who do screen, variability exists in the criteria for diagnosis, as well as in treatment protocols. Standard protocols for assessment and treatment of iron deficiency in female athletes need to be developed and implemented.

  10. Eating disorders and their putative risk factors among female German professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p < .01). All factors together accounted for 57.3% of variation in disordered eating, with sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Knee Laxity Variations in the Menstrual Cycle in Female Athletes Referred to the Orthopedic Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Seyed Esmaeel; Peyvandi, Sepideh; Kariminasab, Mohamad Hosein; Shayesteh Azar, Masoud; Daneshpoor, Seyed Mohamad Mehdi; Khalilian, Alireza; Aghajantabar, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is the biggest concern for orthopedic surgeons who are involved in sports injuries, so most of ACL reconstruction surgeries are sports related. ACL injuries in female athletes are 2 - 8 times more common than male athletes in similar sport injuries. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare knee laxity changes in the menstrual cycle in female athletes referred to the orthopedic clinic of Imam Khomeini hospital in the north of Iran, Sari, 2013. Patients and Methods The present descriptive study was conducted on 40 female athletes that were referred to the orthopedic clinic. Hormone levels, such as estrogen and progesterone were assessed by one laboratory in 3 phases of the menstrual cycle. We used Lachman test and anterior drawer test for knee laxity rate. The descriptive statistics were calculated as indices of central distribution of bonds (x ± SD) and relative frequency distribution was used for qualitative variables. Results The results of the current study showed that there is no significant difference in ACL laxity in female athletes in three phases of menstrual cycle; namely menstruation time, ovulation time and mid-luteal phase. Conclusions Despite numerous studies and research in the field of knee laxity and effects of female hormones, many researchers do not agree about the effect of female hormones on knee laxity. The current study also reported no relationship between female hormones and knee laxity, while statistics show fundamental difference between male and female athletes. PMID:28144404

  12. The Female Athlete Triad. Managing an Acute Risk to Long-Term Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Lynch, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis form an interconnected, potentially fatal triad that is not widely understood. Physician vigilance when treating young female athletes can lead to early recognition and prevention of serious consequences. Physicians must help athletic young women participate in their sports in the healthiest, safest…

  13. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  14. Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

  15. The Female Athlete Triad. Managing an Acute Risk to Long-Term Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Lynch, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis form an interconnected, potentially fatal triad that is not widely understood. Physician vigilance when treating young female athletes can lead to early recognition and prevention of serious consequences. Physicians must help athletic young women participate in their sports in the healthiest, safest…

  16. An Investigation of the Factors that Can Predict Philanthropic Support for Former Female Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that best describe the philanthropic motivations of female student-athletes when considering making financial contributions to their alma mater. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 2,351 alumnae student-athletes which had 347 respondents. The independent variables chosen were…

  17. Correlates of Female Athletic Participation: Masculinity, Femininity, Self-Esteem, and Attitudes toward Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colker, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    1980-01-01

    Investigates self-esteem, psychological masculinity and femininity, and attitudes toward women of female athletes in an attempt to examine the validity of various stereotypes and to investigate potential subgroup distinctions based on sport played, level of commitment to athletics, and experience. (Author)

  18. Career and Family Aspirations of Female Athletic Trainers Employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be

  19. Career and family aspirations of female athletic trainers employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Ferraro, Elizabeth M; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be problematic for female ATs and stimulate departure from the setting and even the profession.

  20. Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zach, Karie N; Smith Machin, Ariane L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-07-01

    Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  1. Epidemiology of Basketball, Soccer, and Volleyball Injuries in Middle-School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981

  2. Epidemiology of basketball, soccer, and volleyball injuries in middle-school female athletes.

    PubMed

    Barber Foss, Kim D; Myer, Greg D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer.

  3. Female Intercollegiate Athlete Alcohol Use: The Impact of Peer Social Networks on the Alcohol Use of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentson, Sally Ingrid Sagen

    2010-01-01

    Using a quantitative, correlational-exploratory design, this study explored the impact of peer social network size and composition on the alcohol use rates of first-year female athletes after 6 weeks of their first year of college, using the National College Health Assessment II and researcher-composed supplemental questions. Additionally, this…

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention's immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported;…

  5. Athletic Involvement and its Relevance to Hazardous Alcohol Use and Drinking Game Participation in Female College Athletes: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Rodriguez, Liliana; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors designed this cross-sectional study to examine sports team differences in hazardous alcohol use and drinking game participation, as well as the social correlates of these behaviors among female college athletes (N=176; M age=19.9 years, SD=1.24, range=18-22). Methods: Respondents completed self-report…

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; Durham, Melissa B.; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention's immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported;…

  7. Female Intercollegiate Athlete Alcohol Use: The Impact of Peer Social Networks on the Alcohol Use of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentson, Sally Ingrid Sagen

    2010-01-01

    Using a quantitative, correlational-exploratory design, this study explored the impact of peer social network size and composition on the alcohol use rates of first-year female athletes after 6 weeks of their first year of college, using the National College Health Assessment II and researcher-composed supplemental questions. Additionally, this…

  8. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  9. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  10. Consumption of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes.

    PubMed

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-07-01

    To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire from 207 NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Parameter estimates of 3 TPB-based models were calculated using Mplus software. The TPB-based models explained 64-66% and 18% of variance in behavioral intention and behavior, respectively, with subjective norm being the strongest predictor of dietary supplement consumption intention. Results support plausibility for the TPB to predict sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes.

  11. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  12. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  13. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings.

  14. Biomechanical and Performance Differences Between Female Soccer Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rose; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Holleran, Adam; Treadway, Erin; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in women's varsity soccer participation has been accompanied by a lower extremity injury rate that is 2 to 6 times that of their male counterparts. Objective: To define the differences between lower extremity biomechanics (knee abduction and knee flexion measures) and performance (maximal vertical jump height) between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III female soccer athletes during a drop vertical jump. Design: Mixed 2 × 2 design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female collegiate soccer players (Division I: n = 19; Division III: n = 15) participated in the study. The groups were similar in height and mass. Intervention(s): Each subject performed a maximal vertical jump, followed by 3 drop vertical jumps. Main Outcome Measure(s): Kinematics (knee abduction and flexion angles) and kinetics (knee abduction and flexion moments) were measured with a motion analysis system and 2 force platforms during the drop vertical jumps. Results: Knee abduction angular range of motion and knee abduction external moments were not different between groups (P > .05). However, Division I athletes demonstrated decreased knee flexion range of motion (P = .038) and greater peak external knee flexion moment (P = .009) compared with Division III athletes. Division I athletes demonstrated increased vertical jump height compared with Division III (P = .008). Conclusions: Division I athletes demonstrated different sagittal-plane mechanics than Division III athletes, which may facilitate improved performance. The similarities in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors (knee abduction torques and angles) may correlate with the consistent incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury across divisions. PMID:18174935

  15. Development and validation of a screening tool to identify eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    McNulty, K Y; Adams, C H; Anderson, J M; Affenito, S G

    2001-08-01

    To develop and validate a screening tool to identify eating pathology in women athletes. Three cross-sectional subject groups were established: college women athletes diagnosed with eating disorders; college women athletes without eating pathology; college women who did not participate in athletics but were diagnosed with an eating disorder. The Female Athlete Screening Tool (FAST), and 3 valid psychometric measures were administered to subjects in all groups. Internal reliability, discriminant and concurrent validity were established. Women college students between the ages of 18 and 23 years (n=41) from the University of Connecticut and St Joseph College were recruited. The athletes were screened for eating disorders by a sports medicine team. Cronbach's alpha, one-way analysis of variance, and correlation analyses. Reliability analysis indicated a high internal consistency of the FAST (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). Athletes with eating disorders scored significantly higher on the FAST as compared with athletes without eating pathology and nonathletes with eating disorders (P<.001), which demonstrated discriminant validity. Correlation analyses showed that the FAST was strongly correlated to the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (0.60, P<.05) and Eating Disorder Inventory (0.89, P<.001). Early detection of eating disorders can help prevent the onset or severity of a clinical eating disorder. By using the screening tool that has been validated for use in women athletes, dietetic professionals can quickly identify those athletes who need assistance with their aberrant eating habits.

  16. Coaching communication issues with elite female athletes: two Norwegian case studies.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Tomten, S E; Hanstad, D V; Roberts, G C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the careers of two successful female elite athletes who later stagnated, and to identify possible factors that might have led to their demotivation. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were conducted. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the stories of April and Hazel raised several issues related to coaching, coach education, and the development of female athletes. Their individual profiles revealed that their perception of the lack of long-term development was caused by coach miscommunication, having to cope with sudden fame, and injuries provoked by overtraining. The coach-athlete relationship was discussed with a focus on the inexperience of some coaches, the number of coaches the athletes had to deal with, sociolinguistic issues, and the differing criteria of success communicated. Finally, the importance of their national governing bodies to focus on knowledge transfer, the supervision of coaches, and the infrastructure to monitor athletes were discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Beliefs and social norms about ephedra onset and perceived addiction among college male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Adams, Lamar F; Barnes, Joshua B; Hines, Larissa A; Jones, Dallese E; Krebs, Kandi M A; Kelder, Steve H

    2005-01-01

    In Spring 2003, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with ephedra initiation and perceived addiction to the drug among 43 primarily minority athletes, attending a historically Black university in the southwestern region of the United States, who self-identified as past users. In general, participants stated that their second ephedra use event occurred on the same day as or the day after initiation. The majority of participants perceived that addiction was established by routine and eccentric behavior. Male athletes stated they used ephedra for improved athletic performance while females stated they used the drug for weight loss. Male participants stated it is difficult to quit ephedra use because of the resulting decrease in athletic performance, sickness, and weight gain. Female athletes were more concerned with their appearance. These findings are important in determining the early extent to which addiction is self-identified.

  18. Female recreational athletes demonstrate different knee biomechanics from male counterparts during jumping rope and turning activities.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Hideo; Harato, Kengo; Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Suda, Yasunori; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nagura, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    A variety of athletic exercises are performed in sports training or rehabilitation after knee injuries. However, it remains unclear whether males and females exhibit similar joint loading during the various athletic motions. The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in knee biomechanics during the athletic motions. Three-dimensional knee kinematics and kinetics were investigated in 20 recreational athletes (10 males and 10 females) while jumping rope, backward running, side running, side-to-side running, side-to-forward running, inside turning, and outside turning. The strengths of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, the knee joint force, the knee joint angle, and the knee joint moment were compared between males and females using one-tailed t tests. Peak knee anterior force was greater in female recreational athletes than in their male counterparts during jumping rope, side-to-forward running, inside turning, and outside turning. Female subjects displayed greater peak knee abduction angles and greater peak knee flexion moments while jumping rope compared to their male counterparts. There were no significant differences between the sexes in knee kinematics and kinetics in the frontal and transverse planes during running and turning motions. Female recreational athletes exhibited significantly different knee biomechanics compared with male counterparts during jumping rope and turning motions.

  19. Recognition and rehabilitation of the female athlete triad/tetrad: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Temme, Kate E; Hoch, Anne Z

    2013-01-01

    While the benefits of physical activity are numerous, the female athlete triad poses a significant health risk to young athletes. Emerging research links the triad to endothelial dysfunction--a sentinel event in cardiovascular disease--suggesting that this complex interplay of metabolic and endocrine factors may be described more accurately as a tetrad. Effective treatment of the triad/tetrad requires a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis must be placed on prevention, recognition, and treatment of triad for the promotion of healthy nutritional and activity profiles in female athletes across their lifespans.

  20. Neurometabolic and microstructural alterations following a sports-related concussion in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Chamard, Emilie; Lassonde, Maryse; Henry, Luke; Tremblay, Julie; Boulanger, Yvan; De Beaumont, Louis; Théoret, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are a major public health concern affecting millions of individuals annually. Neurometabolic and microstructural alterations have been reported in the chronic phase following a concussion in male athletes, while no study has investigated these alterations in female athletes. Neurometabolic and microstructural alterations following a concussion were investigated by comparing 10 female athletes with a concussion and 10 control female athletes, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Athletes with concussion were scanned at least 7 months post-concussion (mean = 18.9 months). MRS revealed a significant lower level of myo-inositol in the hippocampus and the primary motor cortices (M1) bilaterally. DTI analysis using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) showed no difference in fractional anisotropy (FA) while higher level of mean diffusivity (MD) in athletes with concussion was detected in large white matter tracts including the forceps minors, inferior/superior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiations and corticospinal tract. Moreover, a region of interest approach for the corpus callosum revealed a significant lower level of FA in the segment containing fibres projecting to M1. This study demonstrates persistent neurometabolic and microstructural alterations in female athletes suffering a sports-related concussion.

  1. Use of a functional movement screening tool to determine injury risk in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Chorba, Rita S; Chorba, David J; Bouillon, Lucinda E; Overmyer, Corey A; Landis, James A

    2010-06-01

    Athletes often utilize compensatory movement strategies to achieve high performance. However, these inefficient movement strategies may reinforce poor biomechanical movement patterns during typical activities, resulting in injury. This study sought to determine if compensatory movement patterns predispose female collegiate athletes to injury, and if a functional movement screening (FMS™) tool can be used to predict injuries in this population. Scores on the FMS™, comprised of seven movement tests, were calculated for 38 NCAA Division II female collegiate athletes before the start of their respective fall and winter sport seasons (soccer, volleyball, and basketball). Seven athletes reported a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Injuries sustained while participating in sport activities were recorded throughout the seasons. The mean FMS™ score and standard deviation for all subjects was 14.3±1.77 (maximum score of 21). Eighteen injuries (17 lower extremity, 1 lower back) were recorded during this study. A score of 14/21 or less was significantly associated with injury (P=0.0496). Sixty-nine percent of athletes scoring 14 or less sustained an injury. Odds ratios were 3.85 with inclusion of all subjects, and 4.58 with exclusion of ACLR subjects. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.58 and 0.74 for all subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was found between low-scoring athletes and injury (P=0.0214, r=0.76). A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ tool resulted in a 4-fold increase in risk of lower extremity injury in female collegiate athletes participating in fall and winter sports. The screening tool was able to predict injury in female athletes without a history of major musculoskeletal injury such as ACLR. Compensatory fundamental movement patterns can increase the risk of injury in female collegiate athletes, and can be identified by using a functional movement screening tool.

  2. Use of a Functional Movement Screening Tool to Determine Injury Risk in Female Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chorba, David J.; Bouillon, Lucinda E.; Overmyer, Corey A.; Landis, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Athletes often utilize compensatory movement strategies to achieve high performance. However, these inefficient movement strategies may reinforce poor biomechanical movement patterns during typical activities, resulting in injury. Objectives This study sought to determine if compensatory movement patterns predispose female collegiate athletes to injury, and if a functional movement screening (FMS™) tool can be used to predict injuries in this population. Methods Scores on the FMS™, comprised of seven movement tests, were calculated for 38 NCAA Division II female collegiate athletes before the start of their respective fall and winter sport seasons (soccer, volleyball, and basketball). Seven athletes reported a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Injuries sustained while participating in sport activities were recorded throughout the seasons. Results The mean FMS™ score and standard deviation for all subjects was 14.3±1.77 (maximum score of 21). Eighteen injuries (17 lower extremity, 1 lower back) were recorded during this study. A score of 14/21 or less was significantly associated with injury (P=0.0496). Sixty-nine percent of athletes scoring 14 or less sustained an injury. Odds ratios were 3.85 with inclusion of all subjects, and 4.58 with exclusion of ACLR subjects. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.58 and 0.74 for all subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was found between low-scoring athletes and injury (P=0.0214, r=0.76). Discussion A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ tool resulted in a 4-fold increase in risk of lower extremity injury in female collegiate athletes participating in fall and winter sports. The screening tool was able to predict injury in female athletes without a history of major musculoskeletal injury such as ACLR. Conclusion Compensatory fundamental movement patterns can increase the risk of injury in female collegiate athletes, and can be identified by using a functional

  3. Enhancing appearance and sports performance: are female collegiate athletes behaving more like males?

    PubMed

    Muller, Susan M; Gorrow, Teena R; Schneider, Sidney R

    2009-01-01

    The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about the average number of times each week they performed specific supplementing, exercise, or dietary behaviors. The authors found differences associated with gender for 9 of the 18 behaviors. Specifically, 2 of these 9 behaviors were dietary, 1 was supplementary, 3 were physique concerns, and 3 involved personal motivation for weightlifting. Male athletes reported a higher drive for size, speed, and power, whereas female athletes were more concerned with body fat, more likely to restrict caloric intake, and more prone to consume weight loss supplements. No differences were found by gender regarding supplement use to increase body size.

  4. A Study of VO2 Max and Body Fat Percentage in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bute, Smita S; Deshmukh, P.R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aerobic capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and athletic fitness. Body fat percentage affects VO2 max and thus the cardiovascular status of the athletes. The present study was undertaken to assess the VO2 max and body fat percentage in athletes. The secondary objective of the study was to study the relationship between VO2 max and body fat percentage. Materials and Methods: Twenty five female athletes of age group 17-22years were selected for the study. VO2 max was determined by Queen’s college step test and body fat percentage by skin fold calipers. The VO2 max and body fat percentage were determined in non athletes of same age group for comparison. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Observation and Results: The mean VO2 max in athletic group was 39.62 ± 2.80 ml/kg/min. In non-athletic group, VO2 max was 23.54 ± 3.26 ml/kg/min. The mean body fat percentage in athletes was 24.11 ± 1.83% and in non-athletes it was 29.31 ± 3.86%.The difference in VO2 max and body fat percentage was statistically significant in our study. The VO2 max and body fat percentage in both the groups showed negative correlation by Pearson test but, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed a statistically significant higher VO2 max in female athletes. The study showed a negative correlation between VO2 max and body fat percentage but was not statistically significant. PMID:25653935

  5. The relationship of anthropometric measurements with psychological criteria in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Cangur, Sengul; Yaman, Cetin; Ercan, Ilker; Yaman, Metin; Tok, Serdar

    2017-03-01

    Sports and exercise settings as well as other socio-cultural environments emphasize a thin and physically fit female body. However, there is a clear need for a better understanding of the physical and psychological correlates of social physique anxiety and body image dissatisfaction in female athletes. This study aimed to examine the association of the social physique anxiety, body image satisfaction, and personality with the anthropometric measurements in female college athletes according to their sport type using the Co-Plot technique. The sample included 63 female athletes ranging in age from 18 to 26. Results of the Co-Plot analysis revealed a significant association among social physique anxiety, personality and anthropometric measurements. This means that certain physical measurements may lead to greater social physique anxiety and body image dissatisfaction in female athletes. It was found that females having higher levels of social physique anxiety and thus, lower levels of body image satisfaction may be less emotionally stable and more negatively perfectionist. In conclusion, the results of the present study provided evidence to the claim that both physical self-perception and anthropometric measurements may be closely associated with psychological criteria in female athletes.

  6. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Maíta Poli de; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro da; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20 ± 3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports.

  7. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Kleine, Henrique Truffa; Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Gomes, Natalia Tavares; Caparroz, Graziela Pascom; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including 50 female athletes with mean age of 20±3 years. Colposcopy, pap smear, and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed. Blood samples were collected to test for the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. The athletes presenting clinical diseases or conditions identifiable by laboratory tests were treated and followed up in the unit. Results: Forty-six percent of the participants were unaware of sexually transmitted diseases. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among athletes was 48% (24 cases). Human papillomavirus was the most frequent agent (44%). Considering the human papillomavirus genotypes, subtype 16 was the most prevalent (53%), followed by 11-6 (22%) and 18 (13%). Two athletes tested positive for C. trachomatis. There were no cases diagnosed of infection by N. gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. However, only 26 athletes had been vaccinated for hepatitis B. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in female athletes was high. Primary prevention measures (hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccination) and secondary (serology, pap smears) must be offered to this specific group of women. The matter should be further approached in sports. PMID:24728243

  8. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea.

  9. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  10. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  11. Effect of Physical Exercise on some Hematological Parameters in Female Athletes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, T; Rahman, S M N; Alam, T; Habib, N; Umar, B U; Banna, Q R; Shirin, L; Begum, R

    2014-01-01

    Long term physical training has been considered to adversely affect the performance of athletes especially the females. It may be due to the iron depletion caused by hemolysis or hemodilution results from plasma volume expansion. This study aims to assess the effect of heavy exercise on hemoglobin concentration and some other hematological parameters in female athletes. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, from July 2010-June 2011. A total number of 105 females (70 athletes and 35 non athletes) between 15-25 years of age were recruited. The 35 apparently healthy female non athletes were taken as control (Group-A) and 70 female athletes comprise the study group (Group-B). According to sporting category, Group-B was further subdivided as B1:Runners and B2:Cyclists. Hemoglobin percentages (Hb %), red blood cell (RBC) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were measured in fasting state after two months training. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS/ win.15.0 for comparison between the groups, using student's unpaired "t" test. Mean Hb%, RBC, PCV, iron and ferritin level were significantly (P<0.001) lower in athletes than those of control group. Within the study groups, runner's serum iron and ferritin level were lower than cyclists. TIBC significantly (P<0.001) rose in Group-B2 in comparison to Group-A. The current study showed that intense physical exercise leads to early stages of Hb%, RBC, PCV, iron and ferritin depletion which might compromise the health and performance of athletes.

  12. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  13. Weekly training volume and hematological status in female top-level athletes of different sports.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, S M; Ahmetovic, Z

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were: a) to investigate the prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among female top-level athletes from different sports; b) to determine a relationship between serum ferritin levels and training status of female athletes. This study was conducted on 84 female professional athletes who were recruited during preparticipation physical examination. Upon entering the laboratory 10 mL of venous blood was drawn from an antecubital vein into a lavender-top tube for a complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, and transferrin and ferritin levels. No significant differences between any of the hematological variables were found between groups of different sports. The lowest hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin encountered in the study were Hb of 9.1 g/dL, MCV of 64.5 fL, serum iron of 15 microg/dL, ferritin of 5.4 microg/L, transferrin of 210 microg/dL in a 20-year old female distance runner with functional impairment and iron deficiency anemia. No significant differences were found between female athletes from different sports regarding the prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Serum ferritin level poorly correlate with training duration (r = 0.24) and seems to be inadequate indicator of training tolerance. This study has shown a high prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among female athletes from different sports, with similar incidence in individuals independent of their weekly training volume.

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the elderly athletes.

    PubMed

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; Plantinga, Y; Ghiadoni, L; Rossi, M; Prattichizzo, F; Carpi, A; Taddei, S; Santoro, G

    2006-09-01

    Regular exercise is a key component of cardiovascular risk prevention strategies, because it is associated with a variety of beneficial metabolic and vascular effects that reduce mortality and the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events. Endothelium plays an important role in the local regulation of vascular tone and structure, mainly by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and action. Aim of the present study was to evaluate in elderly athletes the effect of regular aerobic exercise on arterial blood pressure (BP) and on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. The study population included 30 male subjects (mean age 65.6+/-5.6 years), who had practiced endurance running at a competitive level for at least 40 years, and 28 age- and sex-matched subjects (mean age 64.5+/-4.5 years) with sedentary lifestyle and free of cardiovascular disease. Athletes and control subjects underwent standard 12-lead ECG, clinic BP, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and endothelium-dependent FMD and endothelium-independent response to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), 400 microg, in the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasonography. Systolic clinic and ambulatory 24-h BP were significantly lower in the athletes, than in the controls (P<0.001, respectively). Systolic and diastolic 24-h BP variability, when assessed either by the standard deviation (S.D.), or by the coefficient of variation (CV), were also significantly lower in the athletes (P<0.01). The athletes also had a lower 24-h, day-time and night-time heart rate (HR) (P<0.01), as well as a lower HR variability (P<0.01). As regards circadian BP change, the %Delta was statistically significant greater in athletes (P<0.05). Elderly athletes showed higher FMD than elderly sedentary subjects (P<0.001), whereas no differences were shown in the response to GTN. Our results, suggest that long-term physical activity can counteract the age-related endothelial dysfunction that characterizes sedentary aging, preserving

  15. Where are the women in women's sports? Predictors of female athletes' interest in a coaching career.

    PubMed

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Participants were 205 predominantly White, heterosexual female student athletes. A path analysis indicated that role models and working hours predicted coaching self-efficacy, which predicted coaching outcome expectations. Additionally, coaching self-efficacy, coaching outcome expectations, and contextual factors predicted coaching interest. Practical implications are discussed as well as suggestions for further research in this relatively unexplored area.

  16. Preferential Quadriceps Activation in Female Athletes With Incremental Increases in Landing Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. PMID:21844610

  17. Field dependence-independence of male and female Spanish athletes.

    PubMed

    Caño, J E; Márquez, S

    1995-06-01

    We examined the field dependence-independence of Spanish athletes, 293 men and women (aged 18 to 23 years) active in individual and team sports, and nonathletes. Subjects were tested on the Group Embedded Figures Test. Analysis indicated that men active in team sports were more field-dependent than those non-involved in sports, and that team-sport women exhibited a higher field-dependence than individual-sport athletes or nonathletes of both sexes. Our data reflect a significant interaction between type of sport and sex.

  18. Cognitive dysfunction in elderly females with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Emi; Ogikubo, Hiroki; Okazaki, Masatsugu; Kamimura, Kazuro; Konishi, Yasuharu; Emoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background A depressive state is a common symptom in the elderly and often accompanies cognitive impairment. The coexistence of depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment is a serious problem, as it increases adverse outcomes for health, functional status, and mortality. It would thus be of great value to clarify the cognitive dysfunction associated with depressive symptoms. We aimed to identify the cognitive dysfunction, in particular, impairment of the response inhibition component of executive function, associated with depressive symptoms in elderly females using the Simple Color Reaction Test and Modified Stroop Color-Word Test. Material/Methods The study group consisted of 35 elderly women. They performed cognitive function task trials for 9 min. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the prevalence of the depressive state. Results Longer reaction time and lower correction rate of response inhibition trials were related to the prevalence of the depressive symptoms. Conclusions Impaired function of response inhibition may be a specific feature of the depressive state. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the depressive state of elderly females. PMID:23197231

  19. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  20. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  1. Proper nutrition can prevent negative health outcomes in young female athletes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the onset of Title IX, opportunities have dramatically increased for female athletes, largely to their benefit. However, some negative health outcomes such as disordered eating, chronic menstrual disturbances and low bone mass have been associated with high-level competition among some female ...

