Dupree, Larry W.; Schonfeld, Lawrence
The Gerontology Alcohol Project, a treatment/research program investigating the characteristics of the late-life onset elderly alcohol abuser, was used as a model for a new program which emphasized teaching the elderly abusers how to break down their personal drinking behavior chain and deal with the antecedents of drinking behavior, to use…
Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Chen-Wang; Chu, Cheng-Hsin
Emergency cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in elderly patients with significant comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous cholecystostomy for AC in elderly patients with various coexisting diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 4311 patients with AC treated in Mackay Memorial Hospital between the years 2000 and 2015. The clinical course of AC was compared between nonelderly (age ≤70 years) and elderly patients (age>70 years). In total, 67 elderly patients and 32 nonelderly patients received percutaneous cholecystostomy. The rate of percutaneous cholecystostomy increased between the years 2011 and 2015 (from 2.5% to 12.2%) and this procedure was more common in the elderly group (p=0.009). In addition, the comorbidities of ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease were higher in elderly than in nonelderly patients (p=0.014 and p=0.015, respectively). The American Society of Anesthesiologists' classification was higher in the elderly patients (p=0.001). The overall survival-free rate of recurrent cholecystitis in patients who did not receive cholecystectomy was not significantly different in the two groups. When compared with emergent cholecystectomy in high-risk elderly patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy resulted in reduced hospital stay and morbidity (p=0.002 and p=0.013, respectively). Our results demonstrate that percutaneous cholecystostomy has become a common and early treatment for AC in high-risk elderly patients with ischemic heart disease or chronic kidney disease. Identifying such patients will possibly improve clinical outcomes, reduce hospital stay and morbidity, and facilitate delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Wang, Tao; Luo, Hao; Yan, Hong-tao; Zhang, Guo-hu; Liu, Wei-hui; Tang, Li-jun
Objective Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease in the elderly patient. The routine therapy is open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the previous study, we designed a minimally invasive cholecystolithotomy based on percutaneous cholecystostomy combined with a choledochoscope (PCCLC) under local anesthesia. Methods To investigate the effect of PCCLC on the gallbladder contractility function, PCCLC and laparoscope combined with a choledochoscope were compared in this study. Results The preoperational age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, as well as postoperational lithotrity rate and common biliary duct stone rate in the PCCLC group, were significantly higher than the choledochoscope group. However, the pre- and postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction was not significantly different. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that the preoperational thickness of gallbladder wall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.540; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.317–0.920; P=0.023) and lithotrity (OR: 0.150; 95% CI: 0.023–0.965; P=0.046) were risk factors for postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.714 (P=0.016; 95% CI: 0.553–0.854). Conclusion PCCLC strategy should be carried out cautiously. First, restricted by the diameter of the drainage tube, the PCCLC should be used only for small gallstones in high-risk surgical patients. Second, the usage of lithotrity should be strictly limited to avoid undermining the gallbladder contractility and increasing the risk of secondary common bile duct stones. PMID:28138229
Galli, Federica; Pappalardo, Vincenzo; Inversini, Davide; Martignoni, Francesco; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rausei, Stefano
The global aging of population will lead a greater number of elderly patients to undergo surgical procedure in a near future. Concerning gastric cancer, the impact of lymphadenectomy on survival has been demonstrated in RCTs, and extended lymphadenectomy is now considered as gold standard of treatment in non-early tumors. However, the role of age as a prognostic factor and the benefit of extended surgery in elderly/high-risk patients are not clearly defined yet. From our revision of literature, it seems that surgery for gastric cancer may have a further tailorization, considering not only the stage of disease, but also patients’ age and comorbidities. PMID:28217755
Newgard, Craig D.; Holmes, James F.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Wittwer, Lynn; Stecker, Eric; Dai, Mengtao; Hsia, Renee Y.
Study Objective We sought to (1) define the high-risk elderly trauma patient based on prognostic differences associated with different injury patterns and (2) derive alternative field trauma triage guidelines that mesh with national field triage guidelines to improve identification of high-risk elderly patients. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of injured adults ≥ 65 years transported by 94 EMS agencies to 122 hospitals in 7 regions from 1/1/2006 through 12/31/2008. We tracked current field triage practices by EMS, patient demographics, out-of-hospital physiology, procedures and mechanism of injury. Outcomes included Injury Severity Score ≥ 16 and specific anatomic patterns of serious injury using Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 and surgical interventions. In-hospital mortality was used as a measure of prognosis for different injury patterns. Results 33,298 injured elderly patients were transported by EMS, including 4.5% with ISS ≥ 16, 4.8% with serious brain injury, 3.4% with serious chest injury, 1.6% with serious abdominal-pelvic injury and 29.2% with serious extremity injury. In-hospital mortality ranged from 18.7% (95% CI 16.7–20.7) for ISS ≥ 16 to 2.9% (95% CI 2.6–3.3) for serious extremity injury. The alternative triage guidelines (any positive criterion from the current guidelines, GCS ≤ 14 or abnormal vital signs) outperformed current field triage practices for identifying patients with ISS ≥ 16: sensitivity (92.1% [95% CI 89.6–94.1%] vs. 75.9% [95% CI 72.3–79.2%]), specificity (41.5% [95% CI 40.6–42.4%] vs. 77.8% [95% CI 77.1–78.5%]). Sensitivity decreased for individual injury patterns, but was higher than current triage practices. Conclusions High-risk elderly trauma patients can be defined by ISS ≥ 16 or specific non-extremity injury patterns. The field triage guidelines could be improved to better identify high-risk elderly trauma patients by EMS, with a reduction in triage specificity. PMID:26477345
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent one of the most frequent and serious haematologic diseases of the elderly. Effective therapies exist ranging from best supportive care to haematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Decision making, however, is rather complex in this group of patients because ageing is a multidimensional process involving not only physiological changes but also changes in functional, social, emotional and cognitive capacities. All these factors can have a significant impact on the efficacy and tolerability of a potential therapy and therefore have to be thoroughly assessed before deciding on individual treatment regimens. Risk assessment tools are available both to classify the stage and prognosis of MDS and to meet the needs of elderly patients. A tool explicitly focussing on elderly MDS patients, however, is still missing. The current report approached this issue by combining the well established MDS-risk score 'International Prognostic Scoring System' (IPSS) with the 'Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment' (MGA). As decision making is most complex in high-risk MDS patients, the new algorithm is presented exemplarily for this group of patients. In a first step, MDS-related risk is identified using IPSS, in a second step, patients are assigned to one of three risk categories of the MGA (go-go/fit, slow-go/vulnerable, no-go/frail). While go-go patients might be subjected to therapies comparable to those given to younger patients, in no-go patients, a palliative therapy combined with best supportive care will probably be most appropriate. In slow-go patients, age-related life expectancy taken from public age statistics should be compared to the MDS-related life expectancy. Based on this combined assessment procedure and also on treatment tolerance in terms of the expectations/wishes of the patient and his/her family, an individualised therapeutic approach should be developed. Specific treatment recommendations for these three groups of
Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Costa, Bernardo; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Estruch, Ramon; Barrio, Francisco; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Introduction To develop and test a diabetes risk score to predict incident diabetes in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods A diabetes risk score was derived from a subset of 1381 nondiabetic individuals from three centres of the PREDIMED study (derivation sample). Multivariate Cox regression model ß-coefficients were used to weigh each risk factor. PREDIMED-personal Score included body-mass-index, smoking status, family history of type 2 diabetes, alcohol consumption and hypertension as categorical variables; PREDIMED-clinical Score included also high blood glucose. We tested the predictive capability of these scores in the DE-PLAN-CAT cohort (validation sample). The discrimination of Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC), German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) and our scores was assessed with the area under curve (AUC). Results The PREDIMED-clinical Score varied from 0 to 14 points. In the subset of the PREDIMED study, 155 individuals developed diabetes during the 4.75-years follow-up. The PREDIMED-clinical score at a cutoff of ≥6 had sensitivity of 72.2%, and specificity of 72.5%, whereas AUC was 0.78. The AUC of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was 0.66 in the validation sample (sensitivity = 85.4%; specificity = 26.6%), and was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and the GDRS in both the derivation and validation samples. Discussion We identified classical risk factors for diabetes and developed the PREDIMED-clinical Score to determine those individuals at high risk of developing diabetes in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The predictive capability of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and GDRS, and also used fewer items in the questionnaire. PMID:22442692
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Berr, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Kang, Jae H.
Background Persons with vascular disorders are at higher risk of cognitive decline. Objective To determine whether caffeine may be associated with cognitive decline reduction in elderly at high vascular risk. Methods We included 2475 women aged 65+ years in the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial of antioxidants and B vitamins for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention. We ascertained regular caffeine intake at baseline (1995–1996) using a validated 116 item-food frequency questionnaire. From 1998–2000 to 2005–2006, we administered four telephone cognitive assessments at two-year intervals evaluating global cognition, verbal memory and category fluency. The primary outcome was the change in global cognitive score, which was the average of the z-scores of all tests. We used generalized linear models for repeated measures that were adjusted for various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors to evaluate the difference in cognitive decline rates across quintiles of caffeine intake. Results We observed significantly slower rates of cognitive decline with increasing caffeine intake (p-trend=0.02). The rate difference between the highest and lowest quintiles of usual caffeine intake (> 371 versus < 30 mg/day) was equivalent to that observed between those who were 7 years apart in age (p=0.006). Consumption of caffeinated coffee was significantly related to slower cognitive decline (p-trend=0.05), but not other caffeinated products (e.g., decaf, tea, cola, chocolate). We conducted interaction analyses and observed stronger associations in women assigned to vitamin B supplementation (p-interaction = 0.02). Conclusions Caffeine intake was related to moderately better cognitive maintenance over 5 years in older women with vascular disorders. PMID:23422357
Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon
Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial
Einvik, Gunnar; Ekeberg, Øivind; Klemsdal, Tor O; Sandvik, Leiv; Hjerkinn, Elsa M
Background Self-reported health perceptions such as physical distress and quality of life are suggested independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. This study examined the associations between these factors and three years incidence of cardiovascular events in a population of elderly men with long term hyperlipidemia. Methods We studied observational data in a cohort of 433 men aged 64–76 years from a prospective, 2 × 2 factorial designed, three-year interventional trial. Information of classical risk factors was obtained and the following questionnaires were administered at baseline: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Physical Symptom Distress Index and Life Satisfaction Index. The occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular incidences and peripheral arterial disease were registered throughout the study period. Continuous data with skewed distribution was split into tertiles. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from Cox regression analyses to assess the associations between physical distress, quality of life and cardiovascular events. Results After three years, 49 cardiovascular events were registered, with similar incidence among subjects with and without established cardiovascular disease. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum glucose, HADS-anxiety and treatment-intervention, physical distress was positively associated (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 – 7.9 for 3rd versus 1st tertile) and quality of life negatively associated (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–5.8 for 3rd versus 1st tertile) with cardiovascular events. The association remained statistically significant only for physical distress (hazard ratio 2.8 95% CI 1.2 – 6.8, p < 0.05) when both variables were evaluated in the same model. Conclusion Physical distress, but not quality of life, was independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in an observational study
Locher, Julie L; Bales, Connie W; Ellis, Amy C; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Newton, Laura; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Buys, David L; Vickers, Kristin S
We conducted a study designed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a multilevel self-management intervention to improve nutritional intake in a group of older adults receiving Medicare home health services who were at especially high risk for experiencing undernutrition. The Behavioral Nutrition Intervention for Community Elders (B-NICE) trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to determine whether individually tailored counseling focused on social and behavioral aspects of eating resulted in increased caloric intake and improved nutrition-related health outcomes in a high-risk population of older adults. The study was guided by the theoretical approaches of the Ecological Model and Social Cognitive Theory. The development and implementation of the B-NICE protocol, including the theoretical framework, methodology, specific elements of the behavioral intervention, and assurances of the treatment fidelity, as well as the health policy implications of the trial results, are presented in this article.
Kilic, Teoman; Yilmaz, Irem
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) represents a real revolution in the field of interventional cardiology for the treatment of elderly or high-risk surgical patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Today, TAVI seems to play a key and a reliable role in the treatment of intermediate and maybe low-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. TAVI has also evolved from a complex and hazardous procedure into an effective and safe therapy by the development of new generation devices. This article aims to review the background and future of TAVI, clinical trials and registries with old and new generation TAVI devices and to focus on some open issues related to post-procedural outcomes.
Sundararajan, K; Flabouris, A; Thompson, C; Seppelt, I
Previous studies have shown that elderly patients (age ≥65 years) are less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit following a rapid response team call and have high hospital mortality rates. This study has shown that elderly patients have a significantly higher probability of being admitted to an intensive care unit following a rapid response team call at night than during the day. However, at no time are they at greater risk than younger patients of incomplete vital sign recording, a failure to escalate care for acute deterioration or mortality.
Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Yang, Sai-Wei; Chern, Jen-Suh
The cerebral cortex provides sensorimotor integration and coordination during motor control of daily functional activities. Power spectrum density based on electroencephalography (EEG) has been employed as an approach that allows an investigation of the spatial–temporal characteristics of neuromuscular modulation; however, the biofeedback mechanism associated with cortical activation during motor control remains unclear among elderly individuals. Thirty one community-dwelling elderly participants were divided into low fall-risk potential (LF) and high fall-risk potential (HF) groups based upon the results obtained from a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the ellipse area of the center of pressure. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed while the participants stood on a 6-degree-of-freedom Stewart platform, which generated continuous perturbations and done either with or without the virtual reality scene. The present study showed that when there was visual stimulation and poor somatosensory coordination, a higher level of cortical response was activated in order to keep postural balance. The elderly participants in the LF group demonstrated a significant and strong correlation between postural-related cortical regions; however, the elderly individuals in the HF group did not show such a relationship. Moreover, we were able to clarify the roles of various brainwave bands functioning in motor control. Specifically, the gamma and beta bands in the parietal–occipital region facilitate the high-level cortical modulation and sensorimotor integration, whereas the theta band in the frontal–central region is responsible for mediating error detection during perceptual motor tasks. Finally, the alpha band is associated with processing visual challenges in the occipital lobe.With a variety of motor control demands, increment in brainwave band coordination is required to maintain postural stability. These investigations shed light on the cortical modulation
Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Yang, Sai-Wei; Chern, Jen-Suh
The cerebral cortex provides sensorimotor integration and coordination during motor control of daily functional activities. Power spectrum density based on electroencephalography (EEG) has been employed as an approach that allows an investigation of the spatial-temporal characteristics of neuromuscular modulation; however, the biofeedback mechanism associated with cortical activation during motor control remains unclear among elderly individuals. Thirty one community-dwelling elderly participants were divided into low fall-risk potential (LF) and high fall-risk potential (HF) groups based upon the results obtained from a receiver operating characteristic analysis of the ellipse area of the center of pressure. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed while the participants stood on a 6-degree-of-freedom Stewart platform, which generated continuous perturbations and done either with or without the virtual reality scene. The present study showed that when there was visual stimulation and poor somatosensory coordination, a higher level of cortical response was activated in order to keep postural balance. The elderly participants in the LF group demonstrated a significant and strong correlation between postural-related cortical regions; however, the elderly individuals in the HF group did not show such a relationship. Moreover, we were able to clarify the roles of various brainwave bands functioning in motor control. Specifically, the gamma and beta bands in the parietal-occipital region facilitate the high-level cortical modulation and sensorimotor integration, whereas the theta band in the frontal-central region is responsible for mediating error detection during perceptual motor tasks. Finally, the alpha band is associated with processing visual challenges in the occipital lobe.With a variety of motor control demands, increment in brainwave band coordination is required to maintain postural stability. These investigations shed light on the cortical modulation of
The epidemiology of iatrogenic disease in the elderly has not been extensively reported. Risk factors of iatrogenic disease in the elderly are drug-induced iatrogenic disease, multiple chronic diseases, multiple physicians, hospitalization, and medical or surgical procedures. Iatrogenic disease can have a great psychomotor impact and important social consequences. To identify patients at high risk is the first step in prevention as most of the iatrogenic diseases are preventable. Interventions that can prevent iatrogenic complications include specific interventions, the use of a geriatric interdisciplinary team, pharmacist consultation and acute care for the elderly units. PMID:21472095
Navada, Shyamala C.; Silverman, Lewis R.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by morphologic features of dyspoiesis, a hyperproliferative bone marrow, and one or more peripheral blood cytopenias. In patients classified according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (R-IPSS) with intermediate or higher-risk disease, there is an increased risk of death due to progressive bone marrow failure or transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Azacitidine was the first DNA hypomethylating agent approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of MDS and the only therapy that has demonstrated a significant survival benefit over conventional care regimens (CCRs) in patients with intermediate or higher-risk disease. Prolonged survival is independent of achieving a complete remission. Azacitidine has been used in older patients with both clinical and hematological improvement as well as an acceptable side effect profile. The most common adverse effect is myelosuppression. These findings support the use of azacitidine as an effective treatment in older patients with higher-risk MDS. PMID:28042456
Kuang, YaShu; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Xiaoli; Sun, Huimin; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul; Zheng, Liang; Pi, Jinjiang; Peng, Sheng; Wu, Hong; Ding, Xugang; Qian, Dingguang; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Zuoren; Fan, Lieying; Chen, Ming; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Yuzhen
Lipid levels are increasing in all age groups in the Chinese population, but the use of statin treatment in the elderly is not well documented. We examined serum lipids, statin usage and achievement of lipid goals in 3950 subjects aged ≥65 years. Established CVD was present in 7.77% of participants and increased CVD risk was common. Elevated LDL-C according to CVD risk level was present in 46.70% of all subjects and was more frequent (p < 0.01) than elevated non-HDL-C at 32.58%. With increasing age, LDL-C was unchanged but triglycerides and non-HDL-C decreased and HDL-C increased. Individuals at moderate risk for CVD had higher TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C than low-risk subjects, but the values were lower in high- and very-high-risk individuals, probably because of the use of statin which was 28.57% in high-risk subjects with established CVD and 37.60% in very-high-risk individuals, but only 2.62% in those with estimated high-risk and 3.75% in those with high-risk from diabetes. More subjects in each risk group reached the non-HDL-C goal than the LDL-C goal because of the relatively low triglycerides and VLDL-C levels. These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated LDL-C but low rate of statin treatment in elderly community-dwelling Chinese.
[Purpose] The elderly are susceptible to dysphagia, and complications can be minimized if high-risk groups are screened in early stages and properly rehabilitated. This study provides basic material for the early detection and prevention of dysphagia by investigating the risks of dysphagia and related factors in community-dwelling elders. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 325 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 or older. The modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly was used to assess dysphagia risk. [Results] Approximately 52.6% (n=171) of participants belonged to the high-risk group for dysphagia. After adjusting for confounding variables, people aged 75+, who used dentures, and who needed partial help in daily living had a significantly higher risk of dysphagia. [Conclusion] It is necessary to develop guidelines for dysphagia for early detection and rehabilitation. PMID:27799680
Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.
Axthelm, Christoph; Sieder, Christian; Meister, Franziska; Pittrow, David; Kaiser, Edelgard
Aims Blood pressure (BP) reduction in hypertensive patients is more difficult to achieve in the elderly or in the presence of comorbidities. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the single-pill combination (SPC) aliskiren/amlodipine in hypertensive elderly patients, patients with high body mass index (BMI), with at least one metabolic risk factor, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods In an open-label non-randomized study, patients not adequately controlled by previous treatment with the SPC olmesarten 40/amlodipine 10 (phase 1) were switched to the SPC aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10 (phase 2). The present post-hoc analysis investigated BP reduction in phase 2 in the named subgroups. The EudraCT identifier was 2009-016693-33, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01113047. Results Of the 187 patients not adequately controlled in phase 1 and thus treated with the SPC aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10 in phase 2, 69 were of advanced age (≥65 years), 74 or 89 were overweight or obese (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2, respectively), 91 had metabolic risk factors (without DM) and 41 had DM. At the beginning of phase 2, depending on the subgroup, baseline SBP was 168–169 mmHg and DBP 103–104 mmHg. After 4 weeks of treatment with aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10, SBP/DBP was lowered by −5.1/−4.8 mmHg in the total cohort, by −5.5/−5.1 mmHg in elderly patients, by −6.7/−5.5 in overweight and by −4.2/−4.5 mmHg in obese patients, by −6.4/−4.7 mmHg in patients with metabolic risk factors without DM, and by −3.3/−5.0 mmHg in DM patients. Limitations include low sample size, limited treatment duration and the fact that the post-hoc defined groups were not mutually exclusive. Conclusions In this study reflecting clinical practice, the aliskiren/amlodipine combination achieved effective BP reduction in elderly patients or with metabolic comorbidities, including DM that might be more difficult to treat. This consistent BP lowering
Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Quintana, Melibea; Corella, Dolores; Pintó, Xavier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio
Brain oxidative processes play a major role in age-related cognitive decline, thus consumption of antioxidant-rich foods might help preserve cognition. Our aim was to assess whether consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet relates to cognitive function in the elderly. In asymptomatic subjects at high cardiovascular risk (n = 447; 52% women; age 55-80 y) enrolled in the PREDIMED study, a primary prevention dietary-intervention trial, we assessed food intake and cardiovascular risk profile, determined apolipoprotein E genotype, and used neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive function. We also measured urinary polyphenols as an objective biomarker of intake. Associations between energy-adjusted food consumption, urinary polyphenols, and cognitive scores were assessed by multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Consumption of some foods was independently related to better cognitive function. The specific associations [regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals)] were: total olive oil with immediate verbal memory [0.755 (0.151-1.358)]; virgin olive oil and coffee with delayed verbal memory [0.163 (0.010-0.316) and 0.294 (0.055-0.534), respectively]; walnuts with working memory [1.191 (0.061-2.322)]; and wine with Mini-Mental State Examination scores [0.252 (0.006-0.496)]. Urinary polyphenols were associated with better scores in immediate verbal memory [1.208 (0.236-2.180)]. Increased consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in general and of polyphenols in particular is associated with better cognitive performance in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The results reinforce the notion that Mediterranean diet components might counteract age-related cognitive decline.
Schacht, Erich; Ringe, Johann D
Efficacy and safety of a new combination package containing 4 or 12 self-explanatory one-week blisters, each with one tablet of 70 mg alendronate (CAS 260055-05-8) and 7 capsules of 1 microg alfacalcidol (CAS 41294-56-8) (Tevabone) on muscle power, muscle function, balance and back pain was investigated in an open, multi-centered, uncontrolled, prospective study on a cohort of elderly patients with a high risk of falls and fractures. 818 practicing physicians all over Germany recruited 2579 patients for a 3-month observational trial being treated with the above combination package. 92.4% were women [89.7% of the women had postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO)]. Their average age was 74.1 years and the mean body mass index 26.4 kg/m2. 55.4% had a history of falls. Prevalent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were documented in 62.9% and 61.4% of the patients, respectively, and a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min was documented in 65.5%. Main outcome parameters were the Chair Rising Test (CRT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), back pain and safety at onset and after 3 months. In addition an evaluation of the package design was done at the end of the study. The percentage of patients able to perform the CRT within 10 sec increased from 26.3% to 42.9% after 3 months (increase 63%, p < 0.0001), while successful performance within 10 sec of TUG increased by 54% (p < 0.0001) from 30.6% at onset to 47.1% after 3 months. The average overall improvement of CRT was 2.3 sec (p < 0.0001) and of TUG amounted to 2.4 sec (p < 0.0001). It was shown in another recently published study that a mean increase of 2.6 sec in the performance of TUG results in a 24% increased risk for non-vertebral fractures. Mean back pain measured by a 0-10 visual analogue scale decreased significantly by 41% from 5.9 to 3.5 (p < 0.0001). Throughout the study, 178 adverse events (AE) were reported in 85 of the 2579 patients (incidence: 3.3 %). Only 3 patients experienced serious AE, 2 without causal
Aoki, Kana; Sakuma, Mayumi; Ogisho, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kozo; Chosa, Etsuo; Endo, Naoto
Exercise is essential for maintaining quality of life (QOL) in elderly individuals. However, adherence to exercise programs is low. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of a self-directed home exercise program with serial telephone contacts to encourage exercise adherence among elderly individuals at high risk of locomotor dysfunction. We recruited community-dwelling adults (ｧ65 years) in Niigata, Japan, who were targets of the long-term care prevention project for locomotor dysfunction but did not participate in the government-sponsored prevention programs. The study was conducted from November 2011 to October 2012. Participants received exercise instruction and performed exercises independently for 3 months with serial telephone contacts. The single-leg stance and five-times sit-to-stand tests were used to assess physical function. The SF-8 was used to measure health-related QOL. Ninety-seven participants were enrolled in the study, representing 2.5% of eligible people;87 completed the intervention. Scores from physical function tests were significantly improved by the intervention, as were 7 of eight SF-8 subscales. Adherence was 85.4% for the single-leg standing exercise and 82.1% for squatting. Thus, self-directed home exercise with serial telephone contacts improved physical function and health-related QOL, representing a promising model for preventing the need for long-term care due to locomotor dysfunction.
Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Boonyaratavej, Smonporn; Wongvipaporn, Chaiyasith; Tiyanon, Woraporn; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhya, Rapeephon; Tatsanavivat, Pyatat; Sritara, Piyamitr
Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death in elderly because aging is the important non-modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis and also a predictor of poor outcomes. Underuse of guideline directed therapy may contribute to suboptimal risk factor control and worse outcomes in the elderly. We aimed to explore the management of CAD, risk factors control as well as goal attainment in elderly compared to nonelderly CAD patients. Methods The CORE-Thailand is an ongoing multicenter, prospective, observational registry of patients with high atherosclerotic risk in Thailand. The data of 4120 CAD patients enrolled in this cohort was analyzed comparing between the elderly (age ≥ 65 years) vs. nonelderly (age < 65 years). Results There were 2172 elderly and 1948 nonelderly patients. The elderly CAD patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease. The proportion of patients who received coronary revascularization was not different between the elderly and nonelderly CAD patients. Antiplatelets were prescribed less in the elderly while statin was prescribed in the similar proportion. Goal attainments of risk factor control of glycemic control, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking cessation except the blood pressure goal were higher in the elderly CAD patients. Conclusions The CORE-Thailand registry showed the equity in the treatment of CAD between elderly and non-elderly. Elderly CAD patients had higher rate of goal attainment in risk factor control except blood pressure goal. The effects of goal attainment on cardiovascular outcomes will be demonstrated from ongoing cohort. PMID:28321237
Iuliano, Sandra; Poon, Shirley; Wang, Xiaofang; Bui, Minh; Seeman, Ego
Malnutrition in institutionalised elderly increases morbidity and care costs. Meat and dairy foods are high-quality protein sources so adequate intakes may reduce malnutrition risk. We aimed to determine whether inadequate intakes of meat and dairy foods contribute to malnutrition in institutionalised elderly. This cross-sectional study involved 215 elderly residents (70·2 % females, mean age 85·8 years) from twenty-one aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Dietary intake was assessed using observed plate waste. Food groups and serving sizes were based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Nutrient content was analysed using a computerised nutrient analysis software (Xyris). Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) tool; a score between 24 and 30 indicates normal nutritional status. Data were analysed using robust regression. Mean MNA score was 21·6 (sd 2·7). In total, 68 % of residents were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (MNA score≤23·5). Protein intake was 87 (sd 28) % of the Australian recommended dietary intake (RDI). Consumption averaged 1 serving each of dairy foods and meat daily. Number of dairy and meat servings related to proportion of protein RDI (both P24 points). Provision of meat and dairy foods did not meet recommended levels. On the basis of current dietary intakes in aged-care residents, increasing consumption of dairy foods to the recommended four servings daily ensures protein adequacy and may reduce malnutrition risk in institutionalised elderly, and so reduce risk of comorbidities and costs associated with malnutrition.
Lin, Otto S
Many diagnostic and screening colonoscopies are performed on very elderly patients. Although colonoscopic yield increases with age, the potential benefits in such patients decrease because of shorter life expectancy and more frequent comorbidities. Colonoscopy in very elderly patients carries a greater risk of complications and morbidity than in younger patients, and is associated with lower completion rates and higher likelihood of poor bowel preparation. Thus, screening colonoscopy in very elderly patients should be performed only after careful consideration of potential benefits, risks and patient preferences. On the other hand, diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy are more likely to benefit even very elderly patients, and in most cases should be performed if indicated.
Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
Background: The intake of olive oil has been related to the prevention of osteoporosis in experimental and in in vitro models. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil intake on circulating osteocalcin (OC) in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a low-fat control diet (n = 34), a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts (MedDiet+nuts, n = 51), or a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet+VOO, n = 42) on circulating forms of OC and bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. Design: Longitudinal associations between baseline and follow-up (2 yr) measurements of total OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) concentrations were examined in 127 elderly men randomized to three healthy dietary interventions. Results: Baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting insulin levels, and bone formation and resorption markers) were similar in all intervention groups. The total osteocalcin concentration increased robustly in the MedDiet+VOO group (P = 0.007) in parallel to increased P1NP levels (P = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment-β-cell function (P = 0.01) but not in subjects on the MedDiet+nuts (P = 0.32) or after the control diet (P = 0.74). Interestingly, the consumption of olives was associated positively with both baseline total osteocalcin (r = 0.23, P = 0.02) and the 2-yr osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.21, P = 0.04) in the total cohort. Conclusions: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for 2 years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin and P1NP concentrations, suggesting protective effects on bone. PMID:22855341
Eriksson, Anna L; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Ljunggren, Östen; Karlsson, Magnus; Mellström, Dan; Ohlsson, Claes
Epidemiological studies have shown low-grade inflammation measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) to be associated with fracture risk in women. However, it is still unclear whether hs-CRP is also associated with fracture risk in men. We therefore measured serum levels of hs-CRP in 2910 men, mean age 75 years, included in the prospective population-based MrOS Sweden cohort. Study participants were divided into tertile groups based on hs-CRP level. Fractures occurring after the baseline visit were validated (average follow-up 5.4 years). The incidence for having at least one fracture after baseline was 23.9 per 1000 person-years. In Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for age, hs-CRP was related to fracture risk. The hazard ratio (HR) of fracture for the highest tertile of hs-CRP, compared with the lowest and the medium tertiles combined, was 1.48 (95% CI, 1.20-1.82). Multivariate adjustment for other risk factors for fractures had no major effect on the associations between hs-CRP and fracture. Results were essentially unchanged after exclusion of subjects with hs-CRP levels greater than 7.5 mg/L, as well as after exclusion of subjects with a first fracture within 3 years of follow-up, supporting that the associations between hs-CRP and fracture risk were not merely a reflection of a poor health status at the time of serum sampling. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was not associated with hs-CRP, and the predictive role of hs-CRP for fracture risk was essentially unchanged when femoral neck BMD was added to the model (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.72). Exploratory subanalyses of fracture type demonstrated that hs-CRP was clearly associated with clinical vertebral fractures (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.12-2.29). We demonstrate, using a large prospective population-based study, that elderly men with high hs-CRP have increased risk of fractures, and that these fractures are mainly vertebral. The association between hs-CRP and fractures was
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162417.html Brain Scan Test Predicts Fall Risk in Elderly Such ... research suggests that measurements of healthy older adults' brain activity may help determine their future risk. "Our ...
Lee, Kang Soo; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Kyung Ran; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional risk and cognitive impairment in the elderly living in the community. Data obtained from 2934 subjects (912 men and 2022 women) aged above 60 years was analyzed from the Gwangju Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment Study (GDEMCIS). The study questionnaire comprised demographic characteristics, history of current and past illnesses, drug history, Korean version-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), and Nutritional Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. Additionally, we examined the blood pressure, fasting serum glucose level, lipid profile, body mass index, and ApoE genotype. Of the total, 1942 (66.2%) demonstrated good nutritional state (NSI checklist score< or =2) and 992 (33.8%) were at moderate or high nutritional risk (NSI checklist score>2). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that moderate or high nutritional risk subjects were associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment (K-MMSE score< or =17) after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, and Korean version of Short form Geriatric Depression Scale (K-SGDS) score (Odds ratio=OR=1.71, 95%; confidence interval=CI=1.17-2.50). These results suggest that nutritional risk may be associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly.
Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert
Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…
Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang
Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.
Maintaining and controlling postural balance is important for activities of daily living, with poor postural balance being predictive of future falls. This study investigated eyes open and eyes closed standing posturography with elderly adults to identify differences and determine appropriate outcome measure cut-off scores for prospective faller, single-faller, multi-faller, and non-faller classifications. 100 older adults (75.5 ± 6.7 years) stood quietly with eyes open and then eyes closed while Wii Balance Board data were collected. Range in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) center of pressure (CoP) motion; AP and ML CoP root mean square distance from mean (RMS); and AP, ML, and vector sum magnitude (VSM) CoP velocity were calculated. Romberg Quotients (RQ) were calculated for all parameters. Participants reported six-month fall history and six-month post-assessment fall occurrence. Groups were retrospective fallers (24), prospective all fallers (42), prospective fallers (22 single, 6 multiple), and prospective non-fallers (47). Non-faller RQ AP range and RQ AP RMS differed from prospective all fallers, fallers, and single fallers. Non-faller eyes closed AP velocity, eyes closed VSM velocity, RQ AP velocity, and RQ VSM velocity differed from multi-fallers. RQ calculations were particularly relevant for elderly fall risk assessments. Cut-off scores from Clinical Cut-off Score, ROC curves, and discriminant functions were clinically viable for multi-faller classification and provided better accuracy than single-faller classification. RQ AP range with cut-off score 1.64 could be used to screen for older people who may fall once. Prospective multi-faller classification with a discriminant function (-1.481 + 0.146 x Eyes Closed AP Velocity—0.114 x Eyes Closed Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity—2.027 x RQ AP Velocity + 2.877 x RQ Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity) and cut-off score 0.541 achieved an accuracy of 84.9% and is viable as a screening tool for older
Jensen, Birte Østergaard; Hughest, Pia; Rasmussen, Lars S; Pedersen, Preben U; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A
It has been suggested that the risk of cerebral dysfunction is less with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) than with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB). The study is a part of the Best Bypass Surgery Trial. A total of 120 elderly patients underwent psychometric testing with a neuropsychological test battery before as well as 3 months after surgery. Cognitive dysfunction was identified in 7.4% of the patients in the OPCAB group and 9.8% in the CCAB group. We found no significant difference after either OPCAB or CCAB.
Stanley, Barbara; And Others
Investigated functional competency to make informed decisions by elderly depressed and cognitively impaired psychiatric patients. Although depressed elderly patients did not appear to experience problems in informed consent process, cognitively impaired patients had difficulty understanding important aspects of consent information. Suggests that…
Rashidi Pour Fard, Nafiseh; Karimi, Majid; Baghaei, Mohammad Hassan; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila
BACKGROUND Previous epidemiological studies of dairy product consumption and health outcomes have reported mixed findings. Despite increasing in life expectancy, scarce data are available in this field in elderly individuals. We tested the hypothesis that greater dairy intake is associated with lower high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level and better lipid profile and glycemic control. METHODS This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 107 elderly individuals who aged 60-78 years. Usual dietary intakes were assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric measures and biochemical markers were determined using standard protocols. RESULTS The reported mean ± standard deviation (SD) of daily intake of dairy products and age were 588.02 ± 418.88 g/d and 63.22 ± 6.92 years, respectively. After control for demographic characteristics and dietary intakes, dairy consumption was not significantly related to the increased risk of insulin resistance [Odds ratio (OR): 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54, 8.86; P = 0.520] and elevated hs-CRP (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.37, 6.35; P = 0.550). Participants in the top tertile of dairy had greater, but statistically not a significant risk of elevated triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). No significant relations were seen for hs-CRP, insulin resistance and lipid profile across tertiles of dairy products. CONCLUSION In this elderly population, total dairy consumption was not associated with inflammatory biomarkers levels and other cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:26862340
Zha, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Yu; Pang, Xiao-Na; Chang, Gui-Lin; Li, Li
This study aims to evaluate an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) and their combination in detecting populations at high risk for osteoporosis, and to determine the best cutoff value for the diagnosis of osteoporosis among elderly Chinese men. A group of Chinese men, aged ≥ 60 years, recruited from the health checkup population of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, were included. The OSTA index was calculated from age and weight. Bone mineral density (BMD) at left hip (femoral neck, internal, and total hip) and lumbar spine (L1-L4, L-Total) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and calcaneal BMD was measured with QUS. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the best cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity. The area under the curve (AUC) between the different screening tools was compared. Our study included 472 men with mean age of 78.0 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.7%.The best cutoff for OSTA was -3.5 for predicting men with osteoporosis at any site; this yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 47.3% and 76.8%, respectively. The AUC for OSTA was 0.676. The optimal cutoff for QUS-T score was -1.25, with a sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 59.7%. The AUC for QUS-T score was 0.762. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the specificity to 92.9% but reduced sensitivity to 36.1%. A new variable derived from a combination of OSTA and the QUS-T score gave a better performance, with sensitivity of 70.1% and specificity of 72.1%; the AUC for this variable was 0.771, which was greater than OSTA but not different from QUS alone. In conclusion, OSTA and QUS, respectively, and their combination may help find populations at high risk for osteoporosis, which could be an alternative method for diagnosing osteoporosis, especially in areas where DXA measurement is not accessible.
Pillemer, Karl; Burnes, David; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S.
Purpose: Elder mistreatment is now recognized internationally as a pervasive and growing problem, urgently requiring the attention of health care systems, social welfare agencies, policymakers, and the general public. In this article, we provide an overview of global issues in the field of elder abuse, with a focus on prevention. Design and Methods: This article provides a scoping review of key issues in the field from an international perspective. Results: By drawing primarily on population-based studies, this scoping review provided a more valid and reliable synthesis of current knowledge about prevalence and risk factors than has been available. Despite the lack of scientifically rigorous intervention research on elder abuse, the review also identified 5 promising strategies for prevention. Implications: The findings highlight a growing consensus across studies regarding the extent and causes of elder mistreatment, as well as the urgent need for efforts to make elder mistreatment prevention programs more effective and evidence based. PMID:26994260
Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell
The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations.
The aim of this paper is to present the specific risks of physical activity in elderly subjects. These risks mainly consist of the loss of physical integrity and the weakening of the capabilities of metabolic regulation. The risk of impairment of physical integrity (e.g. injury) related to regular physical activity is not overall greater in elderly subjects than in young subjects. The choice of a physical activity that is suited to the elderly subject's physical and cognitive abilities largely limits these risks. When physical activity is adapted to suit elderly subjects, the number of accidents in relation to the number of participants is actually very low. In fact, participation in a program of education for prevention related to physical activity reduces the risk of accidents and injuries (and, thus, falls) occurring thereafter. In the case of metabolic risks, isometric muscular contractions carried out under certain conditions (duration: > 6 seconds; intensity: > 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) are inappropriate. Physical activity carried out in extreme thermal atmospheres (0-5° < and > 25-30°) should be avoided. Hydration is very important and liquids should be drunk well before any thirst sensation occurs.
[Clinical efficacy of decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haplo-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen on elderly patients with high risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia].
Dou, Li-Ping; Jing, Yu; Wang, Quan-Shun; Mei, Jun-Hui; Yu, Li
This study was aimed to observe the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haploid-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen on elderly patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five elderly patients with MDS and AML were treated with decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen. Examinations on liver and renal function, electrocardiogram and bone marrow analysis were performed before and after treatment, and adverse effects were observed. The results indicated that after a course of treatment by decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haplo-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen, the total effective rate was 100%, and 4 patients (80%) achieved complete remission, 1 patient achieved partial remission. The dominant clinical adverse effect was bone marrow depression, the median time of neutrophil>0.5×10(9)/L and platelet>20×10(9)/L was 15 d and 16 d respectively for patients without previous MDS. It is concluded that decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haploid-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen may be effective with less adverse effects for elderly primary AML and high risk MDS patients, it is a promising therapeutic methods and worthy to deeply study.
Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.
Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…
Oyewumi, L K
A critical review of various high risk situations in which neuroleptics could be used and have been used in clinical practice is presented. These high risk situations include: women of child bearing age (pregnant women, lactating and/or nursing mothers), the two extremes of life (children and the elderly), patients with sexual dysfunction, patients with tardive dyskinesia, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, physically ill and suicidal patients. The extraordinary applications of these drugs, such as for rapid tranquilization and megadose regimens are examined. The author provides guidelines for the use of neuroleptics in these clinical situations.
Sublobar resection is associated with improved outcomes over radiotherapy in the management of high-risk elderly patients with Stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Zhang, Bai-Lin; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Xian-Liang; Deng, Lei; Meng, Mao-Bin
Background and Aim A matched-pair comparison was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of sublobar resection versus radiotherapy for high-risk elderly patients with Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and manual searches. The meta-analysis was performed to compare overall survival, pattern of failure, and toxicity among the homogeneous studies. Subdivided analyses were also performed. Results Sixteen studies containing 11540 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Among these studies, 9 were propensity-score matched (PSM) cohort studies, and 7 were cohort studies. Sublobar resection, compared with radiotherapy (either conventional fraction radiation therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy), significantly improved the overall survival regardless in both PSM and non-PSM analyses (all p < 0.05). However, the difference in the pattern of failure and toxicity were not significant (all p > 0.05). Conclusions Sublobar resection was associated with improved outcomes in high-risk elderly patients with Stage I NSCLC, which supports the need to compare both treatments in large prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials. PMID:28002808
The role of art therapy is considered in working with such high risk groups as the institutionalized, mentally retarded, elderly, visually impaired, physically handicapped, asthmatic, hyper- and hypo-active children, hearing impaired, and patients on mind altering drugs. The special risks of infectious diseases (such as serum hepatitis), and…
Brozowski, Kari; Hall, David R.
In this article, we review the literature on physical and sexual elder abuse within the context of risk theory and feminist sociology. Employing data from the 1999 General Social Survey, we also examine several variables potentially associated with the risk for physical or sexual abuse of elders. Women, Aboriginal Canadians, and elders who are…
Complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy are more common in older patients (65 years of age and older) with cancer than in younger patients, and the occurrence of myelosuppression, mucositis, cardiodepression, peripheral neuropathy, and central neurotoxicity can complicate treatment. Age-related physiologic changes that can increase the toxicity of chemotherapy are decreased stem-cell reserves, decreased ability to repair cell damage, progressive loss of body protein, and accumulation of body fat. A decline in organ function can alter the pharmacokinetics of many of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in some elderly patients, making toxicity less predictable. Comorbidities increase the risk of toxicity through their effects on the body. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat comorbidities may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs, potentially increasing toxicity in elderly patients. Prospective trials in older patients with lymphoma or solid tumors have found that age is a risk factor for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications. Anemia may be present because of the disease or its treatment, and, if left uncorrected, it can alter drug activity and increase toxicity. Being able to predict which elderly patients are at greater risk of toxicity on the basis of pretreatment factors would be valuable, and there is a need for prospective trials to determine regimen- and patient-specific prognostic factors. Effective management of the toxicity associated with chemotherapy with appropriate supportive care is crucial, especially in the elderly population, to give them the best chance of cure and survival, or to provide palliation. For example, management of neutropenic complications with colony-stimulating factors makes treatment with standard-dose chemotherapy possible, which can lead to better outcomes. A better understanding of drug activity and toxicity in older patients is necessary for developing guidelines for safe and effective treatment. Few
dos Reis, Karine Marques Costa; de Jesus, Cristine Alves Costa
Objective: to determine the incidence of falls in elderly residents of long-stay institutions of the Federal District, to identify the aspects involved in the falls, in terms of risk factors, from the application of scales and the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I, and to define the level of accuracy with its sensitivity and specificity for application in the clinical nursing practice. Method: this was a cohort study with the evaluation of 271 elderly people. Cognition, functionality, mobility and other intrinsic factors were evaluated. After six months, the elderly people who fell were identified, with significance analysis then performed to define the risk factors. Results: the results showed an incidence of 41%. Of the 271 patients included, 69 suffered 111 episodes of falls during the monitoring period. Risk factors were the presence of stroke with its sequelae (OR: 1.82, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.28, p=.045), presenting more than five chronic diseases (OR: 2.82, 95% CI 1.43 - 5.56, p=.0028), foot problem (OR: 2.45, 95% CI 1.35 - 4.44, p=.0033) and motion (OR: 2.04, 95% CI 1.15 - 3.61, p=.0145). Conclusion: the taxonomy has high validity regarding the detection of elderly people at risk of falling and should be applied consistently in the clinical nursing practice. PMID:26626005
Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin
Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation.
Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco
Background Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Objectives Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥65). Methods A long time-series (2001–2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using “Crichton’s Risk Triangle” hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). Results The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. Conclusions This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public
Foody, Joanne M
Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) significantly contributes to the burden of stroke, particularly in elderly patients. The challenge of optimizing anticoagulation therapy is balancing efficacy and bleeding risk, especially as the same patients at high risk of stroke also tend to be at high risk of bleeding. Treating the elderly patient with NVAF presents special challenges because of their heightened risk for both stroke and bleeding. Despite clinical trial data and evidence-based guidelines, surveys indicate that physicians underuse anticoagulation in older patients for reasons that include overemphasis of bleeding risk, particularly with the increased risk of falling, at the cost of thromboembolic risk. Clinical trial data are now available, and real-world data are emerging, to illustrate the relative merits of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with conventional anticoagulation in the treatment of elderly patients with this condition, and to suggest some subgroups of older patients who may be more suitable candidates for particular agents. Care of elderly patients with NVAF is often complicated by factors including risk of falling, adherence, health literacy, cognitive function, adverse effects, and involvement of caregivers, as well as other factors including the patient–provider relationship and logistical barriers to obtaining medication. Thus, conversations between clinicians and patients, as well as shared decision making, are important. In addition, elderly patients often suffer from comorbidities including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, COPD, and/or heart failure, which necessitate the use of multiple concomitant medications, increasing the risk of drug/drug interactions. This review provides an overview of clinical trial data on the use of non-vitamin K anticoagulant agents in elderly populations, and serves as a practical resource for the management of NVAF in the elderly patient. PMID:28182166
Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, José A.; Willumsen, Tiril
Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly. PMID:22322487
Wang, Yunyang; Sheng, Qi; Hou, Xu; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Wenjuan; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua
Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between thyrotropin and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly, the results were inconsistent. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies was conducted to assess the impact of serum thyrotropin levels on Alzheimer's disease risk. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched through September 20, 2014 to identify cohort studies on the relationship between serum thyrotropin levels and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly. Pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to assess the risk of Alzheimer's disease according to serum thyrotropin levels. Eight prospective cohort studies were included, with a total of 9456 participants and 640 cases of Alzheimer's disease. Low thyrotropin level was significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (fixed RR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.31-2.19, P < 0.001; I(2) = 38.0%). High thyrotropin level was also significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (fixed RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.18-2.45, P = 0.005; I(2) = 42.2%) when compared with normal thyrotropin level. When using random effect model, low thyrotropin level was still significantly associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease (random RR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.14-2.37, P = 0.007), but high thyrotropin level was not (random RR = 1.54, 95% CI 0.88-2.68, P = 0.129). When investigating thyrotropin levels continuously, an inverse but not significant association between serum thyrotropin levels and Alzheimer's disease risk was observed (per standard deviation increment of thyrotropin: RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.78-1.01, P = 0.06; I(2) = 31.3%). This meta-analysis supports that low thyrotropin level is significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly.