  2. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  3. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  4. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  5. The relationship between serum relaxin and knee joint laxity in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christopher; Van Bell, Craig; Rogers, Vincent; Cooney, Timothy

    2002-06-01

    Gravidity studies have intimated a relationship between serum relaxin levels and joint laxity. To assess its applicability to eumenorrheic athletes, weekly serum relaxin and knee arthrometry measurements were obtained in 57 collegiate women and 5 men for 4 consecutive weeks. The former included athletes, ACL-injured athletes, and nonathletes, while the latter formed an a priori hormonal control. Analysis of variance revealed a significant change in weekly serum relaxin levels in females but not in anterior translation. Regression analysis failed to disclose a relationship between these variables. Therefore, we conclude relaxin does not affect knee laxity.

  6. The influence of athletic status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics and postural balance performance in Division I female soccer athletes and non-athlete controls.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Thiele, Ryan M; Conchola, Eric C; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance to discriminate between female collegiate soccer athletes and non-athlete controls. Ten athletes (mean ± SE: age = 19·20 ± 0·36 year; mass = 62·23 ± 3·12 kg; height = 162·43 ± 1·70 cm) and 10 non-athletes (age = 20·30 ± 0·40 year; mass = 69·64 ± 3·20 kg; height = 163·22 ± 2·10 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of static stability based on sway index (SI). Results indicated that absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms (RTD50 and RTD50norm) were greater (P = 0·007 and 0·026), and postural SI was lower (P = 0·022) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes. However, no differences (P = 0·375-0·709) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms (RTD100-200 and RTD100-200norm). Significant relationships were also observed between RTD50 and RTD50norm and SI (r = -0·559 and -0·521; P = 0·010 and 0·019). These findings suggest that early rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between college-aged athletes and non-athletes. Coaches and practitioners may use these findings as performance evaluation tools to help in identifying athletes with both superior early rapid torque and balance performance abilities, which may possibly be an indicator of overall athletic potential.

  7. Comparison of Female Collegiate Athletes and College Age Cohort in Tuck Jump Assessment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig A; Olson, Brandon K; Olson, Lisa A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2017-04-01

    Smith, CA, Olson, BK, Olson, LA, Chimera, NJ, and Warren, M. Comparison of female collegiate athletes and college age cohort in tuck jump assessment. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1048-1054, 2017-The tuck jump assessment (TJA) is a plyometric jumping assessment with 10 flaw criteria against which technique is assessed over a 10-second interval. The TJA has been reported as a tool for identifying neuromuscular deficits that increase risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury, but group specific data on female TJA scores are limited. No cut point has been developed for groups with different activity levels or participation in athletics. This study investigated the association between TJA score and athletic participation in college-aged females. One hundred twenty-one females (53 collegiate athletes and 68 college students) completed the TJA. TJA score was the sum of flaws for the 10 criteria observed, and the number of jumps was recorded. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between TJA score and number of jumps. The association between each of the 10 flaws between groups was assessed with the chi-square test. No significant association was found between groups for TJA score (mean ± SD: 4.66 ± 1.07 athletes; 5.45 ± 1.05 college cohort; p = 0.06; β = 0.82). Athletes jumped significantly more times (12.23 ± 1.04 athletes; 9.35 ± 1.04 college cohort). Athletes had a lower proportion of 2 flaws: "thighs do not reach parallel" and "pause between jumps." Lower statistical power may limit interpretation of the remaining flaws. The lack of control of the number of jumps may impact TJA score. To improve the TJA usefulness on the field and clinic, the protocol may need to standardize the number of jumps.

  8. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Its Association With Emotion Regulation in Female College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Wollenberg, Gena; Gates, Gale E

    2016-06-01

    The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted.

  9. The Level of Competition as a Factor for the Development of Eating Disorders in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Christy L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes among 39 female college athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools, 40 from NCAA Division II schools, and 31 nonathletes. Athletes at higher levels of competition showed more signs of pathological eating and were at increased risk of eating disorders. (SLD)

  10. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation.

  11. Rationale and implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention warm-up programs in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Bien, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The sex disparity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk and the subsequent adverse effects on knee joint health, psychosocial well-being, and financial costs incurred have produced a surge in research on risk factors and interventions designed to decrease this disparity and overall incidence. Biomechanical and neuromuscular differences have been identified throughout the trunk and lower extremity that may increase noncontact ACL injury risk in female athletes. Evidence demonstrates that many risk factors are modifiable with intervention programs and that athletic performance measures can be enhanced. No universally accepted ACL injury prevention program currently exists, and injury prevention programs are diverse. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs introduced in a warm-up format offer multiple benefits, primarily, improved compliance based on improved practicality of implementation. However, drawbacks of warm-up style formats also exist, most notably that a lack of equipment and resources may preclude measurable improvements in athletic performance that foster improved compliance among participants. The purpose of this review is to analyze the current literature researching possible biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors in noncontact ACL injury in female athletes and the most effective means of implementing critical elements of a program to decrease ACL injury risk in female athletes while improving athletic performance. Hip and hamstring training, core stabilization, plyometrics, balance, agility, neuromuscular training with video and verbal feedback to modify technique, and stretching appear to be essential components of these programs. Further research is critical to determine ideal training program volume, intensity, duration, and frequency.

  12. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, JL; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, TG

    2016-01-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed. PMID:27601779

  13. The New Policy on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes is not about “Sex Testing”

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Patiño, María José; Vilain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) updated their regulations regarding female elite athletes with hyperandrogenism: Females whose testosterone levels crossed into the male range could not compete with other females unless it is shown that they are resistant to the effects of testosterone. Although the new rule is a marked improvement over past attempts to ensure that males were not trying to compete as women in elite competition, there have been several criticisms leveled against the new regulations. Here we offer our reactions to claims that the new regulation promotes a sex-verification test, claims that intersex athletes will automatically be disqualified from competition, and proposals to either divide athletes based on variables beyond sex or completely eliminate sex groupings. Although elite sports can never achieve a perfect, level playing-field, there should be parameters within which athletes must adhere for a given sport. Yet, elite athletes themselves should play a decisive role in what is best for their sport. PMID:23320653

  14. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Ayers, J L; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, T G; Adams, K J

    2016-09-01

    Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  15. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. Objectives: This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients’ knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Conclusions: Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury. PMID:27218040

  16. A Skinfold Model to Predict Fat-Free Mass in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Evelyn R.; Fornetti, Willa C.; Jallo, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Despite widespread use of skinfolds to estimate body fatness, few prediction models have been validated on female athletes. Most skinfold models have been validated with hydrodensitometry, which does not account for the variability in bone density that may exist among female athletes. Our purpose was to develop a skinfold model that predicts fat-free mass (FFM) in female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: A skinfold model was developed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion method. Four skinfold measures (abdominal, suprailiac, thigh, triceps), height, and weight were entered into a regression model. The best model was developed and validated by calculating the predicted error sum of squares statistic. Subjects: Study participants included 101 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes (age = 20.3 ± 1.4 years, height = 166.7 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 63.1 ± 8.1 kg) from several sports. Measurements: Each participant's FFM was measured via DEXA. Skinfold thicknesses were measured and entered into the regression model. Results: The final regression model included mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds: FFM = 8.51 + (0.809 × mass) − (0.178 × abdominal skinfold) − (0.225 × thigh skinfold). The model showed excellent predictive ability (R = 0.98, standard error of the estimate = 1.1 kg). Pairwise comparisons indicated that prediction error showed no overprediction or underprediction bias. Conclusions: In female collegiate athletes, FFM can be predicted accurately from body mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds. This model is practical and can be used in most athletic settings. PMID:15496996

  17. A Skinfold Model to Predict Fat-Free Mass in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Warner, Evelyn R; Fornetti, Willa C; Jallo, Jennifer J; Pivarnik, James M

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite widespread use of skinfolds to estimate body fatness, few prediction models have been validated on female athletes. Most skinfold models have been validated with hydrodensitometry, which does not account for the variability in bone density that may exist among female athletes. Our purpose was to develop a skinfold model that predicts fat-free mass (FFM) in female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: A skinfold model was developed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion method. Four skinfold measures (abdominal, suprailiac, thigh, triceps), height, and weight were entered into a regression model. The best model was developed and validated by calculating the predicted error sum of squares statistic. SUBJECTS: Study participants included 101 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes (age = 20.3 +/- 1.4 years, height = 166.7 +/- 7.8 cm, mass = 63.1 +/- 8.1 kg) from several sports. MEASUREMENTS: Each participant's FFM was measured via DEXA. Skinfold thicknesses were measured and entered into the regression model. RESULTS: The final regression model included mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds: FFM = 8.51 + (0.809 x mass) - (0.178 x abdominal skinfold) - (0.225 x thigh skinfold). The model showed excellent predictive ability (R = 0.98, standard error of the estimate = 1.1 kg). Pairwise comparisons indicated that prediction error showed no overprediction or underprediction bias. CONCLUSIONS: In female collegiate athletes, FFM can be predicted accurately from body mass and abdominal and thigh skinfolds. This model is practical and can be used in most athletic settings.

  18. Acute Post-Activation Potentiation Effects in NCAA Division II Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sygulla, Kaiya Senn; Fountaine, Charles J

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon in which the power output of a muscle is immediately enhanced after heavy resistance exercise. Whereas the majority of PAP research has examined males, minimal research exists as to how female athletes respond. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute PAP response of back squats on static squat jump (SSJ) performance among NCAA Division II female athletes. Female athletes (n=29) who were current roster members from basketball, softball, and volleyball, performed 3 SSJ prior to 3 repetitions of the back squat exercise at 90% 1RM. After a 5-min rest, athletes once again performed 3 SSJ for maximal height, with peak power calculated using the Sayers equation. There was a significant interaction effect observed between time and team, p=0.022; post-hoc tests indicated that the volleyball team had a significant decrease in power, p=0.008. The main effect for time was not significant, p=0.279, indicating for the group as a whole, there was no evidence of a PAP response. The main effect for team was also non-significant, p=0.173, indicating no difference in power outputs by team. Strength and conditioning coaches who work with female athletes should be aware that the successful implementation of PAP complexes within this population appears to be highly individualized. Therefore, the use of PAP complexes in female athletes should consider both the absolute and relative strength of each athlete in conjunction with the length of the rest period when attempting to optimize the PAP response.

  19. Acute Post-Activation Potentiation Effects in NCAA Division II Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    SYGULLA, KAIYA SENN; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon in which the power output of a muscle is immediately enhanced after heavy resistance exercise. Whereas the majority of PAP research has examined males, minimal research exists as to how female athletes respond. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute PAP response of back squats on static squat jump (SSJ) performance among NCAA Division II female athletes. Female athletes (n=29) who were current roster members from basketball, softball, and volleyball, performed 3 SSJ prior to 3 repetitions of the back squat exercise at 90% 1RM. After a 5-min rest, athletes once again performed 3 SSJ for maximal height, with peak power calculated using the Sayers equation. There was a significant interaction effect observed between time and team, p=0.022; post-hoc tests indicated that the volleyball team had a significant decrease in power, p=0.008. The main effect for time was not significant, p=0.279, indicating for the group as a whole, there was no evidence of a PAP response. The main effect for team was also non-significant, p=0.173, indicating no difference in power outputs by team. Strength and conditioning coaches who work with female athletes should be aware that the successful implementation of PAP complexes within this population appears to be highly individualized. Therefore, the use of PAP complexes in female athletes should consider both the absolute and relative strength of each athlete in conjunction with the length of the rest period when attempting to optimize the PAP response. PMID:27182405

  20. Isokinetic peak torque ratios and shoulder injury history in adolescent female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Christopher D; Hetzler, Ronald K; Freemyer, Bret G; Kimura, Iris F

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have examined shoulder strength in adolescent volleyball athletes despite increasing levels of participation in this age group. To compare medial and lateral isokinetic peak torque of the rotator cuff among skill levels and between athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury. Cross-sectional design. The Human Performance Lab and Athletic Training Lab. Thirty-eight female adolescent club volleyball athletes from 10 to 15 years of age (mean = 13.02 +/- 1.60 years). We measured concentric and eccentric peak torque of the medial and lateral rotators of the shoulder and calculated resultant cocking and spiking ratios based on peak torque values. Athletes at higher skill levels had higher peak torque measurements in concentric and eccentric medial and lateral rotation compared with the athletes at lower skill levels. No differences in peak torque existed between participants with or without an injury history 6 months before the study. Strength ratios did not differ across skill levels, but previously injured participants produced lower eccentric medial rotation to concentric lateral rotation ratios compared with participants without a history of injury (P = .02). At the highest skill level, previously injured participants produced lower eccentric lateral rotation to concentric medial rotation ratios compared with participants without an injury history (P = .04). Differences in medial and lateral shoulder rotator strength ratios appear to be related more to injury prevalence than to absolute strength. Shoulder dysfunction related to strength ratio deficits also may exist in adolescent female volleyball athletes. Preventive shoulder strengthening programs focused on improving eccentric strength and correcting imbalances between medial and lateral rotators may be warranted for all female adolescent volleyball athletes.

  1. Isokinetic Peak Torque Ratios and Shoulder Injury History in Adolescent Female Volleyball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stickley, Christopher D; Hetzler, Ronald K; Freemyer, Bret G; Kimura, Iris F

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few researchers have examined shoulder strength in adolescent volleyball athletes despite increasing levels of participation in this age group. Objective: To compare medial and lateral isokinetic peak torque of the rotator cuff among skill levels and between athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The Human Performance Lab and Athletic Training Lab. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight female adolescent club volleyball athletes from 10 to 15 years of age (mean  =  13.02 ± 1.60 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured concentric and eccentric peak torque of the medial and lateral rotators of the shoulder and calculated resultant cocking and spiking ratios based on peak torque values. Results: Athletes at higher skill levels had higher peak torque measurements in concentric and eccentric medial and lateral rotation compared with the athletes at lower skill levels. No differences in peak torque existed between participants with or without an injury history 6 months before the study. Strength ratios did not differ across skill levels, but previously injured participants produced lower eccentric medial rotation to concentric lateral rotation ratios compared with participants without a history of injury (P  =  .02). At the highest skill level, previously injured participants produced lower eccentric lateral rotation to concentric medial rotation ratios compared with participants without an injury history (P  =  .04). Conclusions: Differences in medial and lateral shoulder rotator strength ratios appear to be related more to injury prevalence than to absolute strength. Shoulder dysfunction related to strength ratio deficits also may exist in adolescent female volleyball athletes. Preventive shoulder strengthening programs focused on improving eccentric strength and correcting imbalances between medial and lateral rotators may be warranted for all female adolescent volleyball

  2. Sport specialization's association with an increased risk of developing anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-02-01

    To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.

  3. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    PubMed

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p < 0.01) measured by SEBT. Athletes, however, showed no significant changes after the fatigue protocol. Our results indicates the importance of evaluation and monitoring of dynamic postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  4. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses With Respect to the Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N; Nichols, Jeanne F

    2015-08-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad-a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by referring symptomatic student-athletes to appropriate community resources for evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, communication, and referral behaviors of U.S. high school nurses about the Female Athlete Triad. Participants were a random sample of 370 U.S. high school nurses. The results indicated that only 19% of the nurses were able to identify the three components of the Triad and only 25% reported that they work proactively with coaches to help prevent health issues among their female athletes. Over 95% expressed interest in learning more about the Triad. Implications for educational program design are discussed.

  5. Survival estimates for elite male and female Olympic athletes and tennis championship competitors.

    PubMed

    Coate, D; Sun, R

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report survival estimates for male and female Olympic medal winners and for male and female finalists at the British and U S national tennis championships. We find a consistent longevity advantage of Olympic medal-winning female athletes over Olympic medal-winning male athletes competing separately in the same events since 1900 and for female finalists over male finalists competing separately in the finals of the national tennis championships of Britain and of the United States since the 1880s. This is the case for sample mean comparisons, for Kaplan-Meier survival function estimates, including life expectancy, and for Cox proportional hazard estimates, which show statistically significant lower hazard rates for women with birth year and other variables constant. The female longevity advantage over males is similar in the early period samples (birth years before 1920) and in the full period samples, and is 5-7 years.

  6. Role Conflict and the High School Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthrop, Joseph; Allison, Maria T.

    1983-01-01

    A study of female high school students sought to measure role conflict among females participating in traditionally approved sports--swimming, golf, gymnastics, and tennis--and those involved in sports such as basketball and track. The females gave little evidence of internal role conflict but had experienced external sources of conflict.…

  7. Biomechanical Deficit Profiles Associated with ACL Injury Risk in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Evangelos; Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the prevalence of biomechanical deficit patterns associated with ACL injury risk and their inter-connections in a large cohort of female athletes during an unanticipated cutting task. Methods High school female athletes (N=721) performed an unanticipated cutting task in the biomechanics laboratory. Trunk and lower extremity 3D kinetics and kinematics were measured and entered into a latent profile analysis model. Results Approximately 40% of female athletes demonstrated no biomechanical deficits and were categorized into the low risk group. The second most prevalent profile (24%) demonstrated a combination of high quadriceps and leg dominance deficits and was labeled as quadriceps-leg. The third most prevalent profile (22%) demonstrated a combination of trunk and leg dominance deficits and to lesser extent ligament dominance deficits, and was labeled as trunk-leg-ligament. Finally, the fourth profile (14%) demonstrated very high ligament dominance deficits only and it was labeled as ligament dominance profile. Conclusions This is the first study to identify the most common biomechanical profiles associated with ACL injury during a cutting task in a large cohort of female athletes. Approximately 60% of female athletes belong to one of the high-risk profiles. With the exception of the ligament dominance profile, the current analysis indicates that risk profiles consist of a combination of biomechanical deficits. The findings provide important insight into the prevalence of biomechanical deficits and future directions for the development of injury prevention programs. The findings can be used to guide the development of quick and easy tests that accurately categorize athletes into one of the profiles and subsequently prescribe tailored injury prevention programs that will be more effective and efficient than the current generic ones. PMID:26258858

  8. Moderators and Predictors of Response to Eating Disorder Risk Factor Reduction Programs in Collegiate Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T M; Plasencia, M; Han, H; Jackson, H; Becker, C B

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to investigate moderators and predictors of response to two programs designed to reduce eating disorder risk factors in collegiate female athletes. This study served as an ancillary study to a parent trial that investigated the feasibility of an athlete modified cognitive dissonance-based program (AM-DBP) and an athlete modified healthy weight intervention program (AM-HWI). 157 female collegiate athletes were randomized to either the AM-DBP or the AM-HWI program. Participants completed surveys at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks, and 1 year. After classifying sports as either lean or non-lean, we investigated if sport type acted as a moderator of program response to AM-DBP and AM-HWI using ANOVAs. Next, we examined whether baseline thin-ideal internalization, weight concern, shape concern, bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, and negative affect acted as predictors of changes in bulimic pathology using linear regression models. Athletes in non-lean sports who received AM-DBP showed more improvement in negative affect versus non-lean sport athletes in AM-HWI. Higher baseline scores of bulimic pathology predicted greater response in bulimic pathology to both programs at 6-weeks. In contrast, athletes with higher dietary restraint and negative affect baseline scores showed decreased response to both interventions at 6-weeks. Finally, athletes with higher baseline shape concern showed a decreased response to the AM-HWI intervention at the post intervention time point. Results from the present study indicate that lean/non-lean sport may not play a strong role in determining response to efficacious programs. Further, factors such as pre-existing bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, negative affect, and shape concern may affect general response to intervention versus specific responses to specific interventions.

  9. The Incidence and Potential Pathomechanics of Patellofemoral Pain in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Goodman, Arlene; Ceasar, Adrick; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Divine, Jon G.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and incidence of patellofemoral pain (PFP) in young female athletes and prospectively evaluate measures of frontal plane knee loading during landing to determine their relationship to development of PFP. We hypothesized that increased dynamic knee abduction measured during preseason biomechanical testing would be increased in those who developed PFP relative to teammates who did not develop PFP. Methods Middle and high school female athletes (n=240) were evaluated by a physician for PFP and for landing biomechanics prior to their basketball season. The athletes were monitored for athletic exposures and PFP injury during their competitive seasons. Findings At the beginning of the season, the point prevalence of PFP was 16.3 per 100 athletes. The cumulative incidence risk and rate for the development of new unilateral PFP was 9.66 per 100 athletes and 1.09 per 1000 athletic exposures, respectively. All new PFP developed in middle school athletes who demonstrated mean International Knee Documentation Committee score of 85.6 ± 7.7 at diagnosis. The new PFP group demonstrated increased knee abduction moments at initial contact (95% CI: 0.32 to 4.62 Nm) on the most-symptomatic limb and maximum (95% CI: 1.3 to 10.1 Nm; p=0.02) on the least-symptomatic (or no symptoms) limb relative to the matched control limbs. Knee abduction moments remained increased in the new PFP group when normalized to body mass (p<0.05). Interpretation The increased knee abduction landing mechanics in the new PFP group indicate that frontal plane loads contribute to increased incidence of PFP. PMID:20466469

  10. Moderators and Predictors of Response to Eating Disorder Risk Factor Reduction Programs in Collegiate Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, T.M.; Plasencia, M.; Han, H.; Jackson, H.; Becker, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this paper was to investigate moderators and predictors of response to two programs designed to reduce eating disorder risk factors in collegiate female athletes. This study served as an ancillary study to a parent trial that investigated the feasibility of an athlete modified cognitive dissonance-based program (AM-DBP) and an athlete modified healthy weight intervention program (AM-HWI). Design 157 female collegiate athletes were randomized to either the AM-DBP or the AM-HWI program. Participants completed surveys at baseline, post-intervention, 6 weeks, and 1 year. Methods After classifying sports as either lean or non-lean, we investigated if sport type acted as a moderator of program response to AM-DBP and AM-HWI using ANOVAs. Next, we examined whether baseline thin-ideal internalization, weight concern, shape concern, bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, and negative affect acted as predictors of changes in bulimic pathology using linear regression models. Results Athletes in non-lean sports who received AM-DBP showed more improvement in negative affect versus non-lean sport athletes in AM-HWI. Higher baseline scores of bulimic pathology predicted greater response in bulimic pathology to both programs at 6-weeks. In contrast, athletes with higher dietary restraint and negative affect baseline scores showed decreased response to both interventions at 6-weeks. Finally, athletes with higher baseline shape concern showed a decreased response to the AM-HWI intervention at the post intervention time point. Conclusion Results from the present study indicate that lean/non-lean sport may not play a strong role in determining response to efficacious programs. Further, factors such as pre-existing bulimic pathology, dietary restraint, negative affect, and shape concern may affect general response to intervention versus specific responses to specific interventions. PMID:25400505

  11. Muscular effects of statins in the elderly female: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shilpa; Selvarajah, Shalini; Schneider, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Statins have demonstrated substantial benefits in supporting cardiovascular health. Older individuals are more likely to experience the well-known muscle-related side effects of statins compared with younger individuals. Elderly females may be especially vulnerable to statin-related muscle disorder. This review will collate and discuss statin-related muscular effects, examine their molecular and genetic basis, and how these apply specifically to elderly women. Developing strategies to reduce the incidence of statin-induced myopathy in older adult women could contribute to a significant reduction in the overall incidence of statin-induced muscle disorder in this vulnerable group of patients. Reducing statin-related muscle disorder would likely improve overall patient compliance, thereby leading to an increase in improved short- and long-term outcomes associated with appropriate use of statins. PMID:23355775

  12. No kinetic differences during variations of the power clean in inexperienced female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; McMahon, John J; Fletcher, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has identified that the second pull phase of the clean generates the greatest power output and that the midthigh variations of the power clean also result in the greatest force and power output in male athletes; however, no research has compared the kinetics of the variations of the power clean in women. The aim of this investigation was to identify any differences between variations of the clean, across a range of loads, in inexperienced female collegiate athletes. Sixteen healthy female collegiate athletes (age 19 ± 2.3 years; height 166.5 ± 3.22 cm; body mass 62.25 ± 4.52 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] power clean 51.5 ± 2.65 kg) performed 3 repetitions of 3 variations (power clean, hang power clean, midthigh power clean) of the power clean at 60, 70, and 80% of their predetermined 1RM power clean, in a randomized and counterbalanced order. A 2-way analysis of variance (3 × 3; load × variation) revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in peak power, peak vertical force (Fz) or rate of force development (RFD) between loads or variations of the power clean. There appears to be no advantage in terms of peak power, Fz, or RFD between variations of the clean, in inexperienced female athletes, it is suggested, therefore, that inexperienced athletes intermittently perform different variations of the clean to ensure all round development and technical competence in each variation of the exercise.

  13. THE FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD-WHAT EVERY PHYSICAL THERAPIST SHOULD KNOW.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Laurie; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Smith, Lauren

    2015-08-01

    Females participating in sports have the potential of developing one or multiple parts of the Female Athlete Triad, defined as the inter-relationship among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Energy availability, defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expended, is believed to be at the cornerstone of the triad, and complications from low energy availability span many of the bodily systems and can have psychological implications. Treatment of the triad requires a comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach. Physical therapists frequently treat injured athletes and may have prolonged interactions with athletes depending on the length of the rehabilitation process. In addition to examination, assessment, and treatment of injuries, the role of the physical therapist includes prevention, and the promotion of health, wellness, and fitness. Thus, the goal of this clinical commentary is to identify and describe essential knowledge for the physical therapist, clearly identify the role of the physical therapist as part of multi-disciplinary management team, and outline resources for the physical therapist and athletes relevant to the female athlete triad. 5.