Wang, Kunlun; Liu, Yang; You, Jie; Cui, Han; Zhu, Yiwei; Yuan, Ling
The impact of nutritional status on survival among elderly esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients undergoing radiotherapy is unclear. In this study, we aimed at validating the performance of the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) in predicting overall survival time in elderly ESCC patients with radiotherapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 239 ESCC patients aged 60 and over admitted consecutively from January 2008 to November 2014 in the Department of Radiotherapy, Henan Tumor Hospital (Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University), Zhengzhou, Henan, China. All patients were subjected to nutritional screening using GNRI, and were followed for the occurrence of lymphatic node metastasis, radiation complication and mortality. The Kaplan–Meier method with Log-rank test was used to estimate survival curves. Univariable Cox regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with overall survival time. Among the 239 patients, 184 patients (76.9%) took no nutritional risk, 32 patients (13.4%) took moderate risk of malnutrition, and 23 patients (9.7%) took a high risk of malnutrition. Univariable Cox regression showed that both high nutritional risk group and moderate nutritional risk group were significantly less likely to survive than no nutritional risk patients (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.688, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.019–2.798 for moderate risk group, and HR = 2.699, 95% CI = 1.512–4.819 for high risk group, respectively). The GNRI is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival time in elderly ESCC patients with radiotherapy. A GNRI ≤98 can be suggested as an indicator of surviving less. PMID:27196126
Acharjee, Subroto; Welty, Francine K
Elderly individuals are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and account for a majority of CHD deaths. Several clinical trials have assessed the beneficial effects of statins in individuals with, or at risk of developing, CHD. These trials provide evidence that statins reduce risk and improve clinical outcomes even in older patients; however, statin therapy remains under-utilized among the aged. Atorvastatin has been widely investigated among the older subjects and has the greatest magnitude of favorable effects on clinical outcomes of CHD. The pharmacokinetic properties of atorvastatin allow it to be used every other day, a factor which may decrease adverse events and be especially important in the elderly. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence available from randomized clinical trials regarding the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of CHD and stroke in older patients and to discuss issues such as drug interactions, patient compliance and cost-effectiveness, which affect prescription of lipid-lowering therapy among older patients.
Sotto Mayor, Joana; Pacheco, Ana Paula; Esperança, Sofia; Oliveira e Silva, Antonio
Trazodone is a second-generation atypical antidepressant exercising selective inhibitory action on the transport of serotonin. It also has an antagonist effect, similar to nefazodone, on the 5HT1 and 5HT2 receptors, probably due to the therapeutic effects of such substances. It is very effective in the treatment of depression, in anxiety and insomnia. Its known side effects mainly occur with prolonged use of daily doses of 150-200 mg. The ability to enhance drowsiness may be associated with some risk in elderly patients. This clinical case illustrates an acute extrapyramidal event induced by a low dose of trazodone.
Niederseer, D; Ledl-Kurkowski, E; Kvita, K; Patsch, W; Dela, F; Mueller, E; Niebauer, J
Numerous studies have shown that treatment of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) results in a decreased risk to suffer from stroke or myocardial infarction. Despite the fact that exercise training is a potent treatment choice for CVRF, this is the first randomized study to assess the effects of alpine skiing on CVRF in elderly skiers. Subjects (n=42) were randomized into an intervention group (IG; n=22; 12 males/10 females; age: 66.6 ± 2.1 years) completing 12 weeks of guided skiing or a control group (CG; n=20; 10 males/10 females; age: 67.3 ± 4.4 years). CVRF were assessed before and after the intervention period. No cardiovascular event occurred within a total of 795.1 h of skiing. A significant increase in exercise capacity in IG (ΔVO(2 max) : +2.0 mL/kg/min, P=0.005) but not in CG (ΔVO(2 max) : -0.1 mL/kg/min, P=0.858; IG vs CG: P=0.008) as well as a decrease in body fat mass [IG: -2.3%, P<0.0001; CG: ± 0.0%, P=0.866; IG vs CG: P<0.0001] was achieved. Blood pressure, blood lipids, heart rate and everyday physical activity remained essentially unchanged. Alpine skiing in the elderly is safe with respect to cardiovascular events, and improves some, but not all CVRF.
An angiotensin II receptor blocker-calcium channel blocker combination prevents cardiovascular events in elderly high-risk hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease better than high-dose angiotensin II receptor blockade alone.
Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Ogawa, Hisao; Matsui, Kunihiko; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Arakawa, Kikuo
The OSCAR study was a multicenter, prospective randomized open-label blinded end-point study of 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients comparing the efficacy of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) uptitration to an ARB plus calcium channel blocker (CCB) combination. In this prospective study, we performed prespecified subgroup analysis according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Blood pressure was lower in the combined therapy than in the high-dose ARB cohort in both groups with and without CKD. In patients with CKD, significantly more primary events (a composite of cardiovascular events and noncardiovascular death) occurred in the high-dose ARB group than in the combination group (30 vs. 16, respectively, hazard ratio 2.25). Significantly more cerebrovascular and more heart failure events occurred in the high-dose ARB group than in the combination group. In patients without CKD, however, the incidence of primary events was similar between the two treatments. The treatment-by-subgroup interaction was significant. Allocation to the high-dose ARB was a significant independent prognostic factor for primary events in patients with CKD. Thus, the ARB plus CCB combination conferred greater benefit in prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with CKD compared with high-dose ARB alone. Our findings provide new insight into the antihypertensive strategy for elderly hypertensive patients with CKD.
Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs
Li, Wei; Ding, Cheng; Yin, Shaojun
Pneumonia is the second leading reason for hospitalization of medicare beneficiaries. The mortality rate is high, especially in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in the elderly. Retrospective study was conducted and data of old patients with severe pneumonia were collected. They were divided into two groups: the experiment group (death group) and the control (living group). The general situation, underlying diseases, laboratory tests, types of etiology, imaging analysis and treatment situation of patients were analyzed and compared. Univariate analysis and logistic multivariate regression analysis were used to screen the related and independent risk factors for the diagnosis of severe pneumonia in the elderly. In univariate analysis, there were many factors had statistical significance including chronic kidney disease, electrolyte disturbance, low phosphorus and so on. Result of logistic multivariate regression analysis showed pro-BNP level and serum prealbumin were independent risk factors. In sputum culture, the relevance ratio of acinetobacter baumannii was the highest in gram negative bacteria followed by klebsiella pneumoniae. In gram positive bacteria, the relevance ratio of staphylococcus aureus was the highest. In conclusion, the analysis on risk factors for severe pneumonia has great clinical significance on improving the prognosis. PMID:26550157
Li, Wei; Ding, Cheng; Yin, Shaojun
Pneumonia is the second leading reason for hospitalization of medicare beneficiaries. The mortality rate is high, especially in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in the elderly. Retrospective study was conducted and data of old patients with severe pneumonia were collected. They were divided into two groups: the experiment group (death group) and the control (living group). The general situation, underlying diseases, laboratory tests, types of etiology, imaging analysis and treatment situation of patients were analyzed and compared. Univariate analysis and logistic multivariate regression analysis were used to screen the related and independent risk factors for the diagnosis of severe pneumonia in the elderly. In univariate analysis, there were many factors had statistical significance including chronic kidney disease, electrolyte disturbance, low phosphorus and so on. Result of logistic multivariate regression analysis showed pro-BNP level and serum prealbumin were independent risk factors. In sputum culture, the relevance ratio of acinetobacter baumannii was the highest in gram negative bacteria followed by klebsiella pneumoniae. In gram positive bacteria, the relevance ratio of staphylococcus aureus was the highest. In conclusion, the analysis on risk factors for severe pneumonia has great clinical significance on improving the prognosis.
Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; LoFaso, Veronica M; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Breckman, Risa; Markarian, Arlene; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl
Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences for older adults. Although researchers have begun to identify predisposing risk factors for elder abuse victims and abusers, little is known about the acute precipitants that lead to escalation to physical violence. We analyzed legal records from highly adjudicated cases to describe these acute precipitants for physical elder abuse. In collaboration with a large, urban district attorney's office, we qualitatively evaluated legal records from 87 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from 2003 to 2015. We transcribed and analyzed narratives of the events surrounding physical abuse within victim statements, police reports, and prosecutor records. We identified major themes using content analysis. We identified 10 categories of acute precipitants that commonly triggered physical elder abuse, including victim attempting to prevent the abuser from entering or demanding that he or she leave, victim threatening or attempting to leave/escape, threat or perception that the victim would involve the authorities, conflict about a romantic relationship, presence during/intervention in ongoing family violence, issues in multi-generational child rearing, conflict about the abuser's substance abuse, confrontation about financial exploitation, dispute over theft/destruction of property, and disputes over minor household issues. Common acute precipitants of physical elder abuse may be identified. Improved understanding of these acute precipitants for escalation to physical violence and their contribution to elder abuse may assist in the development of prevention and management strategies.
Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz
This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher
Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol
BACKGROUND To prevent stroke from occurring, stroke risk factors in at-risk subjects should be controlled and the diseases causing stroke should be managed. This study evaluated a nursing intervention to prevent stroke in at-risk elderly living at home. The program consisted of stroke and nutrition education as well as exercise guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study targeted 93 elderly people living at home residing in E province with 1 or more stroke risk factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, or drinking alcohol. The 12-week program included a stroke education class once a week, a nutrition management class once a week, and exercise guidance 3 times a week. Each session lasted 50-70 min. Each disease education and nutrition management session lasted for 20 min and each exercise session lasted for 30-50 min. RESULTS The experimental group's body mass index (BMI) (t=8.27, p<.001), systolic blood pressure (t=2.39, p=.021), fasting blood sugar (t=0.39, p=.700), total cholesterol (t=4.18, p<.001), triglyceride levels (t=2.50, p=.016), and depression scores (t=5.48, p<.001) were significantly reduced and high-density phospholipid protein levels increased significantly by the end of the program (t=-2.94, p=.005). CONCLUSIONS Based on the results of this study, participating in a stroke prevention program enabled at-risk elderly participants who lived at home in rural areas to perform health-promoting behaviors. This program may reduce the incidence of stroke by reducing risk factors and managing stroke precursor diseases.
Ong, Whee Sze; Rajasekaran, Tanujaa; Nee Koo, Khai; Chan, Li Li; Poon, Donald; Roy Chowdhury, Anupama; Krishna, Lalit; Kanesvaran, Ravindran
Purpose Elderly cancer patients are at increased risk for malnutrition. We aim to identify comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) based clinical factors associated with increased nutritional risk and develop a clinical scoring system to identify nutritional risk in elderly cancer patients. Patients and Methods CGA data was collected from 249 Asian patients aged 70 years or older. Nutritional risk was assessed based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess the association between patient clinical factors together with domains within the CGA and moderate to high nutritional risk. Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Internal validation was performed using simulated datasets via bootstrapping. Results Among the 249 patients, 184 (74%) had moderate to high nutritional risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified stage 3–4 disease (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.54; 95% CI, 1.14–5.69), ECOG performance status of 2–4 (OR 3.04; 95% CI, 1.57–5.88), presence of depression (OR 5.99; 95% CI, 1.99–18.02) and haemoglobin levels <12 g/dL (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54–5.84) as significant independent factors associated with moderate to high nutritional risk. The model achieved good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test’s p = 0.17) and discrimination (AUC = 0.80). It retained good calibration and discrimination (bias-corrected AUC = 0.79) under internal validation. Conclusion Having advanced stage of cancer, poor performance status, depression and anaemia were found to be predictors of moderate to high nutritional risk. Early identification of patients with these risk factors will allow for nutritional interventions that may improve treatment tolerance, quality of life and survival outcomes. PMID:27231951
Lin, Z; Yang, B; Liu, Y
A case-control study was conducted among 154 cases of falls aged over 60 years in 18 old folks' homes in the countryside, using 1:1 pair-matching to explore the risk factors for the elderly falls. Data were analysed through Linear Logistic Regression. Results showed that spouseless, poor physical condition, abnormal gait, sufferying chronic situations as hypertension and sequelae of cerebral apoplexy, taking anti-hypertension drugs, abnormalities in taking static dynamic balance and walking tests in the elderly were main risk factors of the elderly falls. The strategies of prevention of the elderly falls were also discussed in the paper.
Pfortmueller, C A; Lindner, G; Exadaktylos, A K
Falls in the elderly are a major source of injury resulting in disability and hospitalization. They have a significant impact on individual basis (loss of quality of live, nursing home admissions) and social basis (healthcare costs). Even though falls in the elderly are common there are some well studied risk factors. Special emphasis should be put on sarcopenia/frailty, polypharmacy, multimorbidity, vitamin D status and home hazards. There are several well evaluated fall prevention approaches that either target a single fall risk factor or focus on multiple risk factors. It has to be kept in mind that not all fall prevention strategies are useful for all patients as for example dietary substitution of vitamin D is only recommended in people with increased risk for a vitamin D deficiency. Home hazard reduction strategies are more effective when combined with other fall prevention approaches such as for example exercise programs. In conclusion elderly patients should routinely be screened for relevant risk factors and if need an indiviudally targeted fall prevention program compiled.
Vandenput, Liesbeth; Mellström, Dan; Kindmark, Andreas; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias; Leung, Jason; Redlund‐Johnell, Inga; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wang, Yi‐Xiang; Kwok, Timothy
ABSTRACT Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that serum levels of sex steroids and sex hormone‐binding globulin (SHBG) associate with nonvertebral fracture risk in men. The predictive value of sex hormones and SHBG for vertebral fracture risk specifically is, however, less studied. Elderly men (aged ≥65 years) from Sweden and Hong Kong participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study had baseline estradiol and testosterone analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and SHBG by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Incident clinical vertebral fractures (n = 242 cases) were evaluated in 4324 men during an average follow‐up of 9.1 years. In a subsample of these men (n = 2256), spine X‐rays were obtained at baseline and after an average follow‐up of 4.3 years to identify incident radiographic vertebral fractures (n = 157 cases). The likelihood of incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models, respectively. Neither serum estradiol (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–1.08) nor testosterone (1.05, 0.91–1.21) predicted incident clinical vertebral fractures in age‐adjusted models in the combined data set. High serum SHBG, however, associated with increased clinical vertebral fracture risk (1.24, 1.12–1.37). This association remained significant after further adjustment for FRAX with or without bone mineral density (BMD). SHBG also associated with increased incident radiographic vertebral fracture risk (combined data set; odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.44). This association remained significant after adjustment for FRAX with or without BMD. In conclusion, high SHBG predicts incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in elderly men and adds moderate information beyond FRAX with BMD for vertebral fracture risk prediction. © 2015 The
Stefoni, V; Casadei, B; Bottelli, C; Gaidano, G; Ciochetto, C; Cabras, M G; Ansuinelli, M; Argnani, L; Broccoli, A; Gandolfi, L; Pellegrini, C; Zinzani, P L
An update at 7 years was conceived for our multicenter phase II study in which 55 elderly high-risk untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients were treated with 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan after a short course of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) as long-term follow-up analyses of this combined therapeutic modality are lacking. The overall response rate to the entire regimen was 80%, including 73% (40/55) of complete response (CR) rate and 7% (4/55) of partial response rate. At the time of writing, 24/55 (43.6%) patients experienced a progression disease and 20 of 40 (50%) patients who obtained a CR are still alive in continuous CR. With a median follow-up of 7 years, the disease-free survival was 43.3% and the progression-free survival was 36.1%. The overall survival at 7.9 years was 38.9% (27 deaths mainly because of lymphoma). Two patients developed secondary hematological malignancies, an acute myeloid leukemia and a myelodysplastic syndrome, at 4 and 3 years from radioimmunotherapy, respectively. Our data confirm the feasibility, efficacy and safety of four cycles of R-CHOP followed by radioimmunotherapy consolidation even in the long term: this combination allows dispensing less chemotherapy in a frail group of patients without invalidating response quality and duration. PMID:27176801
JEONG, Tchae-Won; JUNG, Min-Ju; LEE, Jun-Woo; KIM, Tae-Young
Abstract Background In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females. Methods The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked Results As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females. Conclusion Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly. PMID:26060777
Biweekly rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, non-pegylated liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and prednisone (R-COMP-14) in elderly patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and moderate to high ‘life threat’ impact cardiopathy
Corazzelli, Gaetano; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Arcamone, Manuela; Lucania, Anna; RosariaVilla, Maria; Morelli, Emanuela; Amore, Alfonso; Capobianco, Gaetana; Caronna, Antonietta; Becchimanzi, Cristina; Volzone, Francesco; Marcacci, Gianpaolo; Russo, Filippo; De Filippi, Rosaria; Mastrullo, Lucia; Pinto, Antonio
This Phase II study assessed feasibility and efficacy of a biweekly R-COMP-14 regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) in untreated elderly patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and moderate to high ‘life threat’ impact NIA/NCI cardiac comorbidity. A total of 208 courses were delivered, with close cardiac monitoring, to 41 patients (median age: 73 years, range: 62–82; 37% >75 years) at a median interval of 15·6 (range, 13–29) days; 67% completed all six scheduled courses. Response rate was 73%, with 68% complete responses (CR); 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) were 72% and 49%, respectively. Failures were due to early death (n = 3), therapy discontinuations (no-response n = 2; toxicity n = 6), relapse (n = 6) and death in CR (n = 3). Incidence of cardiac grade 3–5 adverse events was 7/41 (17%; 95% confidence interval: 8–31%). Time to progression and overall survival at 4-years were 77% and 67%, respectively. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (aaCCI) correlated with failures (P = 0·007) with patients scoring ≤7 having a longer TTF (66% vs. 29%; P = 0·009). R-COMP-14 is feasible and ensures a substantial DFS to poor-risk DLBCL patients who would have been denied anthracycline-based treatment due to cardiac morbidity. The aaCCI predicted both treatment discontinuation rate and TTF. PMID:21707585
Biweekly rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, non-pegylated liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and prednisone (R-COMP-14) in elderly patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and moderate to high 'life threat' impact cardiopathy.
Corazzelli, Gaetano; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Arcamone, Manuela; Lucania, Anna; Rosariavilla, Maria; Morelli, Emanuela; Amore, Alfonso; Capobianco, Gaetana; Caronna, Antonietta; Becchimanzi, Cristina; Volzone, Francesco; Marcacci, Gianpaolo; Russo, Filippo; De Filippi, Rosaria; Mastrullo, Lucia; Pinto, Antonio
This Phase II study assessed feasibility and efficacy of a biweekly R-COMP-14 regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) in untreated elderly patients with poor-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and moderate to high 'life threat' impact NIA/NCI cardiac comorbidity. A total of 208 courses were delivered, with close cardiac monitoring, to 41 patients (median age: 73years, range: 62-82; 37% >75years) at a median interval of 15·6 (range, 13-29) days; 67% completed all six scheduled courses. Response rate was 73%, with 68% complete responses (CR); 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) were 72% and 49%, respectively. Failures were due to early death (n=3), therapy discontinuations (no-response n=2; toxicity n=6), relapse (n=6) and death in CR (n=3). Incidence of cardiac grade 3-5 adverse events was 7/41 (17%; 95% confidence interval: 8-31%). Time to progression and overall survival at 4-years were 77% and 67%, respectively. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (aaCCI) correlated with failures (P=0·007) with patients scoring ≤7 having a longer TTF (66% vs. 29%; P=0·009). R-COMP-14 is feasible and ensures a substantial DFS to poor-risk DLBCL patients who would have been denied anthracycline-based treatment due to cardiac morbidity. The aaCCI predicted both treatment discontinuation rate and TTF.
Shpata, Vjollca; Ohri, Ilir; Nurka, Tatjana; Prendushi, Xhensila
Purpose Many investigators have reported rising numbers of elderly patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition risk in the ICU by comparing the prevalence of malnutrition between older adults (aged 65 years and above) and adults (aged 18–64 years), and to examine the negative consequences associated with risk of malnutrition in older adults. Materials and methods A prospective cohort study in the ICU of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of malnutrition risk on the length of ICU stay, the duration of being on the ventilator, the total complications, the infectious complications, and the mortality. Results In this study, 963 patients participated, of whom 459 patients (47.7%) were aged ≥65 years. The prevalence of malnutrition risk at the time of ICU admission of the patients aged ≥65 years old was 71.24%. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders showed that malnutrition risk was an independent risk factor of poor clinical outcome for elderly ICU patients, for 1) infections (odds ratio [OR] =4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61–7.31); 2) complications (OR =6.73; 95% CI: 4.26–10.62); 3) mortality (OR =2.68; 95% CI: 1.72–4.18); and 4) ICU length of stay >14 days (OR =5.18, 95% CI: 2.43–11.06). Conclusion Malnutrition risk is highly prevalent among elderly ICU patients, especially among severely ill patients with malignancy admitted to the emergency ward. ICU elderly patients at malnutrition risk will have higher complication and infection rates, longer duration of ICU stay, and increased mortality. Efforts should be made to implement a variety of nutritional care strategies, to change the nutritional practices not only at ward level, but nationally, according to the best clinical practice and recent guidelines. PMID:25733824
von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace
Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…
Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Duysens, Jacques; van Limbeek, Jacques
Accidental falls, especially those occurring in the elderly, are a major health and research topic nowadays. Besides environmental hazards and the physiological changes associated with aging, medication use (e.g. benzodiazepines, vasodilators and antidepressants) and polypharmacy are significant risk factors for falling as well. Exposure to NSAIDs has been associated with accidental falls too, although information on this area is less consistent. Therefore, the main goal of this review is to provide an updated overview of all the evidence published on the risk of falling due to NSAID use thus far. A systematic literature search for material published between 1966 and March 2008 in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Exerpta Medica, Current Contents and Science Citation Index was combined with a check of the reference lists of all the retrieved articles. Validity and data extraction of the eligible articles was assessed by adapted criteria, based on checklists that were originally developed to assess case-control or cohort studies. From the 16 selected articles, two studies were rejected because of clustering of data and one article was excluded because it contained the same data as that in one of the included articles. None of the articles retrieved included a randomized controlled trial. The remaining 13 studies all showed some lack in completeness of their statistical methods, and much variation in reporting of effects. The overall mean age was high in the study populations, leaving the results to be poorly generalizable to a larger population and other age categories. Despite these imperfections, all studies showed an increased risk of falling due to NSAID use (four significant, nine non-significant), and a tendency towards an increased fall risk with NSAID exposure could be noted. The results shown in the present review suggest that an increased risk for accidental falls is probable when elderly individuals are exposed to NSAIDs. The
Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chiang, Sheng-Ta; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Kao, Tung-Wei
Objectives Disability is considered an important issue that affects the elderly population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between disability and all-cause mortality in US elderly individuals. Design Retrospective and longitudinal designs. Setting Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants A total of 1834 participants in the age range 60–84 years from NHANES 1999–2002. Main outcome measures We acquired five major domains of disability (activities of daily living (ADL), general physical activities (GPA), instrumental ADL (IADL), lower extremity mobility (LEM) and leisure and social activities (LSA)) through self-reporting. We applied an extended-model approach with Cox (proportional hazards) regression analysis to investigate the relationship between different features of disability and all-cause mortality risk in the study population. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 77 deaths occurred. An increased risk of all-cause mortality was identified in elderly individuals with disability after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 2.23; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.85; p=0.004). Participants with more than one domain of disability were associated with a higher risk of mortality (ptrend=0.047). Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for each domain of disability were 2.53 (1.49 to 4.31), 1.99 (0.93 to 4.29), 1.74 (0.72 to 4.16), 1.57 (0.76 to 3.27) and 1.52 (0.93 to 2.48) for LEM, LSA, ADL, IADL and GPA, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study support an increased association between disability and all-cause mortality in the elderly in the USA. Disability in LEM may be a good predictor of high risk of all-cause mortality in elderly subjects. PMID:27625055
Barnett, Junaidah B; Hamer, Davidson H; Meydani, Simin N
Low zinc status may be a risk factor for pneumonia in the elderly. This special article reviews the magnitude of the problem of pneumonia (its prevalence, morbidity, and mortality) in the elderly, pneumonia's etiology, and the dysregulation of the immune system associated with increasing age. In addition, recent evidence from the literature is presented demonstrating that low zinc status (commonly reported in the elderly) impairs immune function, decreases resistance to pathogens, and is associated with increased incidence and duration of pneumonia, increased use and duration of antimicrobial treatment, and increased overall mortality in the elderly. Inadequate stores of zinc might, therefore, be a risk factor for pneumonia in the elderly. Randomized, double-blind, controlled studies are needed to determine the efficacy of zinc supplementation as a potential low-cost intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia in this vulnerable population.
Holtick, Udo; Herling, Marco; Pflug, Natali; Chakupurakal, Geothy; Leitzke, Silke; Wolf, Dominik; Hallek, Michael; Scheid, Christof; Chemnitz, Jens M
The fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine (FLAMSA)-reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) protocol has been described to be effective in patients with high-risk and refractory acute myeloic leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). To increase safety and tolerability of the conditioning, we previously reported the feasibility to substitute the TBI component by treosulfan in elderly AML patients. We now present long-term follow-up data on patients treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan compared to the original FLAMSA/4Gy TBI protocol. We retrospectively analyzed 130 consecutive patients with high-risk or relapsed AML after aSCT following FLAMSA conditioning at our center. Fifty-eight patients were treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan due to age and/or comorbidities. Seventy-two patients were treated with FLAMSA/TBI. Median age of patients treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan was 60 years compared to 46 years in those treated with FLAMSA/TBI. The cumulative incidence of a non-relapse mortality at 4 years was 28% in FLAMSA/treosulfan patients as compared to 13% in FLAMSA/TBI. Cumulative incidence of relapse was higher in patients treated with FLAMSA/TBI (46 vs. 32%). This difference was even more prominent for patients treated in blast persistence prior to transplant (relapse incidence 70% for TBI vs. 35% for treosulfan). The overall and relapse-free survival rates at 4 years were 47 and 41%, respectively, for patients treated with FLAMSA/TBI as compared to 43 and 40% in patients treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan. These data indicate an anti-leukemic activity by FLAMSA/treosulfan especially in patients with a blast persistence prior to transplant. Older age was an independent factor for a higher non-relapse mortality. Translating FLAMSA/treosulfan to younger patients, a lower non-relapse mortality, and an improved anti-leukemic activity might add up to improved overall survival. Randomized studies are required to demonstrate an improved efficacy
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; de Leon, Carlos Mendes; Fulmer, Terry; Beck, Todd; Hebert, Liesi; Dyer, Carmel; Paveza, Gregory; Evans, Denis
Context Both elder self-neglect and abuse have become increasingly prominent public health issues. The association of either elder self-neglect or abuse with mortality remains unclear. Objective To examine the relationship of elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies with all-cause mortality among a community-dwelling elderly population. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based cohort study (conducted from 1993 to 2005) of residents living in a geographically defined community of 3 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois, who were participating in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP; a longitudinal, population-based, epidemiological study of residents aged ≥65 years). A subset of these participants had suspected elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies. Main Outcome Measures Mortality ascertained during follow-up and by use of the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent associations of self-neglect or elder abuse reporting with the risk of all-cause mortality using time-varying covariate analyses. Results Of 9318 CHAP participants, 1544 participants were reported for elder self-neglect and 113 participants were reported for elder abuse from 1993 to 2005. All CHAP participants were followed up for a median of 6.9 years (interquartile range, 7.4 years), during which 4306 deaths occurred. In multivariable analyses, reported elder self-neglect was associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.20–6.51). Mortality risk was lower but still elevated after 1 year (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.67–2.14). Reported elder abuse also was associated with significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.84). Confirmed elder self-neglect or abuse also was associated with mortality. Increased mortality risks associated with either elder self-neglect or
Elderly black farm women are neglected segment of elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. Ten such women recalled their productive lifestyles in oral-history interviews and described problems faced because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities,…
Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe
Physical pain, like psychic pain, is still trivialised by healthcare practitioners working in geriatrics. Physical pains in elderly people are not isolated but often occur in a context of motor and mental incapacities rendering communication of the complaint somewhat erratic. They generate anxiety, which often amplifies their perception. This article represents a reflection about the management of pain in elderly people.
Ma, Lina; Feng, Ming; Qian, Yuying; Yang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Han, Rui; Zhu, Hong
Purpose Insulin resistance plays a role in the development of dementia and hypertension. We investigated a possible relationship between cognitive impairment and insulin resistance in elderly Chinese patients with primary hypertension. Materials and Methods One hundred and thirty-two hypertensive elderly patients (>60 years) were enrolled in this study, and assigned into either the cognitive impairment group (n=61) or the normal cognitive group (n=71). Gender, age, education, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine (Cr), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking history, atherosclerosis and the proportion of uncontrolled hypertension were compared between the two groups. Multi-factorial logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant differences were found in gender, age, TC, CRP, HDL-C, LDL-C, Cr, BP, smoking history, atherosclerosis and the proportion of uncontrolled hypertension between the two groups. The cognitive impairment group had lower education levels, and higher BMI, WHR, TG, FPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR levels than the control group. Logistic regression analysis revealed the levels of education, BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR as independent factors that predict cognitive impairment in patients. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that poor education and increased BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR are independent risk factors for cognitive impairment in elderly patients with hypertension. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of cognitive impairment in primary elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:25510751
Liu, Long; Tang, Zhe; Li, Xia; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Jin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua
Abstract The study aimed to construct a risk prediction model for coronary artery disease (CAD) based on competing risk model among the elderly in Beijing and develop a user-friendly CAD risk score tool. We used competing risk model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CAD event. On the basis of the risk factors that were included in the competing risk model, we constructed the CAD risk prediction model with Cox proportional hazard model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the both methods. Calibration plots were applied to assess the calibration ability and adjusted for the competing risk of non-CAD death. Net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were applied to quantify the improvement contributed by the new risk factors. Internal validation of predictive accuracy was performed using 1000 times of bootstrap re-sampling. Of the 1775 participants without CAD at baseline, 473 incident cases of CAD were documented for a 20-year follow-up. Time-dependent AUCs for men and women at t = 10 years were 0.841 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.806–0.877], 0.804 (95% CI: 0.768–0.839) in Fine and Gray model, 0.784 (95% CI: 0.738–0.830), 0.733 (95% CI: 0.692–0.775) in Cox proportional hazard model. The competing risk model was significantly superior to Cox proportional hazard model on discrimination and calibration. The cut-off values of the risk score that marked the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients were 34 points for men and 30 points for women, which have good sensitivity and specificity. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm-based competing risk model has been developed on the basis of an elderly Chinese cohort, which could be applied to predict an individual's risk and provide a useful guide to identify the groups at a high risk for CAD among the Chinese
Liu, Long; Tang, Zhe; Li, Xia; Luo, Yanxia; Guo, Jin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Xiangtong; Tao, Lixin; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua
The study aimed to construct a risk prediction model for coronary artery disease (CAD) based on competing risk model among the elderly in Beijing and develop a user-friendly CAD risk score tool. We used competing risk model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CAD event. On the basis of the risk factors that were included in the competing risk model, we constructed the CAD risk prediction model with Cox proportional hazard model. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and time-dependent area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the both methods. Calibration plots were applied to assess the calibration ability and adjusted for the competing risk of non-CAD death. Net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) were applied to quantify the improvement contributed by the new risk factors. Internal validation of predictive accuracy was performed using 1000 times of bootstrap re-sampling. Of the 1775 participants without CAD at baseline, 473 incident cases of CAD were documented for a 20-year follow-up. Time-dependent AUCs for men and women at t = 10 years were 0.841 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.806-0.877], 0.804 (95% CI: 0.768-0.839) in Fine and Gray model, 0.784 (95% CI: 0.738-0.830), 0.733 (95% CI: 0.692-0.775) in Cox proportional hazard model. The competing risk model was significantly superior to Cox proportional hazard model on discrimination and calibration. The cut-off values of the risk score that marked the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients were 34 points for men and 30 points for women, which have good sensitivity and specificity. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm-based competing risk model has been developed on the basis of an elderly Chinese cohort, which could be applied to predict an individual's risk and provide a useful guide to identify the groups at a high risk for CAD among the Chinese adults over 55
Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan
BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) are anthropometric indicators often included in geriatric health measurement scales. However, their relative effectiveness in predicting long-term mortality risk has not been extensively examined. The present study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of these anthropometrics in predicting long-term mortality risk in older adults. The study prospectively analysed the ability of these indicators in predicting 4-year follow-up mortality risk of a population-representative sample of 4191 men and women, 53 years of age or older in the 'Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan'. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of follow-up mortality risk with low ( < 21 kg/m2) or high ( ≥ 27 kg/m2) BMI, low MAC ( < 23·5/22 cm for men/women) and low CC ( < 30/27 cm) respectively, according to Taiwanese-specific cut-off points. Results showed that low CC and low MAC were more effective than low BMI in predicting follow-up mortality risk in 65-74-year-old elderly. But low CC and low BMI were more effective than low MAC in ≥ 75-year-old elderly, and low BMI was more effective than low MAC or low CC in 53-64-year-old persons. High BMI was not effective in predicting mortality risk in any of these age ranges. These results suggest that in elderly adults, CC is more effective than BMI in predicting long-term mortality risk. Thus, more consideration to CC and MAC in designing geriatric health or nutritional measurement scales is recommended.
Saikia, Anku Moni; Mahanta, Neelakshi; Mahanta, Ajaya; Deka, Ashok Jyoti; Kakati, Arupjyoti
Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above) were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST). Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population. PMID:26435603
Seymour, Connie J; Cannon, Stephen
A student-facilitated and faculty-supervised health promotion program for chronic disease management in at-risk elders was developed based on the belief that individual contact with high-risk elders will facilitate improved health behaviors while enhancing the real-life experiences of students through interdisciplinary collaboration and community-based learning. Subjects were seven students enrolled as health professions academic majors at the university who served as student health advocates in the Healthy Elder Living Program (HELP). The data collected included student reflection questionnaires, field notes from the HELP staff, and communication logs between the HELP coordinator and students. As student health advocates, the students made visits to at-risk elders to reinforce recommendations from health care providers, to review adherence to the Health Promotion Inventory (HPI), and to interact socially with the client through discussion of health- and non-health-related issues. A training model for health promotion was developed based on identification of four common themes of student performance as health advocates. Overall, students demonstrated a greater appreciation for the complexity of social, psychological, and physical aspects of chronic disease as a result of participation in this program for at-risk elders. They were able to apply professional skills learned in the classroom while providing a needed service to elders. At-risk clients also benefited from the HELP intervention, showing improved physical performance and less depression.
Elderly black farm women are a neglected segment of the elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. This article describes the productive life-styles that 10 such women in southeastern North Carolina recalled in oral-history interviews and the problems these women face because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities, and isolation and the deterioration of traditional resources.
Rafferty, Ellen; Duclos, Philippe; Yactayo, Sergio; Schuster, Melanie
Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare and serious adverse event of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine that mimics wild-type YF. Research shows there may be an increased risk of YEL-AVD among the elderly population (≥ 60-65 years old), however this research has yet to be accumulated and reviewed in order to make policy recommendations to countries currently administering the YF vaccine. This paper systematically reviewed all information available on YEL-AVD to determine if there is an increased risk among the elderly, for both travelers and endemic populations. Age-specific reporting rates (RRs) were re-calculated from the literature using the Brighton Collaboration case definition for YEL-AVD and were then analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference between the RRs of younger and older age groups. Two out of the five studies found a significantly higher rate of YEL-AVD among the elderly population. Our findings suggest unexposed elders may be at an increased risk of developing YEF-AVD, however the evidence remains limited. Therefore, our findings for YF vaccination of elderly populations support the recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) in their April 2013 meeting, mainly vaccination of the elderly should be based on a careful risk-benefit analysis.
Deo, Rajat; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Katz, Ronit; Sarnak, Mark J.; Fried, Linda F.; Chonchol, Michel; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Shlipak, Michael G.
Background Recent studies have demonstrated an association between moderate kidney dysfunction and sudden cardiac death in people with cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results The study was a longitudinal analysis among 4465 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cystatin C and creatinine were measured from baseline sera. SCD was defined as a sudden pulseless condition from a cardiac origin in a previously stable individual that occurred out of the hospital or in the emergency room. The association between cystatin C tertiles and SCD was determined with multivariate Cox proportional hazards. A similar analysis compared SCD incidence across creatinine-based eGFR tertiles. Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years, 91 adjudicated SCD events occurred. The annual incidence of SCD events increased across cystatin C tertiles: 10 events per 10,000 person years in tertile 1, 25 events per 10,000 person years in tertile 2 and 32 events per 10,000 person years in the highest cystatin C tertile. These associations persisted after multivariate adjustment: [HR = 2.72, 95% CI (1.44–5.16) in tertile 2 and HR = 2.67, 95% CI (1.33–5.35) in tertile 3]. After multivariate adjustment, the rate of SCD also increased in a linear distribution across creatinine-based eGFR tertiles: 15 events per 10,000 person years in tertile 1, 22 events per 10,000 person years in tertile 2 and 27 events per 10,000 person years in tertile 3. No significant associations, however, remained between creatinine-based eGFR and SCD after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion Impaired kidney function, as measured by cystatin C, has an independent association with SCD risk among elderly persons without clinical cardiovascular disease. PMID:20233980
Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.
Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ≥65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476
Goes, Vanessa Fernanda; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela Billig; de Oliveira, Lilian Oliveira; Hack, Jaqueline; Magro, Marcela; Bonini, Juliana Sartori
Objective to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. Methods the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed. Results it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients. Conclusion an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26107841
Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal
Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.
Barber, Emma L; Rutstein, Sarah; Miller, William C; Gehrig, Paola A
Objective Cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer has higher rates of postoperative complication than neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. If patients at high risk of postoperative complication were identified preoperatively, primary therapy could be tailored. Our objective was to develop a predictive model to estimate the risk of major postoperative complication after primary cytoreductive surgery among elderly ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients who underwent primary surgery for ovarian cancer between 2005-2013 were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project. Patients were selected using primary procedure CPT codes. Major complications were defined as grade 3 or higher complications on the validated Claviden-Dindo scale. Using logistic regression, we identified demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of postoperative complication. Results We identified 2,101 ovarian cancer patients of whom 35.9% were older than 65. Among women older than 65, the rate of major postoperative complication was 16.4%. Complications were directly associated with preoperative laboratory values (serum creatinine, platelets, white blood cell count, hematocrit), ascites, white race, and smoking status, and indirectly associated with albumin. Our predictive model had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.725. In order to not deny patients necessary surgery, we chose a 50% population rate of postoperative complication which produced model sensitivity of 9.8% and specificity of 98%. Discussion Our predictive model uses easily and routinely obtained objective preoperative factors to estimate the risk of postoperative complication among elderly ovarian cancer patients. This information can be used to assess risk, manage postoperative expectations, and make decisions regarding initial treatment. PMID:26432038
Rusak, Judith M.; And Others
Patients in long-term care facilities are often moved from one living area to another within an institution. While the staff often consider such moves as part of the daily work load, even intrainstitutional relocation has been observed to have negative consequences for the elderly patient. If staff could identify those patients who might…
Gu, Yian; Nieves, Jeri W; Luchsinger, Jose A; Scarmeas, Nikolaos
It has been suggested that inflammation is involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between inflammatory aspects of diet and incident AD risk. 2258 non-demented elderly (age ≥ 65) in New York who provided dietary information at baseline were followed-up prospectively for AD development. We examined the composite total Inflammation Factor Rating (tIFR), as a measure of inflammatory impact of foods, in relation with (i) serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and (ii) risk of incident AD using Cox proportional hazards model. The tIFR was not associated with serum hsCRP level. After an average of 4.0 years of follow-up, 262 subjects developed incident AD. The tIFR was not associated with AD risk: compared to the lowest tertile of tIFR (most pro-inflammatory), HRs (95% CI) for the highest tertile (most anti-inflammatory) was 0.97(0.69–1.35) (p-for-trend=0.84), in the adjusted model. We conclude that tIFR might not be a biologically relevant measure of the inflammatory impact of the diet. Additionally, although it remains possible that tIFR might be related with some other aspects of inflammation not captured by hsCRP, lack of association with AD risk suggests its limited clinical utility. PMID:21606905
Ohayon, J; Colle, J P; Besse, P
The authors record all the hemodynamic evaluations realised on aged population above severity years during two years (549 patients) representing ten per cent of the whole investigations in an hemodynamic department. The greater part of the indications were severe coronaritis resistant to medical treatment (54 percent) with unstable angina or steady state angina, and valvulopathy (37 percent) with prevalence of symptomatic aortic stenosis. The catheterization incidents and accidents do not appear more owing to the high risk pathology and to the taken precautions. The lethal accident frequency is three point five per thousand little above the frequency in a general catheterized population (two per thousand). Seldinger difficulties are easily got over by using axillary passage in case of need. The surgical interest is underlined by the fact that sixty six percent of the investigated patients will be operated. The hemodynamic evaluation in aged population between 70 and 80 years is realizable in good conditions with little risk increase when it's necessary.
Zhang, Shu; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Kaiho, Yu; Honkura, Kenji; Watanabe, Takashi; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro
Abstract The relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of cause-specific disability remains unclear. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12,376 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who were followed up for 5.7 years. Information on BMI and other lifestyle factors was collected via a questionnaire in 2006. Functional disability data were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database. BMI was divided into 6 groups (<21, 21–<23, 23–<25, 25–<27[reference], 27–<29 and ≥29). Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cause-specific disability were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. A U-shaped relationship between BMI and functional disability was observed, with a nadir at 26. The nadir BMI values with the lowest disability risk were 28 for dementia, 25 for stroke, and 23 for joint disease. A low BMI (<23) was a risk factor for disability due to dementia, the HR values (95% CI) being 2.48 (1.70–3.63) for BMI <21 and 2.25 (1.54–3.27) for BMI 21 to <23; a high BMI (≥29) was a risk factor for disability due to joint disease, the HR value (95% CI) being 2.17 (1.40–3.35). There was no significant relationship between BMI and disability due to stroke. The BMI nadirs for cause-specific disability differed: a low BMI (<23) was a risk factor for disability due to dementia, and a high BMI (≥29) was a risk factor for disability due to joint disease. Because BMI values of 23 to <29 did not pose a significantly higher risk for each cause of disability, this range should be regarded as the optimal one for the elderly population. PMID:27495075
Rantz, Marilyn; Skubic, Marjorie; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Popescu, Mihail; Keller, James; Stone, Erik; Back, Jessie; Miller, Steven J.; Petroski, Gregory F.
Purpose of the Study: Falls are a major problem for the elderly people leading to injury, disability, and even death. An unobtrusive, in-home sensor system that continuously monitors older adults for fall risk and detects falls could revolutionize fall prevention and care. Design and Methods: A fall risk and detection system was developed and installed in the apartments of 19 older adults at a senior living facility. The system includes pulse-Doppler radar, a Microsoft Kinect, and 2 web cameras. To collect data for comparison with sensor data and for algorithm development, stunt actors performed falls in participants’ apartments each month for 2 years and participants completed fall risk assessments (FRAs) using clinically valid, standardized instruments. The FRAs were scored by clinicians and recorded by the sensing modalities. Participants’ gait parameters were measured as they walked on a GAITRite mat. These data were used as ground truth, objective data to use in algorithm development and to compare with radar and Kinect generated variables. Results: All FRAs are highly correlated (p < .01) with the Kinect gait velocity and Kinect stride length. Radar velocity is correlated (p < .05) to all the FRAs and highly correlated (p < .01) to most. Real-time alerts of actual falls are being sent to clinicians providing faster responses to urgent situations. Implications: The in-home FRA and detection system has the potential to help older adults remain independent, maintain functional ability, and live at home longer. PMID:26055784
Polewka, Andrzej; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kroch, Stanisław; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Groszek, Barbara; Zieba, Andrzej
The aim of the study was to assess the phenomenon of suicide attempt in the elderly inhabitants of Kraków. Special attention has been paid to the group of "seniors"--aged 75 years or over. The authors have analyzed all the 136 cases of suicide attempts by individuals aged over 60 years, selected from the cases of suicide attempts by self-intoxications by patients hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2002. The group concerned included 45 males and 91 females. A large number of subjects (over a half of the total) ranged in age from 60 to 65 years. The group of seniors comprised 35 individuals (aged 75 years or over), including 7 males and 28 females. On the basis of the data from medical documentation, the subjects were analysed from the point of view of their health condition and in the psycho-social context. In the majority of cases the subjects are pensioners residing in Kraków, often living alone. In the case of 98% of the subjects, it was their first suicide attempt. Pharmaceuticals used for self-poisoning were most frequently psychotropic, or mixed-type drugs. The assessment of the severity of poisoning indicates that in about 20% patients poisoning was severe. 70% of the subjects suffered from depressive, reactive, or situational disorders, affective depression or organic brain disorders, often with dementive signs. A significant number of subjects suffered from hypertension, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, or alimentary tract diseases. In the group of the seniors, the most conspicuous problems included serious somatic diseases (malignant diseases and chronic respiratory system diseases), depression, organic dementia, loneliness, and bad family situation. Taking into consideration the scantiness of research into attempted and completed suicide in the elderly and in the old elderly, the present authors stress the importance of the continuation of the research to prevent suicide in the aforesaid
Sharkey, Joseph R
Good nutritional health is essential to prevent functional decline and improve quality of life. Little is known of disparities in the extent of risk for poor nutritional health among homebound Mexican American (MA) elders who receive Older American Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) home-delivered meals. In order to assist OAANP service providers in understanding racial/ethnic differences in nutritional risk, this study examined routinely collected data on 908 homebound MA and non-MA in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley. Homebound MA were more likely to report poverty, risk factors for and indicators of poor nutritional health. Independent of poverty and covariates,MA were more likely to report very high nutritional risk. This underscores the importance of understanding racial/ethnic disparities in the extent of risk for poor nutritional health for the development, implementation, and evaluation of effective strategies to alleviate nutritional health disparities.
Boehm, O; Baumgarten, G; Hoeft, A
Postoperative mortality remains alarmingly high with a mortality rate ranging between 0.4% and 4%. A small subgroup of multimorbid and/or elderly patients undergoing different surgical procedures naturally confers the highest risk of complications and perioperative death. Therefore, preoperative assessment should identify these high-risk patients and stratify them to individualized monitoring and treatment throughout all phases of perioperative care. A "tailored" perioperative approach might help further reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. This article aims to elucidate individual morbidity-specific risks. It further suggests approaches to detect patients at the risk of perioperative complications.
Shebl, Amany Mohamed; Hatata, El Sayed Zaki; Boughdady, Aziza Mahmoud; El-Sayed, Sally Mohammed
Obesity is a major public health problem affecting all ages in both developed and developing countries. It is considered the fifth leading risk factor for deaths all over the world as about 2.8 million people die due to obesity each year directly or indirectly. Obesity in elderly is considered one of the most serious public health challenges for…
Davies, L; Francis, D; Piepoli, M; Scott, A; Ponikowski, P; Coats, A
OBJECTIVE—To assess the value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in predicting prognosis in a cohort of elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). DESIGN—A retrospective cohort study of all patients with CHF over the age of 70 years assessed between January 1992 and May 1997. SETTING—Tertiary centre. PATIENTS—50 patients (mean (SD) age 75.9 (4.5) years, 8 women) with CHF New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I (3 patients), II (25 patients), III (20 patients), and IV (2 patients). Follow up was complete for two years in all patients. RESULTS—The patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (peak oxygen consumption 15.2 (4.5) ml/kg/min, minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope 38.7 (11.8)); radionucleide ventriculography (left ventricular ejection fraction 32.8 (14.3)%); serum sodium measurement (139 (2.8) mmol/l); and echocardiography (left ventricular end diastolic dimension 6.1 (1.1) cm, left ventricular end systolic dimension 4.7 (1.5) cm). At the end of follow up in May 1999, 26 patients had died. The median follow up of the survivors was 47.7 months (interquartile range 31.5-53.5 months). On univariate analysis VE/VCO2 slope (p < 0.0001), NYHA class (p < 0.001), peak oxygen uptake (VO2) (p < 0.01), left ventricular end systolic dimension (p < 0.05), and serum sodium concentration (p < 0.05) had significant predictive power. Stepwise multivariate analysis identified only VE/VCO2 slope (p < 0.01), NYHA class (p < 0.05), and peak VO2 (p< 0.05) as conveying significant independent prognostic information. CONCLUSION—Elderly patients with CHF have a high mortality, with the majority dead within two years. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides important information for risk stratification within this group and its use should not be neglected. Keywords: cardiopulmonary exercise testing; chronic heart failure; elderly patients; risk factor stratification PMID
Perez, Mariangela; Lourenço, Roberto Alves
The objective of this study was to determine the risk profile and factors associated with frailty in elderly community residents. The population consisted of individuals 65 years or older living in the northern districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who held private health insurance policies. The cross-sectional study was done at baseline in a cohort with a sample (N = 764) stratified by gender and age. Risk stratification used probability of repeated admissions (PRA) as the screening instrument. Following bivariate analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to study associations between probability of repeated admissions and socio-demographic, health-status, functional, and cognitive variables. Of the total sample, 6.7% were classified as high risk. Cancer, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of medication, receiving a visit from a health professional, being bedridden at home, living alone, and level of activities of daily living were statistically associated with risk of hospitalization. The instrument appeared to be useful for stratifying risk in the elderly.
Bloch, Frederic; Thibaud, Marie; Tournoux-Facon, Caroline; Brèque, Cyril; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Dugué, Benoit; Kemoun, Gilles
The objective of this study was to analyze whether a meta-analysis could allow us to draw useful conclusions about the risk factors for falls in the elderly. A systematic review was carried out of various databases and completed manually. To satisfy the inclusion criteria, an article had to examine a population of subjects aged over 60 years to pertain to falls occurring during daily living activities, and to involve observational or interventional studies. This review identified 4405 indexed articles published between 1981 and 2011. Of the 220 studies with available data that were included in the final study, just 4% were interventional. Among these 220 studies, just 45% offered a satisfactory level of scientific proof. In total, 88 meta-analyses were carried out on the 156 potential protectors or risk factors that were identified. Our systematic review and meta-analyses ensured that high-quality results were obtained from this comprehensive literature search and included a detailed assessment of the quality of the included studies. Several factors appeared to be disproportionately represented in the literature, a fact that likely reflects the objective and precise assessment of these factors rather than their importance in the falls of the elderly. Thus, we cannot be certain that we obtained the most comprehensive analysis of the risk factors for falling with this method. Meta-analyses can help to define the association between falls and various risk factors, but they have to be used complementary to systematic review for the assessment of risk factors.
Wang, Wen-Li; Chen, Nancy; Sheu, Min-Muh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hu, Yih-Jin
Visual impairment is associated with disability and poor quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of visual impairment among the suburban elderly in Eastern Taiwan. The cross-sectional research was conducted from April 2012 to August 2012. The ocular condition examination took place in suburban areas of Hualien County. Medical records from local infirmaries and questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic data and systemic disease status. Logistic regression models were used for the simultaneous analysis of the association between the prevalence of visual impairment and risk factors. Six hundred and eighty-one residents participated in this project. The mean age of the participants was 71.4±7.3 years. The prevalence of vision impairment (better eye<6/18) was 11.0%. Refractive error and cataract were the main causes of vision impairment. Logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 65-75 years had a 3.8 times higher risk of developing visual impairment (p=0.021), while the odds ratio of people aged > 75 years was 10.0 (p<0.001). In addition, patients with diabetic retinopathy had a 3.7 times higher risk of developing visual impairment (p=0.002), while the odds ratio of refractive error was 0.36 (p<0.001). The prevalence of visual impairment was relatively high compared with previous studies. Diabetic retinopathy was an important risk factor of visual impairment; by contrast, refractive error was beneficial to resist visual impairment. Therefore, regular screening of ocular condition and early intervention might aid in the prevention of avoidable vision loss.
Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Pessoa, Germane Silva; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues
Background Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the frailty syndrome in older people. Purpose To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly. Methods This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA) Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference measurement, and smoking. Results Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4%) and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%). It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021). Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P≤0.001; P≤0.001). There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement. Conclusion Hypertension was highly prevalent among the total sample. In addition, frail and pre-frail older people corresponded to a substantial proportion of those with more CVD risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for preventive strategies in order to avoid the co-occurrence of CVD and frailty. PMID:25336932
Laessoe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C; Simonsen, Ole; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Voigt, Michael
Background Falls amongst elderly people are often associated with fractures. Training of balance and physical performance can reduce fall risk; however, it remains a challenge to identify individuals at increased risk of falling to whom this training should be offered. It is believed that fall risk can be assessed by testing balance performance. In this study a test battery of physiological parameters related to balance and falls was designed to address fall risk in a community dwelling elderly population. Results Ninety-four elderly males and females between 70 and 80 years of age were included in a one year follow-up study. A fall incidence of 15% was reported. The test battery scores were not different between the fallers and non-fallers. Test scores were, however, related to self-reported health. In spite of inclusion of dynamic tests, the test battery had low fall prediction rates, with a sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 43% respectively. Conclusion Individuals with poor balance were identified but falls were not predicted by this test battery. Physiological balance characteristics can apparently not be used in isolation as adequate indicators of fall risk in this population of community dwelling elderly. Falling is a complex phenomenon of multifactorial origin. The crucial factor in relation to fall risk is the redundancy of balance capacity against the balance demands of the individuals levels of fall-risky lifestyle and behavior. This calls for an approach to fall risk assessment in which the physiological performance is evaluated in relation to the activity profile of the individual. PMID:17257414
Lv, Wenshan; Du, Na; Liu, Ying; Fan, Xinyi; Wang, Yunyang; Jia, Xiujuan; Hou, Xu; Wang, Bin
Sex steroids can positively affect the brain function, and low levels of sex steroids may be associated with worse cognitive function in the elderly men. However, previous studies reported contrary findings on the relationship between testosterone level and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly men. The objective of this study was to comprehensively assess the relationship between low testosterone level and Alzheimer's disease risk in the elderly men using a meta-analysis. Only prospective cohort studies assessing the influence of low testosterone level on Alzheimer's disease risk in elderly men were considered eligible. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled to assess the risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly men with low testosterone level. Seven prospective cohort studies with a total of 5251 elderly men and 240 cases of Alzheimer's disease were included into the meta-analysis. There was moderate degree of heterogeneity among those included studies (I(2) = 47.2%). Meta-analysis using random effect model showed that low plasma testosterone level was significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly men (random RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96, P = 0.006). Sensitivity analysis by omitting one study by turns showed that there was no obvious change in the pooled risk estimates, and all pooled RRs were statistically significant. This meta-analysis supports that low plasma testosterone level is significantly associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly men. Low testosterone level is a risk factor of worse cognitive function in the elderly men.
Karppi, Jouni; Laukkanen, Jari A; Kurl, Sudhir
Oxidative stress plays an important role in cataractogenesis. Previous studies have shown that long-term dietary intake of antioxidants (lutein and zeaxanthin) may decrease the risk of age-related cataracts. The aim of the present study was to examine whether plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin are related to age-related nuclear cataract in the elderly population. Subjects were participants in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study and they were classified into tertiles according to plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin. The association of plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations with age-related nuclear cataract in 1689 elderly subjects (aged 61-80 years) was investigated in the present cross-sectional study by using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 113 cases of incident age-related cataracts were confirmed, of which 108 cases were nuclear cataracts. After adjustment for age, examination year, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, serum LDL-cholesterol, serum HDL-cholesterol, years of education, use of oral corticosteroids, history of diabetes and history of hypertension with current use of antihypertensive medication, subjects in the highest tertiles of plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin had 42 and 41 % lower risks of nuclear cataract, respectively, compared with those in the lowest tertiles (relative risk (RR) = 0·58, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P = 0·041 for lutein and RR = 0·59, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·99; P = 0·046 for zeaxanthin). In conclusion, we suggest that high plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were associated with a decreased risk of age-related nuclear cataract in the elderly population.
Pedersen, D M
High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.
Al Khayyal, Hatem; El Geneidy, Moshera; El Shazly, Somaya Abdel Moneim
Coronary heart disease is the most frequent single cause of death among persons over 65 years of age and it seems to continue to be a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of the elderly population all over the world, yet the condition is largely preventable. The aims of this study to assess and determine the relations among elder's…
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Fulmer, Terry; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Rajan, Bharat; Evans, Denis A.
Purpose: This longitudinal study examines the association between physical function decline and the risk of elder self-neglect in a community-dwelling population. Design and Methods: Of the 5,570 participants in the Chicago Health Aging Project, 1,068 were reported to social services agency for suspected elder self-neglect from 1993 to 2005. The…
Imai, Hissei; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Fukutomi, Eriko; Wada, Taizo; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Matsubayashi, Kozo
Risk perception is one of the core factors in theories of health behavior promotion. However, the association between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in depression is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between subjective knowledge, risk perception, and objective scores of depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. A total of 747 elderly participants (mean age: 76.1, female: 59.8%) who completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) along with items assessing subjective knowledge and risk perception were included in the analysis. We assessed the correlation between subjective knowledge and risk perception, and then compare GDS-15 scores by level of subjective knowledge and risk perception. Subjective knowledge was weakly associated with risk perception and related to lower GDS-15 scores in a dose-response pattern, which did not change after adjusting for age, gender, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, years of education and history of depression. There was no significant association between risk perception and GDS-15 scores. The relationship between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in younger generations is unclear, but warrants examination.
Zhu, Yuefeng; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Qun; Fan, Yongqian; Lin, Weilong
Objective To study the relationship of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), bone turnover biomarkers (BTB), and bone mineral density (BMD) with osteoporotic fracture (OPF) in elderly people. Methods Eighty-two patients (aged 65 years or older) admitted to our orthopedics department between October 2014 and May 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: 1) OPF group: 39 cases with the mean age 81.82±5.49 years, which included 24 females and 15 males; 2) high-energy fracture (HEF) group: 22 cases with the mean age 78.88±5.75 years, which included 16 females and six males; 3) non-bone-fracture group: 21 cases with mean age 79.75±5.47 years without bone fracture, which included 14 females and seven males. Plasma Hcy, BTB, and BMD were measured. Analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in either age or sex among the three groups. There were significant differences in plasma Hcy and hip BMD between the OPF and HEF groups; there was also significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, and hip BMD between the OPF and non-fracture groups. There was no difference in lumbar spine BMD between the OPF group and the other two groups. There was no significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, hip or lumbar spine BMD between the HEF and non-fracture group. There was no significant difference in procollagen type I N-propeptide of type I collagen, serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, and parathyroid hormone among the three groups. Plasma Hcy was linearly correlated with age and serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, but not correlated with either hip or lumbar spine BMD or any other BTBs. Conclusion In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy
Dragsbæk, Katrine; Neergaard, Jesper S.; Laursen, Janne M.; Hansen, Henrik B.; Christiansen, Claus; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Karsdal, Morten A.; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim
Abstract The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS. The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1 ± 6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74–10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44–2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk factors also had increased risk of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21 [1.25–3.93] and HR = 1.75 [1.04–2.96]) and CVD (HR = 1.51 [1.25–1.83] and HR = 1.36 [1.15–1.60]) when compared to controls with no MetS risk factors. MetS in elderly Caucasian women increased risk of future T2DM and CVD. While not defined with MetS, women holding only some risk factors for MetS were also at increased risk of T2DM or CVD compared to women with no MetS risk factors. PMID:27603394
Prado, Maria Aparecida Medeiros Barros do; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo
This study sought to outline the sociodemographic and health profile of elderly persons with reported diabetes, to assess the knowledge and practices regarding treatment options and describe the use of medications and potential risks for drug interactions (DI) in this subgroup. In 2008,a cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,517 elderly citizens in Campinas in which the prevalence of diabetes was estimated and its associations assessed using the Rao-Scott test (p < 0,05).The potential drug interactions were evaluated using the Micromedex® database. Diabetes prevalence was 21.7%, without significant difference between the sexes. A higher percentage of elderly diabetics was found aged over 70, with less schooling, per capita family income of less than 1 minimum wage and no occupational activity. The average drug intake was 3.9 in the previous 3 days. Possible interactions were identified in 413 cases and 53.1%, 7.8% and 7.2% of the subjects presented moderate, minor and serious risk of DI, respectively. The importance of adopting a healthy diet and physical activity for weight reduction, disease and complication control is stressed. The need for attention to the potential for drug interactions and the use of inappropriate medications among the elderly is highlighted.
Abstract The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly. PMID:24957136
The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.
Romero, Paola Severo; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Rodrigues, Juliane; Moraes, Maria Antonieta
The study aims to verify quality of life of elderly patients submitted to cardiac surgery, and correlating surgical risk to health-related quality of life instrument domains. Prospective cohort study, performed at a cardiology hospital. It included elderly patients who had undergone elective cardiac surgery. Pre- and postoperative quality of life was evaluated by applying the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old (WHOQOL-OLD) scale and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Surgical risk was stratified using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE). Fifty-four patients, mostly men (64.8%), were included, with a mean age of 69.3 ± 5.7 years. The eight domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, and the four facets presented for the WHOQOL-OLD scale showed improved quality of life 6 months after surgery (P < 0.001). No difference was found in the association of EuroSCORE with the domains of the health-related quality of life instruments. The data showed improved quality of life of elderly people submitted to cardiac surgery, unrelated to surgical risk.
Islas-Granillo, H; Borges-Yañez, S A; Lucas-Rincón, S E; Medina-Solís, C E; Casanova-Rosado, A J; Márquez-Corona, M L; Maupomé, G
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of edentulism in Mexican elders aged 60 years and older, and the associated risk indicators. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 139 elders living in either of two long-term care (LTC) facilities, or attending an adult day center (ADC) in Pachuca, Mexico. A subject was edentulous when natural teeth were completely absent, determined through a clinical examination. Risk indicators were collected using questionnaires. Analyses were performed using binary logistic regression in STATA 9.0. Mean age was 79.0±9.8 years. Many subjects were women (69.1%). The prevalence of edentulism was 36.7%. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age and sex, the variables that were inversely associated (p<0.05) with edentulism were living with a spouse (odds ratio=OR=0.31), and lacking health insurance (OR=0.70). Variables associated with higher risk of being edentate were lower educational attainment (OR=1.61), having received radiation therapy (OR=4.49), being a smoker (OR=4.82), and having diabetes (OR=2.94) or other chronic illnesses (OR=1.82) (with hypertension approaching significance, p=0.067). In this sample of Mexican elders, diverse variables were associated with edentulism, in particular smoking and past radiotherapy. Oral health programs within and outside LTC/ADC should take into account risk factors specific to the older population.
Zhang, Ting; Li, He; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Qi, Di; Wang, Nuo; Zhang, Zhanjun
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that high serum cholesterol is a risk factor of dementia. However, the effects of cholesterol on cognition and brain remain largely unclear. This study aims to investigate the associations between serum total cholesterol (TC) and neuropsychological performance, and intrinsic functional networks in non-demented elderly. Among a cohort of 120 community-dwelling Beijing residents, 29 subjects in the high-TC group (1st quartile) and 31 in the low-TC group (4th quartile) were included in this study, and underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including T2- and T1-weighted imaging, and resting-state functional MRI. No significant group difference was found in any of the neuropsychological tests used. Stronger connectivity in the default mode network was observed in the high-TC group compared to that in the low-TC group (p < 0.001, uncorrected). While in the salience network (SN), the high-TC group showed lower connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex and frontal regions, compared to the low-TC group (p < 0.05, FWE corrected). Our findings suggest that in non-demented elderly persons, high serum cholesterol is associated with disruption of functional connectivity in the SN. The results not only deepen our understanding of how cholesterol affects the brain, but are also significant for selecting sensitive indicators for monitoring the impairments of cholesterol on the neural system.
Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G; Tong, Shilu
We examined the variation in association between high temperatures and elderly mortality (age ≥ 75 years) from year to year in 83 US cities between 1987 and 2000. We used a Poisson regression model and decomposed the mortality risk for high temperatures into: a "main effect" due to high temperatures using lagged non-linear function, and an "added effect" due to consecutive high temperature days. We pooled yearly effects across both regional and national levels. The high temperature effects (both main and added effects) on elderly mortality varied greatly from year to year. In every city there was at least one year where higher temperatures were associated with lower mortality. Years with relatively high heat-related mortality were often followed by years with relatively low mortality. These year to year changes have important consequences for heat-warning systems and for predictions of heat-related mortality due to climate change.
Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.
An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heatrelated mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.
Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.
An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heat-related mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.
Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.
An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heat-related mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events. PMID:27320724
Yanagi, Shigehisa; Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Miura, Ayako; Matsuo, Ayako; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu
Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These properties are beneficial if the sequence of senescence-clearance-regeneration is transient in manner. However, persisting senescent cell accumulation and excessive SASP might induce sustained low-grade inflammation and disruption of normal tissue microenvironments in aged tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that cellular senescence is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which are known to be age-related and increase the risk of pneumonia. In addition to their structural collapses, COPD and IPF might increase the vulnerability to pathogen insults through SASP. Here, we discuss the current advances in understanding of the impacts of cellular senescence in elderly pneumonia and in these chronic lung disorders that heighten the risk of respiratory infections.
Yanagi, Shigehisa; Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Miura, Ayako; Matsuo, Ayako; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu
Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These properties are beneficial if the sequence of senescence–clearance–regeneration is transient in manner. However, persisting senescent cell accumulation and excessive SASP might induce sustained low-grade inflammation and disruption of normal tissue microenvironments in aged tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that cellular senescence is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which are known to be age-related and increase the risk of pneumonia. In addition to their structural collapses, COPD and IPF might increase the vulnerability to pathogen insults through SASP. Here, we discuss the current advances in understanding of the impacts of cellular senescence in elderly pneumonia and in these chronic lung disorders that heighten the risk of respiratory infections. PMID:28245616
Rosa, Nayza M. B.; Queiroz, Bárbara Z.; Lopes, Renata A.; Sampaio, Natalia R.; Pereira, Daniele S.; Pereira, Leani S. M.
ABSTRACT Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common musculoskeletal condition among elders and is associated with falls. However, the underlying biological risk factors for falling among elders with LBP has been poorly investigated. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) is a validated fall-risk assessment tool that involves the direct assessment of sensorimotor abilities and may contribute to the understanding of risk factors for falls among elders with LBP. Objective To assess fall risk using the PPA in elders with and without LBP. Method This is an observational, comparative, cross-sectional study with elders aged ≥65 years. The present study was conducted with a subsample of participants from the Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE) - Brazil study. Fall risk was assessed using the PPA, which contains five tests: visual contrast sensitivity, hand reaction time, quadriceps strength, lower limb proprioception, and postural sway. Results Study participants included 104 individuals with average age of 72.3 (SD=4.0) years, divided into two groups: GI) 52 participants with LBP; GII) 52 participants without LBP. The participants with LBP had a significantly higher fall risk (1.10 95% CI 0.72 to 1.48), greater postural sway (49.78 95% CI 13.54 to 86.01), longer reaction time (58.95 95% CI 33.24 to 84.65), and lower quadriceps strength (–4.42 95% CI –8.24 to –0.59) compared to asymptomatic participants. There was no significant difference for vision and proprioception tests between LBP and non-LBP participants. Conclusion Elders with LBP have greater risk for falls than those without LBP. Our results suggest fall-risk screening may be sensible in elders with LBP. PMID:27683833
Yan, Elsie; Chan, Ko-Ling; Tiwari, Agnes
The number of older victims of domestic violence is expected to increase drastically in Asia as many countries are experiencing rapid population aging. In 2012, 11% of the population in Asia were aged 60 years and over. This is expected to rise to 24% by 2050. This article discusses the unique features of Asian cultures that are relevant to the understanding of elder abuse and summarizes the existing literature looking at the prevalence and risk factors of such abuse in Asian populations.
Sarin, Jaya; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Corcoran, Amy M; Laudenbach, Joel M; Stoopler, Eric T
Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of elderly residents in long-term care facilities. The microflora present in the oral cavity because of poor oral hygiene has been associated with aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that improved oral care can reduce the risk of developing aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. The purpose of this paper is to review aspiration pneumonia and provide oral health care guidelines in an effort to help reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia in the elderly residing in long-term care facilities.
Dang, T T; Majumdar, S R; Marrie, T J; Eurich, D T
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalizations in North America. Rates of CAP increase with age and CAP is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Though there is much written about the epidemiology and risk factors of incident (first episode) pneumonia, much less is known about recurrent pneumonia. Rates of recurrent pneumonia within 3-5-years of an episode of CAP are 9-12% with a median time to recurrence of 123-317 days and mortality ranging from 4 to 10%. Age ≥65-years-old and impaired functional status are the only patient characteristics that are independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. In terms of modifiable risk factors, only the use of proton-pump inhibitors and systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently been associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may exert a protective effect. Many chronic medical conditions typically associated with increased incident pneumonia-such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease (resulting in dysphagia or silent aspiration), and heart failure-were not associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. However, those who are immune-suppressed (e.g., immunoglobulin deficiencies) may be at increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. In summary, among those who survive an episode of pneumonia, recurrence is not uncommon, particularly in the elderly. Following recovery from an episode of pneumonia, patients should be evaluated for risk factors that would predispose to a second episode including seeking evidence of immunosuppression in younger patients and medication optimization, particularly in the elderly.
Leiva-Caro, José Alex; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota; Gómez-Meza, Marco Vinicio; Hunter, Kathleen F.
Objective: to determine connections between competence, usability, environment and risk of falls in elderly adults. Method: correlational descriptive study, 123 elderly adults, both male and female, aged 70 years and older were included. Data was collected via the Tinetti Scale, CESD-7 Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Usability Questionnaire on Housing and Housing Enabler; and sociodemographic and health background certificate data. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used, multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. Results: 42.0% of the elderly adults had presented with falls, with a higher prevalence in women, and in the group of 70-75 years. The physical environment of the house, gait, and usability were set as risk factors for falls. A negative relationship between usability and depressive symptoms, cognitive health, balance, gait, the social and physical environment was found, p <0.05; and a strong positive correlation between walking and balance, p <0.05. Conclusion: this study helps to better understand the phenomenon of falling, to find a connection between usability with the risk of falls, and other variables. PMID:26626006
Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yuliang; Zhu, Wenfei; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yu
Falls during daily activities are often associated with injuries and physical disabilities, thereby affecting quality of life among elder adults. Balance control, which is crucial in avoiding falls, is composed of two elements: muscle strength and central nervous system (CNS) control. A number of studies have reported that reduced muscle strength raises the risk of falling. However, to date there has been only limited research focused on the relationship between fall risk and the CNS. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CNS and risk of falling among the elderly. A total of 140 elderly people (92 females and 48 males) were divided into faller and nonfaller groups based on questionnaire responses concerning falls in their daily life. Participants undertook a choice step reaction test in which they were required to respond to random visual stimuli using foot movements as fast as possible in the left or right directions. Response time was quantified as premotor time (PMT) and motor time (MT). In addition, the participants’ electro-myography data were recorded during the choice step reaction test. A maximal isokinetic torque test was also performed. PMT was greater in the fallers than in the nonfallers group. There was a significant difference between fall status and direction on PMT. PMT of the left limb in nonfallers was faster than the right, but in fallers there was no difference between left and right limbs. A similar phenomenon was also observed for MT. There were significant differences between fallers and nonfallers in maximum isokinetic torque at knee and ankle joints. The correct rate of PMT was higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater
Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yuliang; Zhu, Wenfei; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yu
Falls during daily activities are often associated with injuries and physical disabilities, thereby affecting quality of life among elder adults. Balance control, which is crucial in avoiding falls, is composed of two elements: muscle strength and central nervous system (CNS) control. A number of studies have reported that reduced muscle strength raises the risk of falling. However, to date there has been only limited research focused on the relationship between fall risk and the CNS. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CNS and risk of falling among the elderly. A total of 140 elderly people (92 females and 48 males) were divided into faller and nonfaller groups based on questionnaire responses concerning falls in their daily life. Participants undertook a choice step reaction test in which they were required to respond to random visual stimuli using foot movements as fast as possible in the left or right directions. Response time was quantified as premotor time (PMT) and motor time (MT). In addition, the participants' electro-myography data were recorded during the choice step reaction test. A maximal isokinetic torque test was also performed. PMT was greater in the fallers than in the nonfallers group. There was a significant difference between fall status and direction on PMT. PMT of the left limb in nonfallers was faster than the right, but in fallers there was no difference between left and right limbs. A similar phenomenon was also observed for MT. There were significant differences between fallers and nonfallers in maximum isokinetic torque at knee and ankle joints. The correct rate of PMT was higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater PMT
Basile, Claudia; Della-Morte, David; Cacciatore, Francesco; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Roselli, Mario; Curcio, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale
Several markers have been associated with sarcopenia in the elderly, including bioelectrical indices. Phase angle (PhA) is an impedance parameter and it has been suggested as an indicator of cellular death. Thus, the relationship between PhA and muscle mass and strength was investigated in 207 consecutively elderly participants (mean age 76.2±6.7years) admitted for multidimensional geriatric evaluation. Muscle strength by grip strength using a hand-held dynamometer and muscle mass was measured by bioimpedentiometer. PhA was calculated directly with its arctangent (resistance/reactance×180°/π). Linear relationship among muscular mass and strength and with clinical and biochemical parameters, including PhA at uni- and multivariate analysis were performed. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that lower level of PhA is associated with reduction in grip strength (y=3.16+0.08x; r=0.49; p<0.001), and even more, with muscle mass (y=3.04+0.25x; r=0.60; p<0001). Multivariate analysis confirms these relationships (grip strength β=0.245, p=0.031; muscular mass β=0.623, p<0.01). Thus, PhA is inversely related to muscle mass and strength in elderly subjects and it may be considered a good bioelectrical marker to identify elderly patients at risk of sarcopenia.
Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.
Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774
Sakamoto, Ryota; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Norboo, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Shinya; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Motonao; Nakajima, Shun; Wada, Taizo; Fujisawa, Michiko; Imai, Hissei; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo
It has been already known that people who temporarily stay at high altitude may develop insomnia as a symptom of acute mountain sickness. However, much less is known about people living at high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude environment on sleep quality for the elderly who have been living at high altitude for their whole lives. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Domkhar valley at altitudes of 2800-4200m, Ladakh. Sleep quality was assessed using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Measurement items include body mass index, blood pressure, blood sugar, hemoglobin, timed Up and Go test, oxygen saturation during wakefulness, respiratory function test, Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and so on. The participants were Ladakhi older adults aged 60 years or over (n=112) in Domkhar valley. The participation rate was 65.1% (male: female=47:65, mean age: 71.3 years and 67.9 years, respectively). The prevalence of the high score of ISI (8 or more) was 15.2% (17 out of 112). Altitude of residence was significantly correlated with ISI. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that OKS and altitude of residence were significantly related with ISI.
Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J.; Gondi, Vinai; Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M.; Bentzen, Søren M.
Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.
Elderly motorists lose a significant amount of their mental(-somatic) and sensomotor capabilities. No data is available on the percentage of elderly motorists involved in car accidents. Their accident risk, however, is not above average because that decrease is outweighed by increased experience and a more thoughtful manner of driving. The percentage of elderly, especially female pedestrians killed by autos is very high. This is mainly due to age-specific mortality and to the high proportion of aged people, especially women, within the population. Our jurisdiction concerning responsibilities requires elderly people to become aware of any deficiencies and to take them into account. The administrative courts are very reserved in withdrawing driving licenses because of age-caused deficiencies. The mere fact that a driver is very old does not suffice; it even does not justify seeking a psychomedical opinion. In this paper it is argued that actions provided for by the law and regulations asking for a periodical check-up of sensomotor and mental capabilities of the elderly driver are disproportionate. Introducing an "eye-certificate" for all motorists as suggested by the German Ophthalmological Society, however, is considered useful and appropriate since deficiencies of vision have been discovered for all age groups.
Narayanan, Michael R; Scalzi, Maria Elena; Redmond, Stephen J; Lord, Steven R; Celler, Branko G; Lovell, Nigel H
Falls in the elderly have a profound impact on their quality of life through injury, increased fear of falling, reduced confidence to perform daily tasks and loss of independence. Falls come at a substantial economic cost. Tools to quantify falls risk and evaluate functional deficits allow interventions to be targeted to those at increased risk of falling and tailored to correct deficits with the aim of reducing falls rate and reducing ones risk of falling. We describe a system to evaluate falls risk and functional deficits in the elderly. The system is based on the evaluation of performance in a simple set of controlled movements known as the directed routine (DR). We present preliminary results of the DR in a cohort of 68 subjects using features extracted from the DR. Linear least-squares models were trained to estimate falls risk, knee-extension strength, proprioception, mediolateral body sway, anteroposterior body sway and contrast sensitivity. The model estimates provided good to fair correlations with (r=0.76 p<0.001), (r=0.65 p<0.001), (r=0.35 p<0.01), (r=0.53 p<0.001), (r=0.48 p<0.001) and (r=0.37 p<0.01) respectively.
Zhu, Qing Olivia; Tan, Choon Seng Gilbert; Tan, Hwee Leong; Wong, Ruining Geraldine; Joshi, Chinmaya Shrikant; Cuttilan, Ravi Amran; Sng, Gek Khim Judy; Tan, Ngiap Chuan
INTRODUCTION The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) among the elderly population in Singapore, as defined by a decline in blood pressure upon a change in position, is not well-established. Studies associate OH with clinically significant outcomes such as falls. This study aims to determine the prevalence of OH among elderly patients attending a public primary care clinic (polyclinic) for chronic disease management, and examine the relationships between postulated risk factors and OH. METHODS Patients aged ≥ 65 years attending a typical polyclinic in Geylang were identified and targeted for recruitment at the study site. A questionnaire on symptoms and postulated risk factors was administered, followed by supine and standing blood pressure measurements. Cross-sectional analysis was performed with independent sample t-test for continuous data and chi-square test for categorical data. Prevalence rate ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated for the latter. RESULTS A total of 364 multiethnic patients participated in the study. The prevalence of OH was 11.0%. Older age, comorbidities such as cardiac failure and kidney disease, being physically inactive at work, fatigue, self-reported dizziness in the past year, and the use of loop diuretics were found to be significantly associated with OH. CONCLUSION About one in ten elderly patients at a local polyclinic was affected by OH, which was associated with multiple factors. Some of these factors are modifiable and can be addressed to reduce the incidence of OH. PMID:27549316
Abe, Shu; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Adachi, Mieko; Okuda, Katsuji
Silent aspiration of oral microorganisms is a major cause of aspiration pneumonia. To establish oral hygiene criteria for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in edentulous elderly persons, we investigated the relationship between presence of tongue-coating and number of oral bacteria in saliva and episodes of pneumonia. A total of 71 edentulous Japanese people aged 65 years or older living in nursing homes were enrolled in the study. A tongue plaque index (TPI) was used to evaluate quantity of tongue-coating, with TPI0 signifying no tongue-coating and TPI1 signifying presence of tongue-coating. Edentate elderly with TPI1 demonstrated significantly higher salivary bacterial counts than those with TPI0 (p<0.05). The number of elderly patients developing aspiration pneumonia was larger (p<0.005) in patients with TPI-based poor scores (average TPI>0.5) than in those with TPI-based good scores. The relative risk of developing pneumonia in the good tongue hygiene group compared with in the poor tongue hygiene group was 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.9. The results demonstrate that tongue-coating is associated with number of viable salivary bacterial cells and development of aspiration pneumonia, suggesting that tongue-coating is a risk indicator of aspiration pneumonia in edentate subjects.
de Menezes, Ruth Losada; Bachion, Maria Márcia
The objective of this research was to identify intrinsic risk factors that predispose elderly people living in long-term institutions in the city of Goiânia (GO) to falls. The present descriptive transversal study was carried out in six long-term institutions for seniors in the city of Goiânia. The investigated sample consisted of 95 elderly that fitted the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A questionnaire was used for collecting clinical data related to health-disease conditions; cognitive data; capacity to develop basic daily life activities and equilibrium and gait. In general terms, as pointed out the literature, the examined elderly presented different fall risk factors such as: motor difficulty in lower limbs (90%), visual deficit (81,1%), use of 3 or more kinds of medicines (59,7%), suspected depression (37,9%), lack of equilibrium/unstable unipodal support (37,9%) abnormally decreased height in step (32,6%). The obtained data allow us to set indicators for the increase in falls among the studied sample, demonstrating the need for creating strategies for health promotion, prevention of injuries and rehabilitation.
Rodríguez Vargas, Blanca; Delgado Silveira, Eva; Iglesias Peinado, Irene; Bermejo Vicedo, Teresa
Background Care transitions are risk points for medication discrepancies, especially in the elderly. Objective This study was undertaken to assess prevalence and describe medication reconciliation errors during admission in elderly patients and to analyze associated risk factors. We also evaluate the effect of these errors on the length of hospital stay. Setting General surgery, orthopedics, internal medicines and infectious diseases departments of a 1070-bed Spanish teaching hospital. Method This is a prospective observational study. Patients >65 years and taking ≥5 medications were randomly selected from those admitted to hospital. The pharmacist obtained the best possible medication history based on medical records, medical notes from patients' previous admissions to hospital, "brown bag" review, community care prescriptions, and comprehensive patient interviews. It was compared to current inpatient prescription to detect unintentional discrepancies (discrepancy with no apparent clinical explanation), which were reported to the physician. When the physician accepted the discrepancy by changing the medication order, it was recorded as a medication reconciliation error and classified by type of error. Several variables were analyzed as possible risk/protective factors. Main outcome measure Is prevalence of medication reconciliation errors at admission. Results Reconciliation was performed on 206 patients. Medication reconciliation errors occurred in 49.5 % (102/206) of patients. 1996 medications were recorded, and 359 had unintentional discrepancies (56.0 % (201/359) medication reconciliation errors). The most common was omission (65.1 %). Identified risk factors were as follows: physician experience, number of pre-admission prescribed medications, and previous surgeries. Computerized order entry system was a protective factor. Conclusion Medication reconciliation errors occur in almost half of the elderly patients at admission, especially omissions. Risk
Tseng, E E; Lee, C A; Cameron, D E; Stuart, R S; Greene, P S; Sussman, M S; Watkins, L; Gardner, T J; Baumgartner, W A
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to determine long-term results of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the elderly, to ascertain predictors of poor outcome, and to assess quality of life. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Aortic valve replacement is the procedure of choice for elderly patients with aortic valve disease. The number of patients aged 70 and older requiring AVR continues to increase. However, controversy exists as to whether surgery devoted to this subset reflect a cost-effective approach to attaining a meaningful quality of life. METHODS: This study reviews data on 247 patients aged 70 to 89 years who underwent isolated AVR between 1980 and 1995; there were 126 men (51%) and 121 women (49%). Follow-up was 97% complete (239/247 patients) for a total of 974.9 patient-years. Mean age was 76.2 +/- 4.8 years. Operative mortality and actuarial survival were determined. Patient age, gender, symptoms, associated diseases, prior conditions, New York Health Association class congestive heart failure, native valve disease, prosthetic valve type, preoperative catheterization data, and early postoperative conditions were analyzed as possible predictors of outcome. Functional recovery was evaluated using the SF-36 quality assessment tool. RESULTS: Operative mortality was 6.1% (15/247). Multivariate logistic regression showed that poor left ventricular function and preoperative pacemaker insertion were independent predictors of early mortality. After surgery, infection was predictive of early mortality. Overall actuarial survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 89.5 +/- 2% (198 patients at risk), 69.3 +/- 3.4% (89 patients at risk), and 41.2 +/- 6% (13 patients at risk), respectively. Cox proportional hazards model showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and urgency of operation were independent predictors of poor long-term survival. Postoperative renal failure also was predictive of poor outcome. Using the SF-36 quality assessment tool, elderly patients who
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, B. M.; Matthews, D. C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, P. J.; Storb, R.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.
We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Pagel, John M; Gooley, Theodore A; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R; Wilson, Wendy A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Matthews, Dana C; Deeg, H Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K; Martin, Paul J; Storb, Rainer F; Press, Oliver W; Appelbaum, Frederick R
We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of (131)I-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of (131)I-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.
Kim, Jungmee; Lee, Joongyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Byung-Joo
Objective We assessed gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) and cardiovascular (CV) risks such as myocardial infarction or stroke associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use among elderly patients with diabetes. Methods Using a nationwide claims database covering 2008–2012, we conducted a cohort study of patients with diabetes aged ≥65 years. Among the 117 610 patients, NSAID users and non-users were propensity score matched, excluding any who had experienced a potentially confounding event in the year prior to cohort entry. Multivariate Cox regression models treating death as competing risk were used. Results There were 2184 (1.86%) cases of GIB and NSAID users had an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.68 (95% CI 1.54 to 1.83) of GIB risk after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities and recent medications compared to NSAID non-users. There were 9333 (7.94%) cases of myocardial infarction or stroke with an aHR of 1.20 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.25). The risk of GIB was higher in patients with liver disease and renal failure, while that of CV events was higher in patients who received anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, aspirin and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The number needed to harm was 111 for GIB and 77 for CV events. Among different NSAIDs, nimesulide increased the risk of GIB and ketorolac increased the risk of CV events compared to celecoxib (aHR 2.60 and 3.13, respectively). Conclusions Elderly patients with diabetes treating NSAIDs had a significantly higher risk of both upper GIB and CV events compared to NSAID non-users, and the risk varied among different NSAIDs regardless of cyclooxygenase-2 activity. PMID:26719806
Prevention and treatment of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between the presence of hypertension and the occurrence of cognitive decline or dementia (including Alzheimer's disease). Indeed, the summation of vascular brain damage and degenerative changes may contribute to an early expression of a still subclinical Alzheimer's disease, causing the threshold of dementia to be reached earlier. Some recent randomized controlled trials (SYST-EUR, PROGRESS, HOPE, SCOPE, HYVET) included cognition as secondary endpoint. Their results open the way for prevention of dementia by antihypertensive treatments. It is therefore necessary that further randomized trials are conducted with the primary objective to assess the impact of antihypertensive treatment on cognitive decline or dementia. In clinical practice, it is important to identify, among hypertensive patients, the subjects at risk for dementia, i.e those who already have mild cognitive impairment or extensive cerebral white matter lesions, in order to optimize blood pressure control and monitor cognitive function (regular cognitive assessment, drugs adherence).
de Freitas, Elizabete Viana; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane; Castier, Márcia; Brandão, Airton Pires
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the mean intima-media thickening of carotid arteries of elderly subjects, and its relationship with age, anthropometric measurements, high systolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Methods In this investigation, 129 subjects were enrolled between 1995 and 1998, age ranging from 29 to 94 years. They were assigned to one of 4 groups, including 2 control groups (group I, of healthy younger subjects; group II of healthy elderly subjects). Groups III and IV included those who presented with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), and ISH and dyslipidemia, respectively. All subjects were submitted to a medical interview, lab tests with measurement of cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram, and carotid ultrasound. The ultrasound included measurement of the intima-media thickening (IMT) of the carotid arteries, the right carotid artery (RCA) and left carotid artery (LCA), and assessment of the presence of plaques. Blood fat and glucose were measured by a standard method. The results were compared among the groups through statistical tests. The tests employed were: Chi-Square, Pearson’s and Likelihood Ratio, Student’s t, Mann-Whitney; ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, and test for multiple comparisons and Odds Ratio determination (OR). Results In this investigation, a positive association was observed between aging and IMT. In relation to systolic hypertension, a significant association was observed with IMT (IMT-RCA p = 0.0034; IMT-LCA p = 0.0196; IMT-RLCA p = 0.0299), and with the presence of plaques (PlaqueR p = 0.0110; PlaqueL p = 0.0294; PlaqueRL p = 0.0040). Conclusion This investigation evidenced the important role of aging in IMT, and of systolic hypertension in the IMT and presence of plaque. However, further studies are needed for a better understanding of the actual role of risk factors in aging. PMID:18982922
Namekawa, Yuki; Baba, Hajime; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii
Epidemiological studies have proposed that depression may increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in patients with early-onset depression. Although metabolism of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in elderly depression received attention in terms of their correlation, there is a serious heterogeneity in elderly depression in terms of age at onset of depression. Moreover, it is unknown whether early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) has a long-term effect on the involvement of Aβ metabolism and later development of AD. Thus, we evaluated serum Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels, the Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio in 89 elderly (≥60 years of age) inpatients with MDD and 81 age-matched healthy controls, and compared them among patients with early-onset (<60 years) and late-onset (≥60years) MDD and controls. The results showed that the serum Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio was significantly higher in patients with both early- and late-onset MDD than in controls (early-onset, p=0.010; late-onset, p=0.043), and it is of great interest that the serum Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio was negatively correlated with the age at MDD onset (R=-0.201, p=0.032). These results suggest that an earlier onset of MDD may have a more serious abnormality in Aβ metabolism, possibly explaining a biological mechanism underlying the link between depression and AD.
He, Lai-Chang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Gong, Jing-Shan; Griffith, James F; Zeng, Xian-Jun; Kwok, Anthony WL; Leung, Jason CS; Kwok, Timothy; Ahuja, Anil T; Leung, Ping Chung
Objective A screening survey for osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Hong Kong represents the first large-scale prospective population-based study on bone health in elderly (≥65 years) Chinese men and women. This study aims to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of lumbar spondylolisthesis in these subjects. Methods The lateral lumbar radiographs of 1,994 male and 1,996 female patients were analysed using the Meyerding classification. Results Amongst the men, 380 (19.1 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 43 (11.3 %) had slips at two or more levels; 283 had anterolisthesis, 85 had retrolisthesis, whereas 12 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Amongst the women, 499 (25.0 %) had at least one spondylolisthesis and 69 (13.8 %) had slips at two or more levels; 459 had anterolisthesis, 34 had retrolisthesis, whereas 6 subjects had both anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis. Advanced age, short height, higher body mass index (BMI), higher bone mineral density (BMD) and degenerative arthritis are associated with spondylolisthesis. Lower Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score was associated with spondylolisthesis in men; higher body weight, angina and lower grip strength were associated with spondylolisthesis in women. Conclusion The male/female ratio of lumbar spondylolisthesis prevalence was 1:1.3 in elderly Chinese. Men are more likely to have retrolisthesis. PMID:24126641
Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun
Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258
Qiu, Hong; Sun, Shengzhi; Tang, Robert; Chan, King-Pan; Tian, Linwei
The growth of pathogens potentially relevant to respiratory tract infection may be triggered by changes in ambient temperature. Few studies have examined the association between ambient temperature and pneumonia incidence, and no studies have focused on the susceptible elderly population. We aimed to examine the short-term association between ambient temperature and geriatric pneumonia and to assess the disease burden attributable to cold and hot temperatures in Hong Kong, China. Daily time-series data on emergency hospital admissions for geriatric pneumonia, mean temperature, relative humidity, and air pollution concentrations between January 2005 and December 2012 were collected. Distributed-lag nonlinear modeling integrated in quasi-Poisson regression was used to examine the exposure-lag-response relationship between temperature and pneumonia hospitalization. Measures of the risk attributable to nonoptimal temperature were calculated to summarize the disease burden. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the sex difference. We observed significant nonlinear and delayed associations of both cold and hot temperatures with pneumonia in the elderly, with cold temperatures having stronger effect estimates. Among the 10.7% of temperature-related pneumonia hospitalizations, 8.7% and 2.0% were attributed to cold and hot temperatures, respectively. Most of the temperature-related burden for pneumonia hospitalizations in Hong Kong was attributable to cold temperatures, and elderly men had greater susceptibility.
Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; Lerner, Ulf H; Jutberger, Hans; Lorentzon, Mattias; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Karlsson, Magnus K; Ljunggren, Osten; Smith, Ulf; McCloskey, Eugene; Kanis, John A; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan
Adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common progenitor, and there is, therefore, potential for both autocrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin on skeletal metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether high serum adiponectin was associated with an increased risk of fracture in elderly men. We studied the relationship between serum adiponectin and the risk of fracture in 999 elderly men drawn from the general population and recruited to the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Baseline data included general health questionnaires, lifestyle questionnaires, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), serum adiponectin, osteocalcin, and leptin. Men were followed for up to 7.4 years (average, 5.2 years). Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin, other risk variables and the time-to-event hazard function of fracture. Median levels of serum adiponectin at baseline were 10.4 µg/mL (interquartile range, 7.7-14.3). During follow-up, 150 men sustained one or more fractures. The risk of fracture increased in parallel with increasing serum adiponectin (hazard ratio [HR]/SD, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.72) and persisted after multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR/SD, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55). Serum adiponectin shows graded stepwise association with a significant excess risk of fracture in elderly men that was independent of several other risk factors for fracture. Its measurement holds promise as a risk factor for fracture in men.
Background High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose levels are risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in middle-aged diabetic individuals; however, the risk among the elderly, especially the very elderly, is not well known. The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict IHD and cerebrovascular attack (CVA) in the elderly and to investigate their differences by age. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) with 5.5 years of follow-up. A total of 4,014 patients with type 2 diabetes and without previous IHD or CVA (1,936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years, median 70 years; <65 years old, n = 1,261; 65 to 74 years old, n = 1,731; and ≥ 75 years old, n = 1,016) were recruited on a consecutive outpatient basis from 40 hospitals throughout Japan. Lipids, glucose, and other factors related to IHD or CVA risk, such as blood pressure (BP), were investigated using the multivariate Cox hazard model. Results One hundred fifty-three cases of IHD and 104 CVAs (7.8 and 5.7/1,000 people per year, respectively) occurred over 5.5 years. Lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and female gender were correlated with IHD in patients ≥75 years old (hazard ratio (HR):0.629, P < 0.01 and 1.132, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, systolic BP (SBP), HbA1C, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were correlated with IHD in subjects <65 years old (P < 0.05), and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was correlated with IHD in all subjects. HDL-C was correlated with CVA in patients ≥75 years old (HR: 0.536, P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier estimator curves showed that IHD occurred more frequently in patients <65 years old in the highest quartile of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. In patients ≥75 years old, IHD and CVA were both the most frequent among those with the lowest HDL-C levels. Conclusions IHD and CVA in late elderly diabetic patients were predicted by HDL-C. LDL-C, HbA1C, SBP and non-HDL-C are risk factors for
Carmona, Ruben; Zakeri, Kaveh; Green, Garrett; Hwang, Lindsay; Gulaya, Sachin; Xu, Beibei; Verma, Rohan; Williamson, Casey W.; Triplett, Daniel P.; Rose, Brent S.; Shen, Hanjie; Vaida, Florin; Murphy, James D.