  14. Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: specific recommendations for female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Le Meur, Yann

    2011-10-01

    Gender-based differences in the physiological response to exercise have been studied extensively for the last four decades, and yet the study of post-exercise, gender-specific recovery has only been developing in more recent years. This review of the literature aims to present the current state of knowledge in this field, focusing on some of the most pertinent aspects of physiological recovery in female athletes and how metabolic, thermoregulatory, or inflammation and repair processes may differ from those observed in male athletes. Scientific investigations on the effect of gender on substrate utilization during exercise have yielded conflicting results. Factors contributing to the lack of agreement between studies include differences in subject dietary or training status, exercise intensity or duration, as well as the variations in ovarian hormone concentrations between different menstrual cycle phases in female subjects, as all are known to affect substrate metabolism during sub-maximal exercise. If greater fatty acid mobilization occurs in females during prolonged exercise compared with males, the inverse is observed during the recovery phase. This could explain why, despite mobilizing lipids to a greater extent than males during exercise, females lose less fat mass than their male counterparts over the course of a physical training programme. Where nutritional strategies are concerned, no difference appears between males and females in their capacity to replenish glycogen stores; optimal timing for carbohydrate intake does not differ between genders, and athletes must consume carbohydrates as soon as possible after exercise in order to maximize glycogen store repletion. While lipid intake should be limited in the immediate post-exercise period in order to favour carbohydrate and protein intake, in the scope of the athlete's general diet, lipid intake should be maintained at an adequate level (30%). This is particularly important for females specializing in

  15. Occurrence rates and predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Simeone, C; Moroni, A; Pettenò, A; Antonelli, A; Zani, D; Orizio, C; Cosciani Cunico, S

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and incontinence in female athletes and to determine the etiological factors. An anonymous self-questionnaire was collected from 623 casual female athletes aged 18 to 56 years, who were involved in 12 different sports. The surveys were distributed by hand to the athletes, during their sports fitness tests, in a sports center. We investigated the relationship between urinary disorders and factors such as age, body mass index (BMI), parity, duration of physical exercise, and type of sport. The prevalence of LUTS was 54.7%, and 30% for urinary incontinence. Changes in urinary frequency were detected in 91 (14.6%) women. Prevalence of dysuria was 13.3%, urinary straining was present in 173 (27.8%) athletes, whereas urinary urgency had an estimated prevalence of 37.2% with 232 athletes suffering from this disorder. Urgency was very common in volleyball players, as was dysuria among hockey and basketball players, whereas straining mainly affected aerobic participants and cyclists. Long training hours and competitive practices were correlated with the onset of LUTS. High-impact sports were more frequently associated with incontinence, while low-impact sports with LUTS. The sport with the main number of incontinent people was football. Urge incontinence affected a lot of athletes, mainly cyclists and football players. Stress incontinence was more frequent in hockey and volleyball players. LUTS and incontinence are prevalent in female athletes. In many cases, the disorders were present only during sports activities. In this sample, the presence of urinary disorders did not seem to be a barrier during sports or exercise.

  16. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    PubMed

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  17. Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…

  18. Preparing for Exit from Sport: A Phenomenological Examination of the Pre-Transition Experiences of Division I Female Intercollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David Eric

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to discover the meanings female intercollegiate athletes ascribe to their experiences preceding exit from NCAA Division I competition. The study sample included five Division I female intercollegiate athletes. Four of these attended a large public research institution in the Southern Plains…

  19. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, CA, May 2012, and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, IN, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves 3 components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with 1 or more of the 3 Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, California) and second (Indianapolis, Indianna) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad Expert Panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by The Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians, and other health care professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.

  20. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.

  1. ABCs of Evidence-based Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Strategies in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major concern in physically active females. Although ACL reconstruction techniques have seen significant advances in recent years, risk associated with re-injury and future osteoarthritis remains a major concern. Thus, prevention of ACL injury is a logical step to protect and preserve healthy knee joints in young athletes. The current report aims to summarize a list of evidence-based prevention strategies to reduce ACL injury in female athletes. A list of six critical principles, which come from documented, large scale clinical trial studies and further analyses, were presented with ABC format including age, biomechanics, compliance, dosage, exercise, and feedback. Also, a grade for evidence and implications of future research is noted. Finally, in the conclusion section, importance of collaborative efforts from healthcare practitioners, researchers, and personnel associated with athletics is addressed. PMID:26042191

  2. Female collegiate athletes: prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants were 204 college athletes (M age=20.16 years, SD=1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88 years (SD=16.68 years) and on their college team for 2.10 years (SD=1.03 years). Participants completed a demographic and weight background questionnaire, Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses, and the Bulimia Test-Revised. The authors classified participants as eating disordered (n=4, 2.0%), symptomatic (n=52, 25.5%), and asymptomatic (n=148, 72.5%). Few participants engaged in binge eating; most used exercise, as opposed to vomiting, dieting, laxatives, or diuretics, to control their weight. Female athletes suffer from eating disorders, and most experience symptom levels that are subclinical but problematic.

  3. A combination of routine blood analytes predicts fitness decrement in elderly endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Perkmann, Thomas; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Nistler, Sonja; Scherzer, Thomas M.; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Pilger, Alexander; Gerner, Marlene; Scheichenberger, Vanessa; Kundi, Michael; Endler, Georg; Wagner, Oswald F.; Winker, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are enjoying greater popularity, particularly among new target groups such as the elderly. Predictors of future physical capacities providing a basis for training adaptations are in high demand. We therefore aimed to estimate the future physical performance of elderly marathoners (runners/bicyclists) using a set of easily accessible standard laboratory parameters. To this end, 47 elderly marathon athletes underwent physical examinations including bicycle ergometry and a blood draw at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period. In order to compile a statistical model containing baseline laboratory results allowing prediction of follow-up ergometry performance, the cohort was subgrouped into a model training (n = 25) and a test sample (n = 22). The model containing significant predictors in univariate analysis (alanine aminotransferase, urea, folic acid, myeloperoxidase and total cholesterol) presented with high statistical significance and excellent goodness of fit (R2 = 0.789, ROC-AUC = 0.951±0.050) in the model training sample and was validated in the test sample (ROC-AUC = 0.786±0.098). Our results suggest that standard laboratory parameters could be particularly useful for predicting future physical capacity in elderly marathoners. It hence merits further research whether these conclusions can be translated to other disciplines or age groups. PMID:28475643

  4. Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses…

  5. Validity Evidence for Eating Attitudes Test Scores in a Sample of Female College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses…

  6. Working with Male Athletes: The Experiences of U.S. Female Head Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Abrell, Lura; Wilson, Matthew J.; Lape, Jennifer; Halbrook, Meghan; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, men have dominated the athletic arena; as a result, the number of women in sport management positions has been limited (Cashmore, 2000; Coakley, 2010). Even rarer is the opportunity for female coaches to coach male sport teams. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women who have coached male…

  7. Female Athletes, Administrators Lobby for Bill to Counteract Effects of Grove City Ruling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherman, Courtney

    1987-01-01

    Female athletes and women's sports administrators have joined a broad coalition of civil rights groups lobbying for passage of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, to counteract the effects of a 1984 Supreme Court ruling that narrowed the scope of federal antidiscrimination laws and endangered women's opportunities in intercollegiate…

  8. Participation in Athletics and Female Sexual Risk Behavior: The Evaluation of Four Causal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James

    2002-01-01

    Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…

  9. Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…

  10. An Examination of Psychosocial Correlates of Eating Disorders among Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine J.; Carter, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    With female collegiate athletes, we examined the relationship of eating pathology to body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state. Multivariate analyses revealed that the symptomatic and eating disorder groups were similar on seven of eight weight pressures, three of four mood states, on internalization, and…

  11. [Peculiarities of digital dermatoglyphics and the somatic status in female athletes engaged in fencing].

    PubMed

    Val'kovich, E I; Oleĭnik, E A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the morphogenetic performance of 31 female athlete aged 18-23 years specializing in fencing, compared to women of the same age group not involved in professional sports. The research program included: evaluation of a complex of anthropometric parameters (longitudinal, transverse, circumferential body sizes), somatotype diagnostics using of Heath-Carter method, evaluation of body composition, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of digital dermatoglyphics (pattern type, ridge count, delta index, a combination of phenotypic patterns), determination of sex chromatin content in the epithelial cells of the oral cavity mucous membrane. The study demonstrated that the somatic status of female fencers could be defined as a balanced mesomorphic somatotype with the prevailing mesomorphic vector. The proportion of muscular component in female athletes was higher, while that of the fat mass was lower than the similar parameters in the control group. The athletes were characterized by the peculiarities of dermatoglyphic constitution: high values of delta index and the total ridge count, higher proportion of complex patterns and minimal amount of simple patterns. In female athletes, significantly lower amounts of sex chromatin were demonstrated as compared to those not engaged in sports.

  12. Title IX: Parity of Coaches' Salaries for Male and Female Athletic Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A study by the National Education Association (NEA) of the existing literature, teacher opinion polls, federal legislation and regulations, state salary schedules, and collective bargaining agreements revealed important information concerning the differences in salaries in the late 1970s for coaches of male and female athletic teams in the public…

  13. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  14. An Examination of Psychosocial Correlates of Eating Disorders among Female Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine J.; Carter, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    With female collegiate athletes, we examined the relationship of eating pathology to body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state. Multivariate analyses revealed that the symptomatic and eating disorder groups were similar on seven of eight weight pressures, three of four mood states, on internalization, and…

  15. Rationale and Clinical Techniques for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Among Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present the rationale and detailed techniques for the application of exercises targeted to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in high-risk female athletes. Background: Female athletes have a 4- to 6-fold increased risk for ACL injury compared with their male counterparts playing at similar levels in the same sports. The increased ACL injury risk coupled with greater sports participation by young women over the last 30 years (9-fold increase in high school and 5-fold increase in collegiate sports) has generated public awareness and fueled several sex-related mechanistic and interventional investigations. These investigations provide the groundwork for the development of neuromuscular training aimed at targeting identified neuromuscular imbalances to decrease ACL injury risk. Description: After the onset of puberty, female athletes may not have a neuromuscular spurt to match their similar, rapid increase in growth and development. The lack of a natural neuromuscular adaptation may facilitate the development of neuromuscular imbalances that increase the risk for ACL injury. Dynamic neuromuscular analysis training provides the methodologic approach for identifying high-risk individuals and the basis of using interventions targeted to their specific needs. Clinical Advantages: Dynamic neuromuscular training applied to the high-risk population may decrease ACL injury risk and help more female athletes enjoy the benefits of sports participation without the long-term disabilities associated with injury. PMID:15592608

  16. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  17. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  18. Iron-regulatory protein hepcidin is increased in female athletes after a marathon.

    PubMed

    Roecker, L; Meier-Buttermilch, R; Brechtel, L; Nemeth, E; Ganz, T

    2005-12-01

    The propose of this study was to determine the influence of marathon race on hepcidin excretion in female athletes (age 26-45 years). Urine samples were taken before, immediately after, 1 and 3 days after the race. In the average, hepcidin transiently increased at day 1 from 32 to 85 ng/mg creatinine. We propose that the frequently observed iron deficiency of females runners is caused by elevated hepcidin levels.

  19. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement

    PubMed Central

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the “knee over toe position” when cutting. PMID:18539658

  20. Non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: an International Olympic Committee current concepts statement.

    PubMed

    Renstrom, P; Ljungqvist, A; Arendt, E; Beynnon, B; Fukubayashi, T; Garrett, W; Georgoulis, T; Hewett, T E; Johnson, R; Krosshaug, T; Mandelbaum, B; Micheli, L; Myklebust, G; Roos, E; Roos, H; Schamasch, P; Shultz, S; Werner, S; Wojtys, E; Engebretsen, L

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury remains high in young athletes. Because female athletes have a much higher incidence of ACL injuries in sports such as basketball and team handball than male athletes, the IOC Medical Commission invited a multidisciplinary group of ACL expert clinicians and scientists to (1) review current evidence including data from the new Scandinavian ACL registries; (2) critically evaluate high-quality studies of injury mechanics; (3) consider the key elements of successful prevention programmes; (4) summarise clinical management including surgery and conservative management; and (5) identify areas for further research. Risk factors for female athletes suffering ACL injury include: (1) being in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared with the postovulatory phase; (2) having decreased intercondylar notch width on plain radiography; and (3) developing increased knee abduction moment (a valgus intersegmental torque) during impact on landing. Well-designed injury prevention programmes reduce the risk of ACL for athletes, particularly women. These programmes attempt to alter dynamic loading of the tibiofemoral joint through neuromuscular and proprioceptive training. They emphasise proper landing and cutting techniques. This includes landing softly on the forefoot and rolling back to the rearfoot, engaging knee and hip flexion and, where possible, landing on two feet. Players are trained to avoid excessive dynamic valgus of the knee and to focus on the "knee over toe position" when cutting.

  1. Female high-school varsity athletics: an opportunity to improve bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Bush, Ruth A

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated whether moderate, organized physical activity during high school has a positive residual effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in 30-35-year-old females. Seventy-three female former high-school varsity athletes and 67 self-reported low-activity age-matched controls completed a collegiate women's health survey and participated in a one-time clinical visit with bone scan. Lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD, total hip BMD, percentage body fat, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of osteoporosis, college alcohol consumption, number of high school varsity seasons, as well as current nutritional intake (including calcium), number of weekly weight training sessions, and caloric expenditure were assessed. Using a saturated linear regression model, current percentage body fat and number of high school seasons predicted 22% of the observed variation in total hip BMD and 25% of the observed variation of lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD (P<0.001). High school athletes were more likely to be frequent adult exercisers (P<0.001). Athletic participants were more likely to have denser hip and spine bones than low-activity controls. Results suggest that participation in high school athletics is associated with greater BMD. Additionally, the varsity athletes continued to exercise frequently in their early 30s.

  2. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes.

    PubMed

    Maruyama-Nagao, Asako; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20-22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after.

  3. Seasonal variations in vitamin D status in indoor and outdoor female athletes

    PubMed Central

    MARUYAMA-NAGAO, ASAKO; SAKURABA, KEISHOKU; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) insufficiency is a concern, particularly among young females. The VD status shows seasonal variations, since it correlates with duration of sunlight exposure. VD insufficiency in indoor athletes is therefore suggested in winter. The aim of the present study was to determine seasonal variations in VD and bone status among indoor and outdoor female athletes. The prospective study was conducted in participants aged 20–22 years old. The participants comprised of 15 indoor and 15 outdoor athletes. The biochemical markers and bone parameters were measured in March, June, September and December. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentration showed a seasonal oscillation, with a nadir in March (indoor, 19±4.0 ng/ml; outdoor, 32±2.7 ng/ml) and a peak in September (indoor, 32±6.6 ng/ml; outdoor, 39±5.7 ng/ml). The amplitude of oscillation was greater in the indoor compared to the outdoor athletes. Seasonal variations in serum calcium exhibited a similar pattern, while the parathyroid hormone showed an inverse pattern to serum 25-OH-VD. The nadir in bone mass, measured as speed of sound, occurred in June after peaking in December among the indoor and outdoor athletes. The pattern followed 3 months after the changes in 25-OH-VD. Indoor sports athletes are more susceptible to VD insufficiency compared to outdoor sports athletes. Insufficiency is most likely to arise in winter, and could affect bone mineralization observed 3 months after. PMID:27347414

  4. Celiac Disease in an Elite Female Collegiate Volleyball Athlete: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of an elite female volleyball player who complained of diarrhea and fatigue after preseason training. Background: The athlete lost 8.1 kg during the first 20 days of training, and we initially suspected an eating disorder. The sports medicine team interviewed the athlete and found she did not have psychological symptoms indicative of an eating disorder. The results of routine blood tests revealed critically high platelet counts; in conjunction with the physical findings, the athlete was referred to a gastroenterologist. Differential Diagnosis: Our initial suggestion was an eating disorder. Therefore, the differential diagnosis included anorexia athletica, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. On referral, the differential diagnosis was anemia, gastrointestinal dysfunction, lymphoma, or bowel adenocarcinoma. Diarrhea, weight loss, and blood test results were suggestive of active celiac disease, and a duodenal biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis. Treatment: The athlete was treated with a gluten-free diet, which excludes wheat, barley, and rye. Dietary substitutions were incorporated to maintain adequate caloric intake. Uniqueness: The presence of active celiac disease may not be uncommon. However, elite athletes who face celiac disease present a new challenge for the athletic trainer. The athletic trainer can help guide the athlete in coping with the lifestyle changes associated with a gluten-free diet. Conclusions: One in every 200 to 400 individuals has celiac disease; many of these individuals are asymptomatic and, therefore, their conditions are undiagnosed. Undiagnosed, untreated celiac disease and patients who fail to follow the gluten-free diet increase the risk of further problems. PMID:16404459

  5. The Professional Socialization of Collegiate Female Athletic Trainers: Navigating Experiences of Gender Bias

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Borland, John F.; Burton, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Female athletic trainers (ATs) experience gender discrimination in the workplace due to stereotypical gender roles, but limited information is available regarding the topic. Objective To understand the challenges and obstacles faced by young female ATs working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics. Design Exploratory study using semistructured interviews. Setting Division I clinical setting. Patients or Other Participants A total of 14 female ATs were included in the study, using both criterion and snowball- sampling techniques. Their mean age was 27 ± 2 years, with 5 ± 2 years of overall clinical experience. Criteria included employment at the Division I clinical setting, being a full-time assistant AT, and at least 3 years of working experience but no more than 9 years to avoid role continuance. Data Collection and Analysis Analysis of the interview data followed inductive procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Credibility was established by member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review. Results Clear communication with both coaches and players about expectations and philosophies regarding medical care, a supportive head AT in terms of clinical competence, and having and serving as a role model were cited as critical tools to alleviate gender bias in the workplace. Conclusions The female ATs in this study stressed the importance of being assertive with coaches early in the season with regard to the AT's role on the team. They reasoned that these actions brought forth a greater perception of congruity between their roles as ATs and their gender and age. We suggest that female athletic training students seek mentors in their field while they complete their coursework and practicums. The ATs in the current study indicated that a mentor, regardless of sex, helped them feel empowered to navigate the male-centric terrain of athletic departments by encouraging them to be assertive and not second

  6. The professional socialization of collegiate female athletic trainers: navigating experiences of gender bias.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Borland, John F; Burton, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) experience gender discrimination in the workplace due to stereotypical gender roles, but limited information is available regarding the topic. To understand the challenges and obstacles faced by young female ATs working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics. Exploratory study using semistructured interviews. Division I clinical setting. A total of 14 female ATs were included in the study, using both criterion and snowball-sampling techniques. Their mean age was 27 ± 2 years, with 5 ± 2 years of overall clinical experience. Criteria included employment at the Division I clinical setting, being a full-time assistant AT, and at least 3 years of working experience but no more than 9 years to avoid role continuance. Analysis of the interview data followed inductive procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Credibility was established by member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review. Clear communication with both coaches and players about expectations and philosophies regarding medical care, a supportive head AT in terms of clinical competence, and having and serving as a role model were cited as critical tools to alleviate gender bias in the workplace. The female ATs in this study stressed the importance of being assertive with coaches early in the season with regard to the AT's role on the team. They reasoned that these actions brought forth a greater perception of congruity between their roles as ATs and their gender and age. We suggest that female athletic training students seek mentors in their field while they complete their coursework and practicums. The ATs in the current study indicated that a mentor, regardless of sex, helped them feel empowered to navigate the male-centric terrain of athletic departments by encouraging them to be assertive and not second-guess their decisions.

  7. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent fat in female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Jason D; Hildebrandt, Leslie; Miller, Wayne; Hammer, Roger; Spiller, Amanda

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the accuracy of percent body fat (%BF) estimates obtained by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) using the BOD POD Body Composition System compared with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group of female college athletes (n = 80). In addition, %BF estimates by skinfold measures (SF) were also obtained for comparison. A lean subset (n = 39) of the sample was also examined. Mean %BF estimated for the entire sample by ADP (21.2 +/- 5.9%) was significantly greater than that determined by HW (19.4 +/- 6.4%) and SF (18.8 +/- 5.5%). Results from the lean subset also revealed that %BF determined by ADP (17.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly higher than %BF estimates by HW (14.3 +/- 2.8%) and SF (15.2 +/- 3.2%). The regression equation for the entire sample (%BF HW = 0.937%BF ADP - 0.452, r(2) = 0.73, standard error of estimates (SEE) = 3.34) did not differ from the line of identity. In contrast, the line of identity differed significantly from the regression equation for the lean subset of female athletes (%BF HW = 0.48%BF ADP + 6.115, r(2) = 0.41, SEE = 2.18). The results of this investigation indicate that ADP significantly overestimated %BF by 8% in female athletes and by 16% for a leaner subset of the sample compared with HW. It appears that %BF estimates by SF may be more accurate than those obtained by ADP for female college athletes, regardless of body composition. Coaches and trainers evaluating body composition should consider the use of SF before ADP when measuring %BF in female college athletes. Sports scientists should continue to examine the possible gender and body composition bias for ADP.

  8. Preseason Functional Test Scores are Associated with Future Sports Injury in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brumitt, Jason; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Manske, Robert; Niemuth, Paul E; Mattocks, Alma; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2017-09-11

    Recent prospective cohort studies have reported preseason functional performance test (FPT) measures and associations with future risk of injury; however, the findings associated with these studies have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of a battery of FPTs as a preseason screening tool to identify female Division III (D III) collegiate athletes who may be at risk for a non-contact time-loss injury to the lower quadrant [LQ = low back and lower extremities]. One hundred six female D III athletes were recruited for this study. Athletes performed 3 FPTs: standing long jump (SLJ), single-leg hop (SLH) for distance, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT). Time-loss sport-related injuries were tracked during the season. Thirty-two (24 initial and 8 subsequent) time-loss LQ injuries were sustained during the study. Ten of the 24 initial injuries occurred at the thigh and knee. At-risk athletes with suboptimal FPT measures (SLJ ≤ 79% ht; (B) SLH ≤ 64% ht; LEFT ≥ 118 s) had significantly greater rates of initial [(7.2 per 1000 athletic exposures (AEs)] and total (7.6/1000 AEs) time-loss thigh or knee injuries than the referent group (0.9/1000 AEs; 1.0/1000 AEs respectively). At-risk athletes were 9 times more likely to experience a thigh or knee injury (OR = 9.7, CI: 2.3, 39.9; p = 0.002) than athletes in the referent group. At-risk athletes with prior history of LQ sports injury and lower off-season training habits had an 18-fold increased risk of a time-loss thigh or knee injury during the season (AOR = 18.7, CI: 3.0, 118.1; p = 0.002). This battery of FPTs appears useful as a tool for identifying female D III athletes at risk for a LQ injury; especially to the thigh or knee region.

  9. Factors influencing life happiness among elderly female in Rayong Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Tuntichaivanit, Chutigai; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2009-12-01

    To study the factors influencing life happiness of elderly female in Rayong province, Thailand. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 233 elderly female aged between 60-80 years using multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from June 6th to July 31st 2008 by interviewing questionnaires. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. About half (50.2%) of the elderly female had moderate level of life happiness, followed by low level (27.1%) and high level (22.7%). The factors which significantly influenced the life happiness of the elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p < 0.05). In addition, self-esteem, social support, and family relationships could significantly predict life happiness of the elderly female by 91.4%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of life happiness among elderly female. The important factors influencing life happiness of elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote life happiness of elderly female, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the elderly female's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  10. The Use of Alcohol Among NCAA Division I Female College Basketball, Softball, and Volleyball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, M

    1998-04-01

    To identify and describe alcohol use among NCAA Division I female college basketball, softball, and volleyball players and to determine to what extent the players have been exposed to alcohol or other drug education programs. Mailed self-reporting questionnaire, sample of convenience. The study was conducted in the Department of Physical Education at the University of South Carolina. NCAA Division I athletic trainers of ten female basketball teams, ten female softball teams, and eleven female volleyball teams received questionnaires. A total of 371 participants returned questionnaires: 106 basketball players, 138 softball players, and 127 volleyball players. After reviewing the related literature, I developed a questionnaire and pilot tested it with a group of female swimmers and track and field athletes. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic information, alcohol use, and alcohol education. I analyzed the questionnaires descriptively (frequencies, percentages, and means) and collectively, on the total population, and separately, on all teams. To validate and further understand information gained from the questionnaires, I conducted multiple face-to-face interviews with forty (11%) of the participants. Almost 79% of the subjects consumed alcohol, with light beers being the most popular beverage. Most started using alcohol before 18 years of age. More softball (89.1%) and volleyball (88.9%) athletes reported drinking than did basketball (63.2%) athletes. Quantity and frequency of alcohol use decreased during the competitive sport season but increased out of season. Almost 60% (55.9%) of the participants engaged in binge drinking (defined as four or more drinks per drinking episode) out of season and 35% in season. Female athletes who lived off campus drank more frequently than those who lived in residence halls, but athletes living in residence halls reported drinking in larger quantities. The most common reasons subjects chose not to use alcohol

  11. Obstacles in the optimization of bone health outcomes in the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Ducher, Gaele; Turner, Anne I; Kukuljan, Sonja; Pantano, Kathleen J; Carlson, Jennifer L; Williams, Nancy I; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2011-07-01

    Maintaining low body weight for the sake of performance and aesthetic purposes is a common feature among young girls and women who exercise on a regular basis, including elite, college and high-school athletes, members of fitness centres, and recreational exercisers. High energy expenditure without adequate compensation in energy intake leads to an energy deficiency, which may ultimately affect reproductive function and bone health. The combination of low energy availability, menstrual disturbances and low bone mineral density is referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. Not all athletes seek medical assistance in response to the absence of menstruation for 3 or more months as some believe that long-term amenorrhoea is not harmful. Indeed, many women may not seek medical attention until they sustain a stress fracture. This review investigates current issues, controversies and strategies in the clinical management of bone health concerns related to the female athlete triad. Current recommendations focus on either increasing energy intake or decreasing energy expenditure, as this approach remains the most efficient strategy to prevent further bone health complications. However, convincing the athlete to increase energy availability can be extremely challenging. Oral contraceptive therapy seems to be a common strategy chosen by many physicians to address bone health issues in young women with amenorrhoea, although there is little evidence that this strategy improves bone mineral density in this population. Assessment of bone health itself is difficult due to the limitations of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to estimate bone strength. Understanding how bone strength is affected by low energy availability, weight gain and resumption of menses requires further investigations using 3-dimensional bone imaging techniques in order to improve the clinical management of the female athlete triad.

  12. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Loucks, Anne B; Manore, Melinda M; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Warren, Michelle P

    2007-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad) refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. With proper nutrition, these same relationships promote robust health. Athletes are distributed along a spectrum between health and disease, and those at the pathological end may not exhibit all these clinical conditions simultaneously. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability appears to be the factor that impairs reproductive and skeletal health in the Triad, and it may be inadvertent, intentional, or psychopathological. Most effects appear to occur below an energy availability of 30 kcal.kg(-1) of fat-free mass per day. Restrictive eating behaviors practiced by girls and women in sports or physical activities that emphasize leanness are of special concern. For prevention and early intervention, education of athletes, parents, coaches, trainers, judges, and administrators is a priority. Athletes should be assessed for the Triad at the preparticipation physical and/or annual health screening exam, and whenever an athlete presents with any of the Triad's clinical conditions. Sport administrators should also consider rule changes to discourage unhealthy weight loss practices. A multidisciplinary treatment team should include a physician or other health-care professional, a registered dietitian, and, for athletes with eating disorders, a mental health practitioner. Additional valuable team members may include a certified athletic trainer, an exercise physiologist, and the athlete's coach, parents and other family members. The first aim of treatment for any Triad component is to increase energy availability by increasing energy intake and/or reducing exercise energy expenditure. Nutrition counseling and monitoring are sufficient

  13. Accuracy of dietary reference intake predictive equation for estimated energy requirements in female tennis athletes and non-athlete college students: comparison with the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Ndahimana, Didace; Lee, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ye-Jin; Son, Hee-Ryoung; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jonghoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a dietary reference intake (DRI) predictive equation for estimated energy requirements (EER) in female college tennis athletes and non-athlete students using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a reference method. Fifteen female college students, including eight tennis athletes and seven non-athlete subjects (aged between 19 to 24 years), were involved in the study. Subjects' total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the DLW method, and EER were calculated using the DRI predictive equation. The accuracy of this equation was assessed by comparing the EER calculated using the DRI predictive equation (EERDRI) and TEE measured by the DLW method (TEEDLW) based on calculation of percentage difference mean and percentage of accurate prediction. The agreement between the two methods was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. The percentage difference mean between the methods was -1.1% in athletes and 1.8% in non-athlete subjects, whereas the percentage of accurate prediction was 37.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In the case of athletic subjects, the DRI predictive equation showed a clear bias negatively proportional to the subjects' TEE. The results from this study suggest that the DRI predictive equation could be used to obtain EER in non-athlete female college students at a group level. However, this equation would be difficult to use in the case of athletes at the group and individual levels. The development of a new and more appropriate equation for the prediction of energy expenditure in athletes is proposed.

  14. Accuracy of dietary reference intake predictive equation for estimated energy requirements in female tennis athletes and non-athlete college students: comparison with the doubly labeled water method

    PubMed Central

    Ndahimana, Didace; Lee, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ye-Jin; Son, Hee-Ryoung; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jonghoon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a dietary reference intake (DRI) predictive equation for estimated energy requirements (EER) in female college tennis athletes and non-athlete students using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a reference method. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifteen female college students, including eight tennis athletes and seven non-athlete subjects (aged between 19 to 24 years), were involved in the study. Subjects' total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the DLW method, and EER were calculated using the DRI predictive equation. The accuracy of this equation was assessed by comparing the EER calculated using the DRI predictive equation (EERDRI) and TEE measured by the DLW method (TEEDLW) based on calculation of percentage difference mean and percentage of accurate prediction. The agreement between the two methods was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. RESULTS The percentage difference mean between the methods was -1.1% in athletes and 1.8% in non-athlete subjects, whereas the percentage of accurate prediction was 37.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In the case of athletic subjects, the DRI predictive equation showed a clear bias negatively proportional to the subjects' TEE. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study suggest that the DRI predictive equation could be used to obtain EER in non-athlete female college students at a group level. However, this equation would be difficult to use in the case of athletes at the group and individual levels. The development of a new and more appropriate equation for the prediction of energy expenditure in athletes is proposed. PMID:28194265

  15. An 18-month Follow-up of Anger in Female Karate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Vahid; Memari, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of anger scores in female karate athletes during 18 months, and to compare anger scores in adolescents who continue or stop training karate. Method The sample consisted of 18 female elite karate athletes, practicing modern style of karate. To measure anger and its subscales, participants were asked to complete “Adolescent Anger Rating Scale” (AARS) questionnaire in both stages of the study. Athletes were divided in to two groups of “stayer” (n=12) and “quitter” (n=6) if they continued practicing karate or stopped it, respectively. In order to study the changes of anger score with time, paired T test was used. Results In analysis of changes in anger scores with time, there was a statistically significant increase in instrumental anger (p=0.001) and non-significant increase in other anger scores among 14-year-old girls who continued practicing karate. Conclusion Increased instrumental anger in female karate athletes could be due to the impact of participation in a combative sport. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously due to limitations of the study. PMID:24130610

  16. An 18-month Follow-up of Anger in Female Karate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sara; Memari, Amir Hossein

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of anger scores in female karate athletes during 18 months, and to compare anger scores in adolescents who continue or stop training karate. The sample consisted of 18 female elite karate athletes, practicing modern style of karate. To measure anger and its subscales, participants were asked to complete "Adolescent Anger Rating Scale" (AARS) questionnaire in both stages of the study. Athletes were divided in to two groups of "stayer" (n=12) and "quitter" (n=6) if they continued practicing karate or stopped it, respectively. In order to study the changes of anger score with time, paired T test was used. In analysis of changes in anger scores with time, there was a statistically significant increase in instrumental anger (p=0.001) and non-significant increase in other anger scores among 14-year-old girls who continued practicing karate. Increased instrumental anger in female karate athletes could be due to the impact of participation in a combative sport. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously due to limitations of the study.

  17. Simple verbal instruction improves knee biomechanics during landing in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Srivatsan, Abhaya; Zhang, Songning

    2012-08-01

    Knee injuries are highly prevalent in athletic populations, particularly among female athletes. Many of these injuries occur during landing from a jump. Various comprehensive knee injury prevention programs have been developed to date. However, there is a need to determine which components of these programs contribute directly to changes in knee biomechanics. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of three different simple verbal instructions on knee biomechanics during landing in adult female recreational athletes. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analysis of landing from a countermovement jump was conducted in a counterbalanced cross-over repeated measures design. Results indicated that the instruction to land with equal weight distribution reduced the asymmetry of peak vertical ground reaction force compared to the control condition. The instruction to land softly reduced peak vertical ground reaction force and increased peak knee flexion compared to the control condition. The instruction to land with knees over toes increased peak knee flexion compared to the control condition. These findings indicate that verbal instruction may be a key component of the effects seen in previous research studies that have investigated the benefits of more complex training programs designed to reduce knee injury risk in female athletes.

  18. A Wearable Neuromuscular Device Reduces ACL Injury Risk in Female Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael John; Shaw, Matthew; Maddan, Casey; Campbell, Julie; Davidson, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Female soccer athletes have a three-fold greater risk of sustaining an ACL injury compared with their male counterparts yet only 1 in 5 teams engage in ACL risk reduction programs due to several participation barriers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a wearable neuromuscular (WNM) device on postural control, performance and ACL injury risk in female soccer athletes. Methods: Seventy-nine elite youth and collegiate female soccer athletes (age range: 12-25 y) trained with a WNM device that applied bi-lateral, topical pressure to the medial quadriceps and hamstrings muscles (Topical Gear, Austin, TX). The athletes performed 7-9 weeks of pre-season training with the WNM device consisting of strength and conditioning exercises and on-field team practices (46-64 total hours of exposure). Postural control was measured in 15 athletes with and without the WNM device before and after the training program; and performance was measured in 25 athletes without the WNM device before and after the training program. Postural control was determined from a single-leg landing on a force plate from a horizontal distance normalized to leg length. The athletes were instructed to gain their balance as fast as possible upon landing and remain balanced for 5 seconds. The peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior and net center of pressure (COP) velocities and displacement ranges were calculated during 2 seconds of single-leg stance. Performance measures including speed, power and endurance were measured from the 40 yard dash, vertical jump for height and the Beep test, respectively. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were used to compare the postural variables; and t-tests were used to compare the performance tests (p=.05). ACL injury rates, the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one ACL injury were calculated between the WNM intervention group and 11

  19. Coaching behaviors, motivational climate, and psychosocial outcomes among female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J; Wilko, Anna Marie

    2009-11-01

    Based on Harter's (12,13) competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationship of coaches' performance feedback and motivational climate with female athletes' perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Female adolescent soccer players (N = 141) completed measures of relevant constructs toward the latter part of their season. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that athletes' perceptions of greater positive and informational feedback given by coaches in response to successful performance attempts, greater emphasis placed on a mastery climate, and less emphasis placed on a performance climate, were significantly related to greater ability perceptions, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Exploratory analyses also showed that the relationship between feedback and the psychosocial outcomes may vary as a function of the perceived motivational climate. Overall, these results suggest that coaching feedback and motivational climate are important contributors to explaining adolescent females' continued motivation to participate in sport.

  20. Angle specificity of the knee extensor age-related profile in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, E N; Boudolos, K D

    2008-01-01

    The angle specificity of the knee extensor age-related profile was examined in young females (13-19 yr). Twenty-one track & field jumpers, 20 volleyball players and 20 non-active females were separated into the youngest and the oldest age categories, based on the official competitive age categories. The maximum knee extensor isometric torque (T MAX) was measured at 9 knee angles. The relationships between T MAX at the peak of the torque-angle curve and at the other knee angles (angle-angle relationships) were expressed by R2 (%). Statistics included two-way ANOVA for age category differences and curve fitting to R2 joint angle trend lines. Differences between age categories were significant for the volleyball players and the non-active females (p < 0.05). Age category had an angle specific impact on angle-angle relationships in the athletes, with the youngest ones demonstrating greater R2 decrease at the more extended, or more flexed, knee angles. Significant quadratic R2 joint angle trend lines were found in all track & field jumpers (p < 0.05) and, in the youngest only volleyball players (p < 0.05), but not in the non-active females (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the knee extensor profiles of young female athletes show an age-related angle specificity that should be accounted for when treating athletes within the age range examined.

  1. Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-03-29

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  2. Six Weeks of Core Stability Training Improves Landing Kinetics Among Female Capoeira Athletes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6

  3. Low Vitamin D Levels Do Not Predict Hyperglycemia in Elderly Endurance Athletes (but in Controls)

    PubMed Central

    Nistler, Sonja; Batmyagmar, Delgerdalai; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Scherzer, Thomas M.; Kundi, Michael; Endler, Georg; Ratzinger, Franz; Pilger, Alexander; Wagner, Oswald F.; Winker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Recent studies revealed a link between hypovitaminosis D3 and the risk for hyperglycemia. Further mechanistic and interventional investigations suggested a common reason for both conditions rather than a causal relationship. Exposure to sunlight is the most relevant source of vitamin D3 (25(OH)D), whereas adipose tissue is able to store relevant amounts of the lipophilic vitamin. Since running/bicycling leads to increased out-door time and alters physiological response mechanisms, it can be hypothesized that the correlation between hypovitaminosis D3 and hyperglycemia might be disturbed in outdoor athletes. Methods 47 elderly marathoners/bicyclists and 47 age/sex matched controls were studied in a longitudinal setting at baseline and after three years. HbA1c as a surrogate for (pre-)diabetic states was quantified via HPLC, 25(OH)D levels were measured by means of chemiluminescent assays. Physical performance was assessed by ergometry. Results When adjusted for seasonal variations, 25(OH)D was significantly higher in athletes than in controls. 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated with triglycerides in both groups, whereas only in controls an association between high BMI or low physical performance with hypovitaminosis D3 had been found. Likewise, the presence of hypovitaminosis D3 at baseline successfully predicted hyperglycemia at the follow up examinations within the control group (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], p < .001, statistically independent from BMI), but not in athletes. Conclusion Our data suggest that mechanisms of HbA1c elevation might differ between athletes and controls. Thus, intense physical activity must be taken into account as a potential pre-analytic confounder when it is aimed to predict metabolic risk by vitamin D3 levels. PMID:27304888

  4. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-03-05

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.

  5. Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Hardy, Sam A; Olthuis, Janine V; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2016-12-02

    Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (Mage = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood. Early expressions of altruistic behaviors predicted less marijuana use in later young adulthood. Expression of public prosocial behaviors early in young adulthood predicted higher levels of hazardous drinking in late young adulthood. These novel findings have important implications for links between prosocial development and substance use in women college athletes.

  6. Experiences of sexual harassment and abuse among Norwegian elite female athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2003-03-01

    This paper compares the prevalence of sexual harassment and abuse among 660 Norwegian elite female athletes and an age-matched control sample of nonathletes. It also explores differences in the prevalence of harassment and abuse in sport and work or school settings and compares harassment and abuse perpetrated by male authority figures and peers in these different contexts. No differences were found between the athletes and controls in overall prevalence of sexual harassment or abuse. However, the athletes experienced significantly more harassment from male authority figures than did the controls. Based on these results, the article considers whether or not sport offers women any particular immunity from sexual harassment and abuse. The implications of the findings for structural and cultural change in sport are discussed.

  7. An examination of psychosocial correlates of eating disorders among female collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Trent A; Greenleaf, Christy; Reel, Justine J; Carter, Jennifer E

    2009-09-01

    With female collegiate athletes, we examined the relationship of eating pathology to body image concerns, weight pressures, sociocultural internalization, and mood state. Multivariate analyses revealed that the symptomatic and eating disorder groups were similar on seven of eight weight pressures, three of four mood states, on internalization, and on five of six body image measures; in all instances, these two groups reported more pathological scores than the asymptomatic athletes. Except for pressures from coaches, the psychosocial variables differentiated the groups, correctly classifying 79% of the cases. These findings suggest that athletes symptomatic of eating disorders report similarly high levels of disturbance across a wide range of psychosocial risk factors, and both groups warrant prevention and treatment efforts.

  8. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  9. Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Practices of Young Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiita, Barbara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A research study compared the relationship of nutrition knowledge to eating practices and attitudes of female high school and college runners. Results showed that runners with greater nutrition knowledge made better food choices and ate more healthfully. This article looks at the runners' misconceptions and makes recommendations for nutrition…

  10. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  11. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  12. Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Practices of Young Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiita, Barbara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A research study compared the relationship of nutrition knowledge to eating practices and attitudes of female high school and college runners. Results showed that runners with greater nutrition knowledge made better food choices and ate more healthfully. This article looks at the runners' misconceptions and makes recommendations for nutrition…

  13. Comparison of hamstring strain injury rates between male and female intercollegiate soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin M; Gurka, Kelly K; Saliba, Susan; Conaway, Mark; Hertel, Jay

    2013-04-01

    Hamstring strains are common among soccer athletes, and they have a high incidence of recurrence. Among American collegiate soccer players, men have an overall higher incidence rate of hamstring strains than women. This research compares the hamstring strain injury rates in event and athlete characteristics between male and female college soccer athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data describing partial and complete hamstring strains were obtained from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for men's and women's soccer from 2004 to 2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the incidence of hamstring strains between the sexes as well as during games versus practices and the preseason versus the in-season were calculated. χ(2) tests were used to compare the occurrence of hamstring strains across different event and athlete characteristics. Men were 64% more likely than women to sustain a hamstring strain (IRR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.37-1.96). Men had significantly higher rates of hamstring strains than women during both games (IRR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.82-3.23) and practices (IRR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68). There were no differences between men and women in injury rates during the preseason, but men were significantly more likely to sustain a hamstring strain during the in-season (IRR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.56-2.52). Men had a significantly higher proportion of recurrent hamstring strains compared with women (men, 22%; women, 12%; P = .003). There were no significant differences in the distribution of strains in event or athlete characteristics between men and women for first-time or recurrent hamstring strains. In collegiate soccer, men have significantly higher rates of hamstring strains than women, and regardless of the recurrence status, the event and athlete characteristics were similar for both sexes. Identifying common characteristics may assist in the targeted development of preventive and rehabilitative programs as well

  14. Risk factors for stress fracture in female endurance athletes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duckham, Rachel L; Peirce, Nicholas; Meyer, Caroline; Summers, Gregory D; Cameron, Noël; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological and physiological correlates of stress fracture in female endurance athletes. Design A cross-sectional design was used with a history of stress fractures and potential risk factors assessed at one visit. Methods Female-endurance athletes (58 runners and 12 triathletes) aged 26.0±7.4 years completed questionnaires on stress fracture history, menstrual history, athletic training, eating psychopathology and exercise cognitions. Bone mineral density, body fat content and lower leg lean tissue mass (LLLTM) were assessed using dual-x-ray absorptiometry. Variables were compared between athletes with a history of stress fracture (SF) and those without (controls; C) using χ², analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Nineteen (27%) athletes had previously been clinically diagnosed with SFs. The prevalence of current a/oligomenorrhoea and past amenorrhoea was higher in SF than C (p=0.008 and p=0.035, respectively). SF recorded higher global scores on the eating disorder examination questionnaire (p=0.049) and compulsive exercise test (p=0.006) and had higher LLLTM (p=0.029) compared to C. These findings persisted with weight and height as covariates. In multivariate logistic regression, compulsive exercise, amenorrhoea and LLLTM were significant independent predictors of SF history (p=0.006, 0.009 and 0.035, respectively). Conclusions Eating psychopathology was associated with increased risk of SF in endurance athletes, but this may be mediated by menstrual dysfunction and compulsive exercise. Compulsive exercise, as well as amenorrhoea, is independently related to SF risk. PMID:23166136

  15. Pre-participation gynecological evaluation of female athletes: a new proposal

    PubMed Central

    Parmigiano, Tathiana Rebizzi; Zucchi, Eliana Viana Monteiro; de Araujo, Maíta Poli; Guindalini, Camila Santa Cruz; Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino; Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin de Jármy Di; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Cohen, Moisés; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To propose the inclusion of a gynecological investigation during the evaluation of athletes before competitions, using a specific instrument called the Pre-participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE). Methods The study assessed 148 athletes, mean age of 15.4±2.0 years, who engaged in eight different sports modalities, and who responded to a questionnaire named Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination (PPGE), to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (for urinary loss), and to the Eating Attitudes Test (for eating disorders). Results Fifty percent of the participants reported irregular menstrual intervals, 23.0% did not know about sexually transmitted diseases, and 72.4% denied having, at least, an annual gynecological appointment. The study identified 18.2% who had urinary loss, and 15% presented with an increased risk of eating disorders. Moreover, 89.9% were not familiar with the occurrence of urinary incontinence in athletes and did not know that they were susceptible to the female athlete triad. A total of 87.1% of them stated that would not mention these issues to their coaches even if this would improve their health or performance. Conclusion The Pre-Participation Gynecological Examination can be considered an easy-to-apply instrument that allowed the diagnosis of alterations often underestimated by the athletes themselves. After its application, the alterations were identified, and determined the athletes’ referral to appropriate evaluation and treatment. PMID:25628197

  16. Comparison of Static and Dynamic Balance in Female Collegiate Soccer, Basketball, and Gymnastics Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bressel, Eadric; Yonker, Joshua C; Kras, John; Heath, Edward M

    2007-01-01

    Context: How athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: To compare static and dynamic balance among collegiate athletes competing or training in soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. Design: A quasi-experimental, between-groups design. Independent variables included limb (dominant and nondominant) and sport played. Setting: A university athletic training facility. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female volunteers who competed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer (n = 11), basketball (n = 11), or gymnastics (n = 12). Intervention(s): To assess static balance, participants performed 3 stance variations (double leg, single leg, and tandem leg) on 2 surfaces (stiff and compliant). For assessment of dynamic balance, participants performed multidirectional maximal single-leg reaches from a unilateral base of support. Main Outcome Measure(s): Errors from the Balance Error Scoring System and normalized leg reach distances from the Star Excursion Balance Test were used to assess static and dynamic balance, respectively. Results: Balance Error Scoring System error scores for the gymnastics group were 55% lower than for the basketball group (P = .01), and Star Excursion Balance Test scores were 7% higher in the soccer group than the basketball group (P = .04). Conclusions: Gymnasts and soccer players did not differ in terms of static and dynamic balance. In contrast, basketball players displayed inferior static balance compared with gymnasts and inferior dynamic balance compared with soccer players. PMID:17597942

  17. [Iron deficiency and anemia in female athletes--causes and risks].

    PubMed

    Portal, Shawn; Epstein, Muli; Dubnov, Gal

    2003-10-01

    Iron deficiency is probably the most common nutrient deficiency in the western world. Low levels of iron in the body are caused by several mechanisms, and become symptomatic with the onset of iron deficiency anemia. Athletes are a special group with additional reasons for iron or blood loss, such as plasma expansion, increase perspiration, 'foot strike hemolysis, and occasionally--malnutrition. Female athletes have yet another source of blood loss--menstruation. However, the most common cause for low hemoglobin levels in an athlete is dilutional pseudoanemia, which is caused by exercise-induced fluid retention. Athletes are more sensitive to the effects of anemia and iron deficiency, as exercise performance depends on maximal oxygen carrying capacity to the active muscle, and efficient oxygen utilization. Iron deficiency without anemia can also reduce athletic performance. Diagnosis is ultimately made by a blood count and red blood cell parameters, with ferritin serving as an index of body iron stores. Treatment requires iron supplements, as it is nearly impossible to refill the iron stores through diet alone.

  18. Osteoporosis health beliefs of women with increased risk of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vu H; Wang, Ze; Okamura, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided.

  19. Collegiate coaches' knowledge of the female athlete triad in relation to sport type.

    PubMed

    Frideres, Jillian E; Mottinger, Sue G; Palao, José M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what coaches of female athletes know about the three components of the female athlete triad with regard to type of sport coached and the characteristics of the coach. The sample consisted of 309 NCAA Division I coaches of female athletes in the sports of: sports with subjective scoring of performance (gymnastics and diving), low body weight sports (cross country and rowing), revealing or fitted clothing (volleyball and swimming), and other (soccer and basketball). An original, self-report questionnaire, and a 4-point Likert scale to measure confidence in answer was used. The variables were: knowledge, confidence, and coach's characteristics (coach's gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the triad and triad components, and type of sport coached). Coaches of low body weight sports scored significantly higher than both coaches of sports requiring fitted clothing and "other" sports in the overall score. They further had significantly more confidence in their answers than coaches of "other" sports. No significant differences in the overall score in any of the types of sport or total values were found regarding gender, experience, and degree. Coaches who had received training about the triad or its components scored significantly higher than coaches who did not receive training. The results demonstrated a lack of information among coaches and that participating in formative training can help to reduce this problem. The results found can help in the design of continuing education for coaches.

  20. Plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper are associated in elite female and male judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; de Oliveira-Junior, Astrogildo Vianna; Portella, Emilson Souza; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare plasma leptin, plasma zinc, and plasma copper levels and their relationship in trained female and male judo athletes (n = 10 women; n = 8 men). Blood samples were obtained 24 h after training to measure plasma zinc, copper, and leptin levels. Subjects presented similar values to age (22 +/- 2 years old), body mass index (24 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), plasma zinc (17.2 +/- 2 micromol/L), copper (12.5 +/- 2 micromol/L), and leptin (5.6 +/- 1.3 microg/L). However, height, total body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and sum of ten-skinfold thickness were higher in male than female. Plasma leptin was associated with sum of ten skinfolds in male (r = 0.91; p < 0.001) and female athletes (r = 0.84; p < 0.003). Plasma zinc was associated with leptin in males (r = 0.82; p < 0.05) while copper was associated with plasma leptin in females (r = 0.66; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that young judo athletes lost sex-related differences in leptin levels. Plasma zinc, plasma copper, and energy homeostasis may be involved in regulation of plasma leptin.

  1. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs of Women with Increased Risk of the Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Okamura, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided. PMID:24734207

  2. The accuracy of the body adiposity index for predicting body fat percentage in collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    The body adiposity index (BAI) is a new simplistic method for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) via a simple equation of hip circumference to height. A scientific study of this novel method in athletic groups is warranted because of the possibility of it serving as an inexpensive field technique. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate the BAI for predicting BF% in a group of collegiate female athletes by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion variable. Thirty college-aged female athletes (age = 20.0 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. For each participant, BF% was obtained with the BAI method and compared with DXA. The mean BF% was 27.1 ± 3.4 by the BAI and 26.7 ± 5.9 from DXA, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, the BAI did not provide a significant correlation with the DXA (r = 0.28, R2 = 0.08, p > 0.05) and resulted in a standard error of estimate = 5.78% and total error = 5.84%. Bland-Altman plot showed that the limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals) between the DXA and BAI ranged between -10.2 and 11.8%, and there was a significant negative association between the difference and mean of the 2 methods (r = -0.52, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that BAI results in large individual errors when predicting BF% in female athletes and has a tendency to provide overestimated values as BF% decreases. Therefore, this method should not be used for predicting individual BF% in athletic women.

  3. The effect of ice ingestion on female athletes performing intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthew Robert; Landers, Grant Justin

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the benefits of pre-cooling prior to exercise in the heat for male athletes, but at this time no research has investigated female athletes. The aim of the following study was to test the effects of pre-cooling on female repeat sprint performance in hot, humid conditions; namely is ice ingestion effective in reducing core temperature (Tc) and does this reduced Tc lead to improved repeat sprint performance in female athletes? Nine female team sport athletes with mean age (21.0 ± 1.2 y), height (169.8 ± 4.1 cm) and body mass (62.3 ± 5.0 kg) participated in this study. Participants completed 72 min of an intermittent sprint protocol (ISP) consisting of 2 × 36 min halves in hot, humid conditions (33.1 ± 0.1 °C, 60.3 ± 1.5% RH) on a cycle ergometer. This was preceded by 30 min of either ice ingestion (ICE) or water consumption (CON) in a randomised order. At the end of the pre-cooling period, Tc significantly decreased following ICE (-0.7 ± 0.3 °C) compared to CON (-0.1 ± 0.2 °C; p = 0.001). Tc also remained lower in ICE compared to CON during the ISP (p = 0.001). Ratings of perceived thermal sensation were lower in ICE compared to CON (p = 0.032) at the beginning (p = 0.022) and mid-point (p = 0.035) of the second half. No differences in work, mean power, peak power, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate or sweat loss between conditions were recorded (p > 0.05). Ice ingestion significantly reduced female Tc prior to intermittent exercise in the heat and reduced thermal sensation; however, this did not coincide with improved performance.

  4. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    PubMed

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group.