Purpose To compare a novel generalized competing event (GCE) model versus the standard Cox proportional hazards regression model for stratifying elderly patients with cancer who are at risk for competing events. Methods We identified 84,319 patients with nonmetastatic prostate, head and neck, and breast cancers from the SEER-Medicare database. Using demographic, tumor, and clinical characteristics, we trained risk scores on the basis of GCE versus Cox models for cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. In test sets, we examined the predictive ability of the risk scores on the different causes of death, including second cancer mortality, noncancer mortality, and cause-specific mortality, using Fine-Gray regression and area under the curve. We compared how well models stratified subpopulations according to the ratio of the cumulative cause-specific hazard for cancer mortality to the cumulative hazard for overall mortality (ω) using the Akaike Information Criterion. Results In each sample, increasing GCE risk scores were associated with increased cancer-specific mortality and decreased competing mortality, whereas risk scores from Cox models were associated with both increased cancer-specific mortality and competing mortality. GCE models created greater separation in the area under the curve for cancer-specific mortality versus noncancer mortality (P < .001), indicating better discriminatory ability between these events. Comparing the GCE model to Cox models of cause-specific mortality or all-cause mortality, the respective Akaike Information Criterion scores were superior (lower) in each sample: prostate cancer, 28.6 versus 35.5 versus 39.4; head and neck cancer, 21.1 versus 29.4 versus 40.2; and breast cancer, 24.6 versus 32.3 versus 50.8. Conclusion Compared with standard modeling approaches, GCE models improve stratification of elderly patients with cancer according to their risk of dying from cancer relative to overall mortality. PMID:26884579
Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Palmerini, Luca; Bandinelli, Stefania; Chiari, Lorenzo
Background Falls are a common, serious threat to the health and self-confidence of the elderly. Assessment of fall risk is an important aspect of effective fall prevention programs. Objectives and methods In order to test whether it is possible to outperform current prognostic tools for falls, we analyzed 1010 variables pertaining to mobility collected from 976 elderly subjects (InCHIANTI study). We trained and validated a data-driven model that issues probabilistic predictions about future falls. We benchmarked the model against other fall risk indicators: history of falls, gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (Guralnik et al. 1994), and the literature-based fall risk assessment tool FRAT-up (Cattelani et al. 2015). Parsimony in the number of variables included in a tool is often considered a proxy for ease of administration. We studied how constraints on the number of variables affect predictive accuracy. Results The proposed model and FRAT-up both attained the same discriminative ability; the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for multiple falls was 0.71. They outperformed the other risk scores, which reported AUCs for multiple falls between 0.64 and 0.65. Thus, it appears that both data-driven and literature-based approaches are better at estimating fall risk than commonly used fall risk indicators. The accuracy–parsimony analysis revealed that tools with a small number of predictors (~1–5) were suboptimal. Increasing the number of variables improved the predictive accuracy, reaching a plateau at ~20–30, which we can consider as the best trade-off between accuracy and parsimony. Obtaining the values of these ~20–30 variables does not compromise usability, since they are usually available in comprehensive geriatric assessments. PMID:26716861
DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.
Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790
Hwalek, Melanie A.; Sengstock, Mary C.
Recently more attention has been focused on elder abuse, with laws enacted requiring reporting of this crime. Since service providers often do not recognize elder abuse, a validated screening tool for elder abuse is needed. A screening tool called the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Protocol has been developed and is currently being…
Raats, Jelle W.; van Eijsden, Wilbert A.; Crolla, Rogier M. P. H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van der Laan, Lijckle
Background Early identification of patients at risk for delirium is important, since adequate well timed interventions could prevent occurrence of delirium and related detrimental outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate prognostic factors for delirium, including factors describing frailty, in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. Methods We included patients of 65 years and older, who underwent elective surgery from March 2013 to November 2014. Patients had surgery for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) or colorectal cancer. Delirium was scored prospectively using the Delirium Observation Screening Scale. Pre- and peri-operative predictors of delirium were analyzed using regression analysis. Outcomes after delirium included adverse events, length of hospital stay, discharge destination and mortality. Results We included 232 patients. 51 (22%) underwent surgery for AAA and 181 (78%) for colorectal cancer. Postoperative delirium occurred in 35 patients (15%). Predictors of postoperative delirium included: delirium in medical history (Odds Ratio 12 [95% Confidence Interval 2.7–50]), advancing age (Odds Ratio 2.0 [95% Confidence Interval 1.1–3.8]) per 10 years, and ASA-score ≥3 (Odds Ratio 2.6 [95% Confidence Interval 1.1–5.9]). Occurrence of delirium was related to an increase in adverse events, length of hospital stay and mortality. Conclusion Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication after major surgery in elderly patients and is related to an increase in adverse events, length of hospital stay, and mortality. A delirium in the medical history, advanced age, and ASA-score may assist in defining patients at increased risk for delirium. Further attention to prevention of delirium is essential in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. PMID:26291459
Objectives Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment(CI) and the associated risk factors among elderly people in Shanghai urban area, China. Methods A population-based survey was conducted among people aged 55 years or older in urban areas of Shanghai. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to collect information including demographic characteristics, medical history, and medication use, etc. The validated Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE) was used to screen subjects with CI, and the criteria of CI were adjusted for education levels. Results A total of 3,176 home-living residents (≥55 years old) were included in the study. Among them, 266 people (102 men and 164 women) were identified as cognition impaired, with a prevalence of 8.38% (266/3,176, 95% CI: (8.26, 8.49)) for both genders, 9.21% (102/1,107,95% CI: (9.18, 9.33)) for men and 7.93% (164/2,069, 95% CI: (7.80, 8.09)) for women, respectively. Furthermore, we found that several significant risk factors, including social factors(education, number of children, marriage status, and family structure), physiological factors (age, blood glucose level, and obesity), factors on living styles(physical exercise, diet & chronic diseases), and genetic factor(ApoE), associated with CI onset. Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of CI among the elderly population in the Shanghai urban in China, similar to previous epidemiologic studies in Western countries. The putative risk factors associated with CI merit further investigated. PMID:23210893
Myrstad, M; Løchen, M-L; Graff-Iversen, S; Gulsvik, A K; Thelle, D S; Stigum, H; Ranhoff, A H
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence increases with increasing age. In middle-aged men, endurance sport practice is associated with increased risk of AF but there are few studies among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of long-term endurance sport practice as a risk factor for AF in elderly men. A cross-sectional study compared 509 men aged 65-90 years who participated in a long-distance cross-country ski race with 1768 men aged 65-87 years from the general population. Long-term endurance sport practice was the main exposure. Self-reported AF and covariates were assessed by questionnaires. Risk differences (RDs) for AF were estimated by using a linear regression model. After multivariable adjustment, a history of endurance sport practice gave an added risk for AF of 6.0 percent points (pp) (95% confidence interval 0.8-11.1). Light and moderate leisure-time physical activity during the last 12 months reduced the risk with 3.7 and 4.3 pp, respectively, but the RDs were not statistically significant. This study suggests that elderly men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice have an increased risk of AF compared with elderly men in the general population.
Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Sinclair, Alan
Elderly patients (aged > 70 years) with diabetes are at high risk of -hospitalization. We provide a detailed commentary about recent international clinical guidelines and a consensus statement devoted to elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the context of hospitalization. In emergency departments, the 4 medication agents associated with the greatest number of patient adverse drug events are warfarin, oral glucose-lowering medications, insulin, and antiplatelet agents, all of which are commonly prescribed in older patients with diabetes. Comprehensive gerontological assessment, including review and, if indicated, discontinuation of all potentially unsafe or inappropriate patient medications should be done upstream to reduce the likelihood of adverse drugs events. Severe infections and ischemic heart disease are also frequent causes of acute admission into hospital in patients aged > 75 years. These patients are also likely to be malnourished and nutritional status should be monitored. Nutritional support, combined with specific products to avoid uncontrolled hyperglycemia must be implemented in patients at risk of malnutrition. Early exercise prescription may help patients maintain physical function and prevent the risk of falling. Clinical guidelines should be applied to achieve safe and effective patient target glucose levels. Insulin should be used earlier for its anabolic properties and patients closely monitored to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and excessive hyperglycemia. The discharge plan needs to address full medical and social needs along with suitable follow-up to ensure a high level of patient safety.
Mazza, Alberto; Lenti, Salvatore; Schiavon, Laura; Del Monte, Alvise; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Ramazzina, Emilio; Rubello, Domenico; Casiglia, Edoardo
Objective In clinical practice, patient characteristics predicting resistant hypertension (RH) include higher blood pressure levels, left ventricular hypertrophy, older age, obesity, chronic kidney disease and diabetes. On the contrary little is known about the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a risk factor for RH in subjects from general population. Material and methods 580 elderly subjects aged ≥65 years were enrolled in the Risk Of Vascular complications Impact of Genetics in Old people (ROVIGO) study. RH was defined as the failure to maintain blood pressure values below 140 mmHg (systolic) and 90 mmHg (diastolic) despite therapeutic interventions that include appropriate lifestyle measures plus adherence to treatment with full doses of at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. RH was confirmed using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Hyperuricemic was defined as the subjects having SUA ≥6.8 mg/dl or taking uricosuric drugs. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) for RH was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of RH was 5.7% in the cohort and was higher in women (8.3%) than in men (3.0%, p < 0.05). Independent of chronic kidney disease (OR 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.49–10.1), hyperuricemia predicted resistant hypertension in women (odds ratio 3.11, 95% confidence intervals 1.06–9.1, p = 0.03) but not in men. Conclusions In elderly women from the general population, an SUA value of ≥6.8 mg/dl triples the risk of RH. SUA assessment should be recommended to better define the pattern of risk associated with RH. PMID:28027534
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Fulmer, Terry; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Rajan, Bharat; Evans, Denis A.
Purpose: This longitudinal study examines the association between physical function decline and the risk of elder self-neglect in a community-dwelling population. Design and Methods: Of the 5,570 participants in the Chicago Health Aging Project, 1,068 were reported to social services agency for suspected elder self-neglect from 1993 to 2005. The primary predictor was objectively assessed physical function using decline in physical performance testing. Secondary predictors were assessed using the decline in self-reported Katz, Nagi, and Rosow–Breslau scales. Outcome of interest was elder self-neglect. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess these associations. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, every 1-point decline in physical performance testing was associated with increased risk of reported elder self-neglect (odds ratio [OR], 1.05, confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.07, p < .001). Decline in Katz (OR, 1.05, CI, 1.00–1.10, p < .05) and decline in Rosow–Breslau (OR, 1.19, CI, 1.11–1.27, p < .001) were associated with increased risk of reported elder self-neglect. Decline in physical performance testing (standardized parameter estimate [PE]: 0.19, SE: 0.06, p = .002), Katz (PE: 0.65, SE: 0.14, p < .001), Nagi (PE: 0.48, SE: 0.14, p < .001), and Rosow–Breslau (PE: 0.57, SE: 0.21, p = .006) scales were associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Implications: Decline in physical function was associated with increased risk of reported elder self-neglect and greater self-neglect severity in this community-dwelling population. PMID:20019180
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…
Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues
The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly.
Barban, Francesco; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Melideo, Matteo; Federici, Alessia; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Giuli, Simone; Ricci, Claudia; Adriano, Fulvia; Griffini, Ivo; Silvestri, Manuel; Chiusso, Massimo; Neglia, Sergio; Ariño-Blasco, Sergio; Cuevas Perez, Raquel; Dionyssiotis, Yannis; Koumanakos, Georgios; Kovačeić, Milo; Montero-Fernández, Nuria; Pino, Oscar; Boye, Niels; Cortés, Ulises; Barrué, Cristian; Cortés, Atia; Levene, Peter; Pantelopoulos, Stelios; Rosso, Roberto; Serra-Rexach, José Antonio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo
Background. Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt) might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL. Methods. In a sample of 481 elderly people at risk of falls recruited in this multicenter randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of a motor treatment (pure motor or mixed with EFt) of 24 one-hour sessions delivered through an i-Walker with a non-motor treatment (pure EFt or control condition) was evaluated. Similarly, a 24 one-hour session cognitive treatment (pure EFt or mixed with motor training), delivered through a touch-screen computer was compared with a non-cognitive treatment (pure motor or control condition). Results. Motor treatment, particularly when mixed with EFt, reduced significantly fear of falling (F(1,478) = 6.786, p = 0.009) although to a limited extent (ES −0.25) restricted to the period after intervention. Conclusions. This study suggests the effectiveness of motor treatment empowered by EFt in reducing fear of falling. PMID:28208604
Cho, Shih-Feng; Liu, Yi-Chang; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Huang, Chiung-Tang; Tsai, Yu-Fen; Wang, Hui-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Liu, Ta-Chih
This study aimed to investigate the treatment strategy, prognostic factors, and risk factors of early death in elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era. Data from elderly patients diagnosed with DLBCL between 2008 and 2014 were collected for analysis. Patients who were younger and had a better performance status were more likely to receive intensive frontline treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 15 and 21 months, respectively. Anthracycline-containing chemotherapy achieved a higher remission rate and showed a trend towards better overall survival but a higher risk of severe neutropenia. Multivariate analysis revealed that very old age (≥81 years), a high-risk age-adjusted international prognostic index (aaIPI) score, and bone marrow involvement were associated with poorer PFS and overall survival. Progression of lymphoma was the major cause of death in the study population. In addition, approximately 25% of patients died within 120 days of being diagnosed. The risk factors for early mortality included very old age, a high-risk aaIPI score, and bone marrow involvement. The appearance of symptoms or signs of tumour lysis syndrome at diagnosis was associated with a trend towards early death. PMID:28290477
Locatelli, M; Bertani, G; Carrabba, G; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Caroli, M; Sala, E; Ferrante, E; Gaini, S M; Spada, A; Mantovani, G; Lania, A
In western countries, the process of "ageing of the population" is increasingly forcing clinical medicine to find answers for pathologies affecting the elder segments of our community. In this respect, pituitary adenomas often raise difficult questions on surgical indications, since little is known about postoperative morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. The transsphenoidal endonasal approach (TNS), which is considered the gold standard for surgical resection of the majority of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas, is supposed to be a low morbidity and mortality procedure in adult patients. However, only a few contradicting data are available in the literature about elderly patients. In this paper we retrospectively analyze a cohort of 43 consecutive patients aged more than 65 years, operated on for pituitary adenomas at our Institution in the years 1998-2007. These patients were treated by transsphenoidal endonasal approach (TNS) for resection of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 31), GH-secreting adenomas (n = 4) and ACTH-secreting adenomas (n = 8). Clinical records reported a macroadenoma with tumour-related mass symptoms in about 80 % of patients; single or multiple pituitary deficits were present in 44 % of patients. Regarding comorbidities, cardiac disease was the most frequently observed (86 %); assessment of anaesthesiological risk indicated a moderate to severe ASA score in most patients, 11 % showing a 4-5 score. On the basis of current criteria, our retrospective analysis revealed that cure was achieved in 54 % of patients. The outcome was similar to that observed in the general population of patients undergoing transphenoidal surgery in our centre, without differences in the rate of surgical and endocrinological cure, minor and major surgical complications and hospitalization duration. In particular, no significant anaesthesiological complications were observed and no patient developed either permanent diabetes
Keigher, Sharon M.; And Others
Homelessness is growing among the elderly as it is among every other age cohort in America, but the elderly appear to be underrepresented. This underrepresentation is puzzling, since the elderly appear to have unique vulnerabilities to homelessness. This study explored the connection between the growing shortage of low rent housing, the unique…
Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsø, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ≥ 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms. PMID:21762535
Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Soangra, Rahul; Frames, Chris
Postural stability characteristics are considered to be important in maintaining functional independence free of falls and healthy life style especially for the growing elderly population. This study focuses on developing tools of clinical value in fall prevention: 1) Implementation of sensors that are minimally obtrusive and reliably record movement data. 2) Unobtrusively gather data from wearable sensors from four community centers 3) developed and implemented linear and non-linear signal analysis algorithms to extract clinically relevant information using wearable technology. In all a total of 100 community dwelling elderly individuals (66 non-fallers and 34 fallers) participated in the experiment. All participants were asked to stand-still in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) condition on forceplate with one wireless inertial sensor affixed at sternum level. Participants' history of falls had been recorded for last 2 years, with emphasis on frequency and characteristics of falls. Any participant with at least one fall in the prior year were classified as faller and the others as non-faller. The results indicated several key factors/features of postural characteristics relevant to balance control and stability during quite stance and, showed good predictive capability of fall risks among older adults. Wearable technology allowed us to gather data where it matters the most to answer fall related questions, i.e. the community setting environments. This study opens new prospects of clinical testing using postural variables with a wearable sensor that may be relevant for assessing fall risks at home and patient environment in near future.
Li, Chung-Yi; Wu, Shwu Chong; Sung, Fung-Chang
We used a nested case-control design with study participants sampled from two cohorts, for a total of 2,198 elderly people 65 years or older and completed cognitive tests between 1993 and 1997, to assess the association between an individual's lifetime principal occupation and the subsequent risk of cognitive impairment. Cases consisted of 290 older adults with impaired cognitive functioning. For each case, two controls with comparable age (within 5 years) and sex frequencies were randomly sampled from the seniors free of cognitive impairment. Occupational data were collected through interviews. Individual's job content was coded into one of the occupational categories or the occupation-based social classes. Compared to those who were former legislators, government administrators, or business executives and managers, a significantly elevated risk of cognitive impairment was estimated for those who were employed as agriculture/animal husbandry/forestry/fishing workers (odds ratio (OR)=3.2), craft and related trades workers (OR=2.2), plant and machine operators and assemblers (OR=14.7), workers of elementary occupations (OR=3.2), or housekeepers (OR=2.6). We also observed health inequalities in the risk of cognitive impairment across social classes with a significant dose-response trend in which unskilled blue-collar workers had the highest risk. After adjustment for education, we still observed an inverse relationship between risk of cognitive impairment and occupational class. This may mean that lifetime longest-held occupation is more intimately involved in the causal pathways leading to cognitive impairment. Further studies that collect information on specific work hazards would help make specific interpretations of the observed effect of lifetime longest-held occupation in early adulthood on risk of cognitive decline in late life.
Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.; Rivera-Navarro, Jesús; Medrano, María José; Vega, Saturio; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix
Objective: the study aimed to assess the association between morale and mortality. Design: we used data from the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES), a population-based study. Subjects: 2,516 older persons (mean age 75.7 years) participated in the study. Methods: Cox models were used to estimate risk of mortality. Morale was assessed using the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Results: 489 (21.8%) participants died over a median follow-up of 5.9 years (range 0.1–7.7 years), including 253 (21.8%) deaths among 1,163 participants with low morale scores, 168 (19.3%) among 870 participants with moderate scores and 68 (14.1%) among participants with high scores. In an unadjusted Cox model, relative risk (RR) of mortality in participants with low morale scores = 1.69 (P < 0.001) and RR in participants with moderate scores = 1.47 (P < 0.01) were compared to the reference group (participants with high scores). In a Cox model that adjusted for a variety of demographic factors and co-morbidities, RR of mortality in participants with low morale scores = 1.35 (P <0.05) and moderate scores = 1.16 (not significant) were compared to the reference group. Conclusion: low morale may be an independent predictor of mortality in the elderly. By assessing morale, practitioners might be better positioned to identify patients with poorer prognoses. PMID:20299322
Oliver, D.; Britton, M.; Seed, P.; Martin, F. C.; Hopper, A. H.
OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical characteristics of elderly inpatients that predict their chance of falling (phase 1) and to use these characteristics to derive a risk assessment tool and to evaluate its power in predicting falls (phases 2 and 3). DESIGN: Phase 1: a prospective case-control study. Phases 2 and 3: prospective evaluations of the derived risk assessment tool in predicting falls in two cohorts. SETTING: Elderly care units of St Thomas's Hospital (phase 1 and 2) and Kent and Canterbury Hospital (phase 3). SUBJECTS: Elderly hospital inpatients (aged > or = 65 years): 116 cases and 116 controls in phase 1,217 patients in phase 2, and 331 in phase 3. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 21 separate clinical characteristics were assessed in phase 1, including the abbreviated mental test score, modified Barthel index, a transfer and mobility score obtained by combining the transfer and mobility sections of the Barthel index, and several nursing judgements. RESULTS: In phase 1 five factors were independently associated with a higher risk of falls: fall as a presenting complaint (odds ratio 4.64 (95% confidence interval 2.59 to 8.33); a transfer and mobility score of 3 or 4 (2.10 (1.22 to 3.61)); and primary nurses' judgment that a patient was agitated (20.9 (9.62 to 45.62)), needed frequent toileting (2.48 (1.08 to 5.70)), and was visually impaired (3.56 (1.26 to 10.05)). A risk assessment score (range 0-5) was derived by scoring one point for each of these five factors. In phases 2 and 3 a risk assessment score > 2 was used to define high risk: the sensitivity and specificity of the score to predict falls during the following week was 93% and 88% respectively in phase 2 and 92% and 68% respectively in phase 3. CONCLUSION: This simple risk assessment tool predicted with clinically useful sensitivity and specificity a high percentage of falls among elderly hospital inpatients. PMID:9366729
Sorock, G S; Bush, T L; Golden, A L; Fried, L P; Breuer, B; Hale, W E
A prospective study to determine if regular leisure-time physical activity (including recreational walking) is associated with fracture risk was conducted in a large cohort (N = 3110) of free-living elderly men and women in the retirement community of Dunedin, Florida. Sixty-three percent of the cohort was female, all were white, and the average age was 73.0 years +/- 5.3 (SD). Participants in regular physical activity at baseline had a reduced risk of fracture; the risk ratio (RR) of fracture for men and women, respectively, was RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.17 to 1.01 and RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.50 to 1.15. Walking at least one mile 3 times/week appeared to offer a protective effect for both sexes. After controlling for potentially confounding variables including body mass and selected health conditions, the RR for regular physical activity on fracture incidence in men and women remained essentially unchanged. We conclude that regular physical activity such as walking may protect against fracture in older persons.
Chen, Chin-Shyan; Peng, Yu-I; Lee, Ping-Chang; Liu, Tsai-Ching
Whether provision of free preventive care for the elderly under National Health Insurance has reduced the risk for curative care use raises much concern in Taiwan. This study analyzes the relationship by examining the impact of health examination utilization on the utilizations of outpatient care and inpatient care. Data come from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and National Health Insurance Research Database. A two-stage method is used in the estimation. We found a negative relationship between the utilization of preventive care and hospitalization care in terms of length of stay and medical expenditures. On average, the elderly people who used preventive care tended to have 16 shorter hospitalization stays and NTD64,220 lower hospitalization expenditures than their counterparts. In order to improve the health of the elderly and reduce the escalation of medical expenditures due to aging, including preventive care in the health insurance is a very effective strategy.
Iinuma, T.; Arai, Y.; Abe, Y.; Takayama, M.; Fukumoto, M.; Fukui, Y.; Iwase, T.; Takebayashi, T.; Hirose, N.; Gionhaku, N.; Komiyama, K.
Poor oral health and hygiene are increasingly recognized as major risk factors for pneumonia among the elderly. To identify modifiable oral health–related risk factors, we prospectively investigated associations between a constellation of oral health behaviors and incident pneumonia in the community-living very elderly (i.e., 85 years of age or older). At baseline, 524 randomly selected seniors (228 men and 296 women; mean age, 87.8 years) were examined for oral health status and oral hygiene behaviors as well as medical assessment, including blood chemistry analysis, and followed up annually until first hospitalization for or death from pneumonia. During a 3-year follow-up period, 48 events associated with pneumonia (20 deaths and 28 acute hospitalizations) were identified. Among 453 denture wearers, 186 (40.8%) who wore their dentures during sleep were at higher risk for pneumonia than those who removed their dentures at night (log rank P = 0.021). In a multivariate Cox model, both perceived swallowing difficulties and overnight denture wearing were independently associated with an approximately 2.3-fold higher risk of the incidence of pneumonia (for perceived swallowing difficulties, hazard ratio [HR], 2.31; and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–4.82; and for denture wearing during sleep, HR, 2.38; and 95% CI, 1.25–4.56), which was comparable with the HR attributable to cognitive impairment (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.06–4.34), history of stroke (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.13–5.35), and respiratory disease (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.20–4.23). In addition, those who wore dentures during sleep were more likely to have tongue and denture plaque, gum inflammation, positive culture for Candida albicans, and higher levels of circulating interleukin-6 as compared with their counterparts. This study provided empirical evidence that denture wearing during sleep is associated not only with oral inflammatory and microbial burden but also with incident pneumonia, suggesting
DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Homeier, Diana C; Wilber, Kathleen H
Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, were recruited and trained to interview a sample of Latino adults aged 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; financial exploitation; and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of elderly Latino adults had experienced some form of abuse or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% physical assault, 9% sexual abuse, and 16.7% financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with greater risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the United States was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elderly adults, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community.
Gutiérrez-Gómez, Tranquilina; Cortés, Ernesto; Peñarrieta-de Córdova, Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco; Ferrer-Diego, Rosa María
Of the numerous instruments available to detect nutritional risk, the most widely used is the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), but it takes 15–20 min to complete and its systematic administration in primary care units is not feasible in practice. We developed a tool to evaluate malnutrition risk that can be completed more rapidly using just clinical variables. Between 2008 and 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 418 women aged ≥60 years from Mexico. Our outcome was positive MNA and our secondary variables included were: physical activity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, educational level, dentition, psychological problems, living arrangements, history of falls, age and the number of tablets taken daily. The sample was divided randomly into two groups: construction and validation. Construction: a risk table was constructed to estimate the likelihood of the outcome, and risk groups were formed. Validation: the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated and we compared the expected and the observed outcomes. The following risk factors were identified: physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, dentition, psychological problems and living with the family. The AUC was 0.77 (95% CI [0.68–0.86], p < 0.001). No differences were found between the expected and the observed outcomes (p = 0.902). This study presents a new malnutrition screening test for use in elderly women. The test is based on six very simple, quick and easy-to-evaluate questions, enabling the MNA to be reserved for confirmation. However, it should be used with caution until validation studies have been performed in other geographical areas. PMID:26500824
Dow, William H.; Rehkopf, David H.
Reliable data show that the Nicoyan region of Costa Rica is a hot spot of high longevity. A survival follow-up of 16,300 elderly Costa Ricans estimated a Nicoya death rate ratio (DRR) for males 1990–2011 of 0.80 (0.69–0.93 CI). For a 60-year-old Nicoyan male, the probability of becoming centenarian is seven times that of a Japanese male, and his life expectancy is 2.2 years greater. This Nicoya advantage does not occur in females, is independent of socio-economic conditions, disappears in out-migrants and comes from lower cardiovascular (CV) mortality (DRR = 0.65). Nicoyans have lower levels of biomarkers of CV risk; they are also leaner, taller and suffer fewer disabilities. Two markers of ageing and stress—telomere length and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate—are also more favourable. The Nicoya diet is prosaic and abundant in traditional foods like rice, beans and animal protein, with low glycemic index and high fibre content. PMID:25426140
Kolb, G F
The big three, breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal carcinoma are the most frequent malignancies world wide and also typical tumors of advanced age. Therefore the question to screen and how to screen for these tumors in the elderly is the main question for reduction of the total cancer burden and mortality in all western countries. BREAST CANCER (BC): The age related risk of BC increases from 1 : 2,500 at age 30+ to > 1 : 10 at age 80. Nevertheless, most of the national BC-Screening-Programs stop at age 60 or earlier. Therefore the majority of all advanced i. e. T (4) stages of BC are found in women age > 60. Frequently it is suggested that age related comorbidity should eliminate the benefit of treatment. Recently two longitudinal studies have clearly shown that correct standard treatment is as effective in elderly as in younger individuals. Mammography (MG) has been shown to reduce mortality of BC significantly with best results for specificity and sensitivity at age 70+. PROSTATE CANCER (PC): The screening situation of PC is quite different to BC, because risk profiles are poorly defined and the benefit of radical prostatectomy is not clearly demonstrated in the early non symptomatic stages of PC. At the other side watchful waiting leads to an elevated frequency of incontinence and enuresis as well. Two studies are now under progress and may possibly change the situation; but the final results are expected 2005-2008 at the earliest. Therefore an assisted individual decision making is the only recommendation at this time. COLORECTAL CANCER (CC): Risk groups are clearly defined. Risk of the elderly (> 60) is the average risk. The incidence increases from < 50/10 (5) to more than 500 at age 75+(male) and 500 (female). When to start and when to stop screening? Experts give the advice to begin at age 50 and to end at age 80; but this is not really evidence based. There are several unanswered questions and open problems: we are not exactly informed
Jardim, Luciana Muniz Sanches Siqueira Veiga; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Pimenta, Camila Dutra; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga
Background As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion
Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes
Objective To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Method Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Results Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005) proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003) and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0.546; P=0.007) proved to be predictors of reaching the eutrophic state. Conclusion Accurate identification of obesity, systemic inflammation, and atherogenic lipid profile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women. PMID:25609936
Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding
Background Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. Methods This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. Results The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6–44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9–49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4–40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8–36.4%) in those aged 60–69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9–59.1%) in those aged ≥80 years (p value for trend<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01–1.05], p<0.001), less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.014), living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02–2.58], p = 0.04), anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05–1.12], p<0.001), number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07–1.30], p = 0.14) and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05–2.01], p = 0.025) were risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities
da Costa, Bruno Roza; Rutjes, Anne Wilhelmina Saskia; Mendy, Angelico; Freund-Heritage, Rosalie; Vieira, Edgar Ramos
Background Falls of elderly people may cause permanent disability or death. Particularly susceptible are elderly patients in rehabilitation hospitals. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify falls prediction tools available for assessing elderly inpatients in rehabilitation hospitals. Methods and Findings We searched six electronic databases using comprehensive search strategies developed for each database. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity were plotted in ROC space graphs and pooled across studies. Our search identified three studies which assessed the prediction properties of falls prediction tools in a total of 754 elderly inpatients in rehabilitation hospitals. Only the STRATIFY tool was assessed in all three studies; the other identified tools (PJC-FRAT and DOWNTON) were assessed by a single study. For a STRATIFY cut-score of two, pooled sensitivity was 73% (95%CI 63 to 81%) and pooled specificity was 42% (95%CI 34 to 51%). An indirect comparison of the tools across studies indicated that the DOWNTON tool has the highest sensitivity (92%), while the PJC-FRAT offers the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (73% and 75%, respectively). All studies presented major methodological limitations. Conclusions We did not identify any tool which had an optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity, or which were clearly better than a simple clinical judgment of risk of falling. The limited number of identified studies with major methodological limitations impairs sound conclusions on the usefulness of falls risk prediction tools in geriatric rehabilitation hospitals. PMID:22815914
Galbete, Cecilia; Contreras, Rafael; Martínez, J Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Marti, Amelia
Genetic factors may interact with physical activity levels to modify obesity risk. Our aim was to explore the influence of rs1801260 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (3111T/C) of CLOCK gene on obesity risk, and to examine its potential interaction with lifestyle factors in an elderly population within the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") Project. Subjects (n = 903, aged 69 ± 6 yrs) were recruited from the SUN Project. DNA was obtained from saliva, whereas lifestyle and dietary data were collected by validated self-report questionnaires. Genotype was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) plus allele discrimination. A significant interaction was observed between the 3111T/C SNP of CLOCK gene and sex for overweight/obesity risk (p for sex × CLOCK interaction <.001). Our results showed that women carrying the C allele of CLOCK gene had a marginally significant lower risk of overweight/obesity compared with noncarrier-TT-subjects (odds ratio [OR]: .61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .36-1.04; p = .069). Moreover, this association of the C allele with a decreased overweight/obesity risk might be enhanced in those women with a high physical activity level. Women practicing more than 16.8 metabolic equivalent tasks (hours per week) had a significantly lower overweight/obesity risk (OR: .36, 95% CI: .17-.79; p = .011). Furthermore, a significant interaction between the 3111T/C gene variant and physical activity (PA) for overweight/obesity risk was observed but only in women (p for PA × CLOCK interaction <.050). In conclusion, it appears that physical activity levels may act by modifying the association of the 3111T/C SNP (rs1801260) of the CLOCK gene with overweight/obesity risk in elderly women in the SUN Project.
Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Durgerian, Sally; Hazlett, Kathleen E.; Figueroa, Christina M.; Kandah, Cassandra C.; Kay, Christina D.; Matthews, Monica A.; Rao, Stephen M.
We examined the impact of physical activity (PA) on longitudinal change in hippocampal volume in cognitively intact older adults at varying genetic risk for the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hippocampal volume was measured from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans administered at baseline and at an 18-month follow-up in 97 healthy, cognitively intact older adults. Participants were classified as High or Low PA based on a self-report questionnaire of frequency and intensity of exercise. Risk status was defined by the presence or absence of the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) allele. Four subgroups were studied: Low Risk/High PA (n = 24), Low Risk/Low PA (n = 34), High Risk/High PA (n = 22), and High Risk/Low PA (n = 17). Over the 18 month follow-up interval, hippocampal volume decreased by 3% in the High Risk/Low PA group, but remained stable in the three remaining groups. No main effects or interactions between genetic risk and PA were observed in control brain regions, including the caudate, amygdala, thalamus, pre-central gyrus, caudal middle frontal gyrus, cortical white matter (WM), and total gray matter (GM). These findings suggest that PA may help to preserve hippocampal volume in individuals at increased genetic risk for AD. The protective effects of PA on hippocampal atrophy were not observed in individuals at low risk for AD. These data suggest that individuals at genetic risk for AD should be targeted for increased levels of PA as a means of reducing atrophy in a brain region critical for the formation of episodic memories. PMID:24795624
Chen, Chang-I; Kao, Pai-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yi; Fang, Yu-Ann; Miser, James S; Liu, Ju-Chi; Sung, Li-Chin
Elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a higher risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Previous studies have showed that influenza vaccination could reduce the risk of recurrent major cardiovascular events in patients with CVD. However, the effects of influenza vaccination on the reduction of first hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in elderly patients with CKD remain unknown.We conducted a cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 1997 to 2008. This cohort study comprised elderly patients (ages ≥55 years) with a recorded diagnosis of CKD (n = 4406) between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2007. Each patient was followed up until the end of 2008. To minimize the selection bias of vaccine therapy, a propensity score adjustment was applied. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between the influenza vaccination and the occurrence of first hospitalization for ACS was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression. We further categorized the patients into 4 groups according to their vaccination status (unvaccinated, and total number of vaccinations: 1, 2-3, and ≥4).We found that elderly CKD patients without prior CVD history receiving influenza vaccination exhibited a lower risk of hospitalization for ACS (adjusted HR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.30-0.42; P < 0.001). We observed consistent protective effects regardless of age groups (55-64, 65-74, and ≥75), gender, and seasonality of influenza. When the patients were stratified according to the total number of vaccinations, the adjusted HRs for first ACS hospitalization were 0.62 (95% CI 0.52-0.81), 0.35 (95% CI 0.28-0.45), and 0.13 (95% CI 0.09-0.19) for patients who received 1, 2 to 3, and ≥4 vaccinations. There was a significant trend of decreasing risk of ACS hospitalization with an increasing number of vaccinations.The results of our observational study could strengthen the
Marks, Morgan A.; Engels, Eric A.
Background Few studies have evaluated cancer risk following venous thromboembolism (VTE). Both VTE and cancer disproportionately affect older adults. Methods Using linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, we evaluated 1.2 million cancer cases and 200,000 controls (66–99 years old, 1992–2005). VTEs occurring before selection were identified using Medicare claims. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Results VTE was present in 2.5% of cases and 2.2% of controls. VTE was associated with risk of cancers of the lung (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.12–1.23), stomach (1.19, 1.09–1.30), small intestine (1.42, 1.17–1.71), colon (1.25, 1.18–1.31), gallbladder (1.39, 1.16–1.67), pancreas (1.53, 1.43–1.64), soft tissue (1.43, 1.21–1.68), ovary (1.35, 1.22–1.50), and kidney/renal pelvis (1.34, 1.23–1.46), and melanoma (1.17, 1.08–1.27), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1.27, 1.20–1.35), myeloma (1.48, 1.35–1.63), and acute myeloid leukemia (1.35, 1.19–1.54). Strongest risks were observed within 1 year of VTE diagnosis, but risk were elevated more than 6 years after VTE for colon cancer (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.12–1.37), pancreatic cancer (1.33, 1.15–1.54), and myeloma (1.35, 1.10–1.66). Few differences in risk were observed by VTE subtype. Cancers of the lung, stomach, and pancreas were more likely to have distant metastases within one year after VTE. Conclusion Among elderly adults, cancer risk is elevated following VTE diagnosis. Impact Short-term associations with cancer are likely driven by enhanced screening following VTE and reverse causation. While obesity, other co-morbidities, and smoking cannot be excluded as explanations, longer-term elevations for select cancers suggest that some VTEs may be caused by cancer precursors. PMID:24608188
Gliksman, M D; Lazarus, R; Wilson, A; Leeder, S R; Koutts, J
Aging of the Australian population, as in other developed nations, will ensure that stroke remains one of the most important causes of death and disability. The Stroke Risk in the Elderly (SITE) study aims to measure prospectively the independent contribution of dietary, sociodemographic, blood lipid, blood pressure, and hemostatic factors to risk of stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes. The target population included all independently living men and women aged 65 years and over, residents in several retirement villages in western metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The study cohort consists of 225 men and 787 women, selected as a convenience sample from all eligible residents in the local government areas (LGAs) adjacent to Westmead Hospital. Participants attended a baseline session to complete dietary, life-style, medical, and sociodemographic questionnaires. Anthropomorphic variables and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken for measurement of serum lipid, glucose, and hemostatic factors. Questionnaire results were compared with an age/sex-stratified, randomly selected sample drawn from the community (in the same LGAs), in order to quantify potential sampling and selection biases. The study cohort will be followed for a minimum of 5 years. The attendance rate of eligible residents for a baseline medical, dietary, life-style, and sociodemographic assessment was 72% for males and 69% for females. The study cohort was older, better educated, less ethnically diverse, and among women, less likely to have ever been married compared to people aged over 65 years in the comparison group. The baseline results suggest that hemostatic factors may be of importance in assessing risk of cardiovascular disease, (CVD), particularly in older men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Jung, Dae-In; Ko, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Mi-Ae
[Purpose] This study evaluated the changes in balance ability and obstacle gait after lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo WiiTM Sports in elderly at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four elderly women with at risk for falls were randomly divided into the control, lumbar stabilization exercise, and Nintendo Wii Sports groups. Static balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test, dynamic balance by the timed up-and-go test, and obstacle negotiation function by crossing velocity and maximum vertical heel clearance. [Results] Both the lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii Sports groups showed significant improvements in obstacle negotiation function after the exercise compared to the control group. Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test scores were greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group, while the timed up-and-go test time was significantly better in the Nintendo Wii Sports groups. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercises and Nintendo Wii Sports improve falling related balance and obstacle negotiation function in elderly women at risk for falls. PMID:26157228
Keyimu, Kabinuer; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Miao, Hai-Jun; Zou, Ting
To understand risk factors of the Xinjiang Uyghur, Han two ethnic elderly with mild cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment, MCI), and provide evidence for in-depth study of the causes and prevention of MCI. The MCI epidemiological survey was based on Xinjiang Uyghur and Han residents with 60 years of age or older. The total number of participants is 5398, including 3931 Uyghur residents, and 1467 Han residents. There are 456 participants with MMSE score 2 points above the demarcation points, excluded from the survey for dementia, cerebrovascular disease and other central nervous system disorders, according to case-control study method of random selection in epidemiological survey. In accordance with the clinical diagnostic criteria of MCI, which is from Disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (the revised version of the fourth edition (DSM-IV) from of the American Psychiatric Association, there are 305 cases of MCI, including 159 cases of Han, 146 cases of Uyghur. In the Han groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between sex, age, blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-ch) and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, TG, LDL-ch (increased) may increase the risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.115, 1.981, 1.315, 1.495, with P < 0.05). In the Uyghur groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between age, gender, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch (increased), women have a higher risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.063, 2.145, 2.879, 2.078, 1.429, 1.485, 0.462, P < 0.05). Age, hypertension, TG and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Han population, while age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Uyghur population. PMID:26550345
Trasande, Leonardo; Lampa, Erik; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica
Background A previous analysis examined the contribution of endocrine disruptor exposures (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) to adult diabetes, but was limited to effects of phthalates in middle-aged women and did not simultaneously examine multiple EDCs which are known to coexist in the environment. We therefore endeavoured to quantify potential reductions in diabetes and disease costs that could result from reducing synthetic chemical diabetogenic exposures in the elderly in Europe. Methods We leveraged the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (∼1000 participants), which has measured exposure to phthalates; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances to examine their independent contribution to diabetes. We estimated risk reductions assuming identical 25% reductions across levels of 4 selected compounds (PCB 153, monoethylphthalate, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and perfluorononanoic acid), and diabetes costs saved in European men and women if diabetogenic exposures are limited. Results Reduction of chemical exposures was associated with a 13% (95% CI 2% to 22%) reduction in prevalent diabetes, compared with 40% resulting from an identical (25%) reduction in body mass index (BMI) in cross-sectional analyses. Extrapolating to Europe, 152 481 cases of diabetes in Europe and €4.51 billion/year in associated costs could be prevented, compared with 469 172 cases prevented by reducing BMI. Conclusions These findings support regulatory and individual efforts to reduce chemical exposures to reduce the burden and costs of diabetes. PMID:27789757
Information about blood lead and other coronary heart disease risk factors was collected in 1977 among 152 men aged 57 to 76 years in the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands. Blood lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The blood lead distribution was skewed to the right. The median blood lead concentration was 167 ..mu..g/L, and the mean was 183 ..mu..g/L. Blood lead levels above 300 ..mu..g/L were present among 8.6% and levels above 400 ..mu..g/L among 1.3% of the Zutphen men. Blood lead was of borderline significance to cigarette smoking. Above both univariate and multivariate analyses, a significant association was found between blood lead and blood pressure. This relation was stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Of the 141 elderly men free of coronary heart disease in 1977, 26 developed coronary heart disease between 1977 and 1985. Blood lead was not associated with coronary heart disease incidence in both univariate and multivariate analyses.
García-Fabela, Luis; Melano-Carranza, Efrén; Aguilar-Navarro, Sara; García-Lara, Juan M. A.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto
Objective To determine whether hypertension (HTA) is an independent predictor of depressive symptoms (DS) in a sample of elderly Mexican community-dwelling persons. Patients and methods Two-year longitudinal study of 3276 community-dwelling persons aged 60 years and older, participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Subjects that self-reported both having or not having HTA while denying DS at baseline were included. Two-year follow-up data were analyzed, and multiple regression analyses were used to test whether HTA is an independent predictor of incident DS after adjusting for many potential confounders. Results Mean age of participants was 68.4 ± 6.9 years. Prevalence of HTA was 36.6%. At follow-up, 28.7% developed DS. After adjusting for multiple covariates (age, sex, education level, relationship status, self-reported health and economic status, diabetes, arthritis, stroke, ischemic cardiopathy, falls, pain, hearing impairment, visual impairment, urinary incontinence, cognitive impairment, smoking, alcohol use, and baseline disability), HTA was an independent predictor of DS at two years follow-up (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.40). Conclusions Hypertension is an independent risk factor for the development of depressive symptoms. Programs to support early treatment of cardiovascular disease and hypertension should be implemented in order to prevent late-onset of depressive symptoms. PMID:19848303
Xiaomei, Wang; Hang, Xiao; Lingling, Liu; Xuejun, Li
The prevalence of osteoporosis in older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is higher than in the age-matched elderly patients, but the exact cause in relation to COPD is not clear. We hypothesized that the underlying causes for this difference are related to bone metabolism with the possible risk factors that include the duration of COPD, GOLD grade, cor pulmonale, the frequencies of acute exacerbations within the past year, smoking and inhaled corticosteroid therapy. We conducted a matched-pair study of 100 patients aged older than 65 years at the Southwest Hospital from May to November 2012. The enrolled patients with COPD were matched to controls for age and gender. Clinical characteristics of cohorts were recorded. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis was diagnosed according to the definition of WHO. All cohorts accepted bone metabolism marker measurement, including Procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP), β-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (βCTX), and N-terminal midmolecule fragment osteocalcin (N-MID OC). Statistical analysis was calculated using the student's t test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis at a significance level set at a p < 0.05. Circulating biochemical markers of bone formation (P1NP), resorption (βCTX) and turnover (N-MID OC) were significantly lower in the COPD group than control group, while mean 25-OH Vitamin D was similar in two groups. The P1NP, βCTX, and N-MID OC were still lower in men with COPD, but only P1NP was lower in women with COPD compared to that of controls. Multiple regression analysis in COPD group suggests that age, the frequency of acute exacerbation, and BMD are independent risk factors for P1NP. The frequency of acute exacerbation within the past one year and 25-OH D level are independent risk factors for βCTX; the frequency of acute exacerbation is the only independent risk factor for N-MID OC. These were significant
Hanlin, Erin R.; Delgado-Rendón, Angélica; Lerner, E. Brooke; Hargarten, Stephen; Farías, René
Background The impact of falls in the elderly presents a significant public health burden throughout the country. Fall risk is not well described in Latino populations nor have fall prevention programs considered the needs of this population. Objectives The objectives of this study were to define the impact of falls in elderly Latinos at the United Community Center (UCC), to determine any possible barriers and recognize possible strengths in this elderly population with regards to fall prevention, to determine the level of interest within this population in various fall prevention methods and to provide medical students from the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) an opportunity for participation in a culturally-diverse community project. Methods A prospective survey was conducted by a medical student with a convenience sample of elderly program participants at the UCC. The fall-related survey was developed in collaboration with the community and academic partners in both English and Spanish and pilot tested with UCC staff members who were embedded in the community and were native Spanish speakers. Community center participants were approached by the interviewer during various UCC program activities and asked to participate. Those who agreed were read the survey questions by the medical student interviewer in their preferred language and their answers were recorded. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results 103 interviews were conducted. 54% of respondents had fallen in the last year, of those 21% required medical care, 81% were afraid of falling again, and 66% considered themselves at risk for falling again. 52% of all respondents had five or more of the 10 surveyed risk factors for falling, and only 4% had no risk factors. 75% of all respondents were afraid of falling. Talking with health care providers and participating in an exercise class were the preferred methods of health information delivery (preferred by 78% and 65%, respectively). Conclusion
Background Although the number of elderly people needing care is increasing rapidly in the home setting in Japan, family size and ability to provide such support are declining. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of functional disability by household composition among community-dwelling elderly people. Methods A total of 1347 elderly people aged 70 years and over participated in a baseline geriatric health examination for this prospective cohort study. In the health examination, we conducted an interview survey using a questionnaire in July 2004 and July 2005. Questionnaire items covered the following: age, sex, household, medical history, instrumental activities of daily living, intellectual activity, social role, Motor Fitness Scale, falls experienced during the past year, Dietary Variety Score, frequency of going outdoors, cognitive impairment, and depressive status. We defined the occurrence of functional disability as certification for long-term care needs of the subjects. The certification process started with a home visit for an initial assessment to evaluate nursing care needs using a questionnaire on current physical and mental status. The onset of functional disability was followed from July 2004 to March 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the risk factors related to the onset of functional disability, adjusted for age and sex. Results Of the 1084 participants, 433 were male (39.9%), and the average age was 77.8 (standard deviation, 5.4). Up to March 2011, functional disabilities occurred in 226 participants (20.9%). Elderly people living only with their children demonstrated a significantly higher risk for functional disability than the three-generation household group (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–2.40). The risk factors for functional disability varied according to household group. Conclusions In Japan, the number of vulnerable households with elderly people in need of
Background Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the world, and the prevalence of stroke tends to increase with age. Despite advances in acute care and secondary preventive strategies, primary prevention should play the most significant role in the reduction of the burden of stroke. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong, Baduanjin exercise is a simple, safe exercise, especially suitable for older adults. However, current evidence is insufficient to inform the use of Baduanjin exercise in the prevention of stroke. The aim of this trail is to systematically evaluate the prevention effect of Baduanjin exercise on ischemic stroke in the community elder population with high risk factors. Methods A total of 170 eligible participants from the community elder population will be randomly allocated into the Baduanjin exercise group and usual physical activity control group in a 1:1 ratio. Besides usual physical activity, participants in the Baduanjin exercise group will accept a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of five days a week and 40 minutes a day. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, 13 weeks (at end of intervention) and 25 weeks (after additional 12-week follow-up period). Discussion This study will be the randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise for primary prevention of stroke in community elder population with high risk factors of stroke. The results of this trial will help to establish the optimal approach for primary prevention of stroke. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003588. Registration date: 24 July, 2013. PMID:24712684
Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Rui-Li
In recent years, more elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancers have been undergoing surgery. As one of main postoperative complications, postoperative delirium (POD) is harmful and difficult to prevent and treat. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment to POD properly and ptomptly can promote the patient's overall recovery. However, health care providers still have many problems for POD to face in elderly,with gastrointestinal cancers during the clinical care. In this paper, Etiology, damages, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of POD in elderly with gastrointestinal cancer were reviewed, and the prospect of POD was also discussed.
Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Vitale, Cristiana; Fini, Massimo
Although numerous randomized studies have shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves intermediate outcomes in patients at risk and in those with proven cardiovascular disease (CVD), results derived mainly from registries and observational studies have suggested an increased cardiovascular risk in elderly men receiving often supra-therapeutic doses of testosterone. Recent meta-analyses have shown that when testosterone has been used in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions, the effect on the disease has been either beneficial or neutral. Similar results have been reported in hypo- and eugonadal men. Contrasting results have been reported by two trials of testosterone treatment in frail elderly men. Reports from poorly analyzed databases have reported an increased risk of cardiovascular events with testosterone use. More recently, a population-based study showed no increased cardiovascular risk of testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men. Available data from controlled clinical trials suggest that the use of testosterone in elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor the risk of events. Studies in men with CVD, angina, or heart failure report a benefit from testosterone replacement in men with or without hypogonadism. Therefore, at present, the cardiovascular benefits of TRT in elderly men outweigh the risks. This is particularly evident in those men with pre-existing CVD.
Gonçalves, Alexandra; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Claggett, Brian; Nochioka, Kotaro; Cheng, Susan; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Shah, Amil M; Solomon, Scott D.
Background While left atrial (LA) enlargement is a recognized risk factor for adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, emerging evidence supports the importance of LA function. We examined LA emptying fraction (LAEF) across the spectrum of CV disease burden in a large cohort of elderly adults living in the community. Methods and Results We studied 1,142 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who were in sinus rhythm, free of valvular disease, and had acceptable quality 3D-echocardiograms (mean age 76±5 years, 59% women). We determined the cross-sectional correlates of LAEF and compared LAEF among elderly adults without CV disease or CV risk factors (n=201), those with hypertension (n=734), and those with overt heart failure (HF) (n=207). In multivariable analysis, lower LAEF was associated with higher LA volumes, worse LV systolic and diastolic function. Elderly participants free of CV disease or risk factors had smaller LA volumes than those with hypertension (LAV max/BSA 30.2 ± 6.6 ml/m2 vs. 33.0 ± 9.0ml/m2, p =0.001), but similar LAEF (55.2 ± 10.3% vs. 53.8 ± 11.5% respectively, p=0.357). Participants with HF had higher LA volume (39.8 ± 13.3 ml/m2) and worse LAEF (47.6 ± 14.6%) than participants with hypertension or participants free of CV disease or risk factors (all p values <0.001). Conclusions In a community-based cohort, LA function was impaired in participants with prevalent HF, but there were no significant differences in LA function between participants with hypertension and those free of CV disease or risk factors, despite greater LA size in the former. PMID:26843540
Assunção, L.G.S.; Eloi-Santos, S.M.; Peixoto, S.V.; Lima-Costa, M.F.; Vidigal, P.G.
The measurement of the serum concentration of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) provides a useful marker in clinical practice. However, the distribution of CRP is not available for all age and population groups. This study assessed the distribution of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) by gender and age in 1470 elderly individuals from a Brazilian community that participates in the Bambuí Cohort Study. Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fasting and serum samples were stored at -70°C. Measurements were made with a commercial hs-CRP immunonephelometric instrument. More than 50% of the results were above 3.0 mg/L for both genders. Mean hs-CRP was higher in women (3.62 ± 2.58 mg/L) than in men (3.03 ± 2.50 mg/L). This difference was observed for all ages, except for the over-80 age group. This is the first population-based study to describe hs-CRP values in Latin American elderly subjects. Our results indicate that significant gender differences exist in the distribution of hs-CRP, and suggest that gender-specific cut-off points for hs-CRP would be necessary for the prediction of cardiovascular risks. PMID:23011406
Spisak, Loretta Joan
Describes a five-week course developed at Marie Curie High School in Chicago to help teenagers understand older people and the aging process. Consultants, guest speakers, movies, and some community projects and experiences were included. (MF)
Chang, Cindy M.; Warren, Joan. L.; Engels, Eric A.
Background The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is unknown but is thought to be associated with immune abnormalities or infection. Because cancer can arise from similar conditions, we examined associations between CFS and cancer in a population-based case-control study among the U.S. elderly. Methods Using linked SEER-Medicare registry data, we evaluated ~1.2 million cancer cases and 100,000 controls (age 66–99 years, 1992–2005). CFS was identified in the period more than one year prior to selection using linked Medicare claims. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) comparing the CFS prevalence in cases and controls, adjusting for age, sex, and selection year. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results CFS was present in 0.5% of cancer cases overall and 0.5% of controls. CFS was associated with an increased risk non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.16–1.43, p-value=0.0000017). Among NHL subtypes, CFS was associated with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.12–1.61), marginal zone lymphoma (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.38–2.57), and B-cell NHL not otherwise specified (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.03–2.23). CFS associations with NHL overall and NHL subtypes remained elevated after excluding patients with medical conditions related to CFS or NHL, such as, autoimmune conditions. CFS was also associated (although not after multiple comparison adjustment) with cancers of the pancreas (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07–1.47), kidney (OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.07–1.49), breast (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.74–0.98), and oral cavity and pharynx (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.49–1.00). Conclusion Chronic immune activation or an infection associated with CFS may play a role in explaining the increased risk of NHL. PMID:22648858
van Laar, J M; verschuuren, J J; de Meijer, P H
A 77-year-old woman was admitted because of progressive vertigo, nausea and a dysarthric speech disorder. The patient's history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, and the finding of murmurs over peripheral arteries at physical examination led to a presumptive diagnosis of cerebellar ischaemia in the context of generalized atherosclerosis. However, the diagnosis was revised when bilateral cerebellar infarction was demonstrated radiologically, and a biopsy of a temporal artery revealed giant cell arteritis. Despite treatment with prednisone (60 mg daily) the patient's neurological condition deteriorated, and she succumbed several months later to pneumonia. The case illustrates the pitfalls in the diagnostic approach of elderly patients with multiple pathology and it also emphasizes that in an elderly person with high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (> 100 mm in the first hour) temporal arteritis should be ruled out as soon as possible to prevent further neurological damage.
Sloan, John P.
Current recommendations for prescribing for the frail elderly can be supplemented by others of value to family physicians. Minimization or simplification of medication regimens, proof of medication efficacy, vigilance for adverse drug reactions, and knowledge of aging and medications are important. Compliance is critical for the community-dwelling frail elderly but is rarely a problem in long-term care facilities. High-yield, high-risk conditions with presentations different from the “geriatric giants” must be recognized. Less medication is not necessarily the best treatment. Routine surveillance and frequent follow up are essential to adequate pharmacotherapy of frail elderly people. PMID:21221302
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis
We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse.
Turgut, Faruk; Yesil, Yusuf; Balogun, Rasheed A; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M
Elderly individuals, worldwide, are on the rise, posing new challenges to care providers. Hypertension is highly prevalent in elderly individuals, and multiple challenges face care providers while managing it. In addition to treating hypertension, the physician must treat other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with or without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. This review discusses some of the unique characteristics of high blood pressure in the elderly and provides an overview of the challenges facing care providers, as well as the current recommendations for management of hypertension in the elderly.
Chu, Fang-Ying; Chen, Hung-An; Yin, Yun-Ju; Lee, Hua-Chin; Chu, William Cheng-Chung; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Hui-Ling; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng
Background We conducted a study using a case-crossover design to clarify the risk of acute effects of zolpidem and benzodiazepine on all-sites of fractures in the elderly. Design of study Case-crossover design. Methods and Materials Elderly enrollees (n = 6010) in Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database with zolpidem or benzodiazepine use were analyzed for the risk of developing fractures. Results After adjusting for medications such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, and diuretics, or comorbidities such as hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and depression, neither zolpidem nor benzodiazepine was found to be associated with increased risk in all-sites fractures. Subjects without depression were found to have an increased risk of fractures. Diazepam is the only benzodiazepine with increased risk of fractures after adjusting for medications and comorbidities. Hip and spine were particular sites for increased fracture risk, but following adjustment for comorbidities, the associations were found to be insignificant. Conclusion Neither zolpidem nor benzodiazepine was associated with increased risk of all-site fractures in this case cross-over study after adjusting for medications or comorbidities in elderly individuals with insomnia. Clinicians should balance the benefits and risks for prescribing zolpidem or benzodiazepine in the elderly accordingly. PMID:26716836
Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria
SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not. PMID:24037284
Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sitta, Maria do Carmo; Toledo, Manuella; da Silva Henriques, Simone
Care for elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, particularly for those requiring emergency surgery, needs to take into account an analysis of physical capacity and risks specific to elderly individuals, in an attempt to reduce the risks. Nevertheless, these remain high in this group. Despite the risks, procedures developed promptly have a positive effect on these patients’ evolution. Coordinated care, composed of teams of specialists within clinical medicine, geriatrics, orthopedics, anesthesiology and critical care, along with other healthcare professionals, may be highly beneficial for this group of patients. PMID:27027017
Of the over one million widowed persons in Canada, 63% of the widows and 70% of the widowers are over 65 years of age. The bereaved elderly, especially elderly widowers, are at high risk for poor response to bereavement. Death of one's spouse has been rated one of the most stressful events in life, yet the literature has few studies demonstrating effective bereavement counselling for the elderly. In particular, very few of these studies have looked at the bereaved elderly male, especially in terms of the impact of bereavement intervention on both emotional and physical problems. This paper critically reviews the literature on bereavement counselling for elderly widows and widowers and suggests new pragmatic methods for helping them. PMID:20469463
Alhawassi, Tariq M; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata V; Pont, Lisa G
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important health issue. While prevalence and risk factors associated with ADRs in the general adult population have been well documented, much less is known about ADRs in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to review the published literature to estimate the prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting and identify factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR in the elderly. A systematic review of studies published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. Key search terms included: “adverse drug reactions”, “adverse effects”, “elderly patients and hospital admission”, “drug therapy”, “drug adverse effects”, “drug related”, “aged”, “older patients”, “geriatric”, “hospitalization”, and “emergency admissions”. For inclusion in the review, studies had to focus on ADRs in the elderly and had to include an explicit definition of what was considered an ADR and/or an explicit assessment of causality, and a clear description of the method used for ADR identification, and had to describe factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Fourteen hospital-based observational studies exploring ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting were eligible for inclusion in this review. The mean prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the studies included in this review was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1%–16.8%). The median prevalence of ADRs leading to hospitalization was 10.0% (95% CI: 7.2%–12.8%), while the prevalence of ADRs occurring during hospitalization was 11.5% (95% CI: 0%–27.7%). There was wide variation in the overall ADR prevalence, from 5.8% to 46.3%. Female sex, increased comorbid complexity, and increased number of medications were all significantly associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Retrospective studies and those relying on identification by the
Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others
Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…
Pneumonia is a serious medical pathology frequent in elderly people. The physiological changes of the respiratory system linked with age reduce postural drainage capacities and increase the risk of acute respiratory failure. Associated with other comorbidities, chronic inhalation is a major risk factor of pneumonia in elderly people. Prevention is based on vaccination, nutrition, dental care and an adapted diet.
Gale, C. R.; Martyn, C. N.; Winter, P. D.; Cooper, C.
OBJECTIVES--To determine whether vitamin C status, as measured by dietary intake and plasma ascorbic acid concentration, is related to mortality from stroke and coronary heart disease in people aged 65 and over. DESIGN--A 20 year follow up study of a cohort of randomly selected elderly people living in the community who had taken part in the 1973-4 Department of Health and Social Security nutritional survey and for whom dietary and other data had been recorded. SETTING--Eight areas in Britain (five in England, two in Scotland, and one in Wales). SUBJECTS--730 men and women who had completed a seven day dietary record and who had no history or symptoms of stroke, cerebral arteriosclerosis, or coronary heart disease when examined by a geriatrician in 1973-4. RESULTS--Mortality from stroke was highest in those with the lowest vitamin C status. Those in the highest third of the distribution of vitamin C intake had a relative risk of 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 0.8) compared with those in the lowest third, after adjustment for age, sex, and established cardiovascular risk factors. The relation between vitamin C intake and stroke was independent of social class and other dietary variables. A similar gradient in risk was present for plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. No association was found between vitamin C status and risk of death from coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION--In elderly people vitamin C concentration, whether measured by dietary intake or plasma concentration of ascorbic acid, is strongly related to subsequent risk of death from stroke but not from coronary heart disease. PMID:7787644
Smith, Nancy H.; Howze, Elizabeth Harper
Although there is a national emphasis on health promotion and preventive practices, questions remain regarding the equity of access to these services by low income and minority groups, and the implications of inequities for elder health. Data from a systematic survey of 500 public and private providers of health promotion services in northern…
McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J
Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality. This finding accords well with other epidemiology correlating relatively high protein intakes with lower risk for loss of lean mass and bone density in the elderly. Increased efficiency of protein translation reflecting increased leucine intake and consequent greater mTORC1 activity may play a role in this effect; however, at present there is little solid evidence that leucine supplementation provides important long-term benefits to the elderly. Aside from its potential pro-anabolic impact, higher dietary protein intakes may protect the elderly in another way-by providing increased amino acid substrate for synthesis of key protective factors. There is growing evidence, in both rodents and humans, that glutathione synthesis declines with increasing age, likely reflecting diminished function of Nrf2-dependent inductive mechanisms that boost expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), rate-limiting for glutathione synthesis. Intracellular glutathione blunts the negative impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell health and functions both by acting as an oxidant scavenger and by opposing the pro-inflammatory influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling. Fortunately, since GCL's K m for cysteine is close to intracellular cysteine levels, increased intakes of cysteine-achieved from whole proteins or via supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-can achieve a
Curiati, Pedro K.; Magaldi, Regina M.; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Bottino, Cassio M.C.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson
Background/Aims The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females) with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09), better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06) and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = −0.012, p = 0.07) at baseline. Conclusion Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings. PMID:25493090
Detrenis, Simona; Meschi, Michele; Bertolini, Laura; Savazzi, Giorgio
Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CMIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal dysfunction. Even if the number of patients over 75 years of age undergoing diagnostic and/or interventional procedures and requiring administration of contrast medium (CM) is growing constantly, at present there is no definitive consensus regarding the role of advancing age and related morphologic or functional renal changes as an independent risk factor for CMIN. The authors review the evidence from recent medical literature on the definition, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of CMIN as well as therapeutic approaches to its prophylaxis. Attention is focused on advancing age as a preexisting physiologic condition that is, per se, able to predispose the patient to CM-induced renal impairment, assuming that every elderly patient is potentially at risk for CMIN.
Wang, Taotao; Feng, Xiao; Zhou, Jingjing; Gong, Hongyan; Xia, Song; Wei, Qing; Hu, Xu; Tao, Ran; Li, Lei; Qian, Frank; Yu, Li
Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this study, we used a cross-sectional study with 1090 community-dwelling Chinese citizens aged 60 years and older to evaluate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the risk of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria that include both muscle mass and muscle function/physical activity. Pre-sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle index but with normal muscle/physical activity. The prevalence of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in healthy controls (14.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.035 for sarcopenia, and 14.4% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.002 for pre-sarcopenia). In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting by age, gender, anti-diabetic medication, energy intake, protein intake, physical activity, and visceral fat area, we found that Chinese elderly with T2DM exhibited significantly increased risks of sarcopenia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02–2.03) and pre-sarcopenia (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.10–2.83) compared to non-diabetic individuals. This is the first study to evaluate the association of T2DM with the risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in China. Among a group of community-dwelling Chinese elderly, T2DM was significantly associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. PMID:27958337
Maximos, Mira; Chang, Feng; Patel, Tejal
Background: Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. About a third of those aged 65 years or older fall at least once each year, which can result in hospitalizations, hip fractures and nursing home admissions that incur high costs to individuals, families and society. The objective of this clinical review was to assess the risk of falls in ambulatory older adults who take antiepileptic drugs, medications that can increase fall risk and decrease bone density. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2014. Case-control, quasi-experimental and observational design studies published in English that assessed quantifiable fall risk associated with antiepileptic drug use in ambulatory patient populations with a mean or median age of 65 years or older were eligible for inclusion. One author screened all titles and abstracts from the initial search. Two authors independently reviewed and abstracted data from full-text articles that met eligibility criteria. Results: Searches yielded 399 unique articles, of which 7 met inclusion criteria—4 prospective or longitudinal cohort studies, 1 cohort study with a nested case-control, 1 cross-sectional survey and 1 retrospective cross-sectional database analysis. Studies that calculated the relative risk of falls associated with antiepileptic drug use reported a range of 1.29 to 1.62. Studies that reported odds ratios of falls associated with antiepileptic drug use ranged from 1.75 to 6.2 for 1 fall or at least 1 fall and from 2.56 to 7.1 for more frequent falls. Discussion: Health care professionals should monitor older adults while they take antiepileptic drugs to balance the need for such pharmacotherapy against an increased risk of falling and injuries from falls.
Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Lip, Gregory Y H
-VASc =1 had a 1.9 fold increase in stroke risk, and those with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2 had more than four-fold increased risk for stroke, compared with those with CHA2DS2-VASc=0. In conclusion, an increasing cluster of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (besides AF) contributes to a greater risk for ischaemic stroke, especially in the elderly population. If elderly and with multiple risk factors, non-AF patients may have a risk of incident ischaemic stroke that is comparable or even higher than patients with AF, suggesting that the incremental stroke risk attributable to AF is marginal in such 'high risk' patients.
... Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 LDL (bad) cholesterol is ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol Guidelines: Putting the pieces together Myth vs. Truth – ...
Santos, Pedro P.; Silveira, Paula S. Da; Souza-Duran, Fabio L.; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline H.; Scazufca, Márcia; Menezes, Paulo R.; Leite, Claudia Da Costa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Vallada, Homero; Wajngarten, Maurício; De Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tânia C.; Rzezak, Patricia; Busatto, Geraldo F.
Cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors may be associated with poor cognitive functioning in elderlies and impairments in brain structure. Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we assessed regional white matter (WM) volumes in a population-based sample of individuals aged 65–75 years (n = 156), subdivided in three CVR subgroups using the Framingham Risk Score. Cognition was assessed using the Short Cognitive Performance Test. In high-risk subjects, we detected significantly reduced WM volume in the right juxtacortical dorsolateral prefrontal region compared to both low and intermediate CVR subgroups. Findings remained significant after accounting for the presence of the APOEε4 allele. Inhibitory control performance was negatively related to right prefrontal WM volume, proportionally to the degree of CVR. Significantly reduced deep parietal WM was also detected bilaterally in the high CVR subgroup. This is the first large study documenting the topography of CVR-related WM brain volume deficits. The significant association regarding poor response inhibition indicates that prefrontal WM deficits related to CVR are clinically meaningful, since inhibitory control is known to rely on prefrontal integrity. PMID:28184203
Kite, Edwin S.
Jupiter exploration is big science, and only the United States can afford self-contained missions to the gas giant and its four planet-sized moons. The Galileo spacecraft, which was recently flown into Jupiter to prevent it from contaminating Europa's ocean, cost $1.6 billion. Despite the failure of its High Gain Antenna (HGA), Galileo discovered briny, subsurface oceans on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto; globally mapped all four Galilean moons; monitored Io's volcanic activity; carried out a 7-year study of the Jovian magnetosphere; and dropped an atmospheric probe into Jupiter's upper cloud layer. Of these achievements, the most significant is the indirect detection of a deep subsurface liquid-water layer on Europa [Pappalardo et al., 1999; Kivelson et al., 2000]. The case for a Europan ecosystem can be made [e.g., Marion et al., 2004], although it is important to remember the energetic and biogeochemical limits on putative Europan life [e.g., Soare et al., 2002]. Europa's low moment of inertia (0.346 +/- 0.005 MR2) suggests a silicate mantle below the ocean, permitting chemical exchanges between ocean and silicates, as occurs on Earth. Europa's surface is geologically young, likely emplaced 20-180 million years ago. Any recycling of surficial icy crust into the ocean could add oxygen, sulfur, and organic compounds, either impact-delivered or generated in situ by UV irradiation and the implantation of ionized particles from Jupiter's radiation belts.
Chin, Bum Sik; Kim, Myung Soo; Han, Sang Hoon; Shin, So Youn; Choi, Hee Kyung; Chae, Yun Tae; Jin, Sung Joon; Baek, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, June Myung
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent cause of bacteremia/sepsis in elderly people and increasing antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens has been observed. To describe the characteristics of bacteremic UTI in elderly patients and to identify the independent risk factors of all-cause in-hospital mortality, a retrospective cohort study of bacteremic UTI patients of age over 65 was performed at a single 2000-bed tertiary hospital. Bacteremic UTI was defined as the isolation of the same organism from both urine and blood within 48 h. Eighty-six elderly bacteremic UTI patients were enrolled. Community-acquired infection was the case for most patients (79.1%), and Escherichia coli accounted for 88.6% (70/79) among Gram-negative organisms. Non-E. coli Gram-negative organisms were more frequent in hospital-acquired cases and male patients while chronic urinary catheter insertion was related with Gram-positive urosepsis. The antibiotic susceptibility among Gram-negative organisms was not different depending on the source of bacteremic UTI, while non-E. coli Gram-negative organisms were less frequently susceptible for cefotaxime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and aztreonam. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 11.6%, and functional dependency (adjusted hazard ratio=HR=10.9, 95% confidence interval=95%CI=2.2-54.6) and low serum albumin (adjusted HR=27.0, 95%CI=2.0-361.2) were independently related with increased all-cause in-hospital mortality.
Herr, Marie; Latouche, Aurélien; Ankri, Joël
Homebound status is associated with poorer physical and mental health, as well as disability in the elderly. We aimed to examine the prevalence and the role of homebound status on mortality in a representative sample of the French non-institutionalized population. This study included 7497 people aged 65 and over who were interviewed in 1999 and 2001 about the consequences of health problems on activities of daily living. Homebound status was defined as staying permanently inside the home, excluding an accident or a temporary illness. The influence of the homebound status on two-year mortality was assessed in a logistic regression model adjusted for the main confounders (age, sex, living as a couple, physical and mental impairments). The prevalence of homebound status was 4.7% (95% CI: 3.9-5.4) in this study. The number of homebound elderly was estimated at 421000 in France. The prevalence of homebound status increases with age and reaches 33.9% in people aged 95-99 years (95% CI: 13.1-54.6). Compared to non-homebound subjects, homebound elderly were more likely to be female, widower, to live alone and to have had a former low level job. Homebound status was associated with a number of physical and mental impairments. It increased the risk of dying within two years with an adjusted OR 3.45 (95% CI: 2.66-4.46). Homebound status should be considered as an indicator of frailty and used in the identification of old people likely to benefit from preventive interventions.
Han, Bin; Liu, Yating; You, Yan; Xu, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Bai, Zhipeng
Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by the lack of environmental exposure data among different subpopulations. To assess the exposure cancer risk of particulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution for the elderly, this study conducted a personal exposure measurement campaign for particulate PAHs in a community of Tianjin, a city in northern China. Personal exposure samples were collected from the elderly in non-heating (August-September, 2009) and heating periods (November-December, 2009), and 12 PAHs individuals were analyzed for risk estimation. Questionnaire and time-activity log were also recorded for each person. The probabilistic risk assessment model was integrated with Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFs). Considering that the estimation of the applied dose for a given air pollutant is dependent on the inhalation rate, the inhalation rate from both EPA exposure factor book was applied to calculate the carcinogenic risk in this study. Monte Carlo simulation was used as a probabilistic risk assessment model, and risk simulation results indicated that the inhalation-ILCR values for both male and female subjects followed a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.81 × 10(-6) and 4.57 × 10(-6), respectively. Furthermore, the 95 % probability lung cancer risks were greater than the USEPA acceptable level of 10(-6) for both men and women through the inhalation route, revealing that exposure to PAHs posed an unacceptable potential cancer risk for the elderly in this study. As a result, some measures should be taken to reduce PAHs pollution and the exposure level to decrease the cancer risk for the general population, especially for the elderly.
Schuur, E.A.G.; Abbott, B.; Koven, C.D,; Riley, W.J.; Subin, Z.M.; al, et
In the Arctic, temperatures are rising fast, and permafrost is thawing. Carbon released to the atmosphere from permafrost soils could accelerate climate change, but the likely magnitude of this effect is still highly uncertain. A collective estimate made by a group of permafrost experts, including myself, is that carbon could be released more quickly than models currently suggest, and at levels that are cause for serious concern. While our models of carbon emission from permafrost thaw are lacking, experts intimately familiar with these landscapes and processes have accumulated knowledge about what they expect to happen, based on both quantitative data and qualitative understanding of these systems. We (the authors of this piece) attempted to quantify this expertise through a survey developed over several years, starting in 2009. Our survey asked experts what percentage of surface permafrost they thought was likely to thaw, how much carbon would be released, and how much of that would be methane, for three time periods and under four warming scenarios that are part of the new IPCC Fifth Assessment Report.
Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W
Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%).
Coco, L; Giannone, T T; Zarbo, G
Today, 88% of pregnancies has a physiological course during which just basic care, while in 12% of cases there is a high-risk pregnancy that requires additional assistance and specific. The approach that should be used is that of supervision in all pregnant women considering their potential to have a normal pregnancy until there is no clear evidence to the contrary. Pregnancy is considered at risk if there are medical conditions that may affect maternal or fetal health or life of the mother, fetus or both. Among the risk factors for pregnancy there is first the woman's age, in fact the increase in high-risk pregnancies in the last 20 years is attributable to the increase in the average age of women who face pregnancy. In addition, the diet is very important during pregnancy and diabetes or autoimmune diseases often lead to the failure of a pregnancy. Risk factors for pregnancy, also, are the complications that occur during its course as hypertension during pregnancy, and infectious diseases. Fears and anxieties typical of a high-risk pregnancy prevent the couple to live happily in the months of gestation. Effective communication, control and early detection are important tools that doctors must be able to ensure that women in order to plan the best treatment strategies and to minimize the risks of maternal and / or fetal.
Woodman, Tim; Barlow, Matt; Bandura, Comille; Hill, Miles; Kupciw, Dominika; Macgregor, Alexandra
Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI's good model-data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.
Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Wen-Shang; Li, Min; Tang, Zhen-Yu
Evidence has demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids intake may be associated with age-related cognitive decline. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have drawn inconsistent conclusions. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between omega-3 fatty acids and risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (updated to December 2014) was performed. We retrieved six randomized controlled studies as eligible for our meta-analysis. Among these six studies, the duration time ranged from 3 to 40 months. The dose of omega-3 fatty acids (DHA + EPA) ranged from 400 to 1800 mg. The result of our meta-analysis expressed that omega-3 fatty acids statistically decrease the rate of cognitive decline in MMSE score (WMD = 0.15, [0.05, 0.25]; p = 0.003). In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated that omega-3 fatty acids may help to prevent cognitive decline in the elderly.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Ines, Joanna Louise C.; Inofinada, Nina Josefa A.; Ituralde, Nielson Louie J.; Janolo, John Robert E.; Jerezo, Jnyv L.; Jhun, Hyae Suk J.
While a number of empirical studies have been conducted regarding risk for falls among the elderly, there is still a paucity of similar studies in a developing country like the Philippines. This study purports to test through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) a model that shows the interaction between and among nutrition, balance, fear of…
Yao, Jin-Lan; Fang, Juan; Lou, Qing-Qing; Anderson, Robert M
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) Tool in identifying elderly patients at risk of adverse outcomes after a visit to the emergency department (ED). Since older adults are frequently sent to the ED, screening for risk of adverse outcomes in elderly patients is increasingly important in the ED. Also it is a way to ensure that interventions based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) are provided to patients identified at risk to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. The ISAR is a six-item risk-screening tool for elderly patients seen in the ED. However the predictive validity of ISAR is controversial. Relevant studies from January 1999 through December 2014 were searched systematically in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, CINAHL, Elsevier ScienceDirect databases. The language was restricted to English. This review was based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Reviews. Ten studies (8680 patients) were included in this review. With a cutoff score at least 2, the ISAR was proved to have poor validity related to revisiting the ED (AUC: 0.59-0.60) and hospital readmission (AUC: 0.59-0.60). The predictive validity of the ISAR related to mortality and composite outcomes was graded as poor to fair. It is not suitable to use the ISAR alone for identifying seniors at risk for adverse outcomes in the ED.
Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3), but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein. Conclusion A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk
Srilatha, Balasubramanian; Adaikan, P Ganesan
Oestrogens are not exclusive to the female gender but occur in moderate circulating levels of 25-70 pg ml⁻¹ in men, compared to 44-153 pg ml⁻¹ in women. Arising from aromatisation of testosterone (T), oestrogen is considered to have many opposing physiological functions and the progressive T decline in the aging male is associated with relative and/or absolute increase in serum oestradiol (E₂). Sexual disinterest and erectile dysfunction (ED) in the elderly may well be due to pathophysiological E₂-T imbalance; the altered hormonal ratio may also explain the higher incidence of ED in hyperestrogenism or following exposure to environmental/plant oestrogens.
Antal, Magda; Regöly-Mérei, Andrea
Demographic data appear to demonstrate an increase in the number and ratio of elderly world-wide. Authors give a short survey on physiological alterations occurring at older age, on methods suitable for assessing nutritional status and criticism thereof. Nutritional and life style habits are also discussed. Prevalence of obesity and undernutrition and their sequelae are likewise presented. Diagnosis of undernutrition by using questionnaire can significantly improve the efficiency of family doctors' activity. Authors provide recommendations for improving nutrition and life style in healthy persons with optimal body mass, and for obese and undernourished subjects.
Weijenberg, M P; Feskens, E J; Kromhout, D
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in total and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations with age and time in elderly men. METHODS: A cohort of men born between 1900 and 1920 from the Dutch town of Zutphen was examined in 1977 and 1978 (n = 571), 1985 (n = 885), 1990 (n = 555), and 1993 (n = 345). Linear regression analysis and random-effects models were used to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal age- and time-related changes in cholesterol concentrations. RESULTS: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, total cholesterol decreased by 0.04 mmol/L a year with age. The longitudinal change was observed in the entire population as well as in men who participated in all four examinations (n = 135) and in a subgroup of men who were free of common chronic diseases, were not on cholesterol-lowering medication or a prescribed diet, and rated themselves as being "healthy" (n = 64). HDL cholesterol did not change significantly with age neither on a cross-sectional nor on a longitudinal basis. CONCLUSIONS: Among elderly men, total cholesterol diminishes with age both on a cross-sectional and on a longitudinal basis; HDL cholesterol does not vary with age in any way. PMID:8659652
Walker, R; Swartz, C M
Pregnancy increases the risk of injury associated with mental illness. The varieties of malnutrition, substance abuse, and aggression that may accompany mental illness can injure the unborn child in more severe ways than the patient herself. Dangers associated with illness-related behavior can outweight the risks of pharmacotherapy, but no psychotropic drug is approved for use during pregnancy. Failure to produce a prompt or lasting remission of psychiatric symptoms also is a significant possibility with medication. The morbidity from continued illness and the incompletely described adverse effects of psychotropic drugs increases the attractiveness of ECT for severely depressed pregnant patients, especially with associated high-risk conditions. This paper discusses physiologic changes occurring during pregnancy and ECT and reviews contemporary monitors of maternal and fetal well-being. Guidelines are suggested for ECT during regular and high-risk pregnancies. The authors conclude that using additional precautions with high-risk pregnant patients permits ECT to be given with relative safety; medical and obstetric risk factors need not prevent its use.
Feldstein, Jerome H.; Feldman, Barbara
Risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among young and elderly adults were investigated. Elderly subjects, from both a nursing home and the community, and college students responded to choice dilemmas involving aged central characters. Each subject responded twice, once under "self" instructions, and once as the "average elderly person" would…
Kromhout, D.; Wibowo, A.A.E.; Herber, R.F.M.; Dalderup, L.M.; Heerdink, H.; de Lezenne Coulander, C.; Zielhuis, R.L.
Information about trace metals and coronary heart disease risk indicators was collected in 1977 among 152 men aged 57-76 years in the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands. Serum zinc, serum copper, blood cadmium, and blood lead were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and serum lithium by flame emission spectrometry. After uni- and multivariate regression analysis, the following statistically significant relations were found: serum zinc was inversely related to resting heart rate; serum copper was positively related to cigarette smoking and inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol; blood cadmium was strongly positively related to cigarette smoking and inversely to Quetelet index; the positive relation between blood lead and cigarette smoking was of borderline significance; and blood lead was related to blood pressure, with the relation being stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure.
Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients. Images p1396-a PMID:8324408
Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Bots, Michiel L; de Valk, Vincent; Visseren, Frank L J; Grobbee, Diederick E
The initial theoretical concept of a polypill was a fixed-dosed combination pill containing an antiplatelet agent, a cholesterol-lowering agent and multiple blood pressure-lowering agents aimed at the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the population aged 55 years and up. The reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease does not depend on the cholesterol level and blood pressure at the start of treatment. The pharmacological reduction in risk factors in individuals with a high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease is often suboptimal, partly due to the complexity of the guidelines and low adherence to the therapy. A polypill may offer opportunities for improvement. Research has shown that the use of combination products leads to a greater reduction in risk factors than the use of separate substances, possibly through improved adherence to the therapy. The use of a polypill in the prevention of vascular disease in high-risk patients may lead to a more effective reduction in risk, a decrease in costs and a reduction in pharmacological expenditure.
Zasadzka, Ewa; Borowicz, Adrianna Maria; Roszak, Magdalena; Pawlaczyk, Mariola
Background Falling in the elderly results in a significant number of admissions to hospitals and long-term care facilities, especially among patients with lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA). Objective The aim of the study was to assess the risk of falling in adults older than 60 years with OA using timed up and go (TUG) test. Materials and methods A total of 187 patients (aged >60 years) were enrolled in the study. The assessment included: basic activities of daily living (ADLs), lower extremity strength with the use of the 30-second chair stand test (30 CST), and assessment of the risk of falling (TUG test). Pain intensity was evaluated with the numeric rating scale (NRS). Results The TUG test results were significantly better in younger OA patients (aged 60–69 years), as compared with their older peers (aged 70–79 years; P<0.01) and the oldest group (aged >80 years; P<0.001). Also, the 30 CST results were significantly higher in younger OA patients (P<0.05). Subjects older than 80 years had a significantly worse ADL score (P<0.05 and P<0.001). Pain complaints were reported significantly more frequently by women than men (P<0.05). A correlation between age and the TUG test score (r=0.412; P<0.0004) as well as between the TUG test and the 30 CST scores (r=0.7368; P=0.000) was detected. In the group with the TUG test score of <13.5 seconds, the 30 CST (P<0.0001) and ADL (P<0.003) results were significantly better. A comparison of fallers vs nonfallers revealed that the number of falls was significantly higher in the group of subjects who scored ≥13.5 when compared to <13.5 (P=0.003). Fallers significantly more often reported pain (P<0.0001), whereas nonfallers had significantly better 30 CST results (P=0.0003). Conclusion Elderly population with OA is at an elevated risk of falling, which increases with progressing age, pain, and muscle weakness. It seems prudent to identify individuals at a high risk of falling and to propose an adequate treatment for them
Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Nguyen, Tuan V; Au, Amy; Bullock, Martyn; Cameron, Ian; Cumming, Robert; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn M; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N
CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1α-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25-dihydroxylated metabolite. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the CYP27B1 promoter are associated with fracture risk. The study was designed as a population-based genetic association study, which involved 153 men and 596 women aged 65-101 years, who had been followed for 2.2 years (range 0.1-5.5) between 1999 and 2006. During the follow-up period, the incidence of fragility fractures was ascertained. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in all individuals, as were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations; 86% subjects had vitamin D insufficiency. Genotypes were determined for the -1260C>A (rs10877012) and +2838T>C (rs4646536) CYP27B1 polymorphisms. A reporter gene assay was used to assess functional expression of the -1260C>A CYP27B1 variants. The association between genotypes and fracture risk was analyzed by Cox's proportional hazards model. We found that genotypic distribution of CYP27B1 -1260 and CYP27B1 +2838 polymorphisms was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. The two polymorphisms were in high linkage disequilibrium, with D' = 0.96 and r² = 0.94. Each C allele of the CYP27B1 -1260 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of fracture (hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.73), after adjustment for age, sex, number of falls, and BUA. In transient transfection studies, a reporter gene downstream of the -1260(A)-containing promoter was more highly expressed than that containing the C allele. These data suggest that a common but functional variation within the CYP27B1 promoter gene is associated with fracture risk in the elderly.
Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Herrstedt, Jørn
There is a global and continuing increase in the population of elderly people. This is particularly true among patients with cancer including those receiving chemotherapy. There are no guidelines that in particular address prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in the elderly. Elderly have a potential decreased risk of CINV due to the fact that they are often treated with less emetic chemotherapy and due to the fact that high age is protective. On the other hand, elderly have an increased risk of toxicity from antiemetics due to age-related decrease in organ function, use of poly-pharmacy with increased risk of drug-drug interactions and due to co-morbidity. Compliance needs to be carefully evaluated, particularly in patients with high risk of non-compliance, such as elderly with dementia and impaired vision.
Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila
OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095
Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.
The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.
Barber, Kirk A.
The hand is the most commonly involved site in occupation — related skin disease, and contact eczema is the most common diagnosis. The identification of workers at high risk for this condition is possible and will help in their management and assessment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248925
Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...
A worker pours concrete as part of a nitrogen risk mitigation project at the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The concrete slab will provide the foundation needed to place new pumps at the site and is part of ongoing hurricane-related mitigation work at Stennis.
Connett, Dian; Rathburn, Rene
This resource book contains innovative group activities, units of instruction, writing packets, and math activities that were developed to serve high-risk adult basic education (ABE) students. Included in the first section are units of study dealing with the following topics: Oregon history, personal health issues, controversial issues in science,…
Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming
White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in China. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.
Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.
Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…
Houfflin-Debarge, V; Closset, E; Deruelle, P
Intrapartum asphyxia is increased in several situations such as intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, postdate pregnancy or maternal diabetes. In all these cases, fetal heart rate monitoring should be preferred to intermittent auscultation. Fetal scalp blood pH or lactates can be used to identify fetuses at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. However, fetal scalp blood sampling should not delay delivery in case of severe abnormal fetal heart rate as fetal asphyxia could occur rapidly in theses high-risk pregnancies. Data is insufficient to recommend fetal pulse oximetry or ECG analysis. Research should be undertaken to evaluate their performance in these situations.
Jacqmin, H; Commenges, D; Letenneur, L; Barberger-Gateau, P; Dartigues, J F
The relation between aluminum, fluorine, calcium, and pH in drinking water and the risk for cognitive impairment was studied using data collected in 1988-1989 in a population-based survey of 3,777 French men and women aged 65 years and older (the Paquid study). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score lower than 24 on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data related to drinking water came from two prospective measurement surveys whose reliability was checked by a variability study. A mixed effects logistic regression was performed, adjusting for the effects of the age, sex, educational level, and occupation of the participants. A significant protective effect was found for high calcium concentration (odds ratio = 0.8 for a concentration > or = 75 mg vs. < 75 mg, p = 0.015). For aluminum, no significant effect was found when pH was not included in the model, but the results showed a weak interaction between aluminum and pH. When the four variables (calcium, aluminum, pH, and aluminum x pH interaction) were considered in the statistical analysis as a group, this group was significantly related to cognitive impairment (p = 0.01).
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lai, Chun-Fu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Sheng-Jen
Geographic remoteness has been found to influence health-related outcomes negatively. As reported in the literature, rural dialysis patients have a higher risk of mortality with increasing travel distance to dialysis units. However, few studies have focused on the impact of travel distances on the development of dialysis complications. We utilized a prospectively collected chronic hemodialysis patient cohort from a rural regional hospital for analysis. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and serum laboratory results were obtained. Correlation analyses between travel distance to dialysis units and dialysis complications were conducted, and significantly correlated parameters were entered into multivariate logistic regression models to determine their exact associations. A total of 46 rural chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled, with an average age higher than others in the literature. Significant correlation was found between travel distance and serum hemoglobin levels (R(2) = -0.34, P value = 0.029). Multivariate logistic regression found that every 1 km increase in travel distance was associated with an increased risk of anemia (hemoglobin <9 g/dL) (odds ratio 1.46; P value = 0.01). Sensitivity analyses further showed that the associated risk was partially attenuated by serum albumin (odds ratio 1.83; P value = 0.07) and ferritin (odds ratio 1.39; P value = 0.08) levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between increased travel distance to dialysis units and the risk of anemia in chronic dialysis patients, especially elderly. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome could be partially responsible for the observed association. Further research is required to confirm our findings.
Yardimci, Bulent; Aran, Sinan N.; Ozkaya, Ismail; Aksoy, Sevki M.; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Y.
Objectives: To determine the relation among the risk of falls, geriatric assessment, and anthropometric measurements, including the mini mental state examination, geriatric depression scale, handgrip test, and key pinch test. Methods: This prospective study included 89 residents hospitalized between May 2014 and September 2015 in the geriatric care unit of the Istanbul Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were followed-up for one year, and their falls were recorded. Medical records of the included patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: A total of 89 patients, comprising 37 men and 52 women with an average age of 75.8 ± 8.2 years were included in the study. The residents’ annual falling averages were 1.0 ± 1.5. The most significant factors were identified to be predicted muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, whole body bioimpedance, dominant arm muscle strength, dominant arm bioimpedance, and free fat mass. Conclusions: The mini mental test, geriatric depression scale and lawton-brody scale combined with the handgrip, 6-meters walking, and bioimpedance tests are favorable for detecting the risk of falls and recurrent falls in vulnerable elderly nursing home residents. PMID:27652361
Takata, Kohei; Zhang, Bo; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Saku, Keijiro
The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) is increasing globally and they have become the leading cause of death in most countries. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to identify major risk factors and effective control strategies for ASCVDs. The development of imaging modalities with the ability to determine the plaque composition enables us to further identify high-risk plaque and evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment strategies. While intensive lipid-lowering by statins can stabilize or even regress plaque by various mechanisms, such as the reduction of lipid accumulation in a necrotic lipid core, the reduction of inflammation, and improvement of endothelial function, there are still considerable residual risks that need to be understood. We reviewed important findings regarding plaque vulnerability and some encouraging emerging approaches for plaque stabilization. PMID:27500090
Yoo, Jun-Il; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Background Despite increasing concern regarding health problems as a result of environmental pollutants, no association of toxic heavy metals with sarcopenia has been demonstrated in the general population. We investigated the association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury and cadmium, with sarcopenia in the Korean population. Methods Participants included 344 males and 360 females older than 65 years based on data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. Measurements of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels were performed. To evaluate the cumulative effect of the three heavy metals, subjects were categorized into quartiles. Sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) (SMI<5.4 kg/m2 in females and <7.0 kg/m2 in males). Results Of 704 elderly persons (344 in males and 360 in females), prevalences of sarcopenia were 26.7% (92/344) in male and 7.5% (27/360) in female. Mean serum levels of lead in sarcopenia group were significantly higher than non-sarcopenia males (P=0.03). After adjustment for confounding factors, odds ratio for sarcopenia were increased with concentration category of lead (P=0.005 and P<0.001), mercury (P=0.001 and P<0.001) and cadmium (P=0.010 and P<0.001) in males and females, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that high levels of blood lead, mercury and cadmium increase the prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders of elderly populations. PMID:27294082
Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; R. Ulimoen, Sara; Enger, Steve; Bratseth, Vibeke; Arnesen, Harald; Tveit, Arnljot
Background The importance of endothelial dysfunction in atrial fibrillation (AF) is not clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate endothelial dysfunction assessed by selected inflammatory and haemostatic endothelial markers and nitric oxide (NO) associated variables as related to the presence of AF in an elderly population. NO is known to express anti-thrombotic as well as vasoactive properties. Methods This is a cross sectional study of 75-year old subjects with AF (n = 62) and control subjects in sinus rhythm (n = 124), matched for gender. Fasting blood samples were collected for analyses of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO-synthase, L-arginine, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Results Levels of vWF and ADMA were significantly higher in AF patients vs controls (P = 0.023 and P < 0.001, respectively) and the L-arginine/ADMA ratios were lower (P = 0.015), the latters still significant after adjustment for relevant covariates (P = 0.007 and P = 0.037, respectively). No significant differences in the levels of VCAM-1 and E-selectin were observed between the groups. When dividing the ADMA levels into quartiles there was a significant trend for having AF with increasing levels of ADMA (P < 0.001) with a cut-off at the 25th percentile (< 0.54 µmol/L), giving an adjusted OR for having AF of 12.46 (95% CI 3.11 - 49.86) (P < 0.001) with higher levels. A similar inverse trend was seen for the L-arginine/ADMA ratio. Conclusion Our population of 75-year-old AF patients had significantly impaired endothelial function assessed by increased levels of vWF, and more pronounced by high levels of ADMA. The results indicate AF in the elderly to be closely associated with the regulatory pathway of NO.
Roh, Hyun Woong; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Yunhwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Lee, Kang Soo; Chang, Ki Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Jinhee; Lee, SooJin; Back, Joung Hwan; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jai Sung; Kim, Dongsoo; Son, Sang Joon
Background We examined the longitudinal association between participation in individual or combinations of physical, social, and religious activity and risk of depression in the elderly. Methods Elderly subjects aged ≥60 years who completed the Living Profiles of Older People Survey in Korea (n = 6,647) were included. The baseline assessment, Wave 1, was conducted in 2008, and a follow-up assessment, Wave 2, was conducted in 2011. We defined participation in frequent physical activity as ≥3 times weekly (at least 30 minutes per activity). Frequent participation in social and religious activity was defined as ≥1 activity weekly. The primary outcome was depression at 3-year follow up. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that subjects who participated in frequent physical, social, and religious activity had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.96), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75–1.00), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67–0.90), respectively, compared with participants who did not participate in each activity. Participants who participated in only one type of activity frequently and participants who participated in two or three types of activities frequently had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75–0.98) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.52–0.79), respectively, compared with participants who did not participate in any type of physical, social, and religious activity frequently. Conclusion Participation in physical, social, and religious activity was associated with decreased risk of depression in the elderly. In addition, risk of depression was much lower in the elderly people who participated in two or three of the above-mentioned types of activity than that in the elderly who did not. PMID:26172441
... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...