  5. Acute effects of heated resistance exercise in female and male power athletes.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Julia R; Storey, Adam G; Merien, Fabrice; Kilding, Andrew E; Cotter, James D; Laursen, Paul B

    2017-07-26

    To determine the effects of heated resistance exercise on thermal strain, neuromuscular function and hormonal responses in power athletes. Sixteen (n = 8 female; 8 male) highly trained power athletes completed a combined strength and power resistance exercise session in hot (HOT ~30 °C) and temperate (CON ~20 °C) conditions. Human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol and testosterone concentrations in plasma, peak power (counter-movement jump, CMJ) and peak force (isometric mid-thigh pull) were measured before and after each training session; thermoregulatory responses were monitored during training. Skin temperature, thermal sensation and thermal discomfort were higher in HOT compared with CON. Sweat rate was higher in HOT for males only. Compared with CON, HOT had trivial effects on core temperature and heart rate. During HOT, there was a possible increase in upper-body power (medicine ball throw) in females [3.4% (90% CL -1.5, 8.6)] and males [(3.3% (-0.1, 6.9)], while lower-body power (vertical jump) was enhanced in males only [3.2% (-0.4, 6.9)]. Following HOT, CMJ peak power [4.4% (2.5; 6.3)] and strength [8.2% (3.1, 13.6)] were enhanced in female athletes, compared with CON, while effects in males were unclear. Plasma hGH concentration increased in females [83% (18; 183)] and males [107% (-21; 444)] in HOT compared with CON, whereas differential changes occurred for cortisol and testosterone. Heated resistance exercise enhanced power and increased plasma hGH concentration in female and males power athletes. Further research is required to assess the ergogenic potential of resistance exercise in the heat.

  6. Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season.

    PubMed

    Varamenti, Evdokia I; Kyparos, Antonios; Veskoukis, Aristeidis S; Bakou, Maria; Kalaboka, Stavroula; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Elite athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate blood biomarkers of redox status, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis over the course of a competitive season in elite female water polo players. The biomarkers were evaluated in four distinct phases of an athletic season. It was found that the reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly increased, whereas catalase activity was decreased in erythrocytes in phases 3 and 4 compared to phase 2. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in phases 3 and 4 compared to phases 1 and 2, the concentration of protein carbonyls was increased in phase 4, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased in phases 2 and 3. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was decreased in phases 3 and 4; interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in phase 4, whereas no change was observed for adiponectin and endoglin. The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.

  7. Menstrual state and exercise as determinants of spinal trabecular bone density in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Wolman, R L; Clark, P; McNally, E; Harries, M; Reeve, J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effects of amenorrhoea and intensive back exercise on the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in female athletes. DESIGN--Cross sectional study comparing amenorrhoeic with eumenorrhoeic athletes and rowers with non-rowers. SETTING--The British Olympic Medical Centre, Northwick Park Hospital. PATIENTS--46 Elite female athletes comprising 19 rowers, 18 runners, and nine dancers, of whom 25 were amenorrhoeic and 21 eumenorrhoeic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Trabecular bone mineral density of the lumbar spine measured by computed tomography. RESULTS--Mean trabecular bone mineral density was 42 mg/cm3 (95% confidence interval 22 to 62 mg/cm3) lower in the amenorrhoeic than the eumenorrhoeic athletes; this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0002). Mean trabecular bone mineral density was 21 mg/cm3 (1 to 41 mg/cm3) lower in the non-rowers than the rowers; this was also significant (p = 0.05). There was no interaction between these two effects (p = 0.28). CONCLUSION--The effect of intensive exercise on the lumbar spine partially compensates for the adverse effect of amenorrhoea on spinal trabecular bone density. Images p516-a PMID:2207417

  8. The Effect of Coach Expectations on Female Athletes' Motivation to Play: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buning, Megan Matthews

    2013-01-01

    This concurrent, embedded mixed methods study used predominantly quantitative analyses to examine coach expectations and behaviors on female athletes' intrinsic motivation to play softball. Qualitative methods in the form of structured, open-ended questions were used to enhance the data by examining athletes' perceptions of coaching…

  9. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  10. The Effect of Coach Expectations on Female Athletes' Motivation to Play: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buning, Megan Matthews

    2013-01-01

    This concurrent, embedded mixed methods study used predominantly quantitative analyses to examine coach expectations and behaviors on female athletes' intrinsic motivation to play softball. Qualitative methods in the form of structured, open-ended questions were used to enhance the data by examining athletes' perceptions of coaching…

  11. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  12. Relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Mettinger, Lindsey M; Caswell, Shane V; Burtt, Andrea; Cortes, Nelson

    2014-10-01

    Lower extremity injuries such as Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears remain a concern in collegiate female athletes. Core endurance and hip strength reportedly influence ACL and lower extremity injury risk. Good neuromuscular control, as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) test is associated with decreased lower extremity injuries. The exact relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance (SEBT scores), and how they impact one another in the female collegiate athlete remain unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes. Forty collegiate female athletes (19.6±1.1yrs, 163.1±7.8cm, 61.3±6.5kgs) performed the SEBT in anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial directions bilaterally (% leg length), McGill's anterior, posterior, and left and right plank core endurance tests (seconds), and hip abductor, flexor, extensor, and external rotator isometric strength tests bilaterally (N) using handheld dynamometry. Pearson's product moment correlations examined relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance. A linear regression analysis examined whether core endurance and hip strength influenced balance (p≤0.05). Anterior SEBT scores were fairly positively correlated with hip flexor and extensor strength. Posterolateral SEBT scores were fairly positively correlated with hip abductor, extensor, and flexor strength (p=0.02-to-0.004; r=0.26-to-0.45). Fair positive correlations existed between posterior core endurance and hip extensor strength bilaterally (right: p=0.02, r=0.37; left: p=0.003, r=0.47). Core endurance and SEBT scores were not correlated (p>0.05). Core endurance and hip strength did not influence SEBT scores (p=0.47). Overall, hip strength, but not core endurance was related to SEBT scores in collegiate female athletes. Females with greater hip flexor, extensor, and abductor strength also had better

  13. The Unexplored Crossroads of the Female Athlete Triad and Iron Deficiency: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Petkus, Dylan L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2017-03-13

    Despite the severity and prevalence of iron deficiency in exercising women, few published reports have explored how iron deficiency interacts with another prevalent and severe condition in exercising women: the 'female athlete triad.' This review aims to describe how iron deficiency may interact with each component of the female athlete triad, that is, energy status, reproductive function, and bone health. The effects of iron deficiency on energy status are discussed in regards to thyroid function, metabolic fuel availability, eating behaviors, and energy expenditure. The interactions between iron deficiency and reproductive function are explored by discussing the potentially impaired fertility and hyperprolactinemia due to iron deficiency and the alterations in iron metabolism due to menstrual blood loss and estrogen exposure. The interaction of iron deficiency with bone health may occur via dysregulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, hypoxia, and hypothyroidism. Based on these discussions, several future directions for research are presented.

  14. Out of Bounds? A Critique of the New Policies on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karkazis, Katrina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Davis, Georgiann; Camporesi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In May 2011, more than a decade after the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) abandoned sex testing, they devised new policies in response to the IAAF’s treatment of Caster Semenya, the South African runner whose sex was challenged because of her spectacular win and powerful physique that fueled an international frenzy questioning her sex and legitimacy to compete as female. These policies claim that atypically high levels of endogenous testosterone in women (caused by various medical conditions) create an unfair advantage and must be regulated. Against the backdrop of Semenya’s case and the scientific and historical complexity of “gender verification” in elite sports, we question the new policies on three grounds: (1) the underlying scientific assumptions; (2) the policymaking process; and (3) the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes. We find the policies in each of these domains significantly flawed and therefore argue they should be withdrawn. PMID:22694023

  15. Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Karkazis, Katrina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Davis, Georgiann; Camporesi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, more than a decade after the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) abandoned sex testing, they devised new policies in response to the IAAF's treatment of Caster Semenya, the South African runner whose sex was challenged because of her spectacular win and powerful physique that fueled an international frenzy questioning her sex and legitimacy to compete as female. These policies claim that atypically high levels of endogenous testosterone in women (caused by various medical conditions) create an unfair advantage and must be regulated. Against the backdrop of Semenya's case and the scientific and historical complexity of "gender verification" in elite sports, we question the new policies on three grounds: (1) the underlying scientific assumptions; (2) the policymaking process; and (3) the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes. We find the policies in each of these domains significantly flawed and therefore argue they should be withdrawn.

  16. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  17. Iron supplementation for female athletes: effects on iron status and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient involved in oxidative metabolism and critical to exercise performance. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) is much higher in active women for a variety of reasons, and poor iron status has been shown to be detrimental to overall health as well as physical performance. Iron status can be assessed using a number of indicators; however clinical cut-offs for active populations remain controversial. Randomized, placebo-controlled supplementation trials of iron-depleted female athletes have shown that oral iron supplementation in doses of 100-mg FeSO4·d (approximately 20 mg elemental iron) improves iron status and may improve measures of physical performance. It is recommended that female athletes most at risk of ID be screened at the beginning of and during the training season using hemoglobin and serum ferritin, and appropriate dietary and/or supplementation recommendations be made to those with compromised iron status.

  18. Motherhood and Work–Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: Mentors and the Female Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Eason, Christianne M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Context: One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the responsibility of mentorship and professional role models as it relates to female ATs' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Objective: To evaluate perceptions of motherhood and retention in relation to mentorship and role models among female ATs currently employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Female athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting volunteered. Average age of the participants was 35 ± 9 years. All were full-time ATs with an average of 11 ± 8 years of clinical experience. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. Results: Male and female role models and mentors can positively or negatively influence the career and work–life balance perceptions of female ATs working in the Division I setting. Female ATs have a desire to see more women in the profession handle the demands of motherhood and the demands of their clinical setting. Women who have had female mentors are more positive about the prospect of balancing the rigors of motherhood and job demands. Conclusions: Role models and mentors are valuable resources for promoting perseverance in the profession in the highly demanding clinical settings. As more female ATs remain in the profession who are able to maintain work–life balance and are available to serve as role models, the

  19. Motherhood and work-life balance in the national collegiate athletic association division I setting: mentors and the female athletic trainer.

    PubMed

    Eason, Christianne M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Goodman, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the responsibility of mentorship and professional role models as it relates to female ATs' perceptions of motherhood and retention. To evaluate perceptions of motherhood and retention in relation to mentorship and role models among female ATs currently employed in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. Female athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Twenty-seven female ATs employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting volunteered. Average age of the participants was 35 ± 9 years. All were full-time ATs with an average of 11 ± 8 years of clinical experience. Participants responded to questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. Male and female role models and mentors can positively or negatively influence the career and work-life balance perceptions of female ATs working in the Division I setting. Female ATs have a desire to see more women in the profession handle the demands of motherhood and the demands of their clinical setting. Women who have had female mentors are more positive about the prospect of balancing the rigors of motherhood and job demands. Role models and mentors are valuable resources for promoting perseverance in the profession in the highly demanding clinical settings. As more female ATs remain in the profession who are able to maintain work-life balance and are available to serve as role models, the attitudes of other women may start to change.

  20. Long-term Outcomes of the ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives) Program for Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L; Defrancesco, Carol A; Durham, Melissa B; McGinnis, Wendy; Lockwood, Chondra

    2008-08-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are critical windows for establishing life-long behaviors. We assessed long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized harm reduction/health promotion program for female high school athletes. The intervention's immediate beneficial effects on diet pill use and unhealthy eating behaviors have been reported; however, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were not immediately altered (Elliot et al, 2004). One to three years following graduation, positive benefits in those domains became evident, and intervention students reported significantly less lifetime use of cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol. Sport teams may be effective vehicles for gender-specific interventions to promote competency skills and deter harmful actions, and those benefits may manifest when acquired abilities are applied in new environments following high school graduation.

  1. Gaining Access to Providing Medical Care to Male Sport Teams: The Female Athletic Trainer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pike, Alicia; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Barrett, Jessica L

    2017-09-22

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) can face barriers to employment within the profession. Although there is evidence for an increasing percentage of women in athletic training, the portion providing medical care to male sport teams within the professional sport and collegiate settings continues to be small.   To investigate the experiences of female ATs when seeking employment with male sport teams within the Division I setting.   Qualitative study.   National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I.   A total of 15 NCAA Division I female ATs providing medical care to a male sport team participated in our study. Their mean age was 33 ± 9 years, and they had a mean of 11 ± 9 years of overall clinical experience.   All participants completed one-on-one phone interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. Analysis of the data followed thematic analysis using a phenomenologic approach. Credibility was established through credibility checks, peer review, and researcher triangulation.   Factors that played a role in women gaining employment with male sport teams were (1) preexisting professional relationships, (2) prior experience with a male sport, and (3) perseverance. Participants in our study were most attracted to their current positions because of (1) the environment of the collegiate setting and (2) the location of the university.   Job access for female ATs in this study was not viewed as a challenge. Familiarity through previous connections with the university and staff and commitment to career goals helped these women obtain the positions they currently held. The desire to work in male sports was not a primary contributing factor to the decision-making process. Progress continues for women in athletic training, as evidenced by the reported ease of job access with male sport teams.

  2. Prediction of Vertical Jump Height from Anthropometric Factors in Male and Female Martial Arts Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Methods: Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m2. Waist–hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Results: Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P < 0.001). The effect of gender is significant (P < 0.001): on average, males jumped 26% higher than females did. Conclusion: Vertical jump height of martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power. PMID:23785254

  3. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P < 0.001). The effect of gender is significant (P < 0.001): on average, males jumped 26% higher than females did. Vertical jump height of martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  4. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  5. Influence of sports participation and menarche on bone mineral density of female high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle T; Lawson, Mandra J; Levy, Susan S

    2007-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during adolescence may enhance peak bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce osteoporosis risk. The association of sports participation before and after menarche with areal BMD (by central DXA) was investigated in 99 female high school athletes (age 15.5+/-1.3 year). The frequency and duration of structured sports (school-based or other organized team) were assessed using an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Overall, the average number of years of weight-bearing sport participation was 7.4+/-3.4 years; 72% of the athletes began sport participation before menarche. Training patterns and BMD were examined by tertiles of yearly weight-bearing sport participation (hours/year) before (WBpre), after (WBpost) menarche, and in total (WBtotal). After adjusting for chronological age, gynecological age, and BMI, compared to athletes in the WBtotal low tertile, athletes in the WBtotal high tertile had significantly greater BMD at the spine (p=0.009), total hip (p=0.03), trochanter (p=0.03), and total body (p=0.009). Similar patterns were found by WBpre or WBpost status, separately, with the exception of spine BMD which was significantly different across tertiles in WBpost only (p<0.01). While the number of years of participation was similar across tertiles of WBtotal, the number of months/year was significantly greater among athletes in the high tertile than athletes in the low tertile (9.2+/-3.4 month/year versus 5.0+/-2.9 month/year, respectively (p<0.001)). These results indicate that near year-round participation in structured weight-bearing sports during early adolescence may help young girls optimize bone mineral accrual during these critical years, and may decrease their risk of osteoporosis with advancing age.

  6. Psychometric properties of the "sport satisfaction instrument (SSI)" in female athletes: predictive model of sport commitment.

    PubMed

    Granero-Gallegos, A; Baena-Extremera, A; Gómez-López, M; Abraldes, J A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the psychometric properties of the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (SSI) in a Spanish sample of female athletes in team sports federations, to decide whether it constitutes a valid and reliable instrument to be used in the context of female competitive sport in future research. The SSI was administered to a total of 615 athletes from 12 to 38 yr. of age. Confirmatory procedures and psychometric analysis supported the hypothesized theoretical model of two factors (Satisfaction/fun and Boredom). For female athletes, the 7-item model showed better goodness-of-fit indexes upon eliminating Item 2 from the Boredom subscale. Concurrent validity was explored through the correlations with the Perception of Success Questionnaire and Sport Commitment, obtaining positive correlations between Satisfaction/fun and Task Orientation and Sport Commitment, whereas Boredom correlated positively but less closely with Ego Orientation. The importance of Satisfaction/fun in the prediction of Sport Commitment, starting from task orientation, is emphasized.

  7. Effects of short-term plyometric training on physical fitness parameters in female futsal athletes

    PubMed Central

    Neves da Silva, Vinícius Fonseca; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Sousa, Caio Victor; Sotero, Rafael da Costa; Filho, José Morais Souto; Oliveira, Iransé; Mota, Márcio Rabelo; Simões, Herbert Gustavo; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of short-term plyometric training (PM) on body composition, flexibility and muscle power output in female Futsal athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female Futsal athletes (19.5 ± 1.29 years) equally and randomly divided into control and experimental groups were submitted to a sit-and-reach flexibility test, body composition measures and horizontal jump, at baseline and one day after the final training session. Both groups retained their training routines while only the experimental group participated in an additional 25 minutes of PM 2 times a week over 4 weeks. [Results] The experimental group showed higher values of flexibility and muscle power and lower body fat after the intervention in comparison to the baseline and control group. In addition, the effect size within-group after intervention indicated a moderate, large and very large effect for body fat, flexibility and muscle power, respectively. [Conclusion] These results show that plyometric training may be effective in reducing body fat and increasing flexibility and muscle power in female Futsal athletes. Thus, it may suggest that PM can be applied in the field of preventive physical therapy. PMID:28603345

  8. Associations among Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status, Anxiety, and Mental Toughness in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B; Madrigal, Leilani A

    2017-09-14

    Poor omega-3 fatty acid status has been linked to anxiety in the general population, but scarce data are available describing omega-3 fatty acid levels in athletes and their associations with anxiety and mental toughness. Whole blood samples were obtained from 54 female collegiate athletes and analyzed for fatty acids as a part of this cross-sectional observational study. Participants also completed a food frequency questionnaire on the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS)-2, and Mental Toughness Scale (MTS). Measures were collected during the athletes' off-season. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine the associations between fatty acid levels and psychological scores. Blood levels of the HS-Omega-3 Index® (rho = -0.32, p = 0.02), eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.40, p = 0.003), and docosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.33, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Likewise, dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (rho = -0.38, p = 0.007) and docosahexaenoic acid (rho = -0.35, p = 0.02) were negatively correlated with BAI scores. Blood docosapentaenoic acid was positively correlated with MTS (rho = 0.27, p = 0.049). None of the dietary or blood fatty acids were significantly correlated with SAS-2 scores. Both blood and dietary omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with general but not sport-specific anxiety in female collegiate athletes during an off-season period. Randomized trials should be conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on anxiety and mental toughness in athletes.

  9. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes.

  10. Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Left ventricular dimensions and mass using magnetic resonance imaging in female endurance athletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley-Hagan, M.; Peshock, R. M.; Stray-Gundersen, J.; Katz, J.; Ryschon, T. W.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Few published studies of left ventricular (LV) mass in female endurance athletes have been performed with M-mode echocardiography, which involves assumptions of LV geometry. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging, a 3-dimensional technique, was used to examine LV mass, LV end-diastolic volume and mean wall thickness in female long distance runners (n = 13; mean age 29 years), cyclists (n = 12; mean age 26 years) and cross-country skiers (n = 11; mean age 24 years), and the findings were compared with sedentary control subjects (n = 10; mean age 27 years) matched for height and body weight. The physical characteristics for all subjects included height (mean 166 cm, and body weight (mean 56 kg). The percent body fat (mean 11.7) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, mean 63 ml.kg-1.min-1) were similar (p greater than 0.05) among all athletic groups, but significantly different from the control group (body fat, mean 22.5%; VO2max, mean 35 ml.kg-1.min-1). LV mass (mean 159 kg), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 122 ml), and mean wall thickness (mean 11.5 mm) were also similar among the athletic groups and significantly larger than the following control values: LV mass (mean 115 g), LV end-diastolic volume (mean 93 ml) and mean wall thickness (mean 9.8 mm). Ratios of LV mass to lean body weight were similar among all athletic groups, although athletic groups had larger ratios (p less than 0.05) than the sedentary control subjects. LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume ratio was similar (p greater than 0.05) among all groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Prospective correlation between serum relaxin concentration and anterior cruciate ligament tears among elite collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Braun, Hillary J; Ridley, Bethany A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Golish, S Raymond

    2011-10-01

    The female anterior cruciate ligament may be more susceptible to injury than the male anterior cruciate ligament because of the gender-specific expression of receptors for relaxin, a collagenolytic hormone that promotes remodeling of the anterior cruciate ligament. This study was undertaken to investigate whether collegiate female athletes with elevated serum relaxin concentrations (SRC) sustain anterior cruciate ligament tears at an increased rate compared with those with lower SRC. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. From 2005 to 2010, 143 Division I female athletes from 2 universities participating in sports at high risk for anterior cruciate ligament tears (basketball, lacrosse, field hockey, soccer, gymnastics, and volleyball) were recruited to participate. Questionnaires and urine luteinizing hormone (LH) tests were used to determine participants' anterior cruciate ligament injury and menstrual history and to identify their mid-luteal phase or projected cycle days 21 to 24. Serum samples were obtained for progesterone and relaxin ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analysis. Participants were monitored for anterior cruciate ligament injury over their 4-year National Collegiate Athletic Association athletic career. A total of 128 participants completed the study and were eligible for data analysis. The cumulative incidence of complete anterior cruciate ligament tear over the 4-year study period was 21.9%, and varied significantly by sport (P < .001). The mean SRC for athletes with anterior cruciate ligament tears (6.0 ± 8.1 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that for those without anterior cruciate ligament tears (1.8 ± 3.4 pg/mL; P = .013). In subgroup analysis of the 46 athletes who had detectable SRC, the cumulative incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tear was 14 of 46 (30.4%); the mean SRC among athletes with anterior cruciate ligament tears (14 of 46) was 12.1 ± 7.7 pg/mL and without anterior cruciate ligament tears (32 of 46

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training in female athletes: a systematic review of injury reduction and results of athletic performance tests.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995-August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the "11," and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a

  14. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  15. Hippocampal GR expression is increased in elderly depressed females.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Joels, M; Swaab, D F; Lucassen, P J

    2012-01-01

    Hyperactivity of the Hypthalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis is common in major depression and evident from e.g., a frequently exaggerated response to combined application of dexamethasone and CRH in this disorder. HPA-axis activity and hence the secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), the endpoint of the HPA-axis, depends to some extent on GC binding to glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. To assess whether differences in hippocampal GR expression occur in association with depression, we investigated GR-alpha protein immunoreactivity (ir) in postmortem hippocampal tissue of an elderly cohort of 9 well-characterized depressed patients and 9 control subjects that were pair-wise matched for age, sex, CSF-pH and postmortem delay. Abundant nuclear GR-ir was observed in neurons of the hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA) and dentate gyrus (DG) subregions. GR-ir in the DG correlated positively with age in the depressed but not the control group. Although no significant differences were found in GR-ir between the depressed and control groups, a significant increase in GR-ir was present in depressed females compared to depressed males. Whether this sex difference in hippocampal GR-ir in depression relates to the increased incidence of depression in females awaits further study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  16. Effects of vertebroplasty on endplate subsidence in elderly female spines.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Awada, Hassan K; Dreher, Maureen L; Bouck, John T; Gupta, Shikha

    2015-03-01

    The aim in this study was to quantify the effects of vertebroplasty on endplate subsidence in treated and adjacent vertebrae and their relationship to endplate thickness and underlying trabecular bone in elderly female spines. Vertebral compression fractures were created in female cadaveric (age range 51-88 years) thoracolumbar spine segments. Specimens were placed into either the control or vertebroplasty group (n = 9/group) such that bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, and age were statistically similar between groups. For the vertebroplasty group, polymethylmethacrylate bone cement was injected into the fractured vertebral body under fluoroscopy. Cyclic compression (685-1370 N sinusoid) was performed on all spine segments for 115,000 cycles. Micro-CT scans were obtained before and after cyclic loading to quantify endplate subsidence. Maximum subsidence was compared between groups in the caudal endplate of the superior adjacent vertebra (SVcau); cranial (TVcra) and caudal (TVcau) endplates of the treated vertebra; and the cranial endplate of the inferior adjacent vertebra (IVcra). In addition, micro-CT images were used to quantify average endplate thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction. These parameters were then correlated with maximum endplate subsidence for each endplate. The maximum subsidence in SVcau endplate for the vertebroplasty group (0.34 ± 0.58 mm) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than for the control group (-0.13 ± 0.27 mm). Maximum subsidence in the TVcra, TVcau, and IVcra endplates were greater in the vertebroplasty group, but these differences were not significant (p > 0.16). Increased subsidence in the vertebroplasty group manifested locally in the anterior region of the SVcau endplate and in the posterior region of the TVcra and TVcau endplates (p < 0.10). Increased subsidence was observed in thinner endplates with lower trabecular bone volume fraction for both vertebroplasty and control groups (R(2) correlation up

  17. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  18. Perceptions of Body Weight and Nutritional Practices among Male and Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Valerie J.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated body weight and nutritional behavior perceptions among Division II collegiate athletes. Participants: The sample was composed of 155 collegiate athletes who responded to a survey. Methods: Data were self-reported by athletes via questionnaire. Independent-sample t tests were used to identify significant gender…

  19. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young male and female athletes: is the game to blame?

    PubMed

    Harmer, P A

    2010-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by young athletes has been a primary concern of sports governing bodies because of the implications for unfair advantage in performance and the potential for adverse side effects. Research over several decades indicated a lifetime prevalence of AAS use for adolescent males of 4-6% and for females of 1.5-3%, indicating a problem involving millions of athletes and a potential epidemic of AAS-related pathologies. However, recent studies have questioned the presumption that participation in organised sport is the primary risk factor for AAS use in adolescents as well as the extant estimates of the magnitude of the problem. Increasing evidence indicates that AAS use is associated with non-athletes and is linked to a broader syndrome of problem behaviours rather than efforts to achieve sporting success, and that sports participation may be protective against AAS use. Moreover, employing lifetime prevalence to gauge AAS use limits accurate evaluation of the personal and public health risk as the majority of respondents are not habitual users. Previous studies may have also inflated prevalence values through ambiguously worded survey questions and other design flaws, and few data are available on actual dosages. Prevention efforts need to be focused beyond organised sport and target the general adolescent population rather than athletes and should be founded on interventions with demonstrated efficacy for delinquent, antisocial and self-destructive behaviours rather than the ethical imperative of fair play.