Lee, Sei J.; Boscardin, W. John; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Huang, Elbert S.; Rice-Trumble, Kathy; Eng, Catherine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To determine the hypo- and hyper-glycemic outcomes associated with implementing the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) guideline for Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)<8% in frail older patients with diabets. DESIGN/SETTING Guideline Implementation in PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) PARTICIPANTS All patients in the Before (10/02–12/04, n=338), Early (1/05–6/06, n=289) and Late phases of guideline implementation (7/06–12/08, n=385) with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and at least one HbA1c measurement. INTERVENTION Clinician education in 2005 with annual monitoring of the proportion of each clinician’s patients with diabetes with HbA1c<8%. MEASUREMENTS Hypoglycemia (Blood sugar or BS<50), hyperglycemia (BS>400) and severe hypoglycemia (Emergency room or ER visit for hypoglycemia) RESULTS Before, Early and Late groups were similar in mean age, race/ethnicity, comorbidity and functional dependency. Antihyperglycemic medication use increased with more patients using metformin (28% Before versus 42% Late, p<0.001) and insulin (23% Before versus 34% Late, p<0.001), with more patients achieving the AGS glycemic target of HbA1c<8% (74% Before versus 84% Late, p<0.001). Episodes of hyperglycemia (per 100 person-years) decreased dramatically (159 Before versus 46 Late, p<0.001) and episodes of hypoglycemia were unchanged (10.1 versus 9.3, p=0.50). Episodes of severe hypoglycemia were increased in the Early period (1.1 Before versus 2.9 Early, p=0.03). CONCLUSION Implementing the AGS glycemic control guideline for frail elders led to fewer hyperglycemic episodes, but more severe hypoglycemic episodes requiring ER visits in the Early implementation period. Future glycemic control guideline implementation efforts should be coupled with close monitoring for severe hypoglycemia in the early implementation period. PMID:21480838
Turagam, Mohit K; Velagapudi, Poonam; Flaker, Greg C
Stroke prevention in elderly atrial fibrillation patients remains a challenge. There is a high risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism but also a high risk of bleeding if anticoagulants are prescribed. The elderly have increased chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, polypharmacy, and overall frailty. For all these reasons, anticoagulant use is underutilized in the elderly. In this manuscript, the benefits of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in the elderly patient population with multiple comorbid conditions are reviewed. PMID:26366064
Tsai, Alan C; Lee, Li-Chin; Wang, Jiun-Yi
Physical functional ability and nutritional status are two major indicators for predicting the risk of mortality in older adults. The present study examined the complementarity of the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for predicting follow-up 4-year all-cause mortality risk in elderly Taiwanese. We analysed data of the 'Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan', a population-based longitudinal cohort study which involved 2872 men and women of ≥ 65 years old at baseline (1999). We rated their functional dependency with the ADL scale and nutritional status with the MNA (both the long form, LF and the short form, SF) at baseline, and analysed the complementarity of the two scales in predicting follow-up 4-year all-cause mortality with Cox regression analysis and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) to quantify the improvement. The results showed that both ADL and MNA offered improvement in predicting follow-up mortality risk beyond that predicted by either one alone according to the Akaike information criterion and the NRI. The MNA-SF was nearly as effective as the MNA-LF in improving the predictive ability of the ADL. The present study suggests that the MNA (especially the SF because of its simplicity and time-saving feature) together with the ADL scale might be of value for predicting the mortality risk of frail elderly living in various settings.
Isaia, Gianluca; Corsinovi, Laura; Bo, Mario; Santos-Pereira, Poliana; Michelis, Giuliana; Aimonino, Nicoletta; Zanocchi, Mauro
Insomnia can determine an increase in falls and accidents, hospitalization and nursing home placement. The aims of our study are to evaluate prevalence, clinical characteristics and predictors of sleep disorders in elderly inpatients admitted to a Geriatric Acute Care Ward. This longitudinal observational study consecutively recruited patients aged 65 and older admitted to a Geriatric Acute Care Unit between January the 1st 2007 and June 31st 2007. During the 3rd day of length of stay (LOS), patients were asked if they suffered with sleep disorders. Patients reporting sleep disturbances during the first 3 days of LOS were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for insomnia, comorbidity, self-rated health, functional status, cognitive impairment and pain. Of the 280 subjects investigated, 80 referred sleep disorders during LOS with a prevalence of 36.7%. Patients with sleep problems scored significantly worse on the cumulative index rating scale (CIRS) severity index (p=0.007), on the numeric rating scale (NRS) (p=0.01) and on the activities of daily living (ADL) scale (p<0.001). The CIRS severity index resulted the best predictor for insomnia related to hospitalization (OR 7.9, SE 0.85, p=0.01). The knowledge of insomnia predictors might help in planning preventive strategies to improve patients' global health status and quality of life.
Christ, Winifred R.; And Others
Tested ability of 16-item high-risk screening list to accurately predict high-risk status by comparing admission and discharge high-risk scores for 448 patients with range of psychiatric disorders. Sixty-six percent of patients rated high risk at admission were identically rated at discharge. (Author/NB)
Park, Seong-Hi; Lee, Young-Shin; Kwon, Young-Mi
Preventing pressure ulcers is one of the most challenging goals existing for today's health care provider. Currently used tools which assess risk of pressure ulcer development rarely evaluate the accuracy of predictability, especially in older adults. The current study aimed at providing a systemic review and meta-analysis of 29 studies using three pressure ulcer risk assessment tools: Braden, Norton, and Waterlow Scales. Overall predictive validities of pressure ulcer risks in the pooled sensitivity and specificity indicated a similar range with a moderate accuracy level in all three scales, while heterogeneity showed more than 80% variability among studies. The studies applying the Braden Scale used five different cut-off points representing the primary cause of heterogeneity. Results indicate that commonly used screening tools for pressure ulcer risk have limitations regarding validity and accuracy for use with older adults due to heterogeneity among studies.
Background We aimed at identifying variables predicting hypoglycemia in elderly type 2 diabetic patients and the relation to HbA1c values achieved. Design Prospective, observational registry in 3810 patients in primary care. Comparison of patients in different age tertiles: with an age < 60 (young, n=1,253), age 60 to < 70 (middle aged, n=1,184) to those ≥ 70 years (elderly, n=1,373). Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined from univariable and multivariable regression analyses. Results Elderly patients had a later diabetes diagnosis, a longer diabetes duration, better glucose control and more frequent co-morbid disease conditions. Overall 10.7% of patients experienced any severity hypoglycemia within the last 12 months prior to inclusion. Higher rates of hypoglycemia were observed in the elderly than in the young after adjusting for differences in HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose (OR 1.68; 95%CI 1.16-2.45). This was particularly true for hypoglycemic episodes without specific symptoms (OR 1.74; 95%CI 1.05-2.89). In a multivariate model stroke / transitory ischemic attack, the presence of heart failure, clinically relevant depression, sulfonylurea use and blood glucose self-measurement were associated with hypoglycemic events. Conclusion Elderly patients are at an increased risk of hypoglycemia even at comparable glycemic control. Therefore identified variables associated with hypoglycemia in the elderly such as heart failure, clinically relevant depression, the use of sulfonylurea help to optimize the balance between glucose control and low levels of hypoglycemia. Asymptomatic hypoglycemia should not be disregarded as irrelevant but considered as a sign of possible hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure. PMID:23039216
Interests a • Improving Federal Oversight of Food Safety a • Protecting Public Health through Enhanced Oversight of Medical Products a • Transforming...255 Improving Federal Oversight of Food Safety 262 Protecting Public Health through Enhanced Oversight of Medical Products 268 Contents...has been sufficient for us to narrow the scope of the high-risk issue. Specifically, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made progress by
Gluck, Mark A; Myers, Catherine E; Nicolle, Michelle M; Johnson, Sterling
We have pursued an interdisciplinary research program to develop novel behavioral assessment tools for evaluating specific memory impairments following damage to the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and associated structures that show pathology early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our approach uses computational models to identify the functional consequences of hippocampal-region damage, leading to testable predictions in both rodents and humans. Our modeling argues that hippocampal-region dysfunction may selectively impair the ability to generalize when familiar information is presented in novel recombinations. Previous research has shown that specific reductions in hippocampal volume in non-demented elderly individuals correlate with future development of AD. In two previous studies, we tested non-demented elderly with and without mild hippocampal atrophy (HA) on stimulus-response learning tasks. Individuals with and without HA could learn the initial information, but the HA group was selectively impaired on transfer tests where familiar features and objects were recombined. This suggests that such generalization deficits may be behavioral markers of HA, and an early indicator of risk for subsequent cognitive decline. Converging support for the relevance of these tasks to aging and Alzheimer's disease comes from our recent fMRI studies of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Activity in the hippocampus declines with progressive training on these tasks, suggesting that the hippocampus is important for learning new stimulus representations that support subsequent transfer. Individuals with HA may be able to learn, but in a more hippocampal-independent fashion that does not support later transfer. Ultimately, this line of research could lead to a novel battery of behavioral tests sensitive to very mild hippocampal atrophy and risk for decline to AD, allowing early diagnosis and also allowing researchers to test new Alzheimer
Honigh-de Vlaming, R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Ziylan, C.; Renes, R. J.
Background: Healthy Ageing is a complex intervention aimed at reducing the prevalence of loneliness among elderly Dutch people. Purpose: This study aimed to assess how mass media communication materials, information meetings, and psychosocial courses were received by elderly people at high risk of loneliness. Methods: Face-to-face interviews with…
Tsai, H-T; Isaacs, C; Fu, A Z; Warren, J L; Freedman, A N; Barac, A; Huang, C-Y; Potosky, A L
Randomized controlled trials have reported a 4-5 times increased risk of heart failure (HF) in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab (Herceptin (®) ) compared to patients who do not receive trastuzumab. However, data regarding the cardiac effects of trastuzumab on elderly patients treated in general practice remain very limited. Using the US surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study on the cardiac effects of trastuzumab use in all incident breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2007 who were 66 years and older, had no prior recent claims for cardiomyopathy (CM) or HF, and were followed through 2009. We defined our outcome as the first CM/HF event after diagnosis. We performed Cox-proportional hazard models with propensity score adjustment to estimate CM/HF risk associated with trastuzumab use. A total of 6,829 out of 68,536 breast cancer patients (median age: 75) had an incident CM/HF event. Patients who received trastuzumab tended to be younger, non-white, diagnosed more recently, and had a stage IV diagnosis. Trastuzumab use was associated with an increased risk of CM/HF (HR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.77-2.44, p < 0.001). The trastuzumab-associated CM/HF risk was stronger in patients who were younger (HR = 2.52 for 66-75 years and HR = 1.44 for 76 years and older, p < 0.001) and diagnosed in recent years (HR = 2.58 for 2006-2007 vs. 1.86 for 1998-2005, p = 0.01). The twofold risk of CM/HF associated with trastuzumab remained regardless of patients' diagnosis stage, presence of hypertension, cardiovascular comorbidities, or receipt of anthracyclines, taxanes, or radiation. Trastuzumab may double CM/HF risk among elderly breast cancer patients. Our findings reinforce the need to prevent and manage cardiac risk among elderly breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab.
Spoelstra, Sandra; Given, Barbara; von Eye, Alexander; Given, Charles
The aim of this predictive study was to test a structural model to establish predictors of fall risk. An aging and nursing model of care was synthesized and used to examine 6912 older adult participants who are low income, using the Minimum Data Set in a community setting in the Midwest. Data analysis established relationships among age, race, a history of a previous fall, depression, pain, and ADLs, IADLs, incontinence, vision, and cognitive status. Factors leading to fall risk can direct nursing activities that have the potential to prevent falls, improving quality of life. PMID:20128528
Bredin, C; Margery, J; Bordier, L; Mayaudon, H; Dupuy, O; Vergeau, B; Bauduceau, B
Amoebiasis is the second most common parasitic disease worldwIde. It occurs mainly in developing countries. A high percentage of people in countries where it is endemic are asymptomatic carriers. It results in severe disease that can be fatal in rare cases. Diabetics are at increased risk of exposure as travel to countries where it is endemic becomes more frequent, as indicated by the present case. This patient suffered from amoebiasis that produced an amoeboma which is most rare in cases of colonic amoebiasis. The clinical picture was that of an occluding gut tumor, but it was treated only with drugs. Retrospective studies show that diabetics are at increased risk of suffering severe complications after amoebic infection. The frequency and severity of this diabetes-amoeba association requires patients to take prophylactic measures, especially when travelling in developing countries.
Hanson, R Karl; Harris, Andrew J R; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David
This study examined the extent to which sexual offenders present an enduring risk for sexual recidivism over a 20-year follow-up period. Using an aggregated sample of 7,740 sexual offenders from 21 samples, the yearly recidivism rates were calculated using survival analysis. Overall, the risk of sexual recidivism was highest during the first few years after release, and decreased substantially the longer individuals remained sex offense-free in the community. This pattern was particularly strong for the high-risk sexual offenders (defined by Static-99R scores). Whereas the 5-year sexual recidivism rate for high-risk sex offenders was 22% from the time of release, this rate decreased to 4.2% for the offenders in the same static risk category who remained offense-free in the community for 10 years. The recidivism rates of the low-risk offenders were consistently low (1%-5%) for all time periods. The results suggest that offense history is a valid, but time-dependent, indicator of the propensity to sexually reoffend. Further research is needed to explain the substantial rate of desistance by high-risk sexual offenders.
Burtscher, M; Bachmann, O; Hatzl, T; Hotter, B; Likar, R; Philadelphy, M; Nachbauer, W
Worldwide there are approximately 100 million visitors to high altitude annually and about 15% of those are elderly. Nevertheless, basic information on the cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to physical activity at high altitude in the elderly is scarce. Therefore, we studied 20 voluntary healthy elderly subjects (55-77 years) who were randomly assigned to a low- (600 m) or a high altitude (2,000 m) group. Both groups increased the duration of their daily hiking from 2.5 to 5 h during a period of 1 week. Pre- and post-hiking cardiopulmonary variables at rest were measured daily. Exercise tests (3 min step test) were performed on days 1, 4 and 7. Of the morning values at rest, only arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) had decreased after the 1st night at high altitude. After hiking however, SaO2 was diminished on all days at high altitude. Post-hiking heart rates increased from baseline on days 1 and 2 in the low- and on days 1-5 in the high-altitude group. Exercising SaO2 (%) in the three tests was decreased [84.9 (SD 2.8), 88.1 (SD 2.1), 87.2 (SD 2.3)] compared to baseline [93.2 (SD 2.0); P < 0.05] and blood lactate concentrations were increased [3.1 (SD 0.7), 3.4 (SD 0.3), 3.3 (SD 0.2)] compared to baseline [2.7 (SD 0.6); P < 0.05] in all tests at high altitude. The 1-week hiking programme was well tolerated by the healthy elderly at both low and high altitudes. Ventilatory adaptation to high altitude in the elderly seemed to have been completed within the first 2 days during the measurements at rest. However, cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise were increased and recovery from exercise was delayed during the 1-week hiking programme at high altitude. Heart rate and SaO2 measurements are considered to be highly sensitive in estimating the state of acclimatisation and for monitoring exercise intensity and duration at high altitude.
Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj
Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…
Kamińska, Magdalena Sylwia; Brodowski, Jacek; Karakiewicz, Beata
Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries and injury-related disability, morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Therefore, they may also lower quality of life. The aim of this study was to analyze the fall risk factors in the community-dwelling elderly depending on their physical function, cognitive status and symptoms of depression. The study involved 304 individuals aged 65–100 years with a mean age of 78.6 ± 7.4. This survey-based study was conducted using the Geriatric Environmental Inquiry, the Barthel Scale (BS), the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Tinetti Test (TT). There was a statistically significant correlation between the BS, the TT and the incidence of falls (p < 0.05). The number of falls correlated significantly with the results of the BS (R = −0.39), the GDS (R = 0.18), and the TT (R = −0.40). A statistically significant correlation was also noted between the TT results and the results of the BS (R = 0.77), the AMTS (R = 0.40) and the GDS (R = −0.37). The incidence of falls may significantly increase in people with a lower functional status, which may be related to cognitive process disturbances and lower affective functioning. A comprehensive geriatric assessment, related to all aspects of advanced-age patients’ efficiency, is recommended. Fall prevention strategies should include actions undertaken to evaluate and treat depression and cognitive disturbances. PMID:25811765
Maerevoet, M; Sattar, L; Bron, D; Gulbis, B; Pepersack, T
Anaemia is a problem that affects almost 10% over 65 years and 20% over 85 years. There is no physiological anaemia in the elderly. Any anaemia expresses the existence of a pathological process, regardless of its severity. Anaemia in the elderly is always associated with a poor prognosis that is in terms of mortality, morbidity and risk of fragility. The diagnostic approach to anemia in the elderly is the same as in younger individual. There are many causes of anaemia; anaemia balance is a complex diagnostic process. Most anaemias are due to a deficiency, chronic inflammation or comorbidity. However, in the elderly, the etiology of anaemia is often multifactorial. In a number of cases remain unexplained anaemia. In a number of cases, anemia remain unexplained. Treatment of anaemia is the treatment of the cause, but specific therapeutic aspects to the elderly should be considered, as among other martial substitution or use of erythropoietin (EPO).
Sanders, Amy E; Hall, Charles B; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B
Cognitive reserve is invoked to explain the protective effects of education and cognitively-stimulating activities against all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). For non-native English speakers (n-NES), speaking English may be a cognitive activity associated with lower dementia risk. We hypothesized that n-NES have lower risk of incident dementia/AD and that educational level might modify this relationship. Participants took part in the Einstein Aging Study (Bronx, NY), a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. All (n = 1779) spoke fluent English and self-reported birthplace and whether English was their first language. n-NES additionally reported mother tongue, age of English acquisition, and current percentile-use of a non-English language. Nested Cox proportional hazards models progressively adjusted for gender, race, education, and immigrant and marital status estimated hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia/AD as a function of n-NES status. 390 (22%) participants were n-NES. 126 incident dementia cases occurred during 4174 person-years of follow-up (median 1.44; range 0-16); 101 individuals met criteria for probable/possible AD. There was no statistically-significant association between n-NES status and incident dementia in the fully-adjusted model (HR 1.26; 95% CI 0.76-2.09; p = 0.36). Results were similar for AD. Stratification of education into three groups revealed increased risk of dementia for n-NES with ≥ 16 years of education (HR 3.97; 95% CI 1.62-9.75; p = 0.003). We conclude that n-NES status does not appear to have an independent protective effect against incident dementia/AD, and that n-NES status may contribute to risk of dementia in an education-dependent manner.
Yanik, Elizabeth L; Katki, Hormuzd A; Silverberg, Michael J; Manos, M Michele; Engels, Eric A; Chaturvedi, Anil K
Screening for oral leukoplakia, an oral cavity cancer (OCC) precursor, could lead to earlier detection of OCC. However, the progression rate from leukoplakia to OCC and the benefits of leukoplakia screening for improving OCC outcomes are currently unclear. We conducted a case-cohort study of U.S. adults ages ≥65 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linkage. We identified leukoplakia diagnoses through Medicare claims, and OCC diagnoses through SEER cancer registries. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate leukoplakia associations with OCC incidence, and the absolute OCC risk following leukoplakia diagnosis was calculated. Among OCC cases, we compared OCC stage and OCC survival between cases with a prior leukoplakia diagnosis versus those without prior leukoplakia. Among 470,266 individuals in the SEER-Medicare subcohort, 1,526 (0.3%) had a leukoplakia diagnosis. Among people with leukoplakia, the cumulative OCC incidence was 0.7% at 3 months and 2.5% at 5 years. OCC risk was most increased <3 months after leukoplakia diagnosis (HR, 115), likely representing the diagnosis of prevalent cancers. Nonetheless, risk remained substantially increased in subsequent follow-up [HR ≥ 3 months, 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-27; HR ≥ 12 months, 22, 95% CI, 20-25]. Among OCC cases (N = 8,927), those with prior leukoplakia were less likely to be diagnosed at regional/distant stage (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.30-0.43), and had lower mortality (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84) when compared with OCC cases without a prior leukoplakia. Individuals with leukoplakia have substantially elevated risk of OCC. Lower stage and better survival after OCC diagnosis suggest that leukoplakia identification can lead to earlier OCC detection and reduced mortality.
Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You
Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.
Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel
Background Oxidative stress (OxS) has recently been linked with osteoporosis; however, we do not know the influence of OxS as an independent risk factor for this disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 94 subjects ≥60 years of age, 50 healthy and 44 with osteoporosis. We measured total antioxidant status, plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and calculated the SOD/GPx ratio. Bone mineral density was obtained at the peripheral DXA in calcaneus using a portable Norland Apollo Densitometer®. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results GPx antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the group of subjects with osteoporosis in comparison with the group of healthy subjects (p < 0.01); in addition, the SOD/GPx ratio was significantly higher in the group of individuals with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, we found OxS to be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–7.23; p = 0.034). Conclusion Our findings suggest that OxS is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis linked to increase of SOD/GPx ratio. PMID:18088440
Wang, Chenkun; Gao, Sujuan; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Kesterson, Joe; Campbell, Noll L.; Shekhar, Anantha; Callahan, Christopher M.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted including 3,688 patients age 60 years or older without dementia enrolled in a depression screening study in primary care clinics. Information on antidepressant use and incident dementia during follow-up was retrieved from electronic medical records. Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to compare the risk for incident dementia among five participant groups: SSRI only, non-SSRI only (Non-SSRI), mixed group of SSRI and non-SSRI, not on antidepressants but depressed, and not on antidepressants and not depressed. SSRI and Non-SSRI users had significantly higher dementia risk than the non-depressed non-users (HR=1.83, p=0.0025 for SSRI users and HR=1.50, p=0.004 for non-SSRI users). In addition, SSRIs users had significantly higher dementia risk than non-users with severe depression (HR=2.26, p=0.0005). Future research is needed to confirm our results in other populations and to explore potential mechanism underlying the observed association. PMID:26295747
United States General Accounting Office GAO Information for House MajorityLeader Richard Armey and Representative Pete Sessions May 1997 GH-RISK ID...Information on Selected High-Risk Areas Corporate Author Or Publisher: General Accounting Office, GAO, Washington, DC 20548 Report Number: GAO/IHR-97-30 Report...Library: 000001 Record ID: 45053 GAO United States General Accounting OfficeWashington, D.C. 20548 Accounting and Information Management Division May
Zhong, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Yi-Zhuo; Liao, Ai-Jun; Li, Su-Xia; Tian, Chen; Lu, Jin
Background: Elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients often tend to suffer a variety of diseases, so the treatment of choice is very difficult for the elderly myeloma patients. The overall survival (OS) time and side effects with elderly patients are unclear in China. The study tried to find out the role of geriatric assessment in the Chinese elderly MM. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 628 newly diagnosed patients from six hospitals from June 2011 to June 2013. A geriatric assessment had been performed to assess comorbidities, cognitive, and physical status for these patients. The primary endpoint was to evaluate different physical states of elderly patients with OS time and treatment-related side effects. Results: An additive scoring system (range: 0–5), based on age, Katz's Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Lawton's Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) ≤5 and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was developed to identify three groups: fit (score = 0); intermediate-fitness (score = 1); and frail (score ≥2). The 3-year OS was 63% in fit patients, 63% in intermediate-fitness patients, and 49% in frail patients ≥3 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were documented in 45 (35.4%) fit, 34 (34%) intermediate-fitness, and 121 (30.2%) frail patients. The risk of a grade ≥3 hematologic AEs was not significantly increase in intermediate-fitness (hazard ratios [HR]: 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.47, P = 1.000) and in frail patients (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.70–1.93, P = 0.558) compared with fit ones. Conclusions: MM occurs earlier in life and being advanced when the diagnosis is made in the mainland of China. The overall survival in frailty with International Staging System (ISS) II/III was the worst in all patients. PMID:28091402
Bush, Kathleen F; Fossani, Cheryl L; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gronlund, Carina J; O'Neill, Marie S
As a result of climate change, extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Runoff from these extreme events poses threats to water quality and human health. We investigated the impact of extreme precipitation and beach closings on the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI)-related hospital admissions among individuals 65 and older in 12 Great Lakes cities from 2000 to 2006. Poisson regression models were fit in each city, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. City-specific estimates were combined to form an overall regional risk estimate. Approximately 40,000 GI-related hospital admissions and over 100 beach closure days were recorded from May through September during the study period. Extreme precipitation (≥90th percentile) occurring the previous day (lag 1) is significantly associated with beach closures in 8 of the 12 cities (p < 0.05). However, no association was observed between beach closures and GI-related hospital admissions. These results support previous work linking extreme precipitation to compromised recreational water quality.
Bush, Kathleen F.; Fossani, Cheryl L.; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gronlund, Carina J.; O’Neill, Marie S.
As a result of climate change, extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Runoff from these extreme events poses threats to water quality and human health. We investigated the impact of extreme precipitation and beach closings on the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI)-related hospital admissions among individuals 65 and older in 12 Great Lakes cities from 2000 to 2006. Poisson regression models were fit in each city, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. City-specific estimates were combined to form an overall regional risk estimate. Approximately 40,000 GI-related hospital admissions and over 100 beach closure days were recorded from May through September during the study period. Extreme precipitation (≥90th percentile) occurring the previous day (lag 1) is significantly associated with beach closures in 8 of the 12 cities (p < 0.05). However, no association was observed between beach closures and GI-related hospital admissions. These results support previous work linking extreme precipitation to compromised recreational water quality. PMID:24534768
Jones, Elizabeth F.; Calafiore, Paul; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Tonkin, Andrew M.
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young patients. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of PFO in subjects with a wider age range using patient-control methodology. Transesophageal contrast echocardiography and carotid imaging were performed in 220 consecutive patients with cerebral ischemia (mean age 66 +/- 13 years) and in 202 community-based control subjects (mean age 64 +/- 11 years). Of patients with stroke, 35 (16%) had PFO compared with 31 control subjects (15%) (p = 0.98). Analysis of PFO prevalence by age did not show a significant difference between patients and control subjects in the age groups <50 years (27% vs 11%p; = 0.33), 50 to 69 years (17% vs 15%; p = 0.78), and > or equal to 70 years (12% vs 17%; p = 0.43). However, the group aged 450 years was relatively small (26 cases, 19 controls). No significant difference in PFO prevalence was detected between patients with cryptogenic stroke (20%), noncryptogenic stroke (14%), and control subjects (15%). These results suggest that PFO is not a risk factor for cerebral ischemia in subjects aged >50 years, which would have major implications for the investigation and management of stroke patients in this age group. Longitudinal studies are now required to assess the incidence of stroke in symptom free patients with PFO.
Standard practice for prediction often relies on parametric regression methods. Interesting new methods from the machine learning literature have been introduced in epidemiologic studies, such as random forest and neural networks. However, a priori, an investigator will not know which algorithm to select and may wish to try several. Here I apply the super learner, an ensembling machine learning approach that combines multiple algorithms into a single algorithm and returns a prediction function with the best cross-validated mean squared error. Super learning is a generalization of stacking methods. I used super learning in the Study of Physical Performance and Age-Related Changes in Sonomans (SPPARCS) to predict death among 2,066 residents of Sonoma, California, aged 54 years or more during the period 1993-1999. The super learner for predicting death (risk score) improved upon all single algorithms in the collection of algorithms, although its performance was similar to that of several algorithms. Super learner outperformed the worst algorithm (neural networks) by 44% with respect to estimated cross-validated mean squared error and had an R2 value of 0.201. The improvement of super learner over random forest with respect to R2 was approximately 2-fold. Alternatives for risk score prediction include the super learner, which can provide improved performance.
Lu, Yanhui; An, Yu; Guo, Jin; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Hui; Rong, Hongguo; Xiao, Rong
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease afflicting a large number of the elderly throughout the world. However, modifiable risk factors for the onset and progression of MCI remain unclear. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore whether and how daily dietary nutrients intake and lifestyle impacted the risk of MCI in the Chinese elderly. We examined 2,892 elderly subjects, including 768 MCI patients and 2,124 subjects with normal cognition in three different Provinces of China. Dietary intake of nutrients were collected by using a 33-item food frequency questionnaire and calculated based on the Chinese Food Composition database. The MCI patients were first screened by Montreal Cognitive Assessment and then diagnosed by medical neurologists. Multivariate logistic regression and exploratory factor analyses were applied to identify and rank the risk factors. Three dietary nutrient intake combination patterns were identified as the major protective factors of MCI, with eigenvalues of 14.11, 2.26, and 1.51 and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.83 (P < 0.05), respectively. The most protective combination was featured with eight vitamins and six minerals, and OR for the third and fourth quartiles of these nutrients intake ranged from 0.48 to 0.74 (P < 0.05). Carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin B6 exhibited the highest protective factor loadings of 0.97, 0.95, and 0.92 (P < 0.05), respectively. Education, computer use, reading, and drinking represented the most protective lifestyle factors (OR = 0.25 to 0.85, P < 0.05), whereas smoking and peripheral vascular diseases were associated with higher (OR = 1.40 and 1.76, P < 0.05) risk of MCI. Adequate dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol were significantly associated with decreased risk of MCI. In conclusion, adequate or enhanced intake of micronutrients seemed to lower the risk of MCI in the Chinese elderly. In addition, improving education
Animals undergo substantial changes in many physiologic and biochemical functions as a natural consequence of aging. In the absence of disease or other pathologic conditions, these changes occur in a gradual manner with time (generally expressed as a fractional or percentage change in that function per year or decade). Furthermore, for any given function and at any given chronologic age, there is large variation in that function among individuals. Given the increase in life expectancy, the substantial increase in the number of elderly (and aged elderly) in the population, and the escalating costs of health care, there is great interest in learning more about the risks associated with aging as a result of toxic exposure. Are the elderly at greater risk than younger adults to the toxic effects of drugs and environmental exposure? Is the elderly population an inherently more sensitive one? PMID:7737036
Colonna, Marc; Bossard, Nadine; Remontet, Laurent; Grosclaude, Pascale
Cancer mortality in elderly people is described to highlight the mechanisms that could potentially explain observed differences with other age groups. Data from 15 French cancer registries were considered in the search for the 5-year outcome of patients diagnosed during the period 1989-1997. Relative survival, excess mortality hazard, and hazard ratio of mortality were estimated to describe patient outcome according to age. Five cancer sites were selected: colon/rectum, prostate, breast, head/neck, and lung. An excess mortality rate was found in patients aged over 75 at the time of diagnosis. This excess mortality rate was mainly seen during the first months after diagnosis, then it decreased gradually with time. An initial phenomenon of patient selection, a greater disease severity at the time of diagnosis, and less-effective treatments given to elderly patients are the most plausible explanations for the increased risk of cancer-related death in the eldest patients.
Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Au, Chi-Wai; Kerrone, Dustin; Martinez, Miguel; Kipke, Michele D.
Risks associated with HIV are well documented in research literature. Although a great deal has been written about high-risk sex, little research has been conducted to examine how young men who have sex with men (YMSM) perceive and define high-risk sexual behavior. In this study, we compare the "professional" and "folk" models of HIV risk based on…
Löfgren, Niklas; Nero, Håkan; Hagströmer, Maria; Ståhle, Agneta; Lökk, Johan; Franzén, Erika
Background. Highly challenging exercises have been suggested to induce neuroplasticity in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, its effect on clinical outcomes remains largely unknown. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of the HiBalance program, a highly challenging balance-training regimen that incorporates both dual-tasking and PD-specific balance components, compared with usual care in elderly with mild to moderate PD. Methods. Participants with PD (n = 100) were randomized, either to the 10-week HiBalance program (n = 51) or to the control group (n = 49). Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The main outcomes were balance performance (Mini-BESTest), gait velocity (during normal and dual-task gait), and concerns about falling (Falls Efficacy Scale–International). Performance of a cognitive task while walking, physical activity level (average steps per day), and activities of daily living were secondary outcomes. Results. A total of 91 participants completed the study. After the intervention, the between group comparison showed significantly improved balance and gait performance in the training group. Moreover, although no significant between group difference was observed regarding gait performance during dual-tasking; the participants in the training group improved their performance of the cognitive task while walking, as compared with the control group. Regarding physical activity levels and activities of daily living, in comparison to the control group, favorable results were found for the training group. No group differences were found for concerns about falling. Conclusions. The HiBalance program significantly benefited balance and gait abilities when compared with usual care and showed promising transfer effects to everyday living. Long-term follow-up assessments will further explore these effects. PMID:25608520
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…
Spitzenstetter, Florence; Moessinger, Michelle
People frequently express comparative optimism ; that is, they believe they are less likely than average to experience negative events. The aim of the present study is, first, to observe whether people of more than 65 years are still optimists when they evaluate driving-related risks; and second, to test the assumption that older drivers show less optimism when they compare themselves with average-age drivers than when they compare themselves with same-age drivers. Our results reveal that drivers of more than 65 years do, indeed, express comparative optimism, but, contrary to our expectation, only in a limited number of cases does the age of the comparison target appear to have an effect. These results are particularly discussed in terms of self-image enhancement.
Papadatou, Ioanna; Spoulou, Vana
Controversy exists regarding the optimal use of the 23-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the protection of high-risk individuals, such as children and adults with immunocompromising conditions and the elderly. The effectiveness and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are limited in such high-risk populations compared to the healthy, with meta-analyses failing to provide robust evidence on vaccine efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or pneumonia. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a PPV23-induced state of immune tolerance or hyporesponsiveness to subsequent vaccination, where the response to revaccination does not reach the levels achieved with primary vaccination. The clinical significance of hyporesponsiveness is not yet clarified, but attenuated humoral and cellular response could lead to reduced levels of protection and increased susceptibility to pneumococcal disease. As disease epidemiology among high-risk groups shows that we are still in need of maximum serotype coverage, the optimal use of PPV23 in the context of combined conjugate/polysaccharide vaccine schedules is an important priority. In this minireview, we discuss PPV23-induced hyporesponsiveness and its implications in designing highly effective vaccination schedules for the optimal protection for high-risk individuals.
Bergeron-Vézina, Kayla; Corriveau, Hélène; Martel, Marylie; Harvey, Marie-Philippe; Léonard, Guillaume
Abstract Despite its widespread clinical use, the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) remains poorly documented in elderly individuals. In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, we compared the efficacy of high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF), and placebo (P) TENS in a group of 15 elderly adults (mean age: 67 ± 5 years). The effect of HF-, LF-, and P-TENS was also evaluated in a group of 15 young individuals (26 ± 5 years; same study design) to validate the effectiveness of the TENS protocols that were used in the elderly group. Each participant came to the laboratory on 3 separate occasions to receive, in random order, HF-, LF-, and P-TENS. Pain intensity and pain perception thresholds were assessed before, during, and after TENS, using an experimental heat pain paradigm. For the young group, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity during and after HF- and LF-TENS when compared with baseline, with both HF- and LF-TENS being superior to P-TENS. In the older group, HF- and LF-TENS did not reduce pain when compared with baseline and no difference was observed between the 2 active TENS sessions and P-TENS. High-frequency, LF-, and P-TENS all increased pain thresholds in young individuals, whereas in older individuals, only LF-TENS increased pain thresholds. Taken together, these results suggest that TENS is effective in young, but not in older, individuals. Future studies should be conducted to confirm these results in pain populations and to identify strategies that could enhance the effect of TENS in the elderly. PMID:26101836
Bergeron-Vézina, Kayla; Corriveau, Hélène; Martel, Marylie; Harvey, Marie-Philippe; Léonard, Guillaume
Despite its widespread clinical use, the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) remains poorly documented in elderly individuals. In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, we compared the efficacy of high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF), and placebo (P) TENS in a group of 15 elderly adults (mean age: 67 ± 5 years). The effect of HF-, LF-, and P-TENS was also evaluated in a group of 15 young individuals (26 ± 5 years; same study design) to validate the effectiveness of the TENS protocols that were used in the elderly group. Each participant came to the laboratory on 3 separate occasions to receive, in random order, HF-, LF-, and P-TENS. Pain intensity and pain perception thresholds were assessed before, during, and after TENS, using an experimental heat pain paradigm. For the young group, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity during and after HF- and LF-TENS when compared with baseline, with both HF- and LF-TENS being superior to P-TENS. In the older group, HF- and LF-TENS did not reduce pain when compared with baseline and no difference was observed between the 2 active TENS sessions and P-TENS. High-frequency, LF-, and P-TENS all increased pain thresholds in young individuals, whereas in older individuals, only LF-TENS increased pain thresholds. Taken together, these results suggest that TENS is effective in young, but not in older, individuals. Future studies should be conducted to confirm these results in pain populations and to identify strategies that could enhance the effect of TENS in the elderly.
Zheng, Guohua; Fang, Qianying; Chen, Bai; Yi, Hongmei; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian
Background. Baduanjin is a traditional Chinese qigong that has been practiced for a long time in China as a mind-body exercise in community elderly populations. The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the perceived benefit of regular Baduanjin qigong in community elders. Methods. A total of 20 participants who had completed the 12-week Baduanjin qigong training were interviewed regarding their perceived effect on physical and psychological health and whether Baduanjin qigong was suitable for the elderly. Results. Almost all participants agreed that Baduanjin qigong could promote their multisystem or organ functions (e.g., digestive and circulatory systems), increase their immunity, make their bodies relax, and improve their mood and confidence. Most of the participants also agreed that Baduanjin qigong was appropriate for elderly individuals. Few individuals felt bored because of an hour Baduanjin training each day. Conclusions. The findings suggest that regular Baduanjin qigong may be potentially helpful to promote the overall physical and psychological health of elderly community populations and may be useful and feasible as a body-mind exercise in the health promotion in the elderly community populations. PMID:26483845
Zheng, Guohua; Fang, Qianying; Chen, Bai; Yi, Hongmei; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian
Background. Baduanjin is a traditional Chinese qigong that has been practiced for a long time in China as a mind-body exercise in community elderly populations. The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the perceived benefit of regular Baduanjin qigong in community elders. Methods. A total of 20 participants who had completed the 12-week Baduanjin qigong training were interviewed regarding their perceived effect on physical and psychological health and whether Baduanjin qigong was suitable for the elderly. Results. Almost all participants agreed that Baduanjin qigong could promote their multisystem or organ functions (e.g., digestive and circulatory systems), increase their immunity, make their bodies relax, and improve their mood and confidence. Most of the participants also agreed that Baduanjin qigong was appropriate for elderly individuals. Few individuals felt bored because of an hour Baduanjin training each day. Conclusions. The findings suggest that regular Baduanjin qigong may be potentially helpful to promote the overall physical and psychological health of elderly community populations and may be useful and feasible as a body-mind exercise in the health promotion in the elderly community populations.
Gonçalves, Alexandra; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M.; Konety, Suma; Butler, Kenneth; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Rosamond, Wayne; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Solomon, Scott D.
Background Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cardiomyopathy, but the influence of moderate alcohol use on cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. Methods and Results We studied 4466 participants from visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (76±5 years and 60% women) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography, excluding former drinkers and those with significant valvular disease. Participants were classified into 4 categories based on self-reported alcohol intake: non-drinkers, drinkers of up to 7 drinks per week, ≥7 to 14 and ≥ 14 drinks per week. We related alcohol intake to measures of cardiac structure and function, stratified by sex, and fully adjusted for covariates. In both genders, increasing alcohol intake was associated with larger left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic diameters and larger left atrial diameter (p values <0.05). In men, increasing alcohol intake was associated with greater LV mass (8.2 ± 3.8 g per consumption category, p = 0.029) and higher E/E’ ratio (0.82±0.33 per consumption category, p= 0.014). In women, increasing alcohol intake was associated with lower LV ejection fraction (−1.9% ± 0.6% per consumption category, p=0.002) and a tendency for worse LV global longitudinal strain (0.45% ±0.25% per consumption category, p=0.07). Conclusions In an elderly community-based population, increasing alcohol intake is associated with subtle alterations in cardiac structure and function, with women appearing more susceptible than men to the cardiotoxic effects of alcohol. PMID:26015266
using traditional risk analysis techniques. Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP) is one technique that high performers can use to identify and mitigate the risks arising from operational complexity....The operational environment for many types of organizations is changing. Changes in operational environments are driving the need for advanced risk ... analysis techniques. Many types of risk prevalent in today’s operational environments (e.g., event risks, inherited risk) are not readily identified
Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Cheng, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jianmin; Koh, Woon-Puay; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun; Pan, An; He, Meian
Serum bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and has been identified as cardiovascular risk in cohort studies, while the relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly remains unclear. We investigated both cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum bilirubin levels and T2D risk in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, and replicated the prospective findings in a nested case-control study (509 cases and 509 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). In the cross-sectional analysis of DFTJ cohort (15,575 participants with 2,532 diabetes cases), serum bilirubin levels (total, direct and indirect) increased in new on-set diabetes and decreased with the diabetic duration. In the longitudinal analysis of DFTJ cohort (772 incident diabetes cases during 4.5 years of follow-up among 12,530 diabetes-free participants at baseline), positive association was found between direct bilirubin and T2D risk comparing extreme quartiles, similar results were observed in the nested case-control study within SCHS. Total and indirect bilirubin levels were not significantly associated with T2D in either cohort. In conclusion, our findings do not support the protective association between serum bilirubin levels and incident T2D in the middle-aged and elderly adults; instead, direct bilirubin levels were associated with increased risk of T2D. PMID:28164994
Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Cheng, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jianmin; Koh, Woon-Puay; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Pan, An; He, Meian
Serum bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and has been identified as cardiovascular risk in cohort studies, while the relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly remains unclear. We investigated both cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum bilirubin levels and T2D risk in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, and replicated the prospective findings in a nested case-control study (509 cases and 509 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS). In the cross-sectional analysis of DFTJ cohort (15,575 participants with 2,532 diabetes cases), serum bilirubin levels (total, direct and indirect) increased in new on-set diabetes and decreased with the diabetic duration. In the longitudinal analysis of DFTJ cohort (772 incident diabetes cases during 4.5 years of follow-up among 12,530 diabetes-free participants at baseline), positive association was found between direct bilirubin and T2D risk comparing extreme quartiles, similar results were observed in the nested case-control study within SCHS. Total and indirect bilirubin levels were not significantly associated with T2D in either cohort. In conclusion, our findings do not support the protective association between serum bilirubin levels and incident T2D in the middle-aged and elderly adults; instead, direct bilirubin levels were associated with increased risk of T2D.
Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís
Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626
Ito, Masako; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hida, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yasumoto; Abe, Yasue; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Uetani, Masataka; Harada, Atsushi
Two case-control studies were designed to investigate the contribution of the geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur to bone strength in Japanese elderly women. We also investigated whether clinical CT is useful to assess the risk of hip fracture. Subjects in the neck fracture study included 20 Japanese women with neck fracture (age: mean+/-SD; 80.1+/-4.5 years old) and 20 age-matched control women (79.2+/-2.6 years old). Subjects in the trochanteric fracture study included 16 Japanese women with trochanteric fracture (82.6+/-5.0 years old) and 16 age-matched control women (80.8+/-3.8 years old). CT examination of the proximal femur was performed between the date of admission and the date of surgery. The CT scanners used were an Aquillion 16 (Toshiba) and Somatom 64 (Siemens); the scanning conditions including spatial resolution and scanning energy were adjusted, and the same type of reference phantom containing hydroxyapatite was used. QCT PRO software (Mindways) was used to analyze data for BMD, geometry, and biomechanical parameters. Both the neck and trochanteric fracture cases had significantly lower total and cortical BMD, a significantly smaller cortical cross-sectional area (CSA), and a larger trabecular CSA. Both had significantly thinner cortex and smaller distance to center of bone mass, and women with trochanteric fracture had a significantly smaller cortical perimeter in the cross-sectional femoral neck. Women with neck fracture had a longer hip axis length (HAL) and women with trochanteric fracture had a significantly larger neck-shaft angle (NSA). Both groups had significantly lower cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), and only women with neck fracture had a significantly higher buckling ratio (BR) compared to their respective controls. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, women with neck fracture had a significantly longer HAL, lower CSMI, and higher BR, and women with trochanteric fracture had a
Vitamin C is essential for collagen formation and normal bone development. Therefore, we evaluated associations of total, supplemental and dietary vitamin C intake with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip (femoral neck and trochanter), spine and radial shaft and 4 y change in BMD, in elderly men a...
Nanda, Akash; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.
Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.
Wiegmann, B; Ismail, I; Haverich, A
Due to the increasing demographic changes and the fact that cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death, the mean chronological age of patients undergoing cardiac surgery is steadily increasing. In 2015, 14.8% of these patients were aged 80 years and older. This meta-analysis reviewed if and under what circumstances elderly patients benefit from cardiac surgical procedures without running the risk of limitations in the quality of life and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Generally, the chronological age was not a risk factor for higher perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality but the biological age was the critical factor, in particular the associated comorbidities of patients and the timing of the surgical procedure in the course of the disease. The result is that elective operations resulted in a better outcome than operations in a symptomatic or decompensated stage of a disease. Compared to patients receiving conventional medicinal therapy, elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery had an improved life expectancy. A significant increase in the quality of life could also be identified and was ultimately comparable to those of younger patients after cardiac surgery; therefore, elderly patients even those over 80 years old benefit in all aspects of cardiac surgery, as long as individually adapted operative techniques are considered.
Castillo, Jorge J; Beltran, Brady E; Miranda, Roberto N; Young, Ken H; Chavez, Julio C; Sotomayor, Eduardo M
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a provisional entity included in the 2008 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. It is a disease typically seen in the elderly and thought to be associated with chronic EBV infection and severe immunosuppression with a component of immunosenescence. Recent research, however, has suggested that EBV-positive DLBCL can be seen in younger, immunocompetent patients. The diagnosis of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly is made through a careful pathological evaluation. The differential diagnosis includes infectious mononucleosis (specifically in younger patients), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Hodgkin lymphoma, and gray zone lymphoma, among others. Detection of EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) is considered standard for diagnosis; however, a clear cutoff for positivity has not been defined. The International Prognostic Index (IPI), and the Oyama score can be used for risk-stratification. The Oyama score includes age >70 years and presence of B symptoms. The expression of CD30 is emerging as a potential adverse, and targetable, prognostic factor. Patients with EBV-positive DLBCL should be staged and managed following similar guidelines than patients with EBV-negative DLBCL. It has been suggested, however, that EBV-positive patients have a worse prognosis than EBV-negative counterparts in the era of chemoimmunotherapy. There is an opportunity to study and develop targeted therapy in the management of patients with EBV-positive DLBCL.
Gallo, Tolinda; Furlan, Patrizia; Romor, Pierantonio; Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Baldovin, Tatjana
groups, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that the risk of death due to pneumonia increased significantly with age (adjusted OR: 1.073; 1.061–1.085), shorter hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.981; 0.971–0.990), and male gender (adjusted OR: 1.372; 1.165–1.616). The model also confirmed the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugated vaccine as an independent protective factor for mortality-related pneumonia (adjusted OR: 0.599; 0.390–0.921). Conclusion The main finding of our observational cohort study is a high mortality rate among elderly patients admitted to hospital for pneumonia. The present study suggests a protective role for PCV13 vaccination. PMID:27846277
Wretowski, Dominik; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Łabyk, Andrzej; Irzyk, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Wyzgał, Anna; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Pruszczyk, Piotr
Introduction Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is a new emerging catheter-based alternative treatment option for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Aim To show that all elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of obstructive coronary artery disease and that, in daily practice, they should undergo invasive coronary angiography. Material and methods Eleven patients at the age of at least 65 years (6 males, 5 females, 77.2 ±5.9 years) with confirmed non-operable type II or type III CTEPH, considered for BPA, underwent elective coronary angiography. Severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was diagnosed when stenosis of left main coronary artery ≥ 50% or stenosis of ≥ 70% of epicardial arteries was angiographically confirmed. We also screened for CAD consecutive age- and sex-matched 114 PE survivors (52 males, 62 females, 74.8 ±7.2 years) with excluded CTEPH. Results Severe CAD was more frequent in elderly patients with non-operable type II or type III CTEPH candidates for BPA than in elderly acute PE survivors with excluded CTEPH (54.5% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.01), and therefore elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA were at higher risk of CAD (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.64–21.46, p = 0.007) when compared to elderly survivors after acute PE with excluded CTEPH. Conclusions All elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of severe CAD and should routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography before BPA. PMID:27980550
Starting point for this analysis are the mobility needs and requirements of elderly, as well as problems concerning access and use of public transport. Elderly people as car drivers suffer from several performance deficits which are currently compensated by mobility restrictions and changed driving behaviour. Driver assistance systems, just available or soon on the market, are demonstrated and analysed with respect to their impact on elderly drivers. An expert evaluation comes to the conclusion that the most important systems for elderly are: emergency systems, enhanced vision systems and parking aids. Emergency systems can call rescue teams automatically or at driver's request, and direct them to the emergency location. Self imposed restrictions of elderly concerning night driving can partly be compensated by means of curve lightning and automatic dipping. Parking aids, using cameras or infrared technique are especially helpful for persons with moveability problems. The group of helpful, but not highly important driver assistance systems covers several means for longitudinal and lateral control of the car, comprising autonomous cruise control, antilock systems and electronic stability programmes. The value and impact of these systems are analysed in the light of risk homeostasis theory. Reduced work load and ease of mobility will at last result from user centered navigation systems, helping the elder driver also to move to new areas without orientational problems. The article demonstrates the particular importance of specific layouts of the man-machine-interface for elderly, to guarantee high acceptance and minimal distraction from traffic.