  20. Iron status in female athletes participating in team ball-sports.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, A; Enayatizadeh, N; Akbarzadeh, M; Asadi, S; Tabatabaee, S H R

    2010-01-15

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world, affecting 20-50% of the world's population. It is estimated that 10 and 20% of male and female athletes are iron deficient, respectively. Iron deficiency has deleterious effects on the physical performance of athletes. It decreases aerobic capacity, increases heart rate and elongates the recovery time after exercise. In this cross-sectional study, 42 semi-professional female athletes who had been playing in basketball, volleyball and handball super league teams served as subjects. Data on socioeconomic and fertility status as well as the type of sport were obtained through a questionnaire. Nutritional data were gathered with a 3 day dietary recall. Total intake of calorie, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin C and B12 were also analyzed. In addition, ferritin and TIBC were measured and a CBC test was done for each subject. The results showed that the mean total calorie intake of women was 2049.79 +/- 735.12 kcal, where their iron intake was 22.33 +/- 9.24 mg day(-1). There was a significant difference between the iron intake of basketball and volleyball players (p = 0.036). Of our subjects, 33.33% had low ferritin levels (< 30 ng mL(-1)) and it was lowest in handball players. Higher than normal ferritin levels were seen in 12.5% of the subjects. We saw a significant difference in ferritin levels of basketball and handball players (p = 0.047). We conclude that the intake of calorie and iron is low in female athletes and therefore, their hematological indices such as ferritin level are below standard values.

  1. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Composition and Physical Performance in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R.; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Methods Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. Results There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001) was observed in T3 compared to T1. Calorie intake decreased significantly in T3 compared with T1 (P=0.008), and increased significantly in T4 compared with T3 (P=0.04). There was a significant main effect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). Conclusions This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan. PMID:22375235

  2. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  3. Heart rate and blood pressure variability during heavy training and overtraining in the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    2000-01-01

    We investigated heavy training- and overtraining-induced changes in heart rate and blood pressure variability during supine rest and in response to head-up tilt in female endurance athletes. Nine young female experimental athletes (ETG) increased their training volume at the intensity of 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 125% and training volume at the intensity of < 70% of VO2max by 100% during 6-9 weeks. The corresponding increases in 6 female control athletes were 5% and 10%. The VO2max of the ETG and the control athletes did not change, but it decreased from 53.0 +/- 2.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 50.2 +/- 2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (mean+/-SEM, p < 0.01) in five overtrained experimental athletes. In the ETG, low-frequency power of R-R interval (RRI) variability during supine rest increased from 6 +/- 1 ms2 x 10(2) to 9 +/- 2 ms2 x 10(2) (p < 0.05). The 30/15 index (= RRI(max 30)/RRI(min 15), where RRI(max 30) denotes the longest RRI close to the 30th RRI and RRI(min 15) denotes the shortest RRI close to the 15th RRI after assuming upright position in the head-up tilt test), decreased as a result of training (analysis of variance, p = 0.05). In the ETG, changes in VO2max were related to the changes in total power of RRI variability during standing (r = 0.74, p < 0.05). Heart rate response to prolonged standing after head-up tilt was either accentuated or attenuated in the overtrained athletes as compared to the normal training state. We conclude that heavy training could increase cardiac sympathetic modulation during supine rest and attenuated biphasic baroreflex-mediated response appearing just after shifting to an upright position. Heavy-training-/overtraining-induced decrease in maximal aerobic power was related to decreased heart rate variability during standing. Physiological responses to overtraining were individual.

  4. Cross-Validation of Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate Equations Among Female Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Chamberlain, Nik; Flatt, Andrew A; Snarr, Ronald L; Bishop, Phillip A; Williford, Henry N

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of 3 general and 2 female-specific age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) prediction equations in female collegiate athletes. Thirty female collegiate athletes (age = 21.5 ± 1.9 years, height = 164.7 ± 6.6 cm, weight = 61.3 ± 8.2 kg) participated. HRmax was determined with a maximal graded exercise test and predicted with 3 general equations (Fox et al., Astrand, and Tanaka et al.) and 2 female-specific equations (Fairbarn et al. and Gulati et al.). There was no significant difference between observed HRmax (185.9 ± 5.0 b·min) and the Fairbarn (187.5 ± 1.2 b·min) and Gulati (187.1 ± 1.7 b·min) equations (p = 0.11 and 0.23, respectively). The Fox (198.5 ± 1.9 b·min), Astrand (198.1 ± 1.6 b·min), and Tanaka (193.0 ± 1.4 b·min) equations provided significantly higher estimates compared with observed HRmax (p < 0.001 for each). The standard error of the estimate was similar for all the prediction equations (between 5.0 and 5.4 b·min), but the total error was smallest for Fairbarn and Gulati (5.3 b·min for each) and largest for Fox and Astrand (13.9 and 13.3 b·min, respectively). The 95% limits of agreement of the mean error were similar for all of the prediction equations, with values varying between 9.9 and 10.5 b·min. Because of the wide limits of agreement displayed by each equation, the use of age-predicted methods for estimating HRmax in collegiate female athletes should be performed only with caution.

  5. Current perspectives on the etiology and manifestation of the "silent" component of the Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) represents a syndrome of three interrelated conditions that originate from chronically inadequate energy intake to compensate for energy expenditure; this environment results in insufficient stored energy to maintain physiological processes, a condition known as low energy availability. The physiological adaptations associated with low energy availability, in turn, contribute to menstrual cycle disturbances. The downstream effects of both low energy availability and suppressed estrogen concentrations synergistically impair bone health, leading to low bone mineral density, compromised bone structure and microarchitecture, and ultimately, a decrease in bone strength. Unlike the other components of the Triad, poor bone health often does not have overt symptoms, and therefore develops silently, unbeknownst to the athlete. Compromised bone health among female athletes increases the risk of fracture throughout the lifespan, highlighting the long-term health consequences of the Triad. The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of Triad research related to the third component of the Triad, ie, poor bone health, in an effort to summarize what we know, what we are learning, and what remains unknown.

  6. Muscle function and resting energy expenditure in female athletes with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Selvadurai, Hiran C; Allen, Jane; Sachinwalla, Toos; Macauley, James; Blimkie, Cameron J; Van Asperen, Peter P

    2003-12-15

    The pathophysiology of impaired exercise tolerance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to compare exercise ability (at clinical and cellular levels) and resting energy expenditure in female athletes with CF compared with matched control subjects. Sixteen subjects and matched control subjects participated in the study. The girls with CF not only had a significantly greater resting energy expenditure (7.6% higher; p<0.05), their habitual daily activity was also significantly greater than that of control subjects (15% greater; p<0.01). Peak aerobic capacity was similar in both groups. However, peak anaerobic power was 20% less (p<0.05) in girls with CF. The 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies demonstrated that there were no differences between the groups at rest, but at 25% total work output the girls with CF were less acidotic (CF, pH 6.99 [0.06]; control subjects, 6.90 [0.05]) and had a significantly lower inorganic phosphorus-to-phosphocreatine ratio (CF, 0.34 [0.07]; control subjects, 0.41 [0.08]). These differences continued to increase to maximal exercise. This study demonstrates that in spite of normal lung function and good nutritional status, females athletes with CF still had significant deficiencies in some measures of fitness and muscle metabolism compared with healthy athletes.

  7. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  8. Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F

    1995-02-01

    Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.

  9. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Heikura, Ida A; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n = 27) and male (n = 21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and posttraining meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between subgroups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x(2) when p < .05. Nearly two-thirds of all athletes reported that they aim to eat more food on, or after, hard training days. Most athletes said they focus on adequate fueling (96%) and adequate CHO and protein (PRO) recovery (87%) around key sessions. Twenty-six percent of athletes (11% of middle vs 42% of long-distance athletes [x(2) (1, n = 46) = 4.308, p = .038, phi = 0.3])) reported to undertake training in the fasted state, while 11% said they periodically restrict CHO intake, with 30% ingesting CHO during training sessions. Our findings show that elite endurance athletes appear to execute pre- and post-key session nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  10. Shoulder Internal Derangement and Osteoarthritis in a 25-Year-Old Female Softball Athlete.

    PubMed

    Cornelson, Stacey M; Hogarth, William; Ault, Daniel L; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe osteoarthritis and internal derangement of the shoulder in a collegiate softball player. A 25-year-old female softball athlete presented with a history of chronic right shoulder pain. A thorough clinical examination and multiple imaging studies were performed. Osteoarthritis was demonstrated on radiographs, and ligamentous and rotator cuff tendon tears were displayed on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient's treatment plan included full spine manipulation, cold laser therapy, kinesiotaping, stretching, and neuromuscular reeducation of the right shoulder. The patient reported a decrease in symptoms after 1 month, although treatment was sporadic because of poor patient compliance. Osteoarthritis and internal derangement may occur in overhead-throwing athletes, and correct imaging is needed for timely and accurate diagnoses. Following a timely diagnosis, the young patient in this case had a good recovery with multimodal chiropractic care.

  11. Anemia and iron status in young fertile non-professional female athletes.

    PubMed

    Di Santolo, Manuela; Stel, Giuliana; Banfi, Giuseppe; Gonano, Fabio; Cauci, Sabina

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of regular physical exercise on anemia and iron status in young non-professional female athletes. A total of 191 healthy white Italian women (23.5 +/- 4.68 years) were analyzed; 70 were non-professional athletes performing 11.1 +/- 2.63 h week(-1) exercise and 121 were sedentary controls. Blood markers of anemia and iron status-hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBC), serum ferritin, iron, transferrin (Tf), transferrin saturation (TfS), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and the sTfR/log ferritin ratio (sTfR-F index)-were evaluated. Anemia threshold was Hb < 120 g l(-1). Ferritin concentrations < 12 microg l(-1) were considered as iron deficiency (ID). Frequency of anemia (15.7 versus 10.7%, P = 0.32), ID (27.1 versus 29.8%, P = 0.70), and ID anemia (8.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.46) was not different in athletes and controls. However, athletes were threefold more likely than controls (17.1 versus 5.8%) to have serum iron < 50 microg dl(-1) [odds ratio (OR) 3.37, P = 0.012]. Low-TfS (<15%) was found in 25.7% of athletes and in 13.2% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.030. Elevated-sTfR (>1.76 mg l(-1)) was found in 24.3% of athletes and in 12.4% of controls, OR 2.27, P = 0.034. Regular non-professional sport activity does not cause an increased rate of anemia or of iron deficiency in fertile women. However, physical exercise has an impact on iron status as it reduces serum iron and transferrin saturation, and elevates sTfR. Nearly one fifth of recreational athletes have anemia and a third have iron deficit, these conditions can decrease their physical performance.

  12. Control of dynamic foot-ground interactions in male and female soccer athletes: females exhibit reduced dexterity and higher limb stiffness during landing.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Mark A; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J; Gregor, Robert J; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-01-22

    Controlling dynamic interactions between the lower limb and ground is important for skilled locomotion and may influence injury risk in athletes. It is well known that female athletes sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears at higher rates than male athletes, and exhibit lower extremity biomechanics thought to increase injury risk during sport maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower extremity dexterity (LED)--the ability to dynamically control endpoint force magnitude and direction as quantified by compressing an unstable spring with the lower limb at submaximal forces--is a potential contributing factor to the "at-risk" movement behavior exhibited by female athletes. We tested this hypothesis by comparing LED-test performance and single-limb drop jump biomechanics between 14 female and 14 male high school soccer players. We found that female athletes exhibited reduced LED-test performance (p=0.001) and higher limb stiffness during landing (p=0.008) calculated on average within 51 ms of foot contact. Females also exhibited higher coactivation at the ankle (p=0.001) and knee (p=0.02) before landing. No sex differences in sagittal plane joint angles and center of mass velocity at foot contact were observed. Collectively, our results raise the possibility that the higher leg stiffness observed in females during landing is an anticipatory behavior due in part to reduced lower extremity dexterity. The reduced lower extremity dexterity and compensatory stiffening strategy may contribute to the heightened risk of ACL injury in this population.

  13. Mesenteric Teratoma in Elderly Female: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Neeralagi, Chandrasekhar Sharanappa; Surag, K R; Kumar, Yogesh; Lakkanna, S; Raj, Preetham

    2017-01-01

    Dermoid cysts rarely present as mesenteric cysts. Mesenteric cysts are rare pathologic entities, with a reported incidence of approximately 1 of 27 000 to 1 of 100 000 admissions. Mesenteric cyst was first described by Florentine anatomist Benevieni in 1507, while performing an autopsy on an eight-year-old boy. Most commonly, teratoma occurs in the early age group. Mature mesenteric teratoma in adulthood is extremely rare. Teratoma are germ cell tumours commonly composed of multiple cell types derived from one or more of the 3 germ layers. We present the case of a 69-year-old elderly female who presented with abdomen pain for nine months with right lumbar and right iliac fossa mass. Computed Tomography (CT) abdomen revealed bilocular cystic lesion with possibility of mucinous cystadenoma with no definitive organ of origin. She underwent explorative laparotomy and total excision of the cystic mass. Histopathologic examination confirmed diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma of mesentery. This case report highlights the need to maintain high index of suspicion while evaluating abdominal mass.

  14. Mesenteric Teratoma in Elderly Female: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Surag, KR; Kumar, Yogesh; Lakkanna, S; Raj, Preetham

    2017-01-01

    Dermoid cysts rarely present as mesenteric cysts. Mesenteric cysts are rare pathologic entities, with a reported incidence of approximately 1 of 27 000 to 1 of 100 000 admissions. Mesenteric cyst was first described by Florentine anatomist Benevieni in 1507, while performing an autopsy on an eight-year-old boy. Most commonly, teratoma occurs in the early age group. Mature mesenteric teratoma in adulthood is extremely rare. Teratoma are germ cell tumours commonly composed of multiple cell types derived from one or more of the 3 germ layers. We present the case of a 69-year-old elderly female who presented with abdomen pain for nine months with right lumbar and right iliac fossa mass. Computed Tomography (CT) abdomen revealed bilocular cystic lesion with possibility of mucinous cystadenoma with no definitive organ of origin. She underwent explorative laparotomy and total excision of the cystic mass. Histopathologic examination confirmed diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma of mesentery. This case report highlights the need to maintain high index of suspicion while evaluating abdominal mass. PMID:28274002

  15. [Effect of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in female athletes].

    PubMed

    Radjen, Slavica; Radjen, Goran; Zivotić-Vanović, Mirjana; Radaković, Sonja; Vasiljević, Nadja; Stojanović, Dusica

    2011-02-01

    Iron is a vital constituent of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and some mitochondrial enzymes; therefore, body iron deficiency may result in reduced aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily oral iron supplementation on body iron status, and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in female athletes with latent iron deficiency, as well as with iron-deficiency anemia. A total of 37 female volleyball players were included in the study. Seventeen female athletes had latent iron deficiency, and 20 ones iron deficiency anemia. Both groups were divided into the experimental and the control group. The experimental groups received a daily oral iron supplement (200 mg ferrous sulfate), for a two-month training course. Iron status was determined by serum parameters as follows: red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, serum iron and ferritin levels, an unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation. VO2max was determined by an indirect test. Statistical difference between the latent iron deficient group versus the iron deficient anemic group was found regarding VO2max (p < 0.001). There were correlations between hemoglobin concentration and VO2max in the latent iron deficient group, as well as in the iron deficient anaemic group (p < 0.05). After two months, there was a significant increase in VO2max in all groups (from 7.0% to 18.2%). Values of VO2max at the end of training period were significantly different (45.98 +/- 1.76 vs 42.40 +/- 1.22 mL/kg/min; p < 0.001) between the experimental and the control group only in female athletes with iron deficiency anemia. After the supplementation, markers of iron status were significantly higher in supplemented groups than in the controls. VO2max was significantly lower in the iron deficient anemic group versus the latent iron deficient group. Iron supplementation during a two-month training period significantly improved body iron status in the iron deficient

  16. Haematological and iron-related parameters in male and female athletes according to different metabolic energy demands.

    PubMed

    Milic, Radoje; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Dopsaj, Violeta

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the iron-related haematological parameters in both male and female athletes participating in different sporting disciplines necessitating different metabolic energy demands. A total of 873 athletes (514 males, mean age: 22.08 ± 4.95 years and 359 females, mean age: 21.38 ± 3.88 years) were divided according to gender and to the predominant energy system required for participation in sport (aerobic, anaerobic or mixed) and haematological and iron-related parameters were measured. For both male and female athletes, significant differences related to the predominant energy system were found at a general level: male (Wilks' λ = 0.798, F = 3.047, p < 0.001) and female (Wilks' λ = 0.762, F = 2.591, p < 0.001). According to the ferritin cutoff value of 35 μg/L, whole body iron and sTfR significantly differed in all three groups of male and female athletes (p < 0.001). The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes in male athletes was significantly higher only in those who required an anaerobic energy source (p < 0.001), whilst in the females hypochromic erythrocytes (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin (anaerobic, p = 0.042; mixed, p = 0.006) were significantly different only in anaerobic and mixed energy source athletes. According to the ferritin cutoff value of 22 μg/L, in females, whole body iron, sTfR and hypochromic erythrocytes were significantly higher in all three groups of athletes than those below the aforementioned cutoff value (p < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant energy system required for participation in sport affects haematological parameters. sTfR and body iron proved to be reliable parameters for monitoring the dynamics of iron metabolism and could contribute to successful iron-deficiency prevention.

  17. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  18. Perspectives on parenthood and working of female athletic trainers in the secondary school and collegiate settings.

    PubMed

    Kahanov, Leamor; Loebsack, Alice R; Masucci, Matthew A; Roberts, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) are currently underrepresented in the collegiate setting. Parenting and family obligations may play a role in this underrepresentation. To examine female ATs' perspectives on parenting and working in the secondary school and collegiate employment settings. Cross-sectional study. Online survey. A total of 1000 nonstudent, female certified ATs who were currently members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. An original survey was developed to assess perceptions related to motherhood and work responsibilities. Descriptive statistics were used to assess age, years of experience as a certified AT, employment position, and parent or nonparent status. A correlation matrix was conducted to determine factors among parent and nonparent status, perceptions of motherhood, and employment-setting decisions. Of the 1000 surveys sent via e-mail, 411 (41.1%) female ATs responded. Responses indicated that a majority of the female ATs worked in the secondary school setting. Sixty-one percent of the respondents did not have children. Past female ATs' experiences indicated a perception that motherhood created more challenges or struggles (or both) in the work and family settings. Whether parents considered children a factor in employment-setting changes produced conflicting results: no significant correlations or differences were found among responses. Parenting considerations had influences on both the home and employment settings. Although parents and nonparents had different views on the implications of parenting in the workplace, both groups agreed that parenting could affect the work environment and the choice to change employment settings and careers. Administrative decisions need to be considered in relation to parenting concerns. Mentoring that includes employment-setting choices relative to life goals should be provided to ATs, regardless of sex.

  19. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.

    PubMed

    Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted.

  20. Comparison of total and segmental body composition using DXA and multifrequency bioimpedance in collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Snarr, Ronald L; Leatherwood, Matthew D; Chamberlain, Nik A; Redding, Melvenia L; Flatt, Andrew A; Moon, Jordan R; Williford, Henry N

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the agreement between multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body fat percentage (BF%), fat-free mass (FFM), and total body and segmental lean soft tissue (LST) in collegiate female athletes. Forty-five female athletes (age = 21.2 ± 2.0 years, height = 166.1 ± 7.1 cm, weight = 62.6 ± 9.9 kg) participated in this study. Variables measured through BIA and DXA were as follows: BF%, FFM, and LST of the arms (ARMS(LST)), the legs (LEGS(LST)), the trunk (TRUNK(LST)), and the total body (TOTAL(LST)). Compared with the DXA, the InBody 720 provided significantly lower values for BF% (-3.3%, p < 0.001) and significantly higher values for FFM (2.1 kg, p < 0.001) with limits of agreement (1.96 SD of the mean difference) of ±5.6% for BF% and ±3.7 kg for FFM. No significant differences (p < 0.008) existed between the 2 devices (InBody 720-DXA) for ARMS(LST) (0.05 kg), TRUNK(LST) (0.14 kg), LEGS(LST) (-0.4 kg), and TOTAL(LST) (-0.21 kg). The limits of agreement were ±0.79 kg for ARMS(LST), ±2.62 kg for LEGS(LST), ±3.18 kg for TRUNK(LST), and ±4.23 kg for TOTAL(LST). This study found discrepancies in BF% and FFM between the 2 devices. However, the InBody 720 and DXA appeared to provide excellent agreement for measuring total body and segmental LST. Therefore, the InBody 720 may be a rapid noninvasive method to assess LST in female athletes when DXA is not available.

  1. Lower Limb Kinematics and Dynamic Postural Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Chawke, Mark; Kelleher, Judy; Murphy, Katie; Prendiville, Anna; Sweeny, Lauren; Patterson, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Context: Deficits in lower limb kinematics and postural stability are predisposing factors to the development of knee ligamentous injury. The extent to which these deficits are present after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is still largely unknown. The primary hypothesis of the present study was that female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction and who have returned to sport participation would exhibit deficits in dynamic postural stability as well as deficiencies in hip- and knee-joint kinematics when compared with an age-, activity-, and sex-matched uninjured control group. Objective: To investigate dynamic postural stability as quantified by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles in female athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen female athletes who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 17 age- and sex-matched uninjured controls. Intervention(s): Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s): Reach distances for each directional component were quantified and expressed as a percentage of leg length. Simultaneous hip- and knee-joint kinematic profiles were recorded using a motion-analysis system. Results: The ACL-R group had decreased reach distances on the posterior-medial (P < .01) and posterior-lateral (P < .01) directional components of the SEBT. During performance of the directional components of the SEBT, ACL-R participants demonstrated altered hip-joint frontal-, sagittal-, and transverse-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05), as well as altered knee-joint sagittal-plane kinematic profiles (P < .05). Conclusions: Deficits in dynamic postural stability and concomitant altered hip- and knee-joint kinematics are present after ACL

  2. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes.

  3. Effects of dietary intervention in young female athletes with menstrual disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of three months of dietary intervention on menstrual cycle in young female athletes with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea. Methods From forty-five female professional athletes with menstrual irregularity that were recruited thirty-one, aged 18.1 ± 2.6 years, completed the study and were analyzed. Hyperprolactinemia, thyroid dysfunction, primary ovarian failure and hyperandrogenism were excluded in the study participants. The subjects started intense training at the age of 11.2 ± 3.5 years and continued during next 6.8 ± 3.3 years. Energy and nutrients intake, total energy expenditure, energy availability and body composition as well as serum concentrations of LH, FSH, 17 – beta estradiol and progesterone were measured at the beginning of the study and after three months of individualized dietary intervention. Results Following three months of dietary intervention significant increase in energy intake (2354 ± 539 vs. 258 8 ± 557 kcal, P = 0.004) and energy availability (28.3 ± 9.2 vs. 35.8 ± 12.3 kcal/kg FFM/d, P = 0.011) was observed as well as improved energy balance (−288 ± 477 vs. -51 ± 224 kcal/d, P = 0.002). Though no changes in BMI and body composition were noted but significant rise in LH concentrations (3.04 ± 1.63 vs. 4.59 ± 2.53 mIU/ml, P = 0.009) and LH to FSH ratio (0.84 ± 0.56 vs. 0.96 ± 0.52, P = 0.001) was achieved, but no restoration of menstrual cyclicity. Conclusions This report provides further support for the role of energy deficiency in menstrual disorders among young female athletes and the benefits of an adequate energy intake and energy availability on hormones concentration. Continuation controlled dietary intervention is needed to assess the extent to which long-term improvement in the nutritional status results in improvements in the hormonal status of female athletes, to an extent that

  4. Female Athlete Triad: Future Directions for Energy Availability and Eating Disorder Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nancy I; Statuta, Siobhan M; Austin, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Despite more than 3 decades of research on the Female Athlete Triad, research gaps remain. Although low energy availability (EA) is the key etiologic factor in the Triad and the pathways to low EA are varied, its effects can be modified by several factors. Accurate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of disordered eating are a challenge; however, recent techniques combined with novel educational and behavior interventions prove promising. Recently published practice-based guidelines have helped to translate Triad science and should improve as they are refined. This article identifies the current state of research and distinguishes areas that require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of male and female junior athletes' self-perceptions and body image.

    PubMed

    Daley, A J; Hunter, B

    2001-12-01

    Few studies have examined sex differences in body perceptions in sports where the pressure to display a certain physique is reduced. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in physical self-perceptions and body image in junior athletes who are involved in sprint kayaking, a sport where a low body weight is relatively unimportant. 12 male and 13 female members (aged 13-17 yr.) of the British Canoe Union Junior Development Squad for sprint-kayak racing completed the Physical Self-perception Profile for Children and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that girls reported significandy higher Sports Competence and lower Appearance Orientation scores than boys. This study has raised a number of issues surrounding the physical self-perceptions and body image of junior athletes involved in a power- and strength-based sport. It seems that male athletes may also experience pressures to conform to a male version of a 'beautiful body'.

  6. Health Risk Behaviors of Female Student-Athletes and the Relationship to Social Support and Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvigson, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Although many student-athletes find participation in college sports rewarding, there are many who experience difficulties. Student-athletes face the same concerns that nonathletes do which include becoming independent, coping with uncertainty, finding a clear purpose, and clarifying values (Astin, 1977; Chickering, 1969; Farnsworth, 1966;…

  7. Health Risk Behaviors of Female Student-Athletes and the Relationship to Social Support and Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvigson, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Although many student-athletes find participation in college sports rewarding, there are many who experience difficulties. Student-athletes face the same concerns that nonathletes do which include becoming independent, coping with uncertainty, finding a clear purpose, and clarifying values (Astin, 1977; Chickering, 1969; Farnsworth, 1966;…

  8. Associations between the female athlete triad and injury among high school runners.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Mitchell J; Barrack, Michelle; Nichols, Jeanne F

    2014-12-01

    During the 2013-14 school year, over 763,000 female athletes participated in interscholastic running sports in the United States. Recent studies have indicated associations between the female athlete triad (Triad) and stress fracture or other musculoskeletal injuries in elite or collegiate female running populations. Little is known about these relationships in an adolescent interscholastic running population. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between Triad and risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injury among adolescent runners. Eighty-nine female athletes competing in interscholastic cross-country and track in southern California were followed, prospectively. The runners were monitored throughout their respective sport season for lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries. Data collected included daily injury reports, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) that assessed disordered eating attitudes/behaviors, a questionnaire on menstrual history and demographic characteristics, a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan that measured whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (lean tissue and fat mass), and anthropometric measurements. Thirty-eight runners (42.7%) incurred at least one lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. In the BMD Z-score ≤ -1 standard deviation (SD) adjusted model, low BMD relative to age (BMD Z-score of ≤ -1SD) was significantly associated (Odds Ratio [OR]=4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-13.3) with an increased occurrence of musculoskeletal injury during the interscholastic sport season. In the BMD Z-score ≤ -2 SDs adjusted model, a history of oligo/amenorrhea was significantly associated (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.2-13.5) with increased musculoskeletal injury occurrence. Oligo/amenorrhea and low BMD were associated with musculoskeletal injuries among the female interscholastic cross-country and track runners. Regular, close monitoring of adolescent female runners during seasonal and

  9. Evaluation of postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Vařeková, Renata; Vařeka, Ivan; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate marked postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes. Sixty-two Czech and Slovak elite female volleyball athletes (age 20.7±2.03 years, body mass 71.1±6.18 kg, body height 1.804±.0618 m, BMI 21.8±1.78) were examined by an experienced rehabilitation physician. The set of tests included the frontal posture gross examination, the forward bending test from the standing position and the deep squat test. The spiking hand and the presence of any lower extremity injury were estimated by interview. The proportion test, Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (p<0.05). Fifty subjects (80.6%) exhibited "typical" frontal plane posture in which the acromion, scapula and the iliac crest were in a higher position on the left side than on the right, significantly more frequently than all the other patterns (proportion test, p<0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of the subjects with the "LLL pattern" preferred the right arm for spiking (proportion test, p<0.0001). Forty-one subjects (66%) exhibited hypermobility in the forward bending test, significantly more frequently than twenty-one subjects (34%) with normal results (proportion test, p=0.0003). Thirty-four subjects (55%) did not succeed in the deep squat test and hypermobility in the forward bending test paradoxically prevailed in them significantly (proportion test, p=0.004). Restriction in the deep squat test was not linked to obesity, age (t-test, p=0.081) nor knee (proportion test, p=0.85) and ankle injury (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.36) in the past. Significant prevalence of hypermobility in the forward bending test was not surprising because of general body composition and the performance of regular stretching exercises in elite female volleyball athletes. On the other hand, surprisingly, more than half of the subjects did not succeed in the deep squat test. The cause of poor results in the deep squat test could be due

  10. Evaluation of Postural Asymmetry and Gross Joint Mobility in Elite Female Volleyball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vařeková, Renata; Vařeka, Ivan; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate marked postural asymmetry and gross joint mobility in elite female volleyball athletes. Sixty-two Czech and Slovak elite female volleyball athletes (age 20.7±2.03 years, body mass 71.1±6.18 kg, body height 1.804±.0618 m, BMI 21.8±1.78) were examined by an experienced rehabilitation physician. The set of tests included the frontal posture gross examination, the forward bending test from the standing position and the deep squat test. The spiking hand and the presence of any lower extremity injury were estimated by interview. The proportion test, Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (p<0.05). Fifty subjects (80.6%) exhibited “typical” frontal plane posture in which the acromion, scapula and the iliac crest were in a higher position on the left side than on the right, significantly more frequently than all the other patterns (proportion test, p<0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of the subjects with the “LLL pattern” preferred the right arm for spiking (proportion test, p<0.0001). Forty-one subjects (66%) exhibited hypermobility in the forward bending test, significantly more frequently than twenty-one subjects (34%) with normal results (proportion test, p=0.0003). Thirty-four subjects (55%) did not succeed in the deep squat test and hypermobility in the forward bending test paradoxically prevailed in them significantly (proportion test, p=0.004). Restriction in the deep squat test was not linked to obesity, age (t-test, p=0.081) nor knee (proportion test, p=0.85) and ankle injury (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.36) in the past. Significant prevalence of hypermobility in the forward bending test was not surprising because of general body composition and the performance of regular stretching exercises in elite female volleyball athletes. On the other hand, surprisingly, more than half of the subjects did not succeed in the deep squat test. The cause of poor results in the deep squat test

  11. Female sex is associated with greater rotatory knee laxity in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas R; Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Herbst, Elmar; Nagai, Kanto; Murphy, Conor; Burnham, Jeremy M; Popchak, Adam; Debski, Richard E; Musahl, Volker

    2017-08-19

    The purpose of this observational study was to determine which factors, including sex, are associated with increased rotatory knee laxity in collegiate athletes with no history of knee injuries. It was hypothesized that increased rotatory knee laxity, measured by a quantitative pivot shift test, would correlate with female sex, increased anterior translation during the Lachman test, generalized ligamentous laxity, and knee hyperextension. Ninety-eight collegiate athletes with a median age of 20 (range 18-25) years with no history of knee injuries were tested. IKDC and Marx activity scores were obtained and subjects underwent measurement of anterior translation during the Lachman test with a Rolimeter and measurement of knee hyperextension with a goniometer for both knees. A standardized pivot shift test was performed in both knees and quantified using image analysis technology. Generalized ligamentous laxity was assessed using the modified Beighton score. The average anterior translation of the lateral compartment during the pivot shift test was 1.6 mm (range 0.1-7.1) with a mean side-to-side difference of 0.6 mm (range 0-2.7). The average anterior translation during the Lachman test was 9.0 (range 2-15). The anterior translation of the lateral compartment during the pivot shift test was significantly higher in females (median, 1.6; range 0.3-4.9) than in males (1.1, 0.1-7.1 mm) (p < 0.05). Anterior translation of the lateral compartment during the pivot shift test was significantly correlated with anterior translation during the Lachman test (r = 0.34; p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between anterior translation of the lateral compartment during the pivot shift test and knee hyperextension or modified Beighton score (n.s). The data from this study show that female sex is associated with increased rotatory knee laxity measured during the pivot shift test and anterior translation during the Lachman test in collegiate athletes. In the future

  12. Different Exercise Training Interventions and Drop-Landing Biomechanics in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pfile, Kate R.; Hart, Joseph M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Hertel, Jay; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Design: Cohort study. Setting: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). Intervention(s): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. Results: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ≤ .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). Conclusions: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be

  13. Effects of Plyometric Training on Muscle-Activation Strategies and Performance in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Swanik, Kathleen A.; Swanik, C. Buz; Straub, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of plyometric training on muscle-activation strategies and performance of the lower extremity during jumping exercises. Subjects: Twenty healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes. Design and Setting: A pretest and posttest control group design was used. Experimental subjects performed plyometric exercises 2 times per week for 6 weeks. Measurements: We used surface electromyography to assess preparatory and reactive activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, medial and lateral hamstrings, and hip abductors and adductors. Vertical jump height and sprint speed were assessed with the VERTEC and infrared timing devices, respectively. Results: Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant (P < .05) increases in firing of adductor muscles during the preparatory phase, with significant interactions for area, mean, and peak. A Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analysis revealed significant increases in preparatory adductor area, mean, and peak for experimental group. A significant (P = .037) increase in preparatory adductor-to-abductor muscle coactivation in the experimental group was identified, as well as a trend (P = .053) toward reactive quadriceps-to- hamstring muscle coactivation in the experimental group. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed significant between-groups adaptations in muscle activity patterns pretest to posttest. Although not significant, experimental and control subjects had average increases of 5.8% and 2.0% in vertical jump height, respectively. Conclusions: The increased preparatory adductor activity and abductor-to-adductor coactivation represent preprogrammed motor strategies learned during the plyometric training. These data strongly support the role of hip-musculature activation strategies for dynamic restraint and control of lower extremity alignment at ground contact. Plyometric exercises should be incorporated into the training regimens

  14. Comparison of strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in elite female athletes' dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Susan; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Naughton, Geraldine

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes. Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy. Mean energy intake was 10,551 +/- 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) was consistent with (>1.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate. Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

  15. Neuromuscular Changes in Female Collegiate Athletes Resulting From a Plyometric Jump-Training Program.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Gary B.; Colston, Marisa A.; Short, Nancy I.; Neal, Kristina L.; Hoewischer, Paul E.; Pixley, Jennifer J.

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess performance changes induced by a 6- week plyometric jump-training program. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a quasiexperimental design to compare groups formed on the basis of team membership. Testing was conducted in an athletic training research laboratory, both before and after a 6-week period of preseason basketball conditioning. SUBJECTS: Nineteen female collegiate basketball players from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I program (8 subjects) and a National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division II program (11 subjects) who had no history of anterior cruciate ligament injury and who had no history of any lower extremity injury during the preceding 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: The variables of primary interest were hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic peak torque. Of secondary interest were 5 variables derived from step-down and lunging maneuvers performed on a computerized forceplate system and 4 variables derived from tracking the position of the body core during performance of a T-pattern agility drill with a computerized infrared tracking system. RESULTS: A significant group x trial interaction was found for hamstrings peak torque at 60 degrees.s(-1) (F(1,17) = 9.16, P =.008.), and the proportion of total variance attributable to the treatment effect produced by the jump-training program was relatively large (eta(2) =.35, omega(2) =.30). None of the other variables demonstrated statistically significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our primary results support plyometric jump training as a strategy for improving neuromuscular attributes that are believed to reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female college basketball players. They also provide the basis for reasonable isokinetic strength goals.

  16. Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Petushek, Erich; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the within-session and between-session reliability of knee kinematics and kinetics in a vertical drop jump task among elite female handball and football athletes. Specifically, we aimed to quantify the within-session waveform consistency and between-session consistency of the subject ranking for a variety of knee kinematics and kinetics. Forty-one elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes were tested in two sessions. The reliability of three-dimensional knee biomechanical measurements was quantified by the intra-class correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and typical error. All the selected discrete variables achieved excellent within-session reliability (ICC>0.87). The typical error of valgus angles, internal rotation angles, and internal rotation moment was constant throughout the whole stance phase. For between-session reliability, the selected discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.69), except peak internal rotation moment (ICC=0.40). All between-session rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.90. Most of the discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability in both within-session and between-session analysis. Moreover, moderate to strong between-session consistency of subject rankings was found, implying that the measurements assessed during the vertical drop jump demonstrate sufficient reliability to be used in both single-session and multiple-session studies.

  17. Modified activity-stress paradigm in an animal model of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Dimarco, Nancy M; Dart, Lyn; Sanborn, Charlotte Barney

    2007-11-01

    The exercising woman with nutritional deficits and related menstrual irregularities is at risk of compromising long-term bone health, i.e., the female athlete triad. There is no animal model of the female athlete triad. The purpose of this study was to examine long-term energy restriction in voluntary wheel-running female rats on estrous cycling, bone mineral content, and leptin levels. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 34 days) were fed ad libitum and given access to running wheels during an initial 14-wk period, providing baseline and age-related data. Daily collection included dietary intake, body weight, estrous cycling, and voluntary running distance. At 4 mo, rats were randomized into two groups, six restrict-fed rats (70% of ad libitum intake) and six rats continuing as ad libitum-fed controls. Energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy availability (energy intake - energy expenditure) were calculated for each animal. Serum estradiol and leptin concentrations were measured by RIA. Femoral and tibial bone mineral density and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Restrict-fed rats exhibited a decrease in energy availability during Weight Loss and Anestrous phases (P = 0.002). Compared with controls after 12 wk, restrict-fed rats showed reduced concentrations of serum estradiol (P = 0.002) and leptin (P = 0.002), lower ovarian weight (P = 0.002), and decreased femoral (P = 0.041) and tibial (P = 0.05) BMC. Decreased energy availability resulted in anestrus and significant decreases in BMC, estrogen and leptin levels, and body weight. Finally, there is a critical level of energy availability to maintain estrous cycling.

  18. The Impact of Genetics and Hormonal Contraceptives on the Steroid Profile in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Jenny J.; Mullen, Jenny E.; Berglund Lindgren, Emma; Ericsson, Magnus; Ekström, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2014-01-01

    The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study, we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives (HC) as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls. The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 and 45. HC were used by 32% of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17. Subjects using HC excreted 40% less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005) but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 29% higher in the HC group (p = 0.016). In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of HC on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of HC should be a mandatory question on the doping control form. PMID:24782830

  19. Sports Specialization is Associated with An Increased Risk of Developing Anterior Knee Pain in Adolescent Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Randon; Foss, Kim Barber; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Design Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Methods Female basketball, soccer and volleyball players (N=546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of five middle schools and four high schools. A total of 357 multi-sport, and 189 single sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain on physical exam. Testing consisted of completion of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of patellofemoral pain (PFP). This study compared self-reported multi-sport athletes with sport specialized athletes participating in only one sport. The sports participation data was normalized by sport season with each sport accounting for one season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multi-sport athletes. Results Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence by 1.5 fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2; p=0.038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) and Osgood Schlatter Disease (95% CI 1.5 to 10.1; p=0.005) demonstrated a four-fold greater relative risk in single sport compared to multiple sport athletes. Other specific PFP diagnoses such as Fat Pad, Plica, Trauma, Pes Anserine Bursitis and IT Band Tendonitis incidence were not different between single sport and multiple sport participants (p>0.05). Conclusion Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared to multi

  20. Factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in male and female college athletes.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Hardy, Kristina K; Crosby, Ross D; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka

    2013-06-01

    The study explored the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among 1637 university students. Participants were divided into male (n=432) and female (n=544) competitive athletes, and male (n=229) and female (n=429) comparison groups comprised of individuals who had not engaged in competitive sports for at least one year. All groups were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the published factor structure in this population, and then exploratory FA (EFA). A three-factor solution was the best fit for three out of four groups, with a two-factor solution providing best fit for the male comparison group. The first factor for all groups resembled a combined Shape and Weight Concern subscale. The factor structure among male and female competitive athletes was remarkably similar; however, non-competitive athletic/low activity males appear qualitatively different from other groups.

  1. Body composition changes among female NCAA division 1 athletes across the competitive season and over a multiyear time frame.

    PubMed

    Stanforth, Philip R; Crim, Brittany N; Stanforth, Dixie; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    Body composition can affect athletic performance. Numerous studies have documented changes in body composition in female collegiate athletes from pre- to postseason; however, longitudinal studies examining changes across years are scarce. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to assess longitudinal body composition changes among female collegiate athletes across 3 years. Two hundred twelve female athletes from basketball (BB; n = 38), soccer (SOC; n = 47), swimming (SW; n = 52), track (sprinters and jumpers; TR; n = 49), and volleyball (VB; n = 26) with an initial mean age of 19.2 ± 1.2 years, height of 172.4 ± 8.9 cm, and total mass of 66.9 ± 9.0 kg had body composition assessments using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry pre- and postseason over 3 years. A restricted maximum-likelihood linear mixed model regression analysis examined body composition differences by sport and year. Changes (p < 0.05) over 3 years included the following: Lean mass increased in VB from year 1 to 2 (0.7 kg), year 2 to 3 (1.1 kg), and year 1 to 3 (1.8 kg) and in SW from year 1 to 3 (0.6 kg); and percent body fat (%BF) increased in BB from year 1 to 3 (1.7%). There were no changes in SOC or TR. These results indicate that during their college careers, female collegiate athletes can be expected to maintain their %BF and athletes in sports like SW and VB can anticipate an increase in lean mass, but the increases may be less than many athletes, coaches, and trainers envision.

  2. The role of anthropometric characteristics in modern pentathlon performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Claessens, A L; Hlatky, S; Lefevre, J; Holdhaus, H

    1994-08-01

    In order to determine the role of body build characteristics in modern pentathletes, 65 female participants at the IXth World Modern Pentathlon Championships, 1989 (Wiener Neustadt, Austria) were investigated. Of these, 54 participate in the competition; the other 11 were reserves. Their mean (+/- S.D.) age was 22.34 +/- 3.97 years (range 16.08-32.58 years). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass, lengths, breadths, girths and skinfolds), somatotype and body composition estimates were determined. Compared with other female athletes (e.g. swimmers, runners, fencers), the elite modern pentathletes were rather tall (x = 168.1 cm) and, as indicated by the body mass index (x = 21.6), they had a high mass relative to their stature. Based on skinfolds, body fat was estimated as 16%, and anthropometrically determined somatotype was on average 2.5-3.9-2.8. The relationship between the athletes' anthropometric characteristics and modern pentathlon performance was investigated by means of Pearson zero-order correlations between the physical traits and the competitive performance scores. Significant correlations were found mainly for the 'fat' variables, such as skinfolds, percent fat and the endomorphy component, r varying from -0.34 to -0.58, which indicated an inverse relationship between the amount of fatness and modern pentathlon performance. To investigate this relationship further, Pearson zero-order correlations were calculated between the respective factors scores, derived from a rotated factor pattern (Varimax) carried out on selected somatic variables, and the performance scores. The results demonstrated that, in relation to anthropometric characteristics, modern pentathlon performance in females is mainly associated with the 'fat development' factor, and to a lesser degree with the 'bone-muscle development' factor. Variables representing linearity of physique seem to be unrelated to modern pentathlon performance. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that 42

  3. Influence of endurance exercise (triathlon) on circulating transferrin receptors and other indicators of iron status in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Röcker, Lothar; Hinz, Katrin; Holland, Karsten; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Vogelgesang, Jens; Kiesewetter, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Numerous reports have described a poor iron status in female endurance athletes. However, the traditionally applied indicators of iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin) may not truly reflect the iron status. Therefore we studied the newly developed soluble transferrin receptor and other indicators of iron status in twelve female endurance athletes before and after a triathlon race. Resting values showed a poor iron status in the participants of the race. Serum TfR concentration increased slightly after the race. However, if the values are corrected for hemoconcentration no change could be found. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin values were increased after the race.

  4. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.

  5. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances, and low bone mass: what do exercising Australian women know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I Turner; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-04-01

    Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of regularly exercising adult women in Australia toward eating patterns, menstrual cycles, and bone health. A total of 191 female exercisers, age 18-40 yr, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After 11 surveys were excluded (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorized into lean-build sports (n = 82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non-lean-build sports (n = 94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football), or gym/fitness activities (n = 4). Mean (± SD) training volume was 9.0 ± 5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhea (absence of menses for ≥3 months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhea (vs. 3.2% in non-lean-build sports, p = .005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhea, and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhea (all p < .005). Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure that appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhea.

  6. Contribution of strength characteristics to change of direction and agility performance in female basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Nimphius, Sophia; Hart, Nicolas H; Specos, Christina; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Newton, Robert U

    2014-09-01

    Research has often examined the relationship between 1 or 2 measures of strength and change of direction (COD) ability reporting inconsistent relationships to performance. These inconsistencies may be the result of the strength assessment used and the assumption that 1 measure of strength can represent all "types" of strength required during a COD task. Therefore the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between several lower-body strength and power measures, COD, and agility performance. Twelve (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat, isometric midthigh pull, eccentric and concentric only back squat, and a countermovement jump, followed by 2 COD tests (505 and T-test) and a reactive agility test. Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression analysis were performed on all variables. The percentage contribution of each strength measure to an athletes total strength score was also determined. Our results demonstrated that both COD tests were significantly correlated to maximal dynamic, isometric, concentric, and eccentric strength (r = -0.79 to -0.89), with eccentric strength identified as the sole predictor of COD performance. Agility performance did not correlate with any measure of strength (r = -0.08 to -0.36), whereas lower-body power demonstrated no correlation to either agility or COD performance (r = -0.19 to -0.46). These findings demonstrate the importance of multiple strength components for COD ability, highlighting eccentric strength as a deterministic factor of COD performance. Coaches should aim to develop a well-rounded strength base in athletes; ensuring eccentric strength is developed as effectively as the often-emphasized concentric or overall dynamic strength capacity.

  7. Importance of training in prevention of the decline of physical performance in elderly sedentary persons and veteran athletes.

    PubMed

    Cottini, E; Rando, G; Cirino, A; Giunta, S; Giacone, G; Vintaloro, G; Cosentino, M

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-five male veteran athletes were studied between 55 and 79 years of age, having exercised track-and-field sports in the amateur class for at least 15 years without interruption. These athletes were divided into power and endurance groups. The subjects examined were compared to a male control group of 30 elderly, healthy persons aged between 51 and 77 years, leading a sedentary lifestyle. All the subjects were submitted to a standard protocol using BOSCO ERGOJUMP. These trials permitted us to evaluate in the laboratory the explosive power of the inferior limbs, maximal alactic and lactic capacities. The results obtained suggest interesting correlations between the unwinding of physical activity and a deterioration of explosive and anaerobic power, above all in subjects over 65 years of age. Therefore, a regular training program could attenuate the modifications and the age-associated decline.

  8. Age at menarche, menstrual patterns, sexual health knowledge, attitudes and premarital sexual partners of female athletes in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Moronkola, O A; Oyebami, O

    2007-10-01

    The study aimed to find out age at menarche, menstrual patterns, attitudes and premarital sexual partners of female athletes in Ibadan Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive cross sectional survey design involving 250 female athletes training or camping under Oyo State Sports Council, Ibadan, Nigeria. The data collection tool was a self-developed validated questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS package. Majority (44.0%) had menarche between 12-13 years, (71.6%) had regular menstrual period, more than 50% of the study participants had correct knowledge of all sexual health knowledge items, more than 50% of the responses to items on attitude suggested they were not favourably disposed to premarital sex. However, 72.4% had premarital sex with the person they wanted to marry, 44.0% with male athletes, 28.0% with coaches and 23.1% with other staff of the sports council. Majority of the study participants had sexual health knowledge but sizeable proportion of the study participants also had attitudes that favour premarital sex and had different types of sexual partners. There is therefore an urgent need for health education of the female athletes especially against sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS and education of coaches and sports officials of the need to serve as role models in the area of sexuality to athletes.

  9. The accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting body composition in college-age female athletes.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Olson, Michele S; Williford, Henry N; Lizana, Suheil N; Russell, Angela R

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimating body composition in college-age female athletes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion measure. Forty National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics college female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. For each participant, total body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained via BIA and DEXA. The mean BF% and FFM values obtained by BIA were compared with the criterion DEXA measure. The DEXA strongly correlated to the BIA for BF% (r = 0.74, R2 = 0.55, SEE = 3.60, and p < 0.01) and FFM (r = 0.84, R2 = 0.71, SEE = 2.45, p < 0.01). However, when compared with the DEXA, the mean values for BIA were significantly lower for BF% (DEXA = 27.6 ± 5.3%, BIA = 22.5 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01) and higher for FFM (DEXA = 47.2 ± 4.5 kg, BIA = 50.6 ± 4.6 kg, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that hand-to-hand BIA significantly underestimates BF% and overestimated FFM in college-age female athletes when compared with the criterion DEXA. Practitioners should use caution when analyzing body composition with hand-held BIA in a population of athletic women.

  10. Surgery for invasive gynecologic cancer in the elderly female population.

    PubMed

    Lawton, F G; Hacker, N F

    1990-08-01

    Radical, curative surgery may not be considered in elderly patients with gynecologic cancer, yet the morbidity for this population from radiotherapy and cytotoxics may be high. This study compared the feasibility and outcome of such surgery in 226 consecutive patients, 72 women over 70 years old and 154 younger patients, in our institution over a 26-month period. Older patients presented with more advanced-stage cancers and, as a group, had significantly poorer presurgical performance status and more intercurrent medical problems. Nevertheless, the planned radical surgical procedure could be carried out in 90% of elderly patients, with a postoperative mortality of 1.5%. Minor postoperative complication rates were similar for the two groups and, except for vulvectomy patients, the mean inpatient stay was the same for both groups. Chronological age alone is a poor determinant of surgical risk, and elderly patients withstand radical surgery almost as well as their younger counterparts.