The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.
Pereira, Vanessa Vieira; Maia, Roberto Alcantara; Silva, Sonia Maria Cesar de Azevedo
The purpose of this study was to verify which instrument better identifies recurrent falls in the elderly. Ninety-eight old people, with an average age of 80 ± 4 years, were submitted to an assessment of balance and fall risk by means of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the posturographic Balance Stability System (BSS). The BBS was correlated with the BSS (r=-0.27; p=0.008), age (r=-0.38; p<0.001) and number of falls (r=-0.25; p=0.013) and the analysis of logistical regression showed that the elderly classified with fall risk on the BBS presented 2.5 (95%CI 1.08-5.78) more chance of identifying who had two falls or more over the last year. The BBS identified that the greater the age the worse the functional balance and demonstrated a greater capacity to identify falls risk suffered over the last year when compared with the BSS.
Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua
Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China.
Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.
Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.
Rationale The extent to which geographic variability in ICU admission across the United States is driven by patients with lower risk of death is unknown. Objectives To determine whether patients at low to moderate risk of death contribute to geographic variation in ICU admission. Methods Retrospective cohort of hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries (age > 64 years) admitted for ten common medical and surgical diagnoses (2004 to 2009). We examined population-adjusted rates of ICU admission per 100 hospitalizations in 304 health referral regions (HRR), and estimated the relative risk of ICU admission across strata of regional ICU and risk of death, adjusted for patient and regional characteristics. Measurement and Main Results ICU admission rates varied nearly two-fold across HRR quartiles (quartile 1 to 4: 13.6, 17.3, 20.0, and 25.2 per 100 hospitalizations, respectively). Observed mortality for patients in regions (quartile 4) with the greatest ICU use was 17% compared to 21% in regions with lowest ICU use (quartile 1) (p<0.001). After adjusting for patient and regional characteristics, including regional differences in ICU, skilled nursing, and long-term acute care bed capacity, individuals’ risk of death modified the relationship between regional ICU use and an individual’s risk of ICU admission (p for interaction<0.001). Region was least important in predicting ICU admission among patients with high (quartile 4) risk of death (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.22–1.31, for high versus low ICU use regions), and most important for patients with moderate (quartile 2; RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.53–1.72, quartile 3; RR 1.56 95% CI 1.47–1.65) and low (quartile 1) risk of death (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.59). Conclusions There is wide variation in in ICU use by geography, independent of ICU beds and physician supply, for patients with low and moderate risks of death. PMID:27898697
Hardie, Claire; Green, Kile; Jopson, Laura; Millar, Ben; Innes, Barbara; Pagan, Sarah; Tiniakos, Dina; Dyson, Jessica; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Bigley, Venetia; Jones, David E; Brain, John; Walker, Lucy J
High-risk primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), defined by inadequate response at one year to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is associated with disease progression and liver transplantation. Stratifying high-risk patients early would facilitate improved approaches to care. Using long-term follow-up data to define risk at presentation, 6 high-risk PBC patients and 8 low-risk patients were identified from biopsy, transplant and biochemical archival records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies taken at presentation were graded (Scheuer and Nakanuma scoring) and gene expression analysed using the NanoString® nCounter PanCancer Immunity 770-gene panel. Principle component analysis (PCA) demonstrated discrete gene expression clustering between controls and high- and low-risk PBC. High-risk PBC was characterised by up-regulation of genes linked to T-cell activation and apoptosis, INF-γ signalling and leukocyte migration and down-regulation of those linked to the complement pathway. CDKN1a, up-regulated in high-risk PBC, correlated with significantly increased expression of its gene product, the senescence marker p21(WAF1/Cip), by biliary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest high- and low-risk PBC are biologically different from disease outset and senescence an early feature in high-risk disease. Identification of a high-risk 'signal' early from standard FFPE tissue sections has clear clinical utility allowing for patient stratification and second-line therapeutic intervention.
... 162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms include upper back or jaw ... be at increased risk of having a "silent" heart attack, a new study hints. Chest pain is one ...
Obrist, Seraina; Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger
Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81). The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed. PMID:27247571
Bidd, Heena; Tan, Audrey; Green, David
High-risk surgery represents 12.5% of cases but contributes 80% of deaths in the elderly population. Reduction in morbidity and mortality by the use of intervention strategies could result in thousands of lives being saved and savings of up to £400m per annum in the UK. This has resulted in the drive towards goal-directed therapy and intraoperative flow optimization of high-risk surgical patients being advocated by authorities such as the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.Conventional intraoperative monitoring gives little insight into the profound physiological changes occurring as a result of anesthesia and surgery. The build-up of an oxygen debt is associated with a poor outcome and strategies have been developed in the postoperative period to improve outcomes by repayment of this debt. New monitoring technologies such as minimally invasive cardiac output, depth of anesthesia and cerebral oximetry can minimize oxygen debt build-up. This has the potential to reduce complications and lessen the need for postoperative optimization in high-dependency areas.Flow monitoring has thus emerged as essential during intraoperative monitoring in high-risk surgery. However, evidence suggests that current optimization strategies of deliberately increasing flow to meet predefined targets may not reduce mortality.Could the addition of depth of anesthesia and cerebral and tissue oximetry monitoring produce a further improvement in outcomes?Retrospective studies indicate a combination of excessive depth of anesthesia hypotension and low anesthesia requirement results in increased mortality and length of hospital stay.Near infrared technology allows assessment and maintenance of cerebral and tissue oxygenation, a strategy, which has been associated with improved outcomes. The suggestion that the brain is an index organ for tissue oxygenation, especially in the elderly, indicates a role for this
This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…
Verissimo, Pedro; Timenetsky, Karina T.; Casalaspo, Thaisa Juliana André; Gonçalves, Louise Helena Rodrigues; Yang, Angela Shu Yun; Eid, Raquel Caserta
Introduction Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW) has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. Objectives Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital. Methods Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were collected. Results The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31–35) and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml); 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O); 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O); 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant. Conclusion Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition. PMID:25671566
Craig, Kevin W; Zweig, Steven C
Driving is a daily activity for people across the country. Most Americans, including the elderly, consider it a right. Driving, however, is dangerous and can become more challenging as people age. While evaluating the elderly driver is not a simple task, it is a responsibility that must be shared by Missouri physicians. This paper describes the epidemiology of this problem, common mistakes made by elderly drivers, risk factors that can cause unsafe driving, and strategies physicians can use to evaluate their elderly patients' ability to drive.
Yang, Po-Chih; Ho, Cheng-Maw; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih; Wu, Yao-Ming; Lee, Po-Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Radical treatment of HCC in early stages results in a long disease-free period and improved overall survival. The choice of optimal management strategy for HCC mainly depends on the severity of the underlying liver disease. For patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC within Milan criteria (MC), liver transplant (LT) is the choice of treatment. However, for patients with good residual liver reserve and HCC within MC, selection of other curative treatments such as liver resection (LR) or radiofrequency ablation may be a reasonable alternative. For patients without cirrhosis, LR can result in an overall survival similar to that provided by LT. Therefore, it is an accepted alternative to LT especially in areas with organ shortage. However, the cumulative 5-year recurrence rate of HCC post LR might be as high as 70%. For initial transplant-eligible (within MC) patients with recurrent HCC post LR, salvage liver transplant (SLT) was first proposed in 2000. However, most patients with recurrent HCC considered for SLT are untransplantable cases due to HCC recurrence beyond MC or comorbidity. Thus, the strategy of opting for SLT results in the loss of the opportunity of LT for these patients. Some authors proposed the concept of “de principe liver transplant” (i.e., prophylactic LT before HCC recurrence) to prevent losing the chance of LT for these potential candidates. Factors associated with the failure of SLT will be dissected and discussed in three parts: Patient, tumor, and underlying liver disease. Regarding patient-related factors, the rate of transplantability depends on patient compliance. Patients without regular follow-up tend to develop HCC recurrence beyond MC at the time of tumor detection. Advancing age is another factor related to severe comorbidities when LT is considered for HCC recurrence, and these elderly candidates become ineligible as
Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.
This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).
Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.
Abud, Tulio B.; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation. PMID:28299010
Abud, Tulio B; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.
Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at “risk of fall.” This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1). FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation. Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1–1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1–1 patients as neurological, “very old” (86% in age-group 75–84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months’ follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores. The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher
Background Hypertension remains a major public health problem whose management is hampered by poor persistence with pharmacological therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between discontinuing antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study of all of the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil) enrolled 1606 subjects (92.2%), of whom 1494 (93.0%) were included in this study. The use of AHDs was ascertained annually in a real-clinical context, and time-varying AHD exposure was categorised as non-use, current use or stopped. The predicted cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated using interval Poisson models for ungrouped person-time data, taking into account current levels of systolic blood pressure (BP). Results The overall adjusted cardiovascular mortality risk ratio of AHD stoppers vs current users was 3.12 (95% CI: 2.35-4.15). There was a significant interaction with BP levels: the association between discontinuing AHDs and the risk of cardiovascular mortality was stronger at higher systolic BP levels. The estimates of the risk of cardiovascular mortality over the follow-up period were similar in AHD users and non-users, for whom AHDs were never prescribed. Conclusion Discontinuing AHDs increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Misconceptions about symptoms or drug-related adverse effects could underlie a subject’s decision to discontinue AHDs. Greater attention should be paid to the choice of AHDs and informative action. PMID:25030357
Hansson, L; Zanchetti, A
Treatment of hypertension in the elderly has become not only accepted but also a highly ethical, effective and compelling procedure following the many clearly positive reports on the benefits of lowering elevated arterial pressure in elderly patients. So far most intervention studies in elderly hypertensive patients have used diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination as the moiety by which blood pressure has been lowered. However, from a theoretical point of view, more novel therapies could offer advantages that would translate into an even better reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than has been obtained with the traditional antihypertensive therapies used so far. Some of the studies in elderly hypertensives that are in progress using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium antagonists as the main therapies, e.g. the STOP-Hypertension-2 Study and the Syst-Eur Study, will be briefly reviewed here as will the large data base on urapidil, a dual action antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of elderly hypertensives. By careful evaluation of the effects of novel antihypertensive drugs, and the already existing data base on urapidil in elderly hypertensive patients, it is likely that still better reduction of risk can be obtained in the elderly hypertensives by the use of more novel therapies than diuretics and beta-blockers.
Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; De Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison
Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses. PMID:23165428
Szulc, Pawel; Blackwell, Terri; Schousboe, John T; Bauer, Douglas C; Cawthon, Peggy; Lane, Nancy E; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S; Black, Dennis M; Ensrud, Kristine E
A significant link between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis is established in postmenopausal women, but data for men are scarce. We tested the hypothesis that greater severity of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was associated with an increased risk of nonspine fracture in 5994 men aged ≥ 65 years. AAC was assessed on 5400 baseline lateral thoracolumbar radiographs using a validated visual semiquantitative score. Total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Incident nonspine fractures were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), total hip BMD, fall history, prior fracture, smoking status, comorbidities, race, and clinical center, the risk of nonspine fracture (n=805) was increased among men with higher AAC (hazard ratio [HR] quartile 4 [Q4] [AAC score ≥ 9] versus quartile 1 [Q1] [0-1], 1.36; 96% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.68). This association was due to an increased risk of hip fracture (n=178) among men with higher AAC (HR Q4 versus Q1, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.41-3.87). By contrast, the association between AAC and the risk of nonspine, nonhip fracture was weaker and not significant (HR Q4 versus Q1, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.96-1.55). The findings regarding higher AAC and increased risk of fracture were not altered in additional analyses accounting for degree of trauma, estimated glomerular filtration rate, presence of lumbar vertebral fractures (which may bias AAC assessment), preexisting cardiovascular disease, ankle brachial index, or competing risk of death. Thus, in this large cohort of elderly men, greater AAC was independently associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, but not with other nonspine fractures. These findings suggest that AAC assessment may be a useful method for identification of older men at high risk of hip fracture.
Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy
Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.
Sundi, Debasish; Wang, Vinson M.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Han, Misop; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Ball, Mark W.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Partin, Alan W.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Ross, Ashley E.
Purpose Outcomes in men with NCCN high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can vary substantially--some will have excellent cancer-specific survival, whereas others will experience early metastasis even after aggressive local treatments. Current nomograms, which yield continuous risk probabilities, do not separate high-risk PCa into distinct sub-strata. Here we derive a binary definition of very-high-risk (VHR) localized PCa to aid in risk stratification at diagnosis and selection of therapy. Materials and Methods We queried the Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database to identify 753 men with NCCN high-risk localized PCa (Gleason sum 8–10, PSA >20 ng/ml, or clinical stage ≥T3). 28 alternate permutations of adverse grade, stage, and cancer volume were compared by their hazard ratios for metastasis and cancer-specific mortality. VHR criteria with top-ranking hazard ratios were further evaluated by multivariable analyses and inclusion of a clinically meaningful proportion of the high-risk cohort. Results The VHR cohort was best defined by primary pattern 5 present on biopsy, or ≥5 cores with Gleason sum 8–10, or multiple NCCN high-risk features. These criteria encompassed 15.1% of the NCCN high-risk cohort. Compared to other high-risk men, VHR men were at significantly higher risk for metastasis (H.R. 2.75) and cancer-specific mortality (H.R. 3.44) (p <0.001 for both). Among high-risk men, VHR men also had significantly worse 10-year metastasis-free survival (37% vs 78%) and cancer-specific survival (62% vs 90%). Conclusions Men who meet VHR criteria form a subgroup within the current NCCN high-risk classification who have particularly poor oncologic outcomes. Use of these characteristics to distinguish VHR localized PCa may help in counseling and selection optimal candidates for multimodal treatments or clinical trials. PMID:24189998
Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y
One suicide occurs every 16 minutes. Intentionally killing oneself is distinctly human; other species don't commit suicide. Suicide is an exceedingly complex phenomenon stemming from intolerable stress and the inability to cope. Elders tend to plan their suicides well, choose means of killing themselves that are more violent than younger people do, and are less likely to survive the attempt than others. Numerous factors increase risk for elder suicide: recent bereavement, pain, chronic illness, hopelessness, and despair. Identifying and treating depression early is essential to avoid tragedy. Regardless, many elders are treated with anxiolytics and analgesics in lieu of antidepressants, and some medications may increase suicide risk. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that suicide is a serious concern for elders. When depression seems to be worsening in an elder, aggressive action is needed.
Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim
We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing mountaineering rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Results showed that personality types with a configuration of low conscientiousness combined with high extraversion and/or high neuroticism (impulsive, hedonistic, insecure) were greater risk-takers. Conversely, personality types with a configuration of high conscientiousness combined with low extraversion and/or high extraversion (skeptic, brooder, entrepreneur) were lower risk-takers. Results are discussed in the context of typology and other approaches to understanding who takes risks in high-risk domains.
Ishikawa, Motonao; Yamanaka, Gaku; Yamamoto, Naomune; Nakaoka, Takashi; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Sakura, Hiroshi
Suicide rates are higher at high altitudes, and some hypothesize that hypoxia is the cause. There may be a significant correlation between rates of depression and altitude, but little data exist outside the United States. The purpose of the present study is to conduct a survey of depression among the elderly highlanders in Asia. We enrolled 114 persons aged 60 years or older (mean, 69.2 ± 6.7 years; women, 58.8%) in Domkhar (altitude, 3800 m), Ladakh, India and 173 ethnic Tibetans (mean, 66.5 ± 6.1 years; women, 61.3%) in Yushu (altitude, 3700 m), Qinghai Province, China. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and the geriatric depression scale were administered. A psychiatrist interviewed the subjects who had a positive score on the PHQ-2. The results of the interview with the residents conducted by the specialist showed that two cases (1.8%) from Domkhar and four (2.3%) from Qinghai had depression. Despite the high altitude, the probability of depression was low in elderly highlander in Ladakh and Qinghai. Our finding seems to indicate that cultural factors such as religious outlook and social/family relationship inhibit the development of depression.
TREATMENT OF ELDERLY HYPERTENSIVES: Treatment of hypertension in the elderly is nowadays an accepted and highly effective medical intervention following the positive reports on the benefits of lowering elevated arterial pressure in elderly patients. Most of the intervention studies an antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients have used diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination as the therapy by which blood pressure was lowered. However, from a theoretical point of view, novel therapies such as calcium antagonists could offer advantages that would translate into an even greater reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than has been obtained with the traditional antihypertensive therapies used so far. DATA ON CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS IN THE ELDERLY: Some of the studies in elderly hypertensives that are currently in progress are using calcium antagonists as one of the main therapies, e.g. the Swedish Trial in Old patients with hypertension (STOP-Hypertension)-2 study and the Systolic hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) study. Another source of information is a large database on nicardipine, a dihydropyridine-derived calcium antagonist, used in the treatment of elderly hypertensives.
Ferreira, Juliana M.; Galato, Dayani; Melo, Angelita C.
Background: The complexity of a medication regimen is related to the multiple characteristics of the prescribed regimen and can negatively influence the health outcomes of patients. Objective: To propose cut-off points in the complexity of pharmacotherapy to distinguish between patients with low and high complexities seen in a primary health care (PHC) setting to enable prioritization of patient management. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, which included 517 adult and elderly patients, analyzing different cut-off points to define the strata of low and high pharmacotherapy complexities based on percentiles of the population evaluated. Data collection began with the solicitation of prescriptions, followed by a questionnaire that was administered by an interviewer. The complexity of a medication regimen was estimated from the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). High complexity pharmacotherapy scores were analyzed from patient profiles, the use of health services, and pharmacotherapy. The criteria for subject inclusion in the sample population were as follows: inhabitant of the area covered by the municipality, 18 years or older, and being prescribed at least one drug during the collection period. Exclusion criteria at the time of collection were the use of any medication whose prescription was not available. All medications were accessed through the Primary Healthcare Service (PHS). Results: The median total pharmacotherapy complexity score was 8.5. High MRCI scores were correlated with age, medications taken with in the Brazilian PHS, having at least one potential drug-related problem, receiving up to eight years of schooling, number of medications and polypharmacy (five or more medicines), number of medical conditions, number of medical appointments, and number of cardiovascular diseases and endocrine metabolic diseases. We suggest different complexity tracks according to age (e.g., adult or elderly) that consider the pharmacotherapy and population
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.
Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096
Li, Yueh-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey
Widowhood, an unavoidable and stressful situation, has been associated with negative effects in elderly people during later life. This article reviews and summarizes the influences of widowhood on the health, daily life, and social life of elderly people. The influences of widowhood on elderly people may vary by gender, spousal relationship, and cohort background. In order to provide nursing care as early as possible, nurses must cooperate with professionals from social-welfare and / or community-support systems to identify high-risk widowed elderly. When nurses assess the influences of widowhood on elderly people, they should consider the interactions among gender, spousal relationship, and cohort background. Furthermore, nurses may apply various strategies based on the needs of elderly people to improve the health and quality of life of patients. Suggestions include providing appropriate nursing care, offering positive social support, adjusting daily-life routines, and arranging activity programs based on care-recipient interests and resources.
Sarezky, Daniel; Raquib, Aaishah R; Dunaief, Joshua L; Kim, Benjamin J
Purpose Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and iron-chelating supplement that has potential benefits for geographic atrophy in dry age-related macular degeneration as well as other eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of ALA in the elderly population. Patients and methods Fifteen subjects, age ≥65 years, took sequential ALA doses of 600, 800, and 1,200 mg. Each dose was taken once daily with a meal for 5 days. After each dose was taken by the subjects for 5 days, the subjects were contacted by phone, a review of systems was performed, and they were asked if they thought they could tolerate taking that dose of ALA for an extended period of time. Results The 600 mg dose was well tolerated. At the 800 mg dose, one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. At the 1,200 mg dose, two subjects had intolerable upper gastrointestinal side effects and one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. Subjects taking gastrointestinal prophylaxis medications had no upper gastrointestinal side effects. Conclusion High-dose ALA is not completely tolerated by the elderly. These preliminary data suggest that gastrointestinal prophylaxis may improve tolerability. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613572). PMID:27729766
Soh, May Ching; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine
Rheumatologists are increasingly involved in the care of young women who, in the age of biologic therapy, are now gaining control of their rheumatic diseases and attempting pregnancy. With careful planning, most women with rheumatic diseases have successful pregnancies. This article focuses specifically on the highest-risk pregnancies and controversial areas. We discuss the women at risk of complications, the types of maternal and fetal complications, the treatments that can be used in pregnancy (and breastfeeding) and longer-term outcomes that could affect the mother. SLE, RA, ANCA-associated vasculitides, large vessel vasculitis (e.g. Takayasu's) and other CTDs (e.g. scleroderma) are among the conditions covered. The evidence and controversies regarding the recommendations for the use of biologics in pregnancy are discussed. The role of the rheumatologist in pregnancy planning and caring for the pregnant and post-partum woman as part of the multidisciplinary team is discussed.
Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian
A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…
Levenson, Phyllis; And Others
Describes the program of the Demonstration and Training Center for High Risk or Mentally Retarded Infants of Teenage Mothers (ITAM), which aims at providing stimulation to the high-risk infant in order to enhance his/her development, and to offer educational and supportive programs for the teenage mother. (CM)
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section 35.6790 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High risk special award conditions. 14.14 Section 14.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.14 High risk special award...
Phibbs, C S; Mark, D H; Luft, H S; Peltzman-Rennie, D J; Garnick, D W; Lichtenberg, E; McPhee, S J
OBJECTIVE. This article tests whether or not the factors that affect hospital choice differ for selected subgroups of the population. DATA SOURCES. 1985 California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) discharge abstracts and hospital financial data were used. STUDY DESIGN. Models for hospital choice were estimated using McFadden's conditional logit model. Separate models were estimated for high-risk and low-risk patients, and for high-risk and low-risk women covered either by private insurance or by California Medicaid. The model included independent variables to control for quality, price, ownership, and distance to the hospital. DATA EXTRACTION. Data covered all maternal deliveries in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1985 (N = 61,436). ICD-9 codes were used to classify patients as high-risk or low-risk. The expected payment code on the discharge abstract was used to identify insurance status. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The results strongly reject the hypothesis that high-risk and low-risk women have the same choice process. Hospital quality tended to be more important for high-risk than low-risk women. These results also reject the hypothesis that factors influencing choice of hospital are the same for women covered by private insurance as for those covered by Medicaid. Further, high-risk women covered by Medicaid were less likely than high-risk women covered by private insurance to deliver in hospitals with newborn intensive care units. CONCLUSIONS. The results show that the choice factors vary across several broadly defined subgroups of patients with a specific condition. Thus, estimates aggregating all patients may be misleading. Specifically, such estimates will understate actual patient response to quality of care indicators, since patient sensitivity to quality of care varies with the patients' risk status. PMID:8514500
Mendler, Allen N.
Many youth use substances and engage in other high-risk behaviors in an attempt to allay the emptiness accompanying broken belongings. Schools can play important roles in fostering connections and creating the natural high that comes from success. (Author)
Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Kume, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hajime; Orii, Naoki
Immune senescence potentially leads to an increased risk of infections. It is desirable to augment the immune system and protect against infections by daily consumption of immunostimulatory food. The present study evaluated whether the intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) OLL1073R-1 has an effect on resistance to the common cold. We conducted two independent studies, in which fifty-seven (median age 74.5 years) and eighty-five healthy elderly individuals (median age 67.7 years) were participants. In each study, the subjects were divided into two groups based on age and sex and instructed to eat 90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group (P = 0.028). In addition, the quality of life score for the 'eye/nose/throat' system after intake was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the improvement of the score was correlated with the promotion of natural killer cell activity. In conclusion, consumption of yoghurt fermented with L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 augmented natural killer cell activity and reduced the risk of catching the common cold in elderly individuals.
Design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Tai Chi and its protective effect against ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial
Zheng, Guohua; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; He, Jian; Chen, Lidian
Introduction Controlling risk factors with regular exercise is effective and cost-effective for the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke. As a traditional Chinese form of exercise, Tai Chi might be beneficial in decreasing ischaemic stroke, but the evidence remains insufficient. We hypothesise that elderly community adults with risk factors for ischaemic stroke will decrease their ischaemic stroke risk by improving cerebral haemodynamic parameters, cardiopulmonary function, motor function, plasma risk indices, physical parameters or psychological outcomes after receiving 12 weeks of regular Tai Chi training compared with those who maintained their original physical activities. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial that will systematically evaluate the protective effects of Tai Chi exercise on ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Methods and analysis A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated into either the Tai Chi training group or the usual physical activity group. This paper reports on the design, intervention development and baseline characteristics of the participants. There were no significant differences between comparison groups in demographic characteristics or the baseline data of primary or secondary outcomes. Participants in the Tai Chi training group will receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training with a frequency of 5 days/week and 60 min/day, while those in the usual physical activities group will maintain their original activities. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (number 2013-020-02). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer
Singh, Jay P.; Fazel, Seena; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Buchanan, Alec
Background Rates of violence in persons identified as high risk by structured risk assessment instruments (SRAIs) are uncertain and frequently unreported by validation studies. Aims To analyse the variation in rates of violence in individuals identified as high risk by SRAIs. Method A systematic search of databases (1995-2011) was conducted for studies on nine widely used assessment tools. Where violence rates in high-risk groups were not published, these were requested from study authors. Rate information was extracted, and binomial logistic regression was used to study heterogeneity. Results Information was collected on 13 045 participants in 57 samples from 47 independent studies. Annualised rates of violence in individuals classified as high risk varied both across and within instruments. Rates were elevated when population rates of violence were higher, when a structured professional judgement instrument was used and when there was a lower proportion of men in a study. Conclusions After controlling for time at risk, the rate of violence in individuals classified as high risk by SRAIs shows substantial variation. In the absence of information on local base rates, assigning predetermined probabilities to future violence risk on the basis of a structured risk assessment is not supported by the current evidence base. This underscores the need for caution when such risk estimates are used to influence decisions related to individual liberty and public safety. PMID:24590974
Park, Byoungjin; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Cha, Choong Keun; Lee, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kyong-Chol
The interaction between calcium and magnesium as a risk modifier for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been largely overlooked in previous studies, for the strict regulatory system in blood has been thought to keep such homeostatic interactions under tight control. This study aimed to investigate the association between calcium-magnesium ratio in hair and subclinical coronary artery calcification. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the associations between calcium-magnesium ratio in hair and the coronary calcium score (CCS) in 216 Koreans aged 40 years and above (122 men and 94 women). We found that the calcium-to-magnesium ratio in hair was independently and positively associated with CCS after adjusting for age and sex (regression coefficient 6.051 ± 2.329, P = 0.010). When we assessed the association between the calcium-magnesium ratio and CCS after adjusting for potential cardiovascular risk factors and vascular function modifying drugs, we found that the strength of association with CCS was comparable to before (regression coefficient 5.434 ± 2.523, P = 0.032). Our findings suggest that among middle-aged and elderly Koreans without clinical CVD, the association between coronary artery calcification and hair calcium-magnesium ratio is stronger in those with a higher calcium-magnesium ratio in hair than in those with a lower ratio.
Song, Haihan; Xi, Jianjun; Li, Guang-Gang; Xu, Shumin; Wang, Chunmei; Cheng, Tingting; Li, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiandong; Bai, Jianwen
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication in elderly pneumonia patients who have a rapid progression, and is accompanied by a high mortality rate. Because the treatment options of ALI are limited to supportive care, identifying pneumonia patients who are at higher risk of ALI development is the emphasis of many studies. Here, we approach this problem from an immunological perspective by examining CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells, an important participant in acute and chronic inflammation. We find that elderly pneumonia patients have elevated CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell frequency compared to healthy individuals. This B cell population may express a higher level of IL-10, which has been was shown to suppress CD4(+) T cell-mediated proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) production, through an IL-10-dependent mechanism. We also observe that the frequency of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell is positively correlated with the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs in peripheral blood. Moreover, consistent with CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cell's anti-inflammatory role, we find that pneumonia patients who later developed ALI have reduced level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells. Together, our results demonstrated that CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in pneumonia patients possess regulatory function in vivo, and are associated with a reduced ALI risk.
Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M.; Hsiung, Chao A.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index. We used baseline measurements (2009–2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years). In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35–0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33–0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA. A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly. PMID:28178143
Sousa, Cleber Ricardo de; Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Toffoleto, Maria Cecília; Leão, Karine; Padilha, Kátia Grillo
The age of patients is a controversial issue in admission to intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare severity and nursing workload of elderly patients with 60-69, 70-79, and e"80 years of age and to identify predictors of nursing workload in elderly patients. A cross sectional study was performed with a sample of 71 elderly patients admitted to three ICU in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil from October to November 2004. Data were prospectively collected using Nursing Activities Score (NAS) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II). There was no significant difference in nursing workload among the elderly patients age subgroups (p=0.84). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the independent risk factors of high nursing workload were severity, age e"70 years, and to be a surgical ICU patient. Age as an isolated factor should not be discriminative for elderly patients admission to ICU.
Félix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Grau, Maria; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel
Hypercholesterolemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor that increases the incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in adults, although the association is less well established in the elderly. The role of statins is well characterized for the reduction of myocardial infarction incidence or death in individuals with a history or high risk of cardiovascular diseases, regardless of age. Therapeutic measures recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce cholesterol levels in the elderly, such as lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, are based on studies conducted in younger adults. This narrative review aims to summarize the main observational studies and randomized clinical trials that have studied the relationship between cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases and the potential benefits and drawbacks of statins use in elderly patients. PMID:23730531
Background Reasons underlying dialysis decision-making in Octogenarians and Nonagenarians have not been further explored in prospective studies. Methods This regional, multicentre, non-interventional and prospective study was aimed to describe characteristics and quality of life (QoL) of elderly (≥80 years of age) with advanced chronic kidney disease (stage 3b-5 CKD) newly referred to nephrologists. Predictive factors of death and dialysis initiation were also assessed using competing-risk analyses. Results All 155 included patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 45 ml/min/1.73 m2. Most patients had a non anaemic haemoglobin level (Hb) with no iron deficiency, and normal calcium and phosphate levels. They were well-fed and had a normal cognitive function and a good QoL. The 3-year probabilities of death and dialysis initiation reached 27% and 11%, respectively. The leading causes of death were cardiovascular (32%), cachexia (18%), cancer (9%), infection (3%), trauma (3%), dementia (3%), and unknown (32%). The reasons for dialysis initiation were based on uncontrolled biological abnormalities, such as hyperkalemia or acidosis (71%), uncontrolled digestive disorders (35%), uncontrolled pulmonary or peripheral oedema (29%), and uncontrolled malnutrition (12%). No patients with acute congestive heart failure or cancer initiated dialysis. Predictors of death found in both multivariate regression models (Cox and Fine & Gray) included acute congestive heart failure, age, any walking impairment and Hb <10 g/dL. Regarding dialysis initiation, eGFR <23 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the only predictor found in the Cox multivariate regression model whereas eGFR <23 mL/min/1.73 m2 and diastolic blood pressure were both independently associated with dialysis initiation in the Fine & Gray analysis. Such findings suggested that death and dialysis were independent events. Conclusions Octogenarians and Nonagenarians newly referred to nephrologists by
Linder, J D; Wilcox, C M
GERD and peptic ulcer disease are important diseases in the elderly. GERD presents similarly in the elderly and the young, although elderly patients may have less severe symptoms yet more severe mucosal disease and a higher prevalence of BE. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is falling, the elderly remain at risk for peptic ulcer because of the widespread use of NSAIDS. The presentation of peptic ulcer disease in the elderly can be subtle and atypical when compared with younger patients, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Because of comorbidity in the aged, peptic ulcer disease and its complications result in increased morbidity and mortality rates.
Feldmann, Timothy F.; Young, Monica T.; Pigazzi, Alessio
Hernia formation after surgical procedures continues to be an important cause of surgical morbidity. Incisional reinforcement at the time of the initial operation has been used in some patient populations to reduce the risk of subsequent hernia formation. In this article, reinforcement techniques in different surgical wounds are examined to identify situations in which hernia formation may be prevented. Mesh use for midline closure, pelvic floor reconstruction, and stoma site reinforcement is discussed. Additionally, the use of retention sutures, closure of the open abdomen, and reinforcement after component separation are examined using current literature. Although existing studies do not support the routine use of mesh reinforcement for all surgical incisions, certain patient populations appear to benefit from reinforcement with lower rates of subsequent hernia formation. The identification and characterization of these groups will guide the future use of mesh reinforcement in surgical incisions. PMID:25435823
This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.
Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T
Low protein intake can lead to declined lean mass (LM) in elderly. We examined the associations of total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with LM. The association of TP intake with LM change was further evaluated according to weight change status. This cross-sectional and prospective cohort study included 554 women aged 68 (sd 1·9) years from the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). The intervention group (n 270) received daily cholecalciferol (800 IU; 20 μg) and Ca (1000 mg) for 3 years while the control group received neither supplementation nor placebo (n 282). Participants filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and a 3-d food record in 2002 and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements at baseline and 3 years. Multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between protein intake and LM, adjusting for relevant covariates. At the baseline TP and AP intakes were positively associated with LM and trunk LM, TP was associated also with appendicular LM (aLM). Follow-up results showed that in the total population and the intervention group, higher TP and AP were associated with increased LM and aLM (P ≤ 0·050). No such associations were observed in the control group. PP intake was also associated with aLM change in the total population. Overall, the associations were independent of fat mass. Further, among weight maintainers, TP intake was positively associated with LM, aLM and trunk LM changes (P ≤ 0·020). In conclusion, dietary TP, especially AP, intake may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia by preserving LM in the elderly.
Wu, Chia-Liang; Wen, Shu-Hui
Abstract Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used for reducing blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Recent reports document the beneficial effects of CCB for preventing dementia; however, the results are controversial. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing dementia among elderly hypertensive patients treated with CCB. We designed a retrospective population-based cohort study using the records of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan dated from 2000 to 2010. The study cohort comprised 82,107 hypertensive patients of more than 60 years of age, and 4004 propensity score (PS)-matched pairs were selected according to age, sex, year of hypertension diagnosis, and baseline comorbidities. We employed a robust Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing dementia in the PS-matched cohort. The annual incidence of dementia in the CCB-exposure group was significantly lower than that in the comparator group (3.9 vs 6.9 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01) during the follow-up period (4.4 ± 2.5 years). Based on the PS-matched cohort, the adjusted HR of dementia in the CCB-exposure group was significantly lower than that in comparator group (HR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.39–0.72, P < 0.01). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses also confirmed similar findings. Our results provided evidence for an association between CCB use and a lower risk of developing dementia among the elderly hypertensive patients. Further studies are required to explore the causal relationship between CCB use and dementia. PMID:27512890
Wu, Chia-Liang; Wen, Shu-Hui
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used for reducing blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Recent reports document the beneficial effects of CCB for preventing dementia; however, the results are controversial. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing dementia among elderly hypertensive patients treated with CCB.We designed a retrospective population-based cohort study using the records of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan dated from 2000 to 2010. The study cohort comprised 82,107 hypertensive patients of more than 60 years of age, and 4004 propensity score (PS)-matched pairs were selected according to age, sex, year of hypertension diagnosis, and baseline comorbidities. We employed a robust Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing dementia in the PS-matched cohort.The annual incidence of dementia in the CCB-exposure group was significantly lower than that in the comparator group (3.9 vs 6.9 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01) during the follow-up period (4.4 ± 2.5 years). Based on the PS-matched cohort, the adjusted HR of dementia in the CCB-exposure group was significantly lower than that in comparator group (HR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.72, P < 0.01). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses also confirmed similar findings.Our results provided evidence for an association between CCB use and a lower risk of developing dementia among the elderly hypertensive patients. Further studies are required to explore the causal relationship between CCB use and dementia.
Zou, YM; Tan, JP; Li, N; Yang, JS; Yu, BC; Yu, JM; Zhao, YM; Wang, LN
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for and factors protecting against Parkinson’s disease (PD) in elderly Chinese veterans. Methods Using a database containing detailed information on the health status of the nervous system in elderly Chinese veterans, univariate and multivariate analyses of factors that may be associated with PD were performed. Univariate analysis of qualitative data was done using the Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, and the Mann–Whitney U nonparametric test was used for univariate analysis of quantitative data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for and factors protecting against PD in elderly Chinese veterans. Results A total of 9,676 elderly Chinese veterans were enrolled, including 228 cases with PD and 183 cases with Parkinson’s syndrome, with 9,265 non-PD subjects serving as controls. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028–1.755) and medical history of essential tremor (OR 1.228, 95% CI 1.081–1.396) were identified as independent risk factors for PD, with age being the most important risk factor. Physical exercise (OR 0.478, 95% CI 0.355–0.643) and reading (OR 0.513, 95% CI 0.357–0.735) were identified as independent factors protecting against PD, and physical exercise showed better protection against PD relative to reading. Smoking, alcohol use, anemia, cerebral trauma, education level, and electromagnetic field exposure showed no association with PD. Conclusion Physical exercise and reading may be independent factors that protect against PD among elderly Chinese veterans, while advancing age and medical history of essential tremor may be independent risk factors for PD. This study was cross-sectional, so further research is needed to confirm its results. PMID:25834444
Vallerand, Robert J.; And Others
Administered life satisfaction questionnaire to 199 French-speaking older adults in Montreal, living in nursing homes and in the community. Found that elderly persons living in regular community housing, in low-cost community housing, and in high self-determination nursing homes had similar levels of life satisfaction, and more satisfaction than…
Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.
Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402
Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Agnoletti, Davide; Scala, Luca; Grillo, Cristina; Arduini, Pietro; Turcato, Emanuela; Mantovani, Alessandro; Zoppini, Giacomo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher; Targher, Giovanni
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for heart failure (HF). Although some progress has been made in improving survival among patients admitted for HF, the rates of hospital readmissions and the related costs continue to rise dramatically. We sought to examine whether NAFLD and its severity (diagnosed at hospital admission) was independently associated with a higher risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in patients admitted for acute HF. We studied 212 elderly patients who were consecutively admitted with acute HF to the Hospital of Negrar (Verona) over a 1-year period. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced NAFLD fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB)-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis scores. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe valvular heart diseases, end-stage renal disease, cancer, known liver diseases or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations between NAFLD and the outcome(s) of interest. The cumulative rate of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalizations was 46.7% (n = 99, mainly due to cardiac causes). Patients with NAFLD (n = 109; 51.4%) had remarkably higher 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization rates compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Both event rates were particularly increased in those with advanced NAFLD fibrosis. NAFLD was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 5.05, 95% confidence intervals 2.78–9.10, p<0.0001) after adjustment for established risk factors and potential confounders. Similar results were found for 1-year cardiac re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 8.05, 95% confidence intervals 3.77–15.8, p<0.0001). In conclusion, NAFLD and its severity were strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in elderly
... to achieve target blood pressure goals with treatment. Overweight You are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure if you’re overweight or obese . The terms “overweight” and “obese” refer ...
Stryckers, Marijke; Nagler, Evi V; Van Biesen, Wim
As people age, chronic kidney disease becomes more common, but it rarely leads to end-stage kidney disease. When it does, the choice between dialysis and conservative care can be daunting, as much depends on life expectancy and personal expectations of medical care. Shared decision making implies adequately informing patients about their options, and facilitating deliberation of the available information, such that decisions are tailored to the individual's values and preferences. Accurate estimations of one's risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease and death with or without dialysis are essential for shared decision making to be effective. Formal risk prediction models can help, provided they are externally validated, well-calibrated and discriminative; include unambiguous and measureable variables; and come with readily applicable equations or scores. Reliable, externally validated risk prediction models for progression of chronic kidney disease to end-stage kidney disease or mortality in frail elderly with or without chronic kidney disease are scant. Within this paper, we discuss a number of promising models, highlighting both the strengths and limitations physicians should understand for using them judiciously, and emphasize the need for external validation over new development for further advancing the field.
Muralidhar, Vinayak; Xiang, Michael; Orio, Peter F.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.
Purpose Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT) boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA < 10 ng/ml or T1c, Gleason 6, PSA > 20 ng/ml). Material and methods We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258), and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270). Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022). Conclusions Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease. PMID:26985191
Virokannas, H; Pirinen, M; Kirvesoja, H; Väyrynen, S; Kemppainen, M L; Koski, K
The aim of this study was to find the basis for developing and adapting the environment to support the easy and safe moving of the elderly. In the field study, the daily activities and previous falls were inquired, the performance of the elderly was examined and the safety of the residential environment was surveyed among 70-80 years old subjects (N15). The second part was performed in the laboratory. 70-80 years old subjects (N55) walked on the test track. The risk level of most houses studied was moderate. In the residential surveying, all subjects had problems to stretch to high levels and most had problems to stretch to low levels. In the laboratory, errors happened often during line walking and zigzag walking in the stick track. Unsteadiness in gait was caused by extra pieces on the track and box carrying in one third of the subjects. The old subjects estimated that stairs somewhat lower than normally recommended were easier to climb. The results indicated, that new criteria and regulations are needed for the residential environment for the elderly and that it is possible to improve the safety of indoor mobility among the elderly in many ways.
Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim
We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing, mountaineering, rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and…
McGaw, Sue; Scully, Tamara; Pritchard, Colin
Objectives: This study set out to identify risk factors affecting parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) by determining: (i) whether perception of family support differs between parents with IDs, referring professionals, and a specialist parenting service; (ii) whether multivariate familial and demographic factors differentiates "high-risk"…
Providing quality oral health care for the growing elderly population is a major challenge, particularly for those residing in long-term care institutions. The Surgeon General's report on oral health in America (2000) noted that elders are at particularly high risk for oral health problems, and poor oral health in seniors has been linked to general systemic health risks such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, poor nutrition, and respiratory infection. This article outlines the need for greater attention to oral health care for the elderly in both nursing education and practice, and describes opportunities for effective inter-professional collaboration between nursing and oral health professionals. It also provides specific recommendations for fostering such collaboration. Working together, nurses and dental professionals can raise awareness of this issue, promote higher standards for oral care, and improve oral health and quality of life for elderly Americans.
Kirchner, V; Silver, L E; Kelly, C A
The association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and hyponatraemia has been well documented, the elderly appearing to be at greatest risk. An analysis of data of hyponatraemia in the elderly using SSRIs from all published cases and from the Committee on Safety of Medicines found that the mean time to detection was about 3 weeks after commencing SSRIs. A wide range of time to detection (1-253 days) and non-specific symptoms suggest hyponatraemia is detected by chance rather than being specifically looked for. In the elderly there are physiological changes, a high prevalence of medical illnesses and concomitant drug use, which may precipitate hyponatraemia. Together with a risk of altered water regulation in psychiatric illness this may account for the particular susceptibility of the elderly to hyponatraemia whilst using SSRIs.
Meskin, Lawrence H.; And Others
A dental health program in an elementary school succeeded in identifying children considered to be "high risk" in oral health and, through treatment and education, significantly improved their dental health. (JD)
In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.
Stonelake, Stephen; Thomson, Peter; Suggett, Nigel
Introduction National guidance states that all patients having emergency surgery should have a mortality risk assessment calculated on admission so that the ‘high risk’ patient can receive the appropriate seniority and level of care. We aimed to assess if peri-operative risk scoring tools could accurately calculate mortality and morbidity risk. Methods Mortality risk scores for 86 consecutive emergency laparotomies, were calculated using pre-operative (ASA, Lee index) and post-operative (POSSUM, P-POSSUM and CR-POSSUM) risk calculation tools. Morbidity risk scores were calculated using the POSSUM predicted morbidity and compared against actual morbidity according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The actual mortality was 10.5%. The average predicted risk scores for all laparotomies were: ASA 26.5%, Lee Index 2.5%, POSSUM 29.5%, P-POSSUM 18.5%, CR-POSSUM 10.5%. Complications occurred following 67 laparotomies (78%). The majority (51%) of complications were classified as Clavien–Dindo grade 2–3 (non-life-threatening). Patients having a POSSUM morbidity risk of greater than 50% developed significantly more life-threatening complications (CD 4–5) compared with those who predicted less than or equal to 50% morbidity risk (P = 0.01). Discussion Pre-operative risk stratification remains a challenge because the Lee Index under-predicts and ASA over-predicts mortality risk. Post-operative risk scoring using the CR-POSSUM is more accurate and we suggest can be used to identify patients who require intensive care post-operatively. Conclusions In the absence of accurate risk scoring tools that can be used on admission to hospital it is not possible to reliably audit the achievement of national standards of care for the ‘high-risk’ patient. PMID:26468369
Whayne, Thomas F
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. General Framingham Risk Profile (GFRP) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts were used to assess CV risk in DM in Oman. The GFRP identified more patients with medium-risk DM; GFRP and WHO/ISH identified essentially equal numbers at very high risk. These were then used to evaluate statin usage in Oman, including economics. Google lists innumerable tools from organizations, hospitals, practitioners, magazines, societies, clinics, and medical associations. The GFRP and WHO/ISH calculations provided useful DM assessment of populations in Oman. Other major risk models are Adult Treatment Panel III, based on Framingham, and Reynolds Risk Score; the latter incorporates other factors such as family history, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin A(1c) (in DM). These models are useful in assessing specific populations. Individual practitioners with limited time may just evaluate patients as low, medium, and high CV risk based on general knowledge and then treat.
Ribera Casado, José Manuel
A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times.
Caputo, Fabio; Vignoli, Teo; Leggio, Lorenzo; Addolorato, Giovanni; Zoli, Giorgio; Bernardi, Mauro
Alcohol-use-disorders (AUDs) afflict 1–3% of elderly subjects. The CAGE, SMAST-G, and AUDIT are the most common and validated questionnaires used to identify AUDs in the elderly, and some laboratory markers of alcohol abuse (AST, GGT, MCV, and CDT) may also be helpful. In particular, the sensitivity of MCV or GGT in detecting alcohol misuse is higher in older than in younger populations. The incidence of medical and neurological complications during alcohol withdrawal syndrome in elderly alcoholics is higher than in younger alcoholics. Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with tissue damage to several organs. Namely, an increased level of blood pressure is more frequent in the elderly than in younger adults, and a greater vulnerability to the onset of alcoholic liver disease, and an increasing risk of breast cancer in menopausal women have been described. In addition, the prevalence of dementia in elderly alcoholics is almost 5 times higher than in non-alcoholic elderly individuals, approximately 25% of elderly patients with dementia also present AUDs, and almost 20% of individuals aged 65 and over with a diagnosis of depression have a co-occurring AUD. Moreover, prevention of drinking relapse in older alcoholics is, in some cases, better than in younger patients; indeed, more than 20% of treated elderly alcohol-dependent patients remain abstinent after four years. Considering that the incidence of AUDs in the elderly is fairly high, and AUDs in the elderly are still underestimated, more studies in the fields of epidemiology, prevention and pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment of AUDs in the elderly are warranted. PMID:22575256
González León, Tania; Morera Pérez, Maricela
The increase of the aging population corresponds with the rise of renal cancer in elderly patients. The distinction between functional and chronological age, quality of life, and survival estimate are important issues, among others, that should be considered in the management of renal cancer in elderly patients. We made this review with the purpose of synthesizing the most updated criteria regarding indications and outcomes of the different therapeutic options in the management of elderly patients with renal cancer, beginning from the physiologic considerations that characterize them, their capacity to tolerate different therapeutic possibilities, and the prognosis of the patients' risks and comorbidity assessment.
Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B
Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.
Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B
Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results. PMID:21633635
Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A
Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia.
Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A
Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia. PMID:22956864
... peaking in the middle adulthood, ages 45-49). • Firearms were the most common means (72.1%) used for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse ...
... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...
Demain, Adèle; Westby, G W Max; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Karachi, Carine; Bonneville, Fabrice; Do, Manh Cuong; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Bardinet, Eric; Agid, Yves; Chastan, Nathalie; Welter, Marie-Laure
The pathophysiology of gait and balance disorders in elderly people with 'higher level gait disorders' (HLGD) is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the brain networks involved in this disorder. Standardised clinical scores, biomechanical parameters of gait initiation and brain imaging data, including deep white matter lesions (DWML) and brain voxel-based morphometry analyses, were assessed in 20 HLGD patients in comparison to 20 age-matched controls. In comparison to controls, HLGD patients presented a near-normal preparatory phase of gait initiation, but a severe alteration of both locomotor and postural parameters of first-step execution, which was related to 'axial' hypokinetic-rigid signs. HLGD patients showed a significant grey matter reduction in the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and the left primary motor cortex. This midbrain atrophy was related to the severity of clinical and neurophysiologically determined balance deficits. HLGD patients also showed a reduction in speed of gait, related to 'appendicular' hypokinetic-rigid signs and frontal-lobe-like cognitive deficits. These last two symptoms were correlated with the severity of DWML, found in 12/20 HLGD patients. In conclusion, these data suggest that the gait and balance deficits in HLGD mainly result from the lesion or dysfunction of the network linking the primary motor cortex and the MLR, brain regions known to be involved in the control of gait and balance, whereas cognitive and 'appendicular' hypokinetic-rigid signs mainly result from DWML that could be responsible for a dysfunction of the frontal cortico-basal ganglia loops.
Schubert, V; Fagrell, B
The response of skin blood cell flux (SBF) to locally applied pressure was evaluated with the laser-Doppler technique in the areas of the sacrum and the gluteus maximus muscle of geriatric patients and healthy young and elderly subjects. The SBF over the sacrum stopped at a lower external skin pressure than over the gluteus muscle in all groups studied (P less than 0.05-0.001). The SBF at rest was lower among geriatric patients and over the sacrum, with men showing the lowest value (P less than 0.001). The initial slope of the SBF curve and the peak SBF during the post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PRH) were lower among geriatric patients compared to younger healthy subjects (P less than 0.05-0.01) over both areas studied. During the last part of the PRH response rhythmic oscillations started, known as vasomotion. The mean skin temperature at rest was higher over the sacrum (P less than 0.001) than over the gluteus area, but no difference was found between the groups. The temperature increase during the PRH was larger over the gluteus muscle (P less than 0.01) than over the sacrum area in the healthy subjects. Among the patients the temperature increase was larger over the gluteus only during the first half of the PRH, after which the temperature increased most over the sacrum. It is concluded that SBF and skin temperature show different responses in microvascular reactivity to external pressure in elderly vs. younger subjects and also between sexes. The described technique may be useful in clinical practice for predicting the risk of pressure sores in different areas and subjects.
Palmisano, Pietro; Accogli, Michele; Zaccaria, Maria; Vergari, Alessandra; De Luca De Masi, Gabriele; Negro, Luca; De Blasi, Sergio
There is little information on any seasonal variations or meteorological factors associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias requiring cardiac pacing. The aim of this single-center study was to investigate the seasonal distribution of the incidence of severe, life-threatening bradyarrhythmias requiring urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing in an elderly population. Consecutive patients who underwent urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing between 2007 and 2012 were enrolled. The baseline characteristics of the patients and some meteorological parameters, including the calculation the daily heat index (HI), were recorded. During the study period, 79 consecutive patients (mean age 82 ± 8 years, 41 % male) underwent urgent temporary transvenous cardiac pacing, mainly for third-degree atrioventricular block (79 %). The incidence of bradyarrhythmias was significantly higher in summer than in the other seasons ( P < 0.001). Moreover, the highest incidence was observed in months with HI > 90 °F for >3 h per day for at least 10 days ( P < 0.001). A direct correlation was found between the average monthly temperature and the monthly number of patients undergoing temporary cardiac pacing (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Compared with other patients, those observed during the hottest months were significantly older and more frequently affected by chronic disabling neurological diseases (all P < 0.05). In addition, they more frequently showed biochemical indices of dehydration, renal function impairment and hyperkalemia (all P < 0.05). This study showed an increased incidence of severe bradyarrhythmias in an elderly population during the hottest months of the year. In these months, in subjects characterized by increased susceptibility to dehydration, the risk of developing bradyarrhythmias was increased significantly.
Wallin, Maria; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan
One risk factor for osteoporosis that has attracted increasing attention in recent years is exposure to cadmium. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between low-level cadmium exposure, from diet and smoking, and bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in elderly men. The study population consisted of 936 men from the Swedish cohort of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, aged 70 to 81 years at inclusion (years 2002 to 2004), with reliable data on cadmium in urine (U-Cd) analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in baseline samples. The participants also answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and medical history. BMD was measured at baseline using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, hip, and lumbar spine. During the follow-up period (until 2013), all new fractures were registered by date and type. Associations between BMD and U-Cd were assessed using multiple linear regression, and associations between incident fractures and baseline U-Cd were analyzed using Cox regression. In both cases, a number of potential confounders and other risk factors (eg, age, smoking, body mass index [BMI], and physical activity) were included in the models. We found significant negative associations between U-Cd and BMD, with lower BMD (4% to 8%) for all sites in the fourth quartile of U-Cd, using the first quartile as the reference. In addition, we found positive associations between U-Cd and incident fractures, especially nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures in the fourth quartile of U-Cd, with hazard ratios of 1.8 to 3.3 in the various models. U-Cd as a continuous variable was significantly associated with nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 to 1.4 per μg Cd/g creatinine), also in never-smokers, but not with the other fracture groups (all fractures, hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and other fractures). Our results indicate that even relatively low cadmium exposure
Rao, Stephen M.; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Smith, J. Carson; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally
Healthy aging is associated with cognitive declines typically accompanied by increased task-related brain activity in comparison to younger counterparts. The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz, 2009; Reuter-Lorenz and Park, 2014) posits that compensatory brain processes are responsible for maintaining normal cognitive performance in older adults, despite accumulation of aging-related neural damage. Cross-sectional studies indicate that cognitively intact elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) demonstrate patterns of increased brain activity compared to low risk elders, suggesting that compensation represents an early response to AD-associated pathology. Whether this compensatory response persists or declines with the onset of cognitive impairment can only be addressed using a longitudinal design. The current prospective, 5-year longitudinal study examined brain activation in APOE ε4 carriers (N=24) and non-carriers (N=21). All participants, ages 65–85 and cognitively intact at study entry, underwent task-activated fMRI, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, 18, and 57 months. fMRI activation was measured in response to a semantic memory task requiring participants to discriminate famous from non-famous names. Results indicated that the trajectory of change in brain activation while performing this semantic memory task differed between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers. The APOE ε4 group exhibited greater activation than the Low Risk group at baseline, but they subsequently showed a progressive decline in activation during the follow-up periods with corresponding emergence of episodic memory loss and hippocampal atrophy. In contrast, the non-carriers demonstrated a gradual increase in activation over the 5-year period. Our results are consistent with the STAC model by demonstrating that compensation varies with the severity of underlying neural damage and can be exhausted with the
Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan
ABSTRACT One risk factor for osteoporosis that has attracted increasing attention in recent years is exposure to cadmium. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between low‐level cadmium exposure, from diet and smoking, and bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in elderly men. The study population consisted of 936 men from the Swedish cohort of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, aged 70 to 81 years at inclusion (years 2002 to 2004), with reliable data on cadmium in urine (U‐Cd) analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in baseline samples. The participants also answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and medical history. BMD was measured at baseline using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, hip, and lumbar spine. During the follow‐up period (until 2013), all new fractures were registered by date and type. Associations between BMD and U‐Cd were assessed using multiple linear regression, and associations between incident fractures and baseline U‐Cd were analyzed using Cox regression. In both cases, a number of potential confounders and other risk factors (eg, age, smoking, body mass index [BMI], and physical activity) were included in the models. We found significant negative associations between U‐Cd and BMD, with lower BMD (4% to 8%) for all sites in the fourth quartile of U‐Cd, using the first quartile as the reference. In addition, we found positive associations between U‐Cd and incident fractures, especially nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures in the fourth quartile of U‐Cd, with hazard ratios of 1.8 to 3.3 in the various models. U‐Cd as a continuous variable was significantly associated with nonvertebral osteoporosis fractures (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 to 1.4 per μg Cd/g creatinine), also in never‐smokers, but not with the other fracture groups (all fractures, hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and other fractures). Our results indicate that even
Hans, Didier; Durosier, Claire; Kanis, John A; Johansson, Helena; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Krieg, Marc-Antoine
This study aimed to develop a hip screening tool that combines relevant clinical risk factors (CRFs) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel to determine the 10-yr probability of hip fractures in elderly women. The EPISEM database, comprised of approximately 13,000 women 70 yr of age, was derived from two population-based white European cohorts in France and Switzerland. All women had baseline data on CRFs and a baseline measurement of the stiffness index (SI) derived from QUS at the heel. Women were followed prospectively to identify incident fractures. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the CRFs that contributed significantly to hip fracture risk, and these were used to generate a CRF score. Gradients of risk (GR; RR/SD change) and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated for the CRF score, SI, and a score combining both. The 10-yr probability of hip fracture was computed for the combined model. Three hundred seven hip fractures were observed over a mean follow-up of 3.2 yr. In addition to SI, significant CRFs for hip fracture were body mass index (BMI), history of fracture, an impaired chair test, history of a recent fall, current cigarette smoking, and diabetes mellitus. The average GR for hip fracture was 2.10 per SD with the combined SI + CRF score compared with a GR of 1.77 with SI alone and of 1.52 with the CRF score alone. Thus, the use of CRFs enhanced the predictive value of SI alone. For example, in a woman 80 yr of age, the presence of two to four CRFs increased the probability of hip fracture from 16.9% to 26.6% and from 52.6% to 70.5% for SI Z-scores of +2 and -3, respectively. The combined use of CRFs and QUS SI is a promising tool to assess hip fracture probability in elderly women, especially when access to DXA is limited.
Sheets, Lincoln; Popejoy, Lori; APRN, GCNS-BC; Khalilia, Mohammed; Petroski, Greg; Parker, Jerry C.
Objective. To develop a systematic and reproducible way to identify patients at increased risk for higher healthcare costs. Methods. Medical records were analyzed for 9,581 adults who were primary care patients in the University of Missouri Health System and who were enrolled in Medicare or Medicaid. Patients were categorized into one of four risk tiers as of October 1, 2013, and the four tiers were compared on demographic characteristics, number of healthcare episodes, and healthcare charges in the year before and the year after cohort formation. Results. The mean number of healthcare episodes and the sum of healthcare charges in the year following cohort formation were higher for patients in the higher-risk tiers. Conclusions. Retrospective information that is easily extracted from medical records can be used to create risk tiers that provide highly useful information about the prospective risk of healthcare utilization and costs. PMID:28269910
Su, Ya-Min; Cai, Xing-Xing; Geng, Hai-Hua; Sheng, Hong-Zhuan; Fan, Meng-Kan; Pan, Min
Elderly patients are at high risk of mortality when they present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the clinical outcomes of this sub-group undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have not been well established, despite recent advances in both devices and techniques. In the present retrospective cohort study from a Chinese single center, we assessed the clinical outcomes and predictors of mortality in elderly patients (≥60 years) underwent with PPCI. The primary endpoints were immediate angiographic success and in-hospital procedural success. The secondary endpoints were all-cause death in hospital. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a total of 184 consecutive patients with acute STEMI underwent PPCI were enrolled. 116 (63.04%) patients were in the elderly group. Despite the difference in lesion complexity between groups, the immediate angiographic success rate was similar (93.97% in the elderly group, and 94.12% in the non-elderly group, P=0.966). The procedural success rate were not significantly different between the two groups (90.52% in the elderly group, and 94.12% in the non-elderly group, P=0.389). However, in-hospital mortality was statistically higher in elderly group than in the non-elderly group (8.62% Vs 1.47%, P=0.048). The major causes of death were cardiac shock and malignant arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation). Our results indicate that PPCI in the elderly is feasible and has a high likelihood of immediate angiographic and procedural success. PMID:26379931
Rise, Ida Vikan; Haro, Josep Maria; Gjervan, Bjørn
Introduction Data specific to late-life bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. Current research is sparse and present guidelines are not adapted to this group of patients. Objectives We present a literature review on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cognitive impairment in patients with late-life BD. This review discusses common comorbidities that affect BD elders and how aging might affect cognition and treatment. Methods Eligible studies were identified in MedLine by the Medical Subject Headings terms “bipolar disorder” and “aged”. We only included original research reports published in English between 2012 and 2015. Results From 414 articles extracted, 16 studies were included in the review. Cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, type II diabetes, and endocrinological abnormalities were observed as highly prevalent. BD is associated with a high suicide risk. Bipolar elderly had an increased risk of dementia and performed worse on cognitive screening tests compared to age-matched controls across different levels of cognition. Despite high rates of medical comorbidity among bipolar elderly, a systematic under-recognition and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease have been suggested. Conclusion There was a high burden of physical comorbidities and cognitive impairment in late-life BD. Bipolar elderly might be under-recorded and undertreated in primary medical care, indicating that this group needs an adapted clinical assessment and specific clinical guidelines need to be established. PMID:27274256
Bouafia, N; Mahjoub, M; Nouira, A; Ben Aissa, R; Saïdi, H; Guedana, N; Njah, M
This descriptive study assessed the frequency of selected risk factors for high risk pregnancy (HRP) among women in Sousse region. All pregnant women (beyond 28 weeks gestation) giving birth in 4 public maternity hospitals between 15 February 2005 and 15 August 2005 and who had at least 1 risk factorwere enrolled. Data were collected within 24 hours of birth from obstetric and antenatal records and by interview. Of 4660 pregnant women, 1194 (25.6%) had at least 1 risk factor and were considered at-risk pregnancies. Mean age of the at-risk women was 31.3 (SD 5.4) years, 73% were urban residents, 38% had secondary education or higher and 75% were housewives. The mean number of risk factors was 1.5 per woman. The majority of women (59.3%) had 1 risk factor and 30.4% had 2. The mean number of prenatal visits was 4, 68.6% were seen by an obstetrician and 43% used the private sector. Certain factors were inadequately screened: age >35 years, parity >4, previous low birth weight and neonatal death, excessive fundal height and anaemia.
Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul
We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior.
Lee, HyeJin; Park, BoRa; Yang, YeongAe
[Purpose] This research aims to identify the relationships among visual perceptual skills, cognitive functioning, and fall efficacy of older adults based on whether they are at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 116 older adults over 65 years of age who use D Seniors Welfare Center and Y Senior Citizen Center in Busan Metropolitan City. All research subjects were classified based on balance maintenance ability evaluation and whether or not they had experienced falls more than once. Those with scores below the cut-off standard were selected as a group of older adults at risk for falls. An MVPT-3 test was used to assess visual perceptual skill, MMSE-KC, and MoCA-K tests to assess cognitive function, and the FES-K falls efficacy test to classify subjects as either at risk for falls or not. [Results] After comparing scores for visual perceptual skills, cognitive functioning, and fall efficacy, subjects at risk for falls showed significantly lower scores than did those not at risk. [Conclusion] The study found that there are significant differences in balance ability, visual perceptual skill, cognitive functioning, and fall efficacy between older adults at risk for falls and those not at risk. PMID:27942139
Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias
Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.
Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.
This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…
Schussel, Lorne; Miller, Lisa
The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-risk youth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy.
Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.
Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.
Bom, A Todo; Pinto, A Mota
In industrialized countries there has been a significant increase in life expectancy, but chronic diseases are still important causes of death and disability in the elderly. Individuals over 65 years of age have a decrease in organic functions and lungs can lose more than 40% of their capacity. Although asthma and allergic rhinitis are more common in young people their prevalence in the elderly is increasing and the mortality reported in these patients is high. Asthmatic airways show an accumulation of activated eosinophils and lymphocytes determining structural changes of the bronchi. Local allergic inflammation, changes in T cell phenotypes and in apoptosis contribute to systemic inflammation. An increased risk of respiratory infections and neoplasic diseases has been recognized. These patients have increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic diseases are associated with an impairment of lung function and with systemic inflammation. Summing up older asthmatic patients have an increased risk to premature disability and death. A proper therapeutic approach to asthma can minimize this evolution. To identify the triggers is an important goal that allows reducing medication needs. Corticosteroids dampen allergic inflammation; therefore, they are the first choice in the treatment of patients with persistent asthma and rhinitis. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have reduced side effects and can be used if necessary. The elderly may have difficult access to health care. They should be educated about their disease and receive a written treatment plan. This information improves the quality of life, socialization and disease outcome in older people.
Human activity, life span, and quality of life are enhanced by innovations in science and technology. Aging individual needs to take advantage of these developments to lead a self-regulated life. However, maintaining a self-regulated life at old age involves a high degree of risk, and the elderly often fail at this goal. Thus, the objective of our study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing a cognitive inference device (CI-device) for effective activity supervision in the elderly. To frame the CI-device, we propose a device design framework along with an inference algorithm and implement the designs through an artificial neural model with different configurations, mapping the CI-device's functions to minimise the device's prediction error. An analysis and discussion are then provided to validate the feasibility of CI-device implementation for activity supervision in the elderly. PMID:25405211
Lawton, F G; Hacker, N F
Radical, curative surgery may not be considered in elderly patients with gynecologic cancer, yet the morbidity for this population from radiotherapy and cytotoxics may be high. This study compared the feasibility and outcome of such surgery in 226 consecutive patients, 72 women over 70 years old and 154 younger patients, in our institution over a 26-month period. Older patients presented with more advanced-stage cancers and, as a group, had significantly poorer presurgical performance status and more intercurrent medical problems. Nevertheless, the planned radical surgical procedure could be carried out in 90% of elderly patients, with a postoperative mortality of 1.5%. Minor postoperative complication rates were similar for the two groups and, except for vulvectomy patients, the mean inpatient stay was the same for both groups. Chronological age alone is a poor determinant of surgical risk, and elderly patients withstand radical surgery almost as well as their younger counterparts.
Carone, Marco; Asgharian, Masoud; Jewell, Nicholas P.
Dementia is one of the world’s major public health challenges. The lifetime risk of dementia is the proportion of individuals who ever develop dementia during their lifetime. Despite its importance to epidemiologists and policy-makers, this measure does not seem to have been estimated in the Canadian population. Data from a birth cohort study of dementia are not available. Instead, we must rely on data from the Canadian Study of Heath and Aging, a large cross-sectional study of dementia with follow-up for survival. These data present challenges because they include substantial loss to follow-up and are not representatively drawn from the target population because of structural sampling biases. A first bias is imparted by the cross-sectional sampling scheme, while a second bias is a result of stratified sampling. Estimation of the lifetime risk and related quantities in the presence of these biases has not been previously addressed in the literature. We develop and study nonparametric estimators of the lifetime risk, the remaining lifetime risk and cumulative risk at specific ages, accounting for these complexities. In particular, we reveal the fact that estimation of the lifetime risk is invariant to stratification by current age at sampling. We present simulation results validating our methodology, and provide novel facts about the epidemiology of dementia in Canada using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. PMID:26139951
Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim
Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen's negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.
High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741
Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Singh, Kavita; Guggilla, Rama K; Patil, Vinodvenkatesh; Webster, Ruth
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Adequate treatment of vascular risk factors, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure are known to reduce the future risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. However currently, large treatment gaps exist among high-risk individuals, in whom the guidelines recommend concomitant treatment with aspirin, statin, and blood-pressure lowering agents. Combining aspirin, cholesterol, and blood-pressure lowering agents into a single pill called the cardiovascular polypill has been proposed as complementary care in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in both intermediate- and high-risk patient populations. It is now a decade since the first recommendations to develop and trial cardiovascular polypills. The major scientific debate has been about the appropriate initial target population. This review article focuses on the potential role of fixed-dose combination therapy in different patient populations, outlines the pros and cons of combination therapy, and emphasizes the rationale for trialing their use. Current and planned future cardiovascular polypill trials are summarized and the pre-requisites for implementation of the polypill strategy in both primary and secondary prevention are described. The recent development of combination pills containing off-patent medications holds promise for highly affordable and effective treatment and evidence is emerging on the use of this strategy in high-risk populations.
McInnis, Kelly C; Ramey, Lindsay N
Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes. They occur during periods of increased training without adequate rest, disrupting normal bone reparative mechanisms. There are a host of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including biochemical and biomechanical, that put athletes at risk. In most stress fractures, the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with imaging indicated at times, and management focused on symptom-free relative rest with advancement of activity as tolerated. Overall, stress fractures in athletes have an excellent prognosis for return to sport, with little risk of complication. There is a subset of injuries that have a greater risk of fracture progression, delayed healing, and nonunion and are generally more challenging to treat with nonoperative care. Specific locations of high-risk stress fracture include the femoral neck (tension side), patella, anterior tibia, medial malleolus, talus, tarsal navicular, proximal fifth metatarsal, and great toe sesamoids. These sites share a characteristic region of high tensile load and low blood flow. High-risk stress fractures require a more aggressive approach to evaluation, with imaging often necessary, to confirm early and accurate diagnosis and initiate immediate treatment. Treatment consists of nonweight-bearing immobilization, often with a prolonged period away from sport, and a more methodic and careful reintroduction to athletic activity. These stress fractures may require surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is essential to avoid delayed diagnosis and optimize outcomes in this subset of stress fractures.
López-Corral, Lucía; Mateos, María Victoria; Corchete, Luis A.; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; de la Rubia, Javier; de Arriba, Felipe; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.
Smoldering myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasia with a heterogeneous propensity to progress to active myeloma. In order to investigate the biology of smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression, we analyzed the genomic characteristics by FISH, SNP-arrays and gene expression profile of a group of patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma included in a multicenter randomized trial. Chromosomal abnormalities detected by FISH and SNP-arrays at diagnosis were not associated to risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma. However, the overexpression of four SNORD genes (SNORD25, SNORD27, SNORD30 and SNORD31) was correlated with shorter time to progression (P<0.03). When plasma cells from high-risk smoldering patients who progressed to symptomatic myeloma were sequentially analyzed, newly acquired lesions together with an increase in the proportion of plasma cells carrying a given abnormality were observed. These findings suggest that gene expression profiling is a valuable technique to identify smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression. (Clinical Trials NCT00443235) PMID:22331267
Kim, Hyunwook; Park, Dong-Uk
Micro-scale enterprises (MSEs) with less than 5 employees are subject to be covered by the scheme of the regular workplace environmental inspection and medical health examination from 2002 in Korea. Due to limited resources as well as vast number of enterprises to be covered, there is an urgent need to focus these efforts to only those high-risk MSEs. To identify them, a qualitative risk assessment methodology was developed combining the hazardous nature of chemicals and exposure potentials as modeled by the HSE and the risk categorization technique by the AIHA. Risk Index (RI) was determined by combining characteristics specific to chemicals and scale of use of the chemicals. The method was applied to 514 MSEs that were selected from a random sample of 4000 MSEs. A total of 170 out of 514 MSEs studied were included in the final analysis. Current status and characteristics of MSEs were identified and RI was assigned to chemicals in each industry. Based on the distribution of RIs, the high-risk MSEs were selected. These include: wood and products of wood, chemicals and chemical products, basic metals, other machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, trailer and semi-trailer manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing. Since these MSEs are high-risk ones, more attentions should be focused on them. This method can be applied to other workplaces with no previous history of quantitative workplace inspections.
Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack
This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…
Facon, Thierry; Mary, Jean-Yves; Pégourie, Brigitte; Attal, Michel; Renaud, Marc; Sadoun, Alain; Voillat, Laurent; Dorvaux, Véronique; Hulin, Cyrille; Lepeu, Gérard; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Eschard, Jean-Paul; Ferrant, Augustin; Blanc, Michel; Maloisel, Frédéric; Orfeuvre, Hubert; Rossi, Jean-François; Azaïs, Isabelle; Monconduit, Mathieu; Collet, Philippe; Anglaret, Bruno; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Wetterwald, Marc; Eghbali, Houchingue; Vekemans, Marie-Christine; Maisonneuve, Hervé; Troncy, Jacques; Grosbois, Bernard; Doyen, Chantal; Thyss, Antoine; Jaubert, Jérome; Casassus, Philippe; Thielemans, Béatrice; Bataille, Régis
Dexamethasone alone increases life expectancy in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma (MM); however, no large randomized study has compared dexamethasone and dexamethasone-based regimens with standard melphalan-prednisone in newly diagnosed MM patients ineligible for high-dose therapy. In the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) 95-01 trial, 488 patients aged 65 to 75 years were randomized between 4 regimens of treatment: melphalan-prednisone, dexamethasone alone, melphalan-dexamethasone, and dexamethasone-interferon alpha. Response rates at 6 months (except for complete response) were significantly higher among patients receiving melphalan-dexamethasone, and progression-free survival was significantly better among patients receiving melphalan (P < .001, for both comparisons), but there was no difference in overall survival between the 4 treatment groups. Moreover, the morbidity associated with dexamethasone-based regimens was significantly higher than with melphalan-prednisone, especially for severe pyogenic infections in the melphalan-dexamethasone arm and hemorrhage, severe diabetes, and gastrointestinal and psychiatric complications in the dexamethasone arms. Overall, these results indicated that dexamethasone should not be routinely recommended as first-line treatment in elderly patients with MM. In the context of the IFM 95-01 trial, the standard melphalan-prednisone remained the best treatment choice when efficacy and patient comfort were both considered. These results might be useful in the context of future combinations with innovative drugs.
Lewis, Kathy; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The Violence Risk Scale (VRS) uses ratings of static and dynamic risk predictors to assess violence risk, identify targets for treatment, and assess changes in risk following treatment. The VRS was rated pre- and posttreatment on a sample of 150 males, mostly high-risk violent offenders many with psychopathic personality traits. These individuals…
Marciscano, Ariel E; Hardee, Matthew E; Sanfilippo, Nicholas
Traditionally, patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer have been an extremely challenging group to manage due to a significant likelihood of treatment failure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). The results of multiple large, prospective, randomized trials have demonstrated that men with high-risk features who are treated in a multimodal fashion at the time of initial diagnosis have improved overall survival. Advances in local treatments such as dose-escalated radiotherapy in conjunction with androgen suppression and postprostatectomy adjuvant radiotherapy have also demonstrated benefits to this subset of patients. However, therapeutic enhancement with the addition of chemotherapy to the primary treatment regimen may help achieve optimal disease control.
Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru
The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress
Choudhury, Devasmita; Tuncel, Meryem; Levi, Moshe
The growing population of elderly with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is at greater risk for cardiovascular disease given an independent risk of CKD, as well as from added dyslipidemia of aging and renal dysfunction. Changes in lipid metabolism with more isodense and high-dense, triglyceride-rich particles, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels occur with CKD and aging, which are noted to have significant atherogenic potential. In addition, lipid abnormalities may lead to the progression of CKD. Cardiovascular mortality in the end-stage renal disease population is more than 10 times higher than the general population. Treatment of dyslipidemia in the general population suggests important benefits both in reducing cardiovascular risk and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Secondary analyses of elderly subgroups of various large prospective studies with statins suggest treatment benefit with statin use in the elderly. Similarly limited data from secondary analyses of CKD subgroups of larger prospective trials using statins also suggest a possible benefit in cardiovascular outcomes and the progression of kidney disease. However, randomized trials have yet to confirm similar benefits and targets of treatment for dyslipidemia in the elderly with CKD and end-stage renal disease. Treatment in the elderly with CKD should be individualized and outweigh risks of side effects and drug-drug interactions. There is a need for further specific investigation of dyslipidemia of CKD in the aging population in relation to renal disease progression and cardiovascular outcome.
Valente, Sharon M.
Notes that people over age 60 have highest suicide rates and comprise one-fourth of all suicides. Presents case study illustrating risk assessment and intervention with elderly woman. Examines clinical issues related to recognition of suicidal elderly patients and presents practical approach to early detection, evaluation, and management of…
Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A.; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.
Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective U.S. studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio[OR]=9.41), and 6.6% vs 2.1% for women (OR=3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the U.S. population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25820865
Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L
Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs. 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio [OR] = 9.41), and 6.6% vs. 2.1% for women (OR = 3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the US population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening.
The papers included in this section represent the effort of the Task Force on Nutrition of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology to synthetize the evidence-based concepts on nutritional support of the elderly cancer patients. In the attempt of presenting a comprehensive overview of the topic, the panel included experts from different specialties: basic researchers, nutritionists, geriatricians, nurses, dieticians, gastroenterologists, oncologists. Cancer in elderly people is a growing problem. Not only in almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group, but cancer per se is also a disease of old adult-elderly people, hence the oncologists face an increasing number of these patients both now and in the next years. The are several studies on nutrition of elderly subjects and many other on nutrition of cancer patients but relatively few specifically devoted to the nutritional support of the elderly cancer patients. However, the awareness that elderly subjects account for a high proportion of the mixed cancer patients population, in some way legitimates us to extend some conclusions of the literature also to the elderly cancer patients. Although the topics of this Experts' Consensus have been written by specialists in different areas of nutrition, the final message is addressed to the oncologists. Not only they should be more directly involved in the simplest steps of the nutritional care (recognition of the potential existence of a "nutritional risk" which can compromise the planned oncologic program, use of some oral supplements, etc.) but, as the true experts of the natural history of their cancer patient, they should also coordinate the process of the nutritional support, integrating this approach in the overall multidisciplinary cancer care.
Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Stenehjem, Aud; Os, Ingrid; Van de Borne, Philippe; Burnier, Michel; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Redon, Josep; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Mancia, Giuseppe
The European Society of Hypertension recommend the following main rules for treatment of hypertension in elderly and octogenarians: 1) In elderly hypertensives with SBP ≥ 160 mmHg there is solid evidence to recommend reducing SBP to between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg. 2) In fit elderly patients less than 80 years old treatment may be considered at SBP ≥ 140 mmHg with a target SBP < 140 mmHg if treatment is well tolerated. 3) In fit individuals older than 80 years with an initial SBP ≥ 160 mmHg it is recommended to reduce SBP to between 150 mmHg and 140 mmHg. 4) In frail elderly patients, it is recommended to base treatment decisions on comorbidity and carefully monitor the effects of treatment. 5) Continuation of well-tolerated antihypertensive treatment should be considered when a treated individual becomes octogenarian. 6) All hypertensive agents are recommended and can be used in the elderly, although diuretics and calcium antagonists may be preferred in isolated systolic hypertension.
Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Pawlita, Michael; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T
Although HPV16 has been strongly implicated in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, the role of other high-risk HPV types in the etiology of head and neck cancer remains unclear. To date, few data exist addressing the nature of the association between antibodies to oncogenic proteins of non-HPV16 HPVs in relation to head and neck cancer. We examined the relationship between multiple HPV types (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a large population-based case-control study (1069 cases and 1107 controls). Serological measures for HPV types included antibodies to L1, E6 and/or E7. In a secondary analysis, we excluded HPV16 seropositive subjects to examine independent associations with other high-risk HPVs. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistically significant associations were observed for HPV16, 18, 33 and 52 and risk of HNSCC after mutually adjusting for HPV types. Among HPV16 seronegative subjects, elevated risks of HNSCC were observed for HPV18 E6 (OR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.26-14.0), HPV33 E6 (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.56-40.5) and HPV52 E7 (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.16-9.99). When examined by tumor type, associations with HPV18 and HPV33 remained statistically significant for oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV52 was associated with oral cancer. In addition, magnitude of associations for HNSCC increased markedly with increasing number of seropositive high-risk HPV infections. High-risk HPV types, other than HPV16, are likely to be involved in the etiology of HNSCC.
Vibert, Dominique; Caversaccio, Marco; Häusler, Rudolf
Menière disease usually begins in adults from 20 to 60 years old, and occurs in more than 10% of patients older than 65. The treatment of Menière disease in the elderly represents a challenge because of polymedication. Antivertiginous drugs such as betahistine and cinnarizin give good results with minor secondary effects. In contrast, major vestibular suppressor drugs such as thiethylperazin must be avoided as long-term treatment because of their side effects. Definitive vestibular surgical deafferentations such as labyrinthectomy and selective vestibular neurectomy represent optional procedures but must be carefully evaluated from case to case. Ablative procedures remain the efficient treatment of drop attacks, which represent a high potential risk of severe injuries by older patients sometimes with important social consequences.
Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis. PMID:26517701
Chen, Shujing; Wang, Changhui; Li, Bing; Shi, Guochao; Li, Huiping; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Yutong; Zhou, Jian; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue
Background Early diagnosis of COPD is often not achieved due to limited recognition and limited access to the pulmonary function test. Our hypothesis was that lung function decline may be different between populations with mild COPD and those who are at high risk and do not receive treatment. Patients and methods Subjects with mild COPD and those from a high-risk COPD population were recruited from a community-based COPD epidemiological study after obtaining consent. Baseline clinical characteristics, symptom questionnaire, spirometry, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) chest scan, and blood plasma biomarker data were collected initially and then 1 year later. Results A total of 617 participants were recruited, and 438 eventually completed the first-year follow-up visit; 72 participants (46 males) were in the mild COPD group, and 225 participants (165 males) were in the high-risk group. The mean forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) decline in the mild COPD group was 129 mL, which was significantly higher than the 30 mL decline in the high-risk population group (P=0.005). Group category (odds ratio [OR] =0.230) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score (OR =9.912) were independent risk factors for an FEV1% predicted decline of >15% for all participants. In the mild COPD group, patients with a higher CAT (OR =5.310) and Emphysema Index (OR =5.681) were associated with a FEV1% predicted decline of >15% at the first-year follow-up. No factor showed a significantly predictive effect on FEV1 decline in the high-risk COPD group. Conclusion Group category was an independent influential factor associated with FEV1 decline. PMID:28184155
Taylor, Andrew T
High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS) which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute mountain sickness is a wide-spread clinical condition. Risk factors include home elevation, maximum altitude, sleeping altitude, rate of ascent, latitude, age, gender, physical condition, intensity of exercise, pre-acclimatization, genetic make-up, and pre-existing diseases. At higher altitudes, sleep disturbances may become more profound, mental performance is impaired, and weight loss may occur. If ascent is rapid, acetazolamide can reduce the risk of developing AMS, although a number of high-altitude travelers taking acetazolamide will still develop symptoms. Ibuprofen can be effective for headache. Symptoms can be rapidly relieved by descent, and descent is mandatory, if at all possible, for the management of the potentially fatal syndromes of high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. The purpose of this review is to combine a discussion of specific risk factors, prevention, and treatment options with a summary of the basic physiologic responses to the hypoxia of altitude to provide a context for managing high-altitude illnesses and advising the non-acclimatized high-altitude traveler.
Ergün, Recai; Çalışkan, Taner; Aydın, Kutlay; Tokur, Murat Emre; Cömert, Bilgin
Introduction. We sought to identify possible risk factors associated with mortality in patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients and Methods. PE patients, diagnosed with computer tomography pulmonary angiography, were included from two ICUs and were categorized into groups: group 1 high-risk patients and group 2 intermediate/low-risk patients. Results. Fifty-six patients were included. Of them, 41 (73.2%) were group 1 and 15 (26.7%) were group 2. When compared to group 2, need for vasopressor therapy (0 vs 68.3%; p < 0.001) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (6.7 vs 36.6%; p = 0.043) were more frequent in group 1. The treatment of choice for group 1 was thrombolytic therapy in 29 (70.7%) and anticoagulation in 12 (29.3%) patients. ICU mortality for group 1 was 31.7% (n = 13). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, APACHE II score >18 (OR 42.47 95% CI 1.50–1201.1), invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 30.10 95% CI 1.96–463.31), and thrombolytic therapy (OR 0.03 95% CI 0.01–0.98) were found as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion. In high-risk PE, admission APACHE II score and need for invasive mechanical ventilation may predict death in ICU. Thrombolytic therapy seems to be beneficial in these patients. PMID:28025592
Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...
Ramey, Craig T.; Farran, Dale C.
A longitudinal study was conducted at the Frank Porter Graham Center NC to explore the use of educational day care and related services as a mechanism for preparing socially disadvantaged children for success in later public schooling. Infant children of mothers who met a criterion score on a high risk index were randomly assigned to either an…
Hollingsworth, Kathy R.; Dunkle, John H.; Douce, Louise
The disturbed and disturbing college student causes the most vexing concerns for student affairs administrators. The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model offers a useful and easily understood framework for dealing with the various challenges of this high-risk student population. This chapter focuses on changes that have…
In this issue of Blood, Andersson and colleagues reveal in a case-control study that highVWF and low ADAMTS13 plasma levels are each a risk factor for ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction, and that the combination of both results in a joint effect.
Discusses the major elements of writing process instruction and the positive influence they have on learning-disabled and inner-city high-risk students. Argues that such process-writing programs might serve as a preventative measure for children likely to be categorized as learning disabled in the future. (HTH)
Trachtenburg, Phyllis; Ferruggia, Ann
Discusses how interactive, whole class techniques (using a student-generated Big Book adaptation of "Corduroy") improved the reading skills of high risk first grade readers. Describes several activities, including sight word strategies, decoding techniques, and word processing, and suggests 27 Big Books for use with these activities. (MM)
Slack, Kelley; Noe, Raymond; Weaver, Sallie
Research examining teams working in high-risk operations has been lacking. The present symposium showcases research on team training that helps to optimize team performance in environments characterized by life or death situations arising spontaneously after long periods of mundane activity by pulling experts from diverse areas of industry: space flight, health care, and medical simulation.
Smith, Margaret; Finneran, John; Droppa, Marj
This study investigated the high risk drinking practices of unaffiliated college students who are not involved in formal athletics, fraternities, or sororities. Using a qualitative research design, the investigators interviewed students at a northeast public college in fall 2010 to learn about unaffiliated students' drinking experiences and their…
Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.
Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…
Hardy, Dorothy C.; Karathanos, Demetrius
Examines outcomes of a "bridge" course for first-year college students that emphasizes personal and psychological adjustment to the university experience to enhance the likelihood of academic success. Findings from 59 high-risk students who completed course suggest that goal of enhancing likelihood of academic success for such students was…
Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.
In this report the Ohio Legislative Office of Education Oversight discusses five Ohio programs designed to serve at-risk high school students and examines their possible overlap. The report describes the goals, strategies, and structure of the following programs: (1) Occupational Work Experience (OWE), a 1-year vocational program of classroom…
Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie
This qualitative study explored 18 high-risk adolescent Latinas' perceptions of their relationships with nonresident fathers. A number of interrelated factors--early childhood memories, mothers' interpretations, and fathers' behaviors--shaped girls' perceptions, which in turn, influenced how they interacted with fathers. Some girls struggled to…
Gochman, Eva R. Grubler; Aisenstein, Clara
An exploratory study of high-risk mothers' interactions with their infants studied modalities of stimulation; vestibular and auditory. It was hypothesized that stimulation would be lower for non-paranoid than for paranoid types, and than for control mothers. Mothers recruited from inner city gynecological clinics were screened for probable…
Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni
With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure
Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni
With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure
Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee
The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.
Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee
The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60–85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment. PMID:26630154
Kondo, Yuya; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Shunta; Sumida, Takayuki
The most frequent rheumatic joint disease in the elderly is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent advances in the treatment of RA improve prognosis, and gradually increase the elderly patients with RA. There are some differences in clinical features between the patients with elderly onset RA and young onset RA, such as systemic symptoms and distribution of affected joints. In addition, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate elderly onset RA from the other rheumatic diseases like polymyalgia rheumatica and RS3PE syndrome, pseudogout, and osteoarthritis. Since elderly patients tend to have more co-morbidity and co-existing diseases requiring treatment with other drugs, a risk/benefit profile must always be taken into consideration when choosing the treatment in elderly patients with rheumatic joint diseases.
Shih, Hsin-I; Lin, Che-Chen; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Hung
We evaluate the effects of zolpidem use to develop dementia or Alzheimer disease from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).A retrospective population-based nested case-control study. Newly diagnosed dementia patients 65 years and older and controls were sampled. A total of 8406 dementia and 16,812 control subjects were enrolled from Taiwan NHIRD during 2006 to 2010. The relationships between zolpidem use and dementia were measured using odds and adjusted odds ratios. The relationship between the average cumulative doses for zolpidem and dementia was also analyzed.Zolpidem alone or with other underlying diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and stroke, was significantly associated with dementia after controlling for potential confounders, such as age, sex, coronary artery disease, diabetes, anti-hypertension drugs, stroke, anticholesterol statin drugs, depression, anxiety, benzodiazepine, anti-psychotic, and anti-depressant agents' use (Adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41). Zolpidem use also has significant dose-response effects for most of the types of dementia. In patient with Alzheimer diseases, the effects of zolpidem among patients with Alzheimer's disease remained obscure. The adjusted OR for patients whose cumulative exposure doses were between 170 and 819 mg/year (adjusted OR: 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.51, P = 0.0199) was significant; however, the effects for lower and higher cumulative dose were not significant.Zolpidem used might be associated with increased risk for dementia in elderly population. Increased accumulative dose might have higher risk to develop dementia, especially in patients with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and stroke.
Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others
The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…
Winkler, B.; Mathews, F.
Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case–control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. PMID:26559511
Winkler, B; Mathews, F
Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role.
Makris, Una E; Pugh, Mary Jo; Alvarez, Carlos A; Berlowitz, Dan R; Turner, Barbara J; Aung, KoKo; Mortensen, Eric M
Background Chronic pain is common, costly, and leads to significant morbidity in older adults, yet we have limited data on medication safety. We sought to evaluate the association of incident High Risk Medication in the Elderly (HRME) with mortality, emergency department (ED) or hospital care among older adults with chronic pain. Methods A retrospective Veterans Health Administration cohort study was conducted examining older Veterans with chronic pain diagnoses and use of incident HRME (opioids, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, and psychotropics). Outcomes evaluated included all-cause mortality, ED visits, or inpatient hospital care. Descriptive statistics summarized variables for the overall cohort, the chronic pain cohort, and those with and without HRME. Separate generalized linear mixed-effect regression models were used to examine the association of incident HRME on each outcome, controlling for potential confounders. Results Among 1,807,404 Veterans who received VA care in 2005–2006, 584,066 (32.3%) had chronic pain; 45,945 Veterans with chronic pain (7.9%) had incident HRME exposure. The strongest significant associations of incident HRME were for: high-risk opioids with all-cause hospitalizations (OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.95–2.23); skeletal muscle relaxants with all-cause ED visits (OR 2.62, 95%CI 2.52–2.73) and mortality (OR 0.80, 95%CI 0.74–0.86); antihistamines with all-cause ED visits (OR 2.82 95%CI 2.72–2.95); and psychotropics with all-cause hospitalizations (OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.96–2.35). Conclusions Our data indicate that incident HRME is associated with clinically important adverse outcomes in older Veterans with chronic pain and highlight the importance of being judicious with prescribing certain classes of drugs in this vulnerable population. PMID:26418380
Watanabe, Toshifumi; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi
For a society with an aging population, it is important to extend healthy life expectancy. Knee arthroplasty is one of the most successful and beneficial treatments for osteoarthritic knees, helping the elderly improve their activities of daily life. Previous reports have proved health-related quality of life improves dramatically with this surgery. In particular, pain and physical functioning scores improve significantly. Although the preoperative physical activity of each patient does affect the postoperative activity level, sufficient improvements can be expected for this procedure on the elderly. These effective improvements make the number of knee arthroplasties increase year to year. The elderly have high risks of postoperative medical complications. However, long term results are comparable or superior to those in younger patients. In elderly patients, pre-existing conditions should be carefully controlled, and postoperative complications, including infection and thrombosis, should be treated prophylactically to promote safety and postoperative recovery.
Mulet, Xavier; Cabot, Gabriel; Ocampo-Sosa, Alain A.; Domínguez, M. Angeles; Zamorano, Laura; Juan, Carlos; Tubau, Fe; Rodríguez, Cristina; Moyà, Bartolomé; Peña, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis
A limited number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes (mainly ST-111, ST-175, and ST-235), known as high-risk clones, are responsible for epidemics of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains worldwide. We explored the potential biological parameters that may explain the success of these clones. A total of 20 isolates from each of 4 resistance groups (XDR, MDR, ModR [resistant to 1 or 2 classes], and MultiS [susceptible to all antipseudomonals]), recovered from a multicenter study of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections performed in 10 Spanish hospitals, were analyzed. A further set of 20 XDR isolates belonging to epidemic high-risk clones (ST-175 [n = 6], ST-111 [n = 7], and ST-235 [n = 7]) recovered from different geographical locations was also studied. When unknown, genotypes were documented through multilocus sequence typing. The biological parameters evaluated included twitching, swimming, and swarming motility, biofilm formation, production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, spontaneous mutant frequencies, and the in vitro competition index (CI) obtained with a flow cytometry assay. All 20 (100%) XDR, 8 (40%) MDR, and 1 (5%) ModR bloodstream isolate from the multicenter study belonged to high-risk clones. No significant differences were observed between clonally diverse ModR and MultiS isolates for any of the parameters. In contrast, MDR/XDR high-risk clones showed significantly increased biofilm formation and mutant frequencies but significantly reduced motility (twitching, swimming, and swarming), production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, and fitness. The defined biological markers of high-risk clones, which resemble those resulting from adaptation to chronic infections, could be useful for the design of specific treatment and infection control strategies. PMID:23979744
Alfirevic, Zarko; Stampalija, Tamara; Gyte, Gillian ML
Background Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could encourage inappropriate early delivery. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of Doppler ultrasound for the investigation of umbilical and fetal vessels waveforms in high-risk pregnancies compared to no Doppler ultrasound. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Eighteen completed studies involving just over 10,000 women were included. The trials were generally of unclear quality with some evidence of possible publication bias. The use of Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancy was associated a reduction in perinatal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.98, 16 studies, 10,225 babies, 1.2% versus 1.7 %, numbers needed to treat = 203; 95%CI 103 to 4352). There were also fewer inductions of labour (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99, 10 studies, 5633 women, random effects) and fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97, 14 studies, 7918 women). No difference was found in operative vaginal births (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.14, four studies, 2813 women) nor in Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.24, seven studies, 6321 babies). Authors’ conclusions Current evidence suggests that the use of Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies reduced the risk of perinatal deaths and resulted in less
Swales, J D
Several of the factors responsible for circulatory control are modified in the elderly. Loss of elasticity of the aortic wall produces a widened pulse pressure and a high incidence of systolic hypertension. Attempts to normalize this may be associated with disabling diastolic hypotension. Arterial baroreceptor sensitivity and responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system is reduced. Further, the renal capacity to conserve sodium and water is impaired. All these increase the risks associated with antihypertensive treatment, but do not contra-indicate such treatment.
Care managers embedded in primary care clinics work with patients with high-risk diagnoses and multiple visits to the emergency department or hospital. Patients are identified though risk assessments, suggestions from inpatient case management, and requests from primary care clinicians. Care managers call patients before their clinic visits, look for gaps in care and find out patients'