  11. Effects of carbohydrate combined with caffeine on repeated sprint cycling and agility performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lun; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Astorino, Todd A; Lee, Chia-Jung; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (CAF) has been shown to improve performance during early phase of repeated sprint exercise; however some studies show that CAF also increases the magnitude of physical stress represented by augmented blood lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations during latter phase of repeated sprint exercise. No studies have investigated the efficacy of combined carbohydrate (CHO) and CAF consumption during repeated sprint exercise (RSE) in female athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CAF with CHO supplementation on RSE and agility. Eleven female athletes completed four experimental trials performed 7 d apart in a double-blind, randomized, and counter-balanced crossover design. Treatments included CAF + PLA (placebo), CAF + CHO, PLA + CHO, and PLA + PLA. Participants ingested capsules containing 6 mg · kg(-1) of CAF or PLA 60-min prior to RSE, and 0.8 g · kg(-1) of CHO solution or PLA immediately before the RSE, which consisted of ten sets of 5 × 4-s sprints on the cycle ergometer with 20-s active recovery. The agility T-test (AT-test) was performed before and after the RSE. Blood samples were acquired to assess glucose, lactate, testosterone, and cortisol. During Set 6 of RSE, peak power and mean power were significantly higher in PLA + CHO than those in CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA, respectively (p < .05). Total work was significantly increased by 4.8% and 5.9% with PLA + CHO than those of CAF + CHO and CAF + PLA during Set 3. PLA + CHO also increased total work more than CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA did during Set 6 (p < .05). No significant differences in AT-test performance either before or after the RSE were occurred among treatments (p > .05). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were significantly higher under CAF + CHO, CAF + PLA, and PLA + CHO versus PLA + PLA (p < .05), but no differences in testosterone or cortisol levels

  12. Effects of carbohydrate combined with caffeine on repeated sprint cycling and agility performance in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caffeine (CAF) has been shown to improve performance during early phase of repeated sprint exercise; however some studies show that CAF also increases the magnitude of physical stress represented by augmented blood lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations during latter phase of repeated sprint exercise. No studies have investigated the efficacy of combined carbohydrate (CHO) and CAF consumption during repeated sprint exercise (RSE) in female athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CAF with CHO supplementation on RSE and agility. Methods Eleven female athletes completed four experimental trials performed 7 d apart in a double-blind, randomized, and counter-balanced crossover design. Treatments included CAF + PLA (placebo), CAF + CHO, PLA + CHO, and PLA + PLA. Participants ingested capsules containing 6 mg · kg−1 of CAF or PLA 60-min prior to RSE, and 0.8 g · kg−1 of CHO solution or PLA immediately before the RSE, which consisted of ten sets of 5 × 4-s sprints on the cycle ergometer with 20-s active recovery. The agility T-test (AT-test) was performed before and after the RSE. Blood samples were acquired to assess glucose, lactate, testosterone, and cortisol. Results During Set 6 of RSE, peak power and mean power were significantly higher in PLA + CHO than those in CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA, respectively (p < .05). Total work was significantly increased by 4.8% and 5.9% with PLA + CHO than those of CAF + CHO and CAF + PLA during Set 3. PLA + CHO also increased total work more than CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA did during Set 6 (p < .05). No significant differences in AT-test performance either before or after the RSE were occurred among treatments (p > .05). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were significantly higher under CAF + CHO, CAF + PLA, and PLA + CHO versus PLA + PLA (p < .05), but no differences in

  13. Control of dynamic foot-ground interactions in male and female soccer athletes: Females exhibit reduced dexterity and higher limb stiffness during landing

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Mark A.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Gregor, Robert J.; Powers, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling dynamic interactions between the lower limb and ground is important for skilled locomotion and may influence injury risk in athletes. It is well known that female athletes sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears at higher rates than male athletes, and exhibit lower extremity biomechanics thought to increase injury risk during sport maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower extremity dexterity (LED) – the ability to dynamically control endpoint force magnitude and direction as quantified by compressing an unstable spring with the lower limb at submaximal forces – is a potential contributing factor to the “at-risk” movement behavior exhibited by female athletes. We tested this hypothesis by comparing LED-test performance and single-limb drop jump biomechanics between 14 female and 14 male high school soccer players. We found that female athletes exhibited reduced LED-test performance (p=0.001) and higher limb stiffness during landing (p=0.008) calculated on average within 51 ms of foot contact. Females also exhibited higher coactivation at the ankle (p=0.001) and knee (p=0.02) before landing. No sex differences in sagittal plane joint angles and center of mass velocity at foot contact were observed. Collectively, our results raise the possibility that the higher leg stiffness observed in females during landing is an anticipatory behavior due in part to reduced lower extremity dexterity. The reduced lower extremity dexterity and compensatory stiffening strategy may contribute to the heightened risk of ACL injury in this population. PMID:24275440

  14. Cardiac baroreflex function and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in elderly Masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Aengevaeren, Vincent L; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong

    2013-01-15

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is stably maintained through the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) regulation and cerebral autoregulation. Previous studies suggest that aerobic exercise training improves cardiac baroreflex function and beneficially affects BP regulation, but may negatively affect cerebral autoregulation. The purpose of this study was to reveal the impact of lifelong exercise on cardiac baroreflex function and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) in older adults. Eleven Masters athletes (MA) (8 men, 3 women; mean age 73 ± 6 yr; aerobic training >15 yr) and 12 healthy sedentary elderly (SE) (7 men, 5 women; mean age 71 ± 6 yr) participated in this study. BP, CBF velocity (CBFV), and heart rate were measured during resting conditions and repeated sit-stand maneuvers to enhance BP variability. Baroreflex gain was assessed using transfer function analysis of spontaneous changes in systolic BP and R-R interval in the low frequency range (0.05-0.15 Hz). Dynamic CA was assessed during sit-stand-induced changes in mean BP and CBFV at 0.05 Hz (10 s sit, 10 s stand). Cardiac baroreflex gain was more than doubled in MA compared with SE (MA, 7.69 ± 7.95; SE, 3.18 ± 1.29 ms/mmHg; P = 0.018). However, dynamic CA was similar in the two groups (normalized gain: MA, 1.50 ± 0.56; SE, 1.56 ± 0.42% CBFV/mmHg; P = 0.792). These findings suggest that lifelong exercise improves cardiac baroreflex function, but does not alter dynamic CA. Thus, beneficial effects of exercise training on BP regulation can be achieved in older adults without compromising dynamic regulation of CBF.

  15. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  16. He's a Laker; She's a "Looker": The Consequences of Gender- Stereotypical Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes by the Print Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Giuliano, Traci A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how gender-consistent and -inconsistent portrayals of athletes would affect people's perceptions. College students read fictitious newspaper articles that focused on either a male or female Olympic athlete's physical attractiveness or athleticism. Respondents had neither favorable impressions of nor liked articles about female and…

  17. Redox balance in elite female athletes: differences based on sport types.

    PubMed

    Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija; Popovic, Tamara; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Cubrilo, Dejan; Ahmetovic, Zlatko; Peric, Dusan; Borozan, Suncica; Djuric, Dragan; Barudzic, Nevena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in redox balance throughout parameters of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in elite female water polo (N.=15) and football players (N.=19) aged between 20 and 23. Fourteen age-matched sedentary women were also included in the study. Blood sampling was performed to measure levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), nitrites, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase activity (GPx). Levels of MDA, TAS, GSSG and H2O2 were significantly higher in athletes than in the control women. Football players had higher levels of O2- than the other two groups. Activity of SOD was higher in water polo players when compared with the football and control groups, CAT was increased in all athletes, while GPx did not differ among groups. Therefore, prolonged intensive training markedly increases oxidative stress in women, which depends on the type of sport. Lower concentration of O2- and increased activity of SOD in water polo players compared to football players suggest that mechanisms of adaptation of antioxidative defense are related to the type of exercise.

  18. Arthroscopic treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum: Report of 5 female athletes.

    PubMed

    Krijnen, Matthijs R; Lim, Liesbeth; Willems, W Jaap

    2003-02-01

    The management of osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum of the adolescent elbow is still controversial. We report on 5 cases of female high-level athletes aged from 10 to 19 years (4 gymnasts, 1 waterpolo player). All these athletes had a symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, which was treated arthroscopically in all cases. Follow-up time averaged 5 months (1 to 6.5 months). During the arthroscopy, loose osteochondral fragments of the capitellum and radial head were removed, and the defect was debrided. Thorough evaluation of the anterior and posterior joint including the olecranon fossa was performed. One of the 5 patients had a loose body requiring arthroscopic removal. Within 6 months after surgery, all except 1 elbow, the elbow with a loose body, regained maximum range of motion. Two patients returned to a high level of gymnastics and 1 was considering return. The short-term results of this treatment suggest that arthroscopic debridement of the loose osteochondral fragments provides a good result.

  19. Bone mineral content of cyclically menstruating female resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, C H; Going, S B; Pamenter, R W; Perry, C D; Boyden, T W; Lohman, T G

    1990-10-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) at four sites on the axial and appendicular skeleton was compared among four groups of young adult (age = 17-38 yr) cyclically menstruating athletes (N = 40) who regularly performed either weightlifting resistance exercise (body builders) or nonresistance endurance exercise (runners, swimmers) and an inactive group of females (N = 18) of about equal age. Forearm BMC was measured using single photon absorptiometry at proximal (shaft) and distal sites on the radius. Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure BMC at the lumbar vertebrae (L2-4) and femur at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and greater trochanter. Fat-free body mass (FFBM) was estimated from densitometry. Body builders had greater BMC than swimmers, collegiate runners, recreational runners, and controls. Mean differences in BMC among runners, swimmers, and controls were not significant (P less than or equal to 0.05). FFBM was correlated significantly with BMC (r = 0.35-0.56) at each site in the combined group of athletes (N = 39), whereas total body weight and BMC were correlated significantly at the distal radius site (r = 0.38) only. The results suggest that weight training may provide a better stimulus for increasing BMC than run and swim training.

  20. Effect of iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance of iron-depleted female athletes.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Blee, Tanya; Goodman, Carmel; Dawson, Brian; Claydon, Gary; Beilby, John; Prins, Alex

    2007-06-01

    This investigation examined the effect of intramuscular iron injections on aerobic-exercise performance in iron-deficient women. Sixteen athletes performed a 10-min steady-state submaximal economy test, a VO2max test, and a timed test to exhaustion at VO2max workload. Subjects were randomly assigned to an iron-supplemented group (IG) receiving intramuscular iron injections or to a placebo group (PG). Twenty days after the first injection, exercise and blood testing were repeated. A final blood test occurred on Day 28. Post supplementation, no differences were found between the groups' submaximal or maximal VO2, heart rate, or blood lactate (P > 0.05). Time to exhaustion was increased in the IG (P < 0.05) but was not greater than that of the PG (P > 0.05). The IG's serum ferritin (SF) was significantly increased on Days 20 and 28 (mean +/- standard error: 19 +/- 3 to 65 +/- 11 to 57 +/- 12 microg/L; P < 0.01), with a percentage change from baseline significantly greater than in the PG (P < 0.01). It was concluded that intramuscular iron injections can effectively increase SF without enhancing submaximal or maximal aerobic-exercise performance in iron-depleted female athletes.

  1. Sports-specific adaptation of left ventricular muscle mass in athlete's heart. I. An echocardiographic study with combined isometric and dynamic exercise trained athletes (male and female rowers).

    PubMed

    Urhausen, A; Monz, T; Kindermann, W

    1996-11-01

    The differentiation of the physiological left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy of the athlete's heart in opposition to a pathological finding may be problematic especially in both strength and endurance trained athletes with simultaneously large body dimensions: 64 male and 71 female rowers of regional up to national level were examined by (Doppler) echocardiography. In addition, the rowers were compared by matched-pair procedures both with 32 male and 30 female non-endurance trained (pairwise similar body surface area) and with 28 male endurance athletes (pairwise similar absolute heart volume). The so-called critical heart weight of 500 g was exceeded by 63% of the male and 11% of the female rowers. 9% of the male rowers showed even an LV muscle mass above the limit of 3.5 g.kg-1 body mass. The individual maximal body surface area-related values were 170 g.m-2 (men) and 133 g.m-2 (women). The LV enddiastolic internal diameter was measured to be above the upper clinical limit of 55 mm in 69% or 23% of the male and female rowers, although a maximal LV wall thickness of 14 or 13 mm, respectively, was never exceeded. The systolic LV function as well as ECG and blood pressure did not reveal any pathological findings, the diastolic LV function was measured within the (supra) normal range. The LV wall thicknesses, internal diameter and hypertrophic index (relation between wall thickness and internal diameter) were significantly higher in rowers than in non-endurance trained subjects, but similar if compared to the endurance athletes. The clinical limits, however, keep their validity until a body mass of about 70 kg. In conclusion, some upper absolute clinical limits, especially those referring to volume measurements, so far considered critical (LV internal diameter, heart weight and LV mass), may be clearly exceeded by healthy strength endurance trained athletes presenting high body dimensions. The LV wall thickness, however, rather exceptionally exceeded the clinical

  2. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis in a 13 year old female athlete: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Brad; Gryfe, David; Hsu, William

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent mutlifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an extremely rare skeletal disorder in the younger population. It presents with multifocal bony lesions that often mimic more sinister diagnoses such as infection or neoplasm. The cause of this condition remains unknown and there is limited evidence on effective treatments. In this case, a 13-year-old female athlete presented to a sports chiropractic clinic with non-traumatic onset of right ankle pain. After failed conservative management, radiographs and MRI were obtained exhibiting a bony lesion of the distal tibia resembling osteomyelitis. The patient was non-responsive to antibiotics, which lead to the diagnosis of CRMO. CRMO should be considered as a differential diagnosis for chronic bone pain with affinity for the long bones of the lower extremity in children and adolescents. The role of the primary clinician in cases of CRMO is primarily that of recognition and referral for further diagnostic investigations. PMID:24302781

  3. The differential depiction of female athletes in judged and non-judged sport magazines.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Gray, James J

    2006-12-01

    Sports magazines portrayal of female athletes over the past ten years, in terms of body size, age, and race was examined. Using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), estimated body size was obtained for cover models on a set of judged and non-judged sport magazines. The frequency with which the full bodies of models were depicted on the covers of these magazines was also investigated. Cover models on judged sport magazines were rated as significantly thinner than cover models on non-judged sport magazines. Judged sport magazines also displayed a higher number of full-body images than non-judged sport magazines. These findings suggest that individuals who read judged sport magazines are more likely to be exposed to thin media images than those reading non-judged sport magazines.

  4. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Kayt E; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain may be correlated with volume of previous volleyball experience.

  5. High Prevalence of Nontraumatic Shoulder Pain in a Regional Sample of Female High School Volleyball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain

  6. Association between the female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction in dancers.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Anne Z; Papanek, Paula; Szabo, Aniko; Widlansky, Michael E; Schimke, Jane E; Gutterman, David D

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of the 3 components of the female athlete triad [disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, low bone mineral density (BMD)] and their relationships with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in professional dancers. Prospective study. Academic institution in the Midwest. Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. The prevalence of the female athlete triad and its relationship to endothelial dysfunction. Subjects completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating and menstrual status/history. They also completed a 3-day food record and wore an accelerometer for 3 days to determine energy availability. Serum baseline thyrotropin, prolactin, and hormonal concentrations were obtained. Bone mineral density and body composition were measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Endothelial function was determined as flow-mediated vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound in the brachial artery. An increase in brachial diameter <5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction. Seventeen dancers (77%) had evidence of low/negative energy availability. Thirty-two percent had disordered eating (EDE-Q score). Thirty-six percent had menstrual dysfunction and 14% were currently using hormone contraception. Twenty-three percent had evidence of low bone density (Z-score < -1.0). Sixty-four percent had abnormal brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (<5%). Flow-mediated dilation values were significantly correlated with serum estrogen and whole-body and lumbar BMD. All the 3 components of the triad plus endothelial dysfunction were present in 14% of the subjects. Endothelial dysfunction was correlated with reduced BMD, menstrual dysfunction, and low serum estrogen. These findings may have profound implications for cardiovascular and bone health in professional women dancers.

  7. Association Between the Female Athlete Triad and Endothelial Dysfunction in Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Anne Z.; Papanek, Paula; Szabo, Aniko; Widlansky, Michael E.; Schimke, Jane E.; Gutterman, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the 3 components of the female athlete triad [disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, low bone mineral density (BMD)] and their relationships with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in professional dancers. Design Prospective study. Setting Academic institution in the Midwest. Participants Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. Interventions The prevalence of the female athlete triad and its relationship to endothelial dysfunction. Main Outcome Measures Subjects completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating and menstrual status/history. They also completed a 3-day food record and wore an accelerometer for 3 days to determine energy availability. Serum baseline thyrotropin, prolactin, and hormonal concentrations were obtained. Bone mineral density and body composition were measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Endothelial function was determined as flow-mediated vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound in the brachial artery. An increase in brachial diameter <5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction. Results Seventeen dancers (77%) had evidence of low/negative energy availability. Thirty-two percent had disordered eating (EDE-Q score). Thirty-six percent had menstrual dysfunction and 14% were currently using hormone contraception. Twenty-three percent had evidence of low bone density (Z-score < −1.0). Sixty-four percent had abnormal brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (<5%). Flow-mediated dilation values were significantly correlated with serum estrogen and whole-body and lumbar BMD. All the 3 components of the triad plus endothelial dysfunction were present in 14% of the subjects. Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction was correlated with reduced BMD, menstrual dysfunction, and low serum estrogen. These findings may have profound implications for cardiovascular and bone health in professional women dancers

  8. Effect of training in hypoxia on repeated sprint performance in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Nobukazu; Mizuno, Sahiro; Ishimoto, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Etsuko; Maruta, Misato; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effect of repeated sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) in female athletes. Thirty-two college female athletes performed repeated cycling sprints of two sets of 10 × 7-s sprints with a 30-s rest between sprints twice per week for 4 weeks under either normoxic conditions (RSN group; FiO2, 20.9%; n = 16) or hypoxic conditions (RSH group; FiO2, 14.5%; n = 16). The repeated sprint ability (10 × 7-s sprints) and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) were determined before and after the training period. After training, when compared to pre-values, the mean power output was higher in all sprints during the repeated sprint test in the RSH group but only for the second half of the sprints in the RSN group (P ≤ 0.05). The percentage increases in peak and mean power output between before and after the training period were significantly greater in the RSH group than in the RSN group (peak power output, 5.0 ± 0.7% vs. 1.5 ± 0.9%, respectively; mean power output, 9.7 ± 0.9% vs. 6.0 ± 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). [Formula: see text] did not change significantly after the training period in either group. Four weeks of RSH further enhanced the peak and mean power output during repeated sprint test compared with RSN.

  9. Modifying spike jump landing biomechanics in female adolescent volleyball athletes using video and verbal feedback.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Joanne L; Alexander, Marion J L

    2012-04-01

    Landing awkwardly from a jump is a common mechanism of injury for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Augmented feedback, such as verbal or visual instruction, has been shown to cause an immediate, positive change in landing biomechanics in a laboratory setting. No data exist on the longer term effects of feedback on jump landing biomechanics in a sports-specific setting. The purpose of this study was to explore whether providing video and verbal feedback to adolescent (12-14 years old) female volleyball athletes would improve their landing technique. Trunk and lower extremity kinematic variables were measured in 19 participants before a feedback session was provided to the intervention group (IG). Follow-up kinematic measurements of the IG were taken immediately postintervention, and again after 2 and 4 weeks. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the IG with a control group (CG), who received no feedback. The IG (n = 10) demonstrated increased maximal hip and trunk flexion compared with the CG (n = 9) at week 4 (p ≤ 0.05). One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if changes were evident within the IG over time. Ankle dorsiflexion, right knee and hip flexion, and trunk flexion changed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over the 4-week period. Augmented feedback appeared to produce a positive change in landing biomechanics in adolescent female volleyball athletes performing a sports-specific skill. Courtside video and verbal feedback may present a relatively simple, cost-effective method of introducing one component of a comprehensive ACL injury prevention program at a young age.

  10. Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were assessed pre/post-treatment, and 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Results (analyzed sample, N=157) indicated that both interventions reduced thin-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, bulimic pathology, shape and weight concern, and negative affect at 6 weeks, and bulimic pathology, shape concern, and negative affect at 1 year. Unexpectedly we observed an increase in students spontaneously seeking medical consultation for the triad. Qualitative results suggested that AM-HWI may be more preferred by athletes.

  11. Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were assessed pre/post-treatment, and 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Results (analyzed sample N = 157) indicated that both interventions reduced thin-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, bulimic pathology, shape and weight concern, and negative affect at 6 weeks, and bulimic pathology, shape concern, and negative affect at 1 year. Unexpectedly we observed an increase in students spontaneously seeking medical consultation for the triad. Qualitative results suggested that AM-HWI may be more preferred by athletes. PMID:22019502

  12. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  13. Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables Among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-01-01

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength. PMID:25031675

  14. Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…

  15. Nutritional composition in different training stages in young female athletes (swimming) and association with leptin, IGF-1 and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Zietz, B; Schnabl, S; Nerlich, M; Schoelmerich, J; Schaeffler, A

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the interaction of serum leptin, IGF-1, estradiol and cortisol in salvia as well as IL-6 with nutritional composition in female athletes (swimming) according to the training protocol (competition (C), sprint (S), recreation (R), endurance (E)). In 23 young (10-19 years old) female athletes (Bavarian swimming competition) in different training stages nutritional protocols were evaluated using standardized questionnaires. Body composition was measured by using analysis of bioimpedance. Estradiol, IGF-1, leptin and IL-6 in serum were measured by ELISA. To obtain circadian profiles of cortisol salvia probes were sampled at 4 h intervals and cortisol in saliva was measured. Daily intake of kilocalories varied significantly and was highest during R with the highest percentage of nutritional fat intake (37.3%) when compared to C (28.1%, p=0.001). BMI was associated with leptin in all training stages and IL-6 in R, C and E. Leptin, IGF-1 and cortisol in salvia were dependent on training stages while serum levels of estradiol were not. Nutritional fat intake (p=0.07 in R) as well as serum levels of IGF-1 (p=0.014 in E) were significantly associated with estradiol but not with serum leptin levels or salivary cortisol. In female athletes nutritional composition has an impact on serum hormones (leptin, IGF-1 as well as estradiol) and may be also on cytokines (IL-6). Leptin, IGF-1 and salivary cortisol levels represent the intensity of physical training and possibly overtraining. In our female athletes no findings indicative of female athlete triad could be demonstrated.

  16. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. Objective To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Design Qualitative study. Setting National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Data Collection and Analysis Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Results Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Conclusions Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity. PMID:26067427

  17. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2015-08-01

    A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity.

  18. Landing Error Scoring System Differences Between Single-Sport and Multi-Sport Female High School–Aged Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in

  19. Preseason Aerobic Fitness Predicts In-Season Injury and Illness in Female Youth Athletes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey; Brooks, M Alison; Dunn, Warren

    2017-09-01

    Although preseason aerobic fitness has been suggested as a modifiable risk factor for injury in adult athletes, the relationship between aerobic fitness, injury, and illness in youth athletes is unknown. To determine whether preseason aerobic fitness predicts in-season injury and illness risk in female adolescent soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-four female adolescent soccer players underwent preseason evaluation to determine years of experience, body mass index (BMI), maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and time to exhaustion (Tmax) during cycle ergometer testing. All injuries and illnesses during the subsequent 20-week season were recorded. Variables were compared between individuals with and without a self-reported injury and individuals with and without a self-reported illness. Separate Poisson regression models were developed to predict number of injuries and illnesses for each individual by use of age, years of experience, BMI, VO2max, and Tmax. Twenty-eight injuries and 38 illnesses in 23 individuals were recorded during the season. Although not a statistically significant finding, individuals who reported an in-season injury had lower VO2max than those who did not (54.9 ± 7.3 vs 58.3 ± 8.5 mL/kg/min, P = .13). Individuals who reported an illness had significantly lower VO2max than those who did not (54.5 ± 9.9 vs 58.8 ± 6.2 mL/kg/min, P = .014). With the Poisson regression models, VO2max was a significant predictor of both injury (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; P = .046) and illness (OR, 0.94; P = .009), while no significant relationships were identified between injury or illness and age, years of experience, Tmax, or BMI (all P > .05). Among adolescent female soccer players, greater preseason aerobic fitness is associated with a reduced risk of in-season injury and illness. Off-season intervention to promote aerobic fitness may help reduce the risk of lost time during the season due to injury and illness.

  20. Preseason Aerobic Fitness Predicts In-Season Injury and Illness in Female Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey; Brooks, M. Alison; Dunn, Warren

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although preseason aerobic fitness has been suggested as a modifiable risk factor for injury in adult athletes, the relationship between aerobic fitness, injury, and illness in youth athletes is unknown. Purpose: To determine whether preseason aerobic fitness predicts in-season injury and illness risk in female adolescent soccer players. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Fifty-four female adolescent soccer players underwent preseason evaluation to determine years of experience, body mass index (BMI), maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and time to exhaustion (Tmax) during cycle ergometer testing. All injuries and illnesses during the subsequent 20-week season were recorded. Variables were compared between individuals with and without a self-reported injury and individuals with and without a self-reported illness. Separate Poisson regression models were developed to predict number of injuries and illnesses for each individual by use of age, years of experience, BMI, VO2max, and Tmax. Results: Twenty-eight injuries and 38 illnesses in 23 individuals were recorded during the season. Although not a statistically significant finding, individuals who reported an in-season injury had lower VO2max than those who did not (54.9 ± 7.3 vs 58.3 ± 8.5 mL/kg/min, P = .13). Individuals who reported an illness had significantly lower VO2max than those who did not (54.5 ± 9.9 vs 58.8 ± 6.2 mL/kg/min, P = .014). With the Poisson regression models, VO2max was a significant predictor of both injury (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; P = .046) and illness (OR, 0.94; P = .009), while no significant relationships were identified between injury or illness and age, years of experience, Tmax, or BMI (all P > .05). Conclusion: Among adolescent female soccer players, greater preseason aerobic fitness is associated with a reduced risk of in-season injury and illness. Off-season intervention to promote aerobic fitness may help reduce the risk of lost time

  1. Blood pressure responses to resistive exercise in trained female athletes: Influence of velocity of movement

    PubMed Central

    Arazi, Hamid; Alipour, Vahide

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine post-exercise hypotension (PEH) responses to three different resistance exercise velocities in female athletes. The 13 female subjects with experience of resistance training performed a series of resistance exercises with 80% of one repetition maximum for 3 sets with differing in velocity of movements: fast movement (FM; 1-second eccentric and 1-second concentric actions), moderate movement (MM; 1-second eccentric and 2-second concentric actions) and slow movement (SM; 2-second eccentric and 4-second concentric actions). After completing each training session, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken every 10 min for a period of 60 min of recovery. The results indicated significant increases in SBP at 10th min post-exercise in comparison to baseline. After 60-min recovery, all conditions showed statistically significant decreases in SBP when compared with pre-exercise. In all measured moments, there were no significant differences among experimental sessions in post-exercise levels of SBP and DBP. Therefore, resistance training with FM, MM, and SM can induce increases in SBP after exercise, whereas after 60-min recovery, can induce decreases in SBP or post-exercise hypotension. PMID:25598990

  2. Reticulocyte and erythrocyte hypochromia markers in detection of iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Orysiak, J; Szczepańska, B; Turowski, D; Burkhard-Jagodzińska, K; Gajewski, J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years) representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH) and reticulocytes (CHr), mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr), the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm) and reticulocytes (HYPOr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm) and reticulocytes (LowCHr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm) were determined. Subjects with ferritin <30 ng/ml were classified as having stage I (pre-latent) iron deficiency (ID). The second stage (latent ID) was diagnosed when low ferritin was accompanied by elevated sTfR and/or elevated TIBC values. The frequency of ID (without anaemia symptoms) was high, amounting to 60% (stage I in 45%, stage II in 15% of subjects). In subjects with stage I ID significant changes in haematological variables concerned mainly reticulocytes: CHCMr (p<.001), CHr (p<.05), LowCHr (p<.05), HYPOr (p<.001) in comparison to normal iron stores. In athletes with latent ID, there were also significant changes (p<.001) in many indices of mature red blood cells, i.e. haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), CH, %LowCHm, as well as %MICROm (p<.01) in relation to the group without iron deficiency. The main finding of this study was that the diminished or exhausted iron stores had already caused changes in

  3. Effects of Static Stretching on Squat Performance in Division I Female Athletes